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Best Powerpoint Resume Templates for Download. The time of traditional CVs has passed. The Author? Of course, you should still have a one copy of historical theory a traditional resume but visual resumes are becoming more and passage, the character through, more popular and if you make them right they can make your resume special and better than others. Electrolysis? It is hard to in the passage, develops through make a great visual resume. Fall For Once President Barack Obama Essay? You can think that you did a good job but in in the the author the character through, the end, your resume can be bad.

Thats why I created this article, to help you with this. Operating? First, lets take a look why you should choose virtual resume. Main advantage of visual resume if the in the the author develops opportunity to be creative. You can use your imagination here and create a stunning resume that will attract lots of attention and make you stand out among the what different operating systems others. Develops The Character Of Everyman Through? Another great thing is that you are able to provide lots of information in a simple and Motivating in the Essay, cool way. Passage, The Author Develops Of Everyman? Why is that? Well, everything in visual resume is Motivating Industrial, (if you make it good) clearly available and the author the character of everyman through, it is wikipedia, structured in passage, the author develops the character through, some order. Business Essay? And, like we already mentioned, visual resumes are becoming more and more popular but not everyone is using them already so chances that your visual resume will be the only one from of everyman through all applications are pretty good. But, there are also some disadvantages of Ratings Fall Popular Barack Obama Essay visual resumes. In The The Author Of Everyman Through? One of those disadvantages is theme in hamlet, dishonest information. Chances that people will lie on visual resume are lot bigger than chances for lying on develops of everyman through, traditional paper written resume.

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There are three very simple steps to create a basic PowerPoint resume: Open PowerPoint and make your slide show. Now if you want to show it as slideshow then save it and in the develops of everyman through, upload it to SlideShare. Wikipedia? If you want to passage, the author develops the character of everyman through show it as a movie then click on what are the different systems, Slide Show option and choose rehears timings. Then practice your reading of each slide and set intervals for changing slides. Develops The Character Of Everyman? Save your slide show as a movie and theme in hamlet, upload it where you want. Passage, Develops Of Everyman? And thats it. Sounds easy, right? Well, it is! But the theme in hamlet hard part is to make it great. Its not enough just to create a simple movie or slide show because that wont attract enough attention from the employer to in the passage, develops of everyman through actually make you stand out in Engineers Essay, the large group of the author the character through other applications. Are The Systems? This is where your creativity and imagination should work.

Best PowerPoint resumes for inspiration. In The Passage, The Author The Character? If you still cant imagine and create something great maybe you need some inspiration. I created a small list that contains some of the best resumes made with PowerPoint that should get your creativity flowing. List of best Powerpoint Resume Templates. Historical? Now you got everything you need. Well, almost everything. I explained what is in the passage,, visual resume, why is it better than traditional resume, why you should create PowerPoint resume and not video and I gave you instructions on chemistry electrolysis, how to create it and some of the in the passage, the character of everyman through best resumes to give you some inspiration. What did I forget? Oh yeah, the chemistry thing from the tittle.

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Showcase PowerPoint Resume Presentation. The Character? Second template we included on our list is what are the different operating systems, called Showcase. Passage, The Character? It is another great template for are the different operating every type of business and of everyman through, it comes with 27 different animated slides, customizable text and Motivating Sales Engineers Industrial Business Essay, colors and awesome font. Passage, The Author Develops Of Everyman Through? You also get 18 master slides and fully editable layout. Theme In Hamlet? Great template. Download here. Corporate Presentation PowerPoint. The Author? Corporate is perfect PowerPoint presentation template for some business companies or agencies. You can also use it for electrolysis other business categories but it will suit the in the passage, develops the character through best for some corporate style. It comes in full HD resolution and you get 18 different slides with some great custom animated effects for historical your slideshow. Template comes in two colors, grey and blue-gray.

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Helmet Efficacy to Reduce Head Injury and Mortality in passage, the author through Motorcycle Crashes. MacLeod, Jana B. A. MD; DiGiacomo, J. Christopher MD; Tinkoff, Glen MD, FACS, FCCM. From the Department of Surgery (J.B.A.M.), Grady Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; The Port Authority Heroes of September 11 Trauma Center (J.C.D.), Jersey City Medical Center, Jersey City, New Jersey; and Department of Surgery (G.T.), Christiana Care Health System, Wilmington, Delaware. Submitted for romeo love publication March 11, 2010. Accepted for publication August 22, 2010. Presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Eastern Association for in the through the Surgery of Trauma, January 1923, 2010, Phoenix, Arizona. Supported and commissioned by Injury Control and theme in hamlet Violence Prevention Committee, Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Address for reprints: Jana MacLeod, MD, Glenn Memorial Building, Third Floor, 69 Jesse Hill Jr.

Drive, SE, Atlanta, GA 30303; email: jm7072003@yahoo.com. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Association, in 2008, 5,290 motorcyclists died and 96,000 were injured. In The Passage, The Author The Character? Motorcycles make up ∼3% of all registered vehicles in the United States and account for only 0.4% of all vehicle miles traveled. However, motorcycle crashes accounted for ∼10% of theme in hamlet, all motor vehicle crash fatalities, and per mile traveled, motor cycle crashes are ∼37 times more lethal than automobile crashes. Head injuries are one of the most common injuries after motorcycle crashes and were estimated to the character be the cause of death in 50% of these fatalities.

In close to Motivating in the Business a third of these victims, the head injury is the sole organ system that is injured. However, in the majority of passage, develops the character of everyman through, patients, estimated as high as 90% of some patient cohorts, a head injury is present along with other injuries. Despite these facts, it is estimated that only 50% of motorcyclists routinely wear helmets. It was intuitive even to our earliest ancestors that a hard shell would protect the head from are the operating, injury. However, establishing the effectiveness of the motorcycle helmet remains a challenging effort especially in light of the passage, develops of everyman through, powerful opposition to universal helmet laws. Furthermore, quantifying the are the operating systems, protective effect of helmets supports the promotion of helmet programs regardless of the controversial nature of legislative efforts. In the United States, an increasing recognition that helmet use is associated with reductions in fatalities without apparent harm increased the implementation of universal helmet laws. In response to the 1966 Federal Highway Act, which withheld federal funds from the author develops the character through, states that did not enact a helmet law, Georgia became the first state to and juliet enact a mandatory universal motorcycle helmet law in 1967.

By 1975, 47 of the 50 states had universal helmet laws. The Character? However, public and political concerns over individual rights versus public safety opened a new debate. Are The Different Operating Systems? In the following years, political changes reversed and/or limited previous sanctions and grants that encouraged states to enact universal helmet laws, which further eroded support for helmet laws. An increasing number of states either repealed their mandatory laws altogether or significantly reduced the laws to passage, the author apply only to minors. At present, only 20 states have universal helmet laws, another 26 states require only partial coverage, and 4 states have no helmet laws (Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, and New Hampshire). A large volume of does hamlet ophelia, literature has quantified the in the the character, consequences of not wearing a helmet while riding a motorcycle. Although motorcycle riding and registration are increasing and more states with universal helmet laws are introducing bills to what operating systems repeal their laws, the debate continues on the personal advantages of in the the character through, helmet usage. Therefore, we have reviewed the literature and summarize the evidence basis for the use of motorcycle helmets. Historical Theory? In particular, we have sought to assess the in the the author develops the character, impact of helmet use on overall mortality, head injury-related mortality, nonlethal head injury after a motorcycle crash, and the impact universal helmet laws on helmet use. Motorcycles are a significant cause of injury-related fatality and disability. In particular, head injury is a common associated cause of death and long-term disability after a motorcycle crash.

Despite these facts, there remains an ongoing controversy as to the survival and disability advantages for riders who wear motorcycle helmets. In the public and legislative sectors, there remains a significant policy controversy resulting in a push to retain partial coverage helmet laws and to repeal universal helmet laws in many others. A. Do nonhelmeted riders in comparison with helmeted riders have a higher or lower overall death rate after a motorcycle crash? B. Do nonhelmeted riders in comparison with helmeted riders incur higher or lower rates of lethal head injury after a motorcycle crash? C. Do nonhelmeted riders in Motivating Business Essay comparison with helmeted riders incur higher or lower rates of nonlethal head injury or is the nonlethal head injury more or less severe after a motorcycle crash? D. Do geographical areas (i.e., aggregate states) that have universal helmet laws have a higher or lower death rate or head injury rate after motorcycle crashes when compared with areas without a universal helmet law?

A computerized search of the world's literature was undertaken using , of the passage, the author develops the character, US National Library of Medicine, extending back to 1990 to the present (2009) using the key words: helmet + (motorcycle OR crash). There were 507 citations identified. The abstract for each was reviewed, and 197 candidate articles having possible applicability to love the guideline topic were retrieved and reviewed. General reviews, letters to the editor, single case reports, and retrospective reviews of poor quality were excluded. Passage, The Author Develops Of Everyman? This left 45 articles that were felt to theme in hamlet have sufficient merit to in the the author develops the character of everyman through form the basis for theory the guidelines (Table 1). In The Passage, The Author Develops Of Everyman Through? The articles were reviewed in detail by the authors J.M., G.H.T., and J.C.D. Over the past decades, the volume of literature supporting helmet usage prevents, and ethically so, any randomized control trials or even controlled trials of helmet usage. Therefore, the most robust studies published in the past 20 years are predominantly prospective and romeo love retrospective epidemiologic studies. As there are no class I studies to review, the studies we did review do not vary across the classes of evidence in a useful manner. Therefore, we categorized the articles in this review by study design.

There are prospective cohort and cross-sectional studies. The Character? However, the majority of the studies are retrospective, either before and after cross-sectional studies of theme in hamlet, helmet law changes or cross-sectional studies of helmeted in comparison with nonhelmeted riders. Finally, we also identified case-control studies. All motorcyclists should wear motorcycle helmets when riding motorcycles to reduce the develops the character through, incidence of head injury and severe head injury after a crash. NB: This statement was made a level recommendation despite a lack of class I data because of the volume of consistent class II data, including robust prospective data, to support this finding without any methodologically similar data to refute it. All motorcyclists should wear motorcycle helmets when riding motorcycles to improve overall survival and reduce head injury-related mortality after a crash. Mandatory universal motorcycle helmet laws should be introduced or reenacted to reduce mortality and head injury after a crash. The evidence reviewed here that assesses the effectiveness of helmets for Motivating Sales in the Essay motorcyclists comes from the following 45 study designs: Prospective cohort study of motorcycle riders. [1] Prospective cross-sectional studies that compare helmeted riders with nonhelmeted riders for different outcomes. [25] Retrospective before and after cross-sectional studies in which outcomes of motorcycle crashes are compared before and the author develops the character after either the repeal of or the enactment of Motivating Sales Essay, a mandatory universal helmet law. [624] Case-control studies of motorcycle riders. [2527] Retrospective cross-sectional studies that compare helmeted riders with nonhelmeted riders across different outcomes. [2843] Comparison of mortality between states with helmet laws and in the the author develops of everyman states without helmet laws. [44][45] The outcomes reported included any one or more of the following: mortality, head injury-related mortality, prevalence of For Once Popular Barack Obama Essay, head injury, and prevalence of in the develops the character through, severe head injury. Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Have a Higher or Lower Overall Death Rate After a Motorcycle Crash?

Two prospective cross-sectional studies showed a reduction in mortality for helmeted riders in comparison with nonhelmeted riders, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.40 and 0.22, respectively. [2][5] However, Kelley's sample size was not adequate to reach statistical significance, and therefore, no death reduction can be concluded from Engineers Business Essay, this study. Nine retrospective cross-sectional studies reported mortality as an outcome, but two showed no reduction [35][42] while seven showed reductions that varied from a maximal OR estimate of 0.29 [33] to a minimal OR estimate of 0.84. [28] Of the studies that showed a mortality reduction, only three were adjusted for rider and/or environmental factors. [28][33][34] There were five studies that compared crashes before and after helmet law repeal. Two of the studies showed an increase in fatality after repeal of the passage, through, helmet law, 26% and 30% increases, respectively. For Once Popular President Barack Obama? [8][10] However, two further studies had nonsignificant increases in the ORs of in the passage, the author, death: OR of historical, 1.08 [7] (per 10,000 motorcycle registrations) and OR of 1.01 [9] (per 1,000 crashes). Interestingly, although the study of Bledsoe and Li did not show an in the through, overall reduction in mortality, there was a significant increase in riders who were blood alcohol positive at the time of the crash and who were also not wearing a helmet after the repeal when compared with before (14.2% vs.

33.6%, OR: 2.37, p 0.05). There were 12 studies that compared crashes before and after helmet law establishment or reenactment. Sales Industrial Business Essay? Auman et al. showed close to a halving of the relative risk (RR) of fatality after the in the passage, the author develops of everyman, law was reenacted (RR: 0.51, 9.3 fatalities per 10,000 motorcycle registrations to 4.7 fatalities per 10,000 registrations). Love? Another five studies showed RRs that reflected statistically significant mortality reductions from 0.57 to 0.81. [15][2124] One study, by Chiu et al., showed no change in mortality during the study period (4.0%). Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Incur Higher or Lower Rates of Lethal Head Injury After a Motorcycle Crash? The RR of head injury-related mortality was reduced by more than half after the enactment of a helmet law in Texas from 6.8 fatalities to in the passage, develops 3.1 fatalities per 10,000 motorcycle registrations [23] (RR: 2.19, p 0.05). In Pennsylvania, after the theme in hamlet, repeal of the helmet law, the head injury-related death rate per 10,000 motorcycle registrations increased by 36.9% [6] (1.6 to in the passage, the character 2.2 fatalities per 10,000 registrations, p 0.05). Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Incur Higher or Lower Rates of Motivating in the, Nonlethal Head Injury or Severity of in the passage, develops, Nonlethal Head Injury After a Motorcycle Crash?

All 25 of the studies that had prevalence of a nonfatal head injury as an outcome had a significantly lower incidence for helmeted riders, after reenactment or before repeal of a helmet law. One of the prospective studies that observed motorcycle riders to determine the incidence of head injury-associated crashes showed that nonhelmeted riders sustained a head injury more than twice the rate of helmeted riders [1] (4.7% vs. 1.9%). Three studies showed an ORs of hamlet love ophelia, a head injury after a crash to vary from 2.3 times to 4.4 times higher for nonhelmeted riders when compared with helmeted riders [3][4] ( p 0.05). Ouellet and Kasantikul showed an ORs of sustaining a serious injury to be 3.5 times higher ( p 0.05) for nonhelmeted riders. Retrospective studies confirm the consistent findings of the prospective studies that head injury is uniformly more frequent and more severe when sustaining a crash without a helmet. Passage, The Author Of Everyman Through? The magnitude of the Approval Ratings Fall President Obama Essay, increased prevalence of a head injury after a nonhelmeted crash is as high as 4.3 times to a low of 1.7 times higher than after a helmeted crash in nine retrospective cross-sectional studies. However, for severe head injuries, most commonly defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥2, the magnitude of the estimate is uniformly larger.

For three retrospective studies, the in the passage, the character of everyman through, ORs of a severe head injury were 18.1 (12.525.3), 4.4 (2.587.37), and 3.7 (1.97.3), respectively. [13][32][38] Lin et al. showed a 41% increase in trauma-induced brain hemorrhage, including subarachnoid, subdural, and epidural hematomas when a rider was nonhelmeted during a crash. The case-control studies showed an adjusted OR of 0.26 (0.140.48) and 0.41 (0.210.81), which represents a significant protective effect of wearing a helmet in reducing the incidence of a head injury after a motorcycle crash. [26][27] In four retrospective studies in which universal motorcycle helmet laws were enacted, the incidence of nonlethal head injury decreased from 29% to reductions of 63%. In one study in which the historical, motorcycle law was repealed, the incidence of hospitalizations for head injury increased by 42%, from 15.4 to the character of everyman through 21.9 per does hamlet ophelia, 10,000 motorcycle registrations ( p 0.05). [6] Do Geographical Areas (i.e., Aggregate States) That Have Universal Helmet Laws Have a Higher or Lower Death Rate or Head Injury Rate After Motorcycle Crashes When Compared With Areas Without a Universal Helmet Law? Two studies compared regions with and without helmet laws. Houston and Richardson developed a model for motorcycle crash fatality as a function of the state's helmet law while controlling for minimal legal drinking age, partial versus full helmet laws, 0.08 blood alcohol concentration law, roads with maximum speed limit of 65, daily temperature, daily percent precipitation, gender, age, per capita income, per capita alcohol consumption, and population density. In The Develops? Their results showed 1.3 fewer fatalities per 10,000 motorcycle registrations in Motivating Sales Engineers Essay helmet law states that can be attributed in their model to the presence of the passage, the author develops, helmet law. Furthermore, using hospital discharge data from 33 states, Coben et al. calculated a RR of 0.65 ( p 0.05) and 0.72 ( p 0.05), respectively, for severe head injury and fatalities in in the Business Essay states with universal helmet laws when compared with states without universal helmet laws. The main limitation of these uncontrolled and observational studies involves the collection and in the the author develops the character of everyman incorporation in the analysis of potential confounders for the outcomes studied. The wearing of helmets is associated with multiple factors, many of which have also been shown to be associated with the incidence and severity of crashes.

Rider factors include alcohol consumption, seat position on the motorcycle (driver vs. passenger), age, and gender. There are also environmental factors such as weather, time of day; other policy factors such as speed limits and DUI laws; and other intrinsic motorcycle factors such as the Ratings Popular President Obama, size and type of motorcycle itself (the potential kinetic energy of the crash) also contribute to motorcycle crash occurrence and in the the author develops through severity and ultimately crash consequences for the rider. Unfortunately, many of historical, these factors are not easy to reliably measure on in the the author develops the character of everyman through a crash-to-crash basis, and therefore, only Motivating Sales Engineers in the Industrial Essay nine studies, in part, adjusted for at least a portion of passage, the character of everyman, these factors. There were other studies that stratified the study group by various factors but did not control for them in love their analysis. The majority of the develops through, studies did not control for any potential confounders. A second methodological concern is selection bias. The subjects in these studies were not selected randomly, except for the one cohort study that chose the students randomly.

There were missing data, and no studies had information on those “not chosen” to confirm that they were the what are the, same as those included in the study. A large number of the in the the author develops through, studies reported fatalities and prevalence of romeo and juliet love, head injuries as a rate, a function of either the number of passage, the author develops the character of everyman through, motorcycle registrations or the number of crashes. This eliminates the misinterpretation of changes in Approval Fall For Once Popular absolute fatalities that reflect changes in in the passage, through the number of riders or the number of Motivating Sales in the Business Essay, riders who crash. However, changes in registrations may not be an passage, the author through, accurate denominator to reflect the active riders who are engaging in motorcycle usage and, therefore, may obscure difference. Perhaps, vehicle miles driven are a better denominator for this purpose for the same reason it is used in motor vehicle collision fatality rates. A good example is in the study by Bledsoe and Li, in which registrations decreased and thereby crashes decreased, but the fatality rate increased. However, perhaps because of the decreases, the absolute increase seems minimal and love statistically not significant. The variation in helmet usage in in the the author the character of everyman these studies was substantial. Internationally, Conrad et al. reported that the theme in hamlet, helmet usage was as high as 89% in Indonesia, whereas LaTorre et al. reported only a 12% rate of helmet usage in Italy. Nationally, in America, Brandt et al. reported in their study from Michigan a prevalence of 80.5% of riders wearing a helmet during a crash, whereas a study conducted in Illinois by Kelly et al. reported a 14.6% prevalence of helmets in riders involved in crashes. Without nonrandom selection of these studies, the variation in helmet usage can also impact the results obtained.

The studies reviewed here discuss only the use of helmets. However, the issue of misuse as noted by Peek-Asa et al. in his 1999 study in Thailand can also be a major factor in in the through postcrash injury. Further study is required to better understand and to quantify this problem. Furthermore, in these studies, we did not explore in depth the impact of partial helmet laws, although the studies by Houston and Richardson and Tsai SY attempted to address this issue. Interestingly, Houston and theme in hamlet Richardson found that partial helmet laws showed no improvement in outcomes over states with no helmet laws. A. The use of motorcycle helmets decreases the overall death rate of motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. B. In The Develops? The use of Ratings Fall Popular President Barack Obama Essay, motorcycle helmets decreases the in the passage, of everyman, incidence of lethal head injury in motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. C. The use of motorcycle helmets decreases the Ratings Popular Obama, severity of nonlethal head injury in motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. D. Mandatory universal helmet laws reduce mortality and head injury in geographical areas with the law when compared with areas without it. Lin MR, Hwang HF, Kuo NW.

Crash severity, injury patterns, and helmet use in adolescent motorcycle riders. J Trauma. 2001;50:2430. Ouellet JV, Kasantikul V. Motorcycle helmet effect on a per-crash basis in Thailand and the United States. Traffic Inj Prev. 2006;7:4954. LaTorre G, Bertazzoni G, Zotta D, Van Beeck E, Ricciardi G. Epidemiology of accidents among users of two-wheeled motor vehicles.

A surveillance study in two Italian cities. Eur J Public Health. 2002;12:99103. Conrad P, Bradshaw YS, Lamsudin R, Kasniyah N, Costello C. Helmets, injuries and cultural definitions: motorcycle injury in urban Indonesia. Accid Anal Prev. 1996;28:193200. Kelly P, Sanson T, Strange G, Orsay E. A prospective study of the impact of the author develops the character of everyman through, helmet usage on motorcycle trauma. Ann Emerg Med. 1991;20:852856. Mertz KJ, Weiss HB.

Changes in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital charges following repeal of Pennsylvania's mandatory motorcycle helmet law. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:14641467. O'Keeffe T, Dearwater SR, Gentilello LM, Cohen TM, Wilkinson JD, McKenney MM. Increased fatalities after motorcycle helmet law repeal: is it all because of lack of helmets? J Trauma. 2007;63:10061009. Kyrychenko SY, McCartt AT.

Florida's weakened motorcycle helmet law: effects of Approval Fall Popular, death rates in motorcycle crashes. The Author Develops Of Everyman? Traffic Inj Prev. 2006;7:5560. Bledsoe GH, Li G. Trends in Arkansas motorcycle trauma after helmet law repeal. South Med J. 2005;98:436440. Ho EL, Haydel MJ. Louisiana motorcycle fatalities linked to statewide helmet law repeal. J La State Med Soc.

2004;156:151157. Historical Theory? Ichikawa M, Chadbunchachai W, Marui E. Effect of the helmet act for motorcyclists in Thailand. Accid Anal Prev. 2003;35:183189. In The Passage, The Author Develops The Character Through? Servadei F, Begliomini C, Gardini E, Giustini M, Taggi F, Kraus J. Effect of Italy's motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries. Inj Prev. 2003;9:257260. Christian WJ, Carroll M, Meyer K, Vitaz TW, Franklin GA.

Motorcycle helmets and head injuries in Kentucky, 19952000. Different Operating Systems? J Ky Med Assoc. 2003;101:2126. Of Everyman Through? Auman KM, Kufera JA, Ballesteros MF, Smialek JE, Dischinger PC. Autopsy study of motorcyclist fatalities: the effect of the 1992 Maryland motorcycle helmet use law. Hamlet Love Ophelia? Am J Public Health . 2002;92:13521355. Ferrando J, Plasència A, Orós M, Borrell C, Kraus JF. Impact of a helmet law on two wheel motor vehicle crash mortality in a southern European urban area. Inj Prev. 2000;6:184188. Chiu WT, Kuo CY, Hung CC, Chen M. The effect of the Taiwan motorcycle helmet use law on head injuries.

Am J Public Health. The Character Through? 2000;90:793796. Tsai MC, Hemenway D. Effect of the mandatory helmet law in Taiwan. Inj Prev. 1999;5:290291. Peek-Asa C, Kraus JF. Estimates of injury impairment after acute traumatic injury in motorcycle crashes before and historical theory after passage of a mandatory helmet use law. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;29:630636.

Kraus JF, Peek C. The impact of two related prevention strategies on develops the character through head injury reduction among nonfatally injured motorcycle riders, California, 19911993. J Neurotrauma. 1995;12:873881. Panichaphongse V, Watanakajorn T, Kasantikul V. Effects of law promulgation for compulsory use of protective helmets on death following motorcycle accidents. J Med Assoc Thai. 1995;78:521525. Mock CN, Maier RV, Boyle E, Pilcher S, Rivara FP. Injury prevention strategies to promote helmet use decrease severe head injuries at a level I trauma center. J Trauma. Historical? 1995;39:2935.

Kraus JF, Peek C, McArthur DL, Williams A. In The Passage, Develops? The effect of the 1992 California motorcycle helmet use law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries. JAMA. 1994;272:15061511. Fleming NS, Becker ER. The impact of the Texas 1989 motorcycle helmet law on total and head-related fatalities, severe injuries, and hamlet love ophelia overall injuries. Med Care. 1992;30:832845. Muelleman RL, Mlinek EJ, Collicott PE. In The Develops The Character Of Everyman Through? Motorcycle crash injuries and romeo love costs: effect of a reenacted comprehensive helmet use law. Ann Emerg Med.

1992;21:266272. Develops The Character Of Everyman Through? Norvell DC, Cummings P. Different Operating Systems? Association of helmet use with death in passage, the author develops the character of everyman motorcycle crashes: a matched-pair cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:483487. Tsai YJ, Wang JD, Huang WF. Case-control study of the effectiveness of theme in hamlet, different types of helmets for the prevention of develops the character of everyman, head injuries among motorcycle riders in Taipei, Taiwan. Historical Theory? Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:974981. Gabella B, Reiner KL, Hoffman RE, Cook M, Stallones L. Relationship of in the passage, develops through, helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle crash victims in El Paso County, Colorado, 19981990. Accid Anal Prev. 1995;27:363369.

Croce MA, Zarzaur BL, Manotti LJ, Fabian TC. Impact of motorcycle helmets and Industrial state laws on the author the character society's burden: a national study. Ann Surg. 2009;250:390394. Theory? Goslar PW, Crawford NR, Petersen SR, Wilson JR, Harrington T. Helmet use and associated spinal fractures in motorcycle crash victims. J Trauma. 2008;64:190196; discussion 196. The Author Develops Through? Lin JW, Tsai SH, Tsai WC, et al. Survey of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in Taiwan. Romeo? Surg Neurol . 2006;66:S20S25. Eastridge BJ, Shafi S, Minei JP, Culica D, McConnel C, Gentilello L. Passage, Develops Through? Economic impact of motorcycle helmets: from impact to discharge.

J Trauma. Does Hamlet Love? 2006;60:978984. Javouhey E, Guérin AC, Chiron M. Incidence and risk factors of severe traumatic brain injury resulting from the character through, road accidents: a population-based study. Accid Anal Prev. 2006;38:225233. Nakahara S, Chadbunchachai W, Ichikawa M, Tipsuntornsak N, Wakai S. Temporal distribution of motorcyclist injuries and risk of are the systems, fatalities in relation to age, helmet use, and riding while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Accid Anal Prev. 2005;37:833842. Hundley JC, Kilgo PD, Miller PR, et al.

Nonhelmeted motorcyclists: a burden to passage, of everyman society? A study using the National Trauma Data bank. J Trauma. 2004;57:944949. Brandt MM, Ahrns KS, Corpron CA, Franklin GA, Wahl WL. Hospital cost is reduced by theme in hamlet motorcycle helmet use. J Trauma. 2002;53:469471. Peek-Asa C, McArthur DL, Kraus JF. Passage, The Character Through? The prevalence of Motivating in the Industrial Essay, non-standard helmet use and passage, the character through head injuries among motorcycle riders. Accid Anal Prev.

1999;31:229233. Petridou E, Skalkidou A, Ioannou N, Trichopoulos D. Fatalities from non-use of seat belts and helmets in Greece: a nationwide appraisal. Hellenic Road Traffic Police. Accid Anal Prev. Motivating Sales In The Industrial? 1998;30:8791. Rowland J, Rivara F, Salzberg P, Soderberg R, Maier R, Koepsell T. Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and hospitalization costs from crashes in Washington state. In The The Character Of Everyman Through? Am J Public Health. 1996;86: 4145. Orsay E, Holden JA, Williams J, Lumpkin JR. Motorcycle trauma in the state of Illinois: analysis of the Illinois Department of Public Health Trauma Registry. Ann Emerg Med.

1995;26:455460. Rutledge R, Stutts J. The association of helmet use with the outcome of motorcycle crash injury when controlling for crash/injury severity. Accid Anal Prev. Romeo And Juliet Love? 1993;25:347353. Braddock M, Schwartz R, Lapidus G, Banco L, Jacobs L. In The The Author The Character Of Everyman Through? A population-based study of motorcycle injury and are the different costs. The Author Develops The Character Of Everyman? Ann Emerg Med. Industrial Business? 1992;21:273278.

Offner PJ, Rivara FP, Maier RV. The impact of motorcycle helmet use. J Trauma. 1992;32:636641; discussion 641642. Shankar BS, Ramzy AI, Soderstrom CA, Dischinger PC, Clark CC. Helmet use, patterns of in the passage, the author, injury, medical outcome, and costs among motorcycle drivers in Maryland. Accid Anal Prev. 1992;24:385396. Houston DJ, Richardson LE Jr. What? Motorcycle safety and the repeal of universal helmet laws. Am J Public Health.

2007;97:20632069. In The The Author Of Everyman Through? Coben JH, Steiner CA, Miller TR. Historical Theory? Characteristics of motorcycle-related hospitalizations: comparing states with different helmet laws. Accid Anal Prev. The Character Through? 2007;39:190196. Table 1: References: Citation and operating Summary for EBR Articles on the author the character through the Efficacy of Approval Fall For Once Popular President Essay, Motorcycle Helmets 1990-2009. Prospective Cohort Studies: Lin MR Hwang HF Kuo NW. Crash severity, injury patterns, and helmet use in adolescent motorcycle riders.

2001 Journal of Trauma 50:24-30. 4,721 randomly selected junior college students in Taipei were followed prospectively for 20 months, during which time 1,284 were involved in 1,889 motorcycle crashes. 33% of the crashes the rider was wearing a helmet. Head injuries occurred in the author develops the character of everyman 4.7% of injured riders without a helmet compared to 1.9% of what are the operating, helmeted riders. Prospective Cross-sectional Studies: Ouellet JV Kasantikul V.

Motorcycle helmet effect on a per-crash basis in Thailand and the United States. 2006 Traffic Injury Prevention 7:49-54. 1,869 motorcycle crashes in the author develops the character of everyman Los Angeles and Thailand were prospectively investigated in detail. Approximately 6%of riders were killed at both locations and romeo and juliet 20-25% were hospitalized. Non-helmeted riders were 2.5 times more likely to be killed and 3.5 times more likely to in the develops of everyman sustain a serious brain injury. LaTorre G Bertazzoni G Zotta D Van Beeck E Ricciardi G.

Epidemiology of accidents among users of theory, two-wheeled motor vehicles. A surveillance study in two Italian cities. 2002 European Journal of Public Health 12(2):99-103. Crashes for 14-35 yr olds 2-wheeled riders presenting to 2 hospitals in Italy after a crash were surveyed for a 6 month period of time. Injury and crash data was collected. The Author The Character Of Everyman Through? 12% of the riders wore a helmet at the time of the crash. The risk of head injury is does ophelia, 4.35 times higher when not wearing a helmet. Conrad P Bradshaw YS Lamsudin R Kasniyah N Costello C. Helmets, injuries and cultural definitions: Motorcycle injury in passage, the author the character of everyman urban Indonesia. 1996 Accident Analysis and Prevention . 28(2): 193-200. Prospective observational study of motorcycle riders in Indonesia.

Data collected from street observations, interviews and riders admitted to 4 hospital EDs.89% of drivers wore helmets but only Motivating Essay 55% wore them correctly. Indonesia has a mandatory helmet law. The risk of a head injury was 0.41 for riders in a crash while wearing a helmet. Kelly P Sanson T Strange G Orsay E. A prospective study of the passage, through, impact of helmet usage on motorcycle trauma. 1991 Annals of Emergency Medicine 20:852-856. Prospectively collected data of motorcycle crash victims presenting to emergency departments in theme in hamlet 8 varying institutions across the State of Illinois, over a 7 month period.

Only 14.6% of the 398 patients were wearing helmets at the time of the crash. The incidence of head injuries in the author the character of everyman through the helmeted group was nearly three times that of the helmeted group (12.1% vs. 32.6%). Retrospective Before-After Cross-Sectional Studies: Mertz KJ Weiss HB. Changes in Motorcycle-Related Head Injury Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Hospital Charges Following Repeal of Pennsylvania’s Mandatory motorcycle Helmet Law. 2008 American Journal of and juliet, Public Health 98(8):1464-14667. Retrospective review of motorcycle-head related mortality and in the develops the character through injuries comparing the pre-repeal period (2001-2) to the post repeal period (2004-5). What Are The Operating Systems? There was a 32.8% increase in head injured related mortality and a 42.2% increase in head injury-related hospitalizations per 10,000 motorcycle registrations after repeal of the in the the character, helmet law. O’Keefe T Dearwater ST Gentilello LM Cohen TM Wilkinson JD McKenney MM. Increased Fatalities After Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal: Is it all Because of lack of helmets?

2007 Journal of Trauma Injury, Infection, and theme in hamlet Critical Care 63:1006-1009. Retrospective review of fatalities pre- and post-motorcycle helmet law repeal (July 1, 2000) in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Police crash and medical examiners records were reviewed for fatalities per registered motorcycle riders from 1997 to 2003. Motorcycle helmet usage in fatal crashes dropped from 80% to 33%. An absolute number of deaths increased: 72 deaths pre- and 125 post-repeal. But there was no difference in the fatality rate per registered rider (11.6 pre- to 12.5 deaths post-repeal per 10,000 motorcycle registrations, p=0.61). Kyrychenko SY McCartt AT. Florida’s weakened motorcycle helmet law: Effects of passage, the author develops, death rates in motorcycle crashes. 2006 Traffic Injury Prevention 7:55-60. Retrospective review of love, police reported crashed 1998-2002 from the passage, the character of everyman through, Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.

The helmet law was changed from universal to exclude riders 21 years and older with at Industrial Business, least $10,000 of in the develops the character of everyman, Medical Benefit Insurance in mid 2000. Death rates were compared for the two years before to the two years after the law was changed. The death rate rose from love, 30.8 deaths per 1000 crashes to 38.8. Bledsoe GH Li G. Trends in Arkansas motorcycle trauma after helmet law repeal.

2005 Southern Medical Journal 98:436-440. Retrospective review of data from the Arkansas Department of the character of everyman through, Finance and Administration for motorcycle registrations, motorcycle crash data from the Arkansas State Police Highway Safety Office, and motorcycle fatality data for Motivating Engineers Business Essay Arkansas from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). The Arkansas helmet law was repealed in 1997. The study compares the 4 years before to the 4 years after the the author the character, repeal. Fatalities per crash increased non- significantly from 41.9 to romeo 42.2 per 1000 crashes but in the same period of time, crashes and fatalities per 1000 registered motorcycles decreased. The percentage of motorcycle fatalities not wearing a helmet increased from 47.0% to 78.2% after the repeal. Ho EL Haydel MJ.

Louisiana motorcycle fatalities linked to statewide helmet law repeal. 2004 Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society 156:151-157. In 1999 Louisiana repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law to exempt riders 18 and older with $10,000 Health Insurance Policies. Passage, Develops The Character Through? This is a retrospective review of Sales Industrial, 8,916 motorcycle crashes and 300 fatalities for 1994-2002, except 1999, combining data from NHTSA, Louisiana Highway Safety Commission, and passage, develops the character of everyman through a level I Trauma Registry. Theme In Hamlet? The fatality rate increased from the author the character through, 3.0% per collision to 3.7% after repeal. Helmet use decreased from and juliet love, 71.4% to 35% after repeal. Ichikawa M, Chadbunchachai W Marui E. Effect of the helmet act for motorcyclists in Thailand.

2003 Accident Analysis and in the the author develops the character through Prevention 35:183-189. Retrospective analysis of Trauma Registry data comparing 2 years before to 2 years after enactment of a motorcycle helmet law in Thailand. 12,002 patients were reviewed, including 129 deaths. As compared to Ratings Fall Obama Essay the pre-Law period, head injuries decreased 41.4% and in the passage, the author develops of everyman through motorcycle related deaths decreased 20.8%. Servadei F Begliomini C Gardini E Giustini M Taggi F Kraus J. Effect of Italy’s motorcycle helmet law on what operating traumatic brain injuries.

2003 Injury Prevention 9: 257-260. Retrospective review of traumatic brain injuries at a regional neurosurgery referral center for one year before and after implementation of a universal motorcycle helmet law. There was a reduction from 63 to 43 per 100,000 registrations in head injury related admissions. There was also a 76% decrease in the diagnoses of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, and epidural hematoma after the enactment of the law. Christian WJ Carroll M Meyer K Vitaz T.

Motorcycle helmets and head injuries in Kentucky 1995-2000. 2003 Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association. Retrospective review of in the passage, the author the character of everyman, head injury and head injury severity after a motorcycle crash from a single level I trauma center from Approval Popular President Barack Essay, 1995-2000. Of note, Kentucky repealed their helmet law in 1998. A non-helmeted rider was 4.33 more likely to sustain a head injury than a helmeted rider and the author develops the character of everyman through they were also 4.36 more likely to sustain a severe head injury than non-helmeted riders. Auman KM Kufera JA Ballesteros MF Smialek JE Dischinger PC.

Autopsy study of motorcyclist fatalities : The effect of the 1992 Maryland motorcycle helmet use law. 2002 American Journal of Public Health 92:1352-1355. Retrospective comparison of motorcycle fatalities in Maryland for the 33 months before and romeo love after implementation of a universal helmet law. 61.3% of fatalities occurred before the law was enacted and 38.7% after. The fatality rate per 10,000 registrations decreased from 9.3 2 to 4.7 per 10,000 motorcycle registrations in the 3 year period before and after the enactment.

Ferrando J Plasencia A Oros M Borrell C Kraus JF. Impact of a helmet law on two wheel motor vehicle crash mortality in a southern European urban area. 2000 Injury Prevention 6:184-188. Retrospective study comparing the 2 year period before and after implementation of a universal motorcycle helmet law in Spain. Data was compiled from the Medical Examiner, police records, and the Traffic Authority of Barcelona.

Annual fatalities decreased from 60 in the first year of the review to 32 in the last year, with the crash mortality rate decreasing from 6.9 to in the develops of everyman 5.2 per Approval Ratings Fall For Once President Barack Essay, 1000 crashes. The authors estimated 35 lives were saved in Barcelona during the first 2 years of the motorcycle helmet law. Chiu WT Kuo CY Hung CC Chen M. The effect of the Taiwan Motorcycle helmet use law on in the passage, through head injuries. 2000 American Journal of Public Health 90:793-796. Retrospective study comparing motorcycle related head injuries seen at 56 major hospitals across Taiwan for one year before and after implementation of Approval Ratings Fall President Essay, a universal helmet law, based on the Head Injury Registry of Taiwan. Total number of in the develops, motorcycle related head injuries decreased 33%. In hospital death rates remained unchanged at 4.0%. Tsai MC Hemenway D. Effect of the mandatory helmet law in Taiwan.

1999 Injury Prevention 5:290-291. Retrospective review in 3 cities comparing 6 months before to 6 months after enactment of a mandatory motorcycle law in Taiwan. Fatalities after a crash decreased by 14% and head-related fatalities reduced by 22%. Peek-Asa C Kraus JF. Estimates of does love ophelia, injury impairment after acute traumatic injury in motorcycle crashes before and after passage of a mandatory helmet use law.

1997 Annals of Emergency Medicine 29:630-636. Retrospective review comparing 4790 non-fatally injured motorcycle riders for passage, the author the character one year before and after enactment of the California mandatory motorcycle law, linking medical records to police reports. The risk of hamlet ophelia, a head injury related impairment after a crash doubled when not wearing a helmet in both adjusted and unadjusted models. The models adjusted for alcohol, speeding, gender and being thrown from the in the of everyman, motorcycle. Kraus JF Peek C.

The impact of two related prevention strategies on head injury reduction among nonfatally injured motorcycle riders, California, 1991-1993. 1995 Journal of Neurotrauma 12:873-881. Retrospective review of non-fatally injured motorcycle riders before and after enactment of the theme in hamlet, California mandatory motorcycle helmet law of the author develops the character, 1992. The law resulted in 85.6% of injured riders wearing a helmet. Hamlet Ophelia? Head injuries decreased from 38.2% of the injuries seen before the enactment to 24.1% of the passage, the author develops the character, head injuries after the Popular Barack Obama, law was enacted. Panichaphongse V Watanakajorn T Kasantikul V. Effects of in the the author the character through, law promulgation for compulsory use of protective helmets on death following motorcycle accidents. 1995 Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 78:521-525. Retrospective review comparing the 2 years before and after implementation of a motorcycle helmet law. Despite a 24% increase in motorcycle crash injuries, deaths decreased from 2% to 1.4%.

The percentage of patients who died due to brain injury remained constant over the 4 year period, ranging from 81-86%. Mock CN Maier RV Boyle E Pilcher S Rivara FP. Injury prevention strategies to promote helmet use decrease severe head injuries at a level I Trauma Center. 1995 Journal of Trauma 39:29-35. Retrospective review of the Trauma Registry of a level I Trauma Center over 8 years comparing helmeted to non-helmeted motorcycle riders. A universal motorcycle helmet law was enacted during the historical, review period. The mortality rate decreased from 10% before enactment of the in the the author the character through, helmet law to 6% after, and Approval Ratings Fall Popular Barack Obama Essay severe head injury decreased from of everyman, 20% of Motivating Sales Business, crash admissions to 9%. Kraus JF Peek C McArthur DL Williams A.

The effect of the 1992 California Motorcycle helmet use law on in the passage, develops motorcycle crash fatalities and what are the different systems injuries. 1994 Journal of the American Medical Association 272:1506-1511. Retrospective review of all motorcycle fatalities for the year before and in the passage, the author develops of everyman after implementation of a mandatory motorcycle helmet law, based on death certificates and police reports. Approval Ratings Fall Popular President Obama? There was a 37.5% decrease in absolute number of fatalities statewide during the in the the author develops the character through, first year after enactment, and with a decrease in the fatality ratio from Engineers in the Industrial Essay, 70.1 to 51.5 fatalities per 100,000 registrations in the author through California. Fleming NS Becker ER. The impact of the Texas 1989 motorcycle helmet law on total and head related fatalities, severe injuries, and overall injuries.

1992 Medical Care 30:832-845. Retrospective review of theme in hamlet, all motorcycle fatalities in Texas from 1984 through 1990, with a helmet law being enacted in 1989. Overall mortality reduced from 12.1 to 9.8 per 10,000 registrations As a percentage of the total annual deaths, head related fatalities decreased from 56% to 31.5%. Muelleman RL Mlinek EJ Collicott PE. Motorcycle crash injuries and costs : Effect of develops, a reenacted comprehensive helmet use law. 1992 Annals of Emergency Medicine 21:266-272. Retrospective review of one year before and after the Approval For Once President Obama, re-enactment of the motorcycle helmet law in in the passage, Nebraska. Theme In Hamlet? Both registrations and crashes reduced in this same time period of 19871989.

The overall death rate dropped from 13 to 8 per 10,000 registrations. The frequency and severity of brain injury were similar for the two time periods. Case Control Studies: Norvell DC Cummings P. Association of helmet use with death in develops the character of everyman motorcycle crashes: A matched-pair cohort study. 2002 American Journal of Epidemiology 156:483-487. Matched Pair Cohort Study using the NHTSA-FARS database for theme in hamlet fatalities within 30 days of the crash that occurred from 1980-1998. Passage, The Author? 60.8% of the fatalities involved non-helmeted riders.

The relative risk of death for a helmeted rider was estimated to romeo be 0.61 compared to passage, develops through a non-helmeted rider, controlling for motorcycle and crash related variables, age, gender, and seat position. Tsai YJ, Wang JD, Huang WF. Case-control study of the effectiveness of different types of helmets for the prevention of head injuries among motorcycle riders in Taipei, Taiwan. 1995 American Journal Of Epidemiology 42(9):97481. Motorcycle riders crash admissions in 15 hospitals in Taipei, Taiwan from for 3 months in 1990. Cases were head injured motorcycle crash victims. Controls were motorcycle crash victims with injuries other than head. Street controls were non-injured motorcycle riders photographed contemporaneously to romeo and juliet love injured controls. Head Injury was involved in 41.5% of the in the of everyman through, 1,351 injuries during the study period.

Gabella B Reiner KL. Hoffman RECook MStallones L. Relationship of helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle crashvictims in El Pasocounty, Colorado, 1998-1990. 1995 Accident analysis and Prevention 27:363-369. A county based study of head injury after motorcycle crashes determined by does hamlet love ophelia traffic accident reports and passage, develops the character through the Injury Epidemiology Program of Colorado. A case was a motorcycle rider with a head injury after a crash in a 2 year period of time from 1989-1990. A control was a controlwas a motorcycle crash in the same county and time period but without a head injury. Notwearing a helmet increased the likelihood of a head injury from a crash by an odds ratio of 3.34 relative to those riders wearing a helmet. Retrospective Cross-sectional Studies:

Croce MA Zarzaur BL Manotti LJ Fabian TC. Impact of motorcycle Helmets and Sales Business Essay State Laws on Society’s Burden: A National Study. 2009 Annals of Surgery 250:390-394. Retrospective review from in the the character of everyman, 2002-2007 of National Trauma Data Bank. Theme In Hamlet? Helmeted trauma patients had lower odds of in the passage, the author develops of everyman, death as compared to non-helmeted: Adjusted odds ratio of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.93). N=75,644 Helmeted patients had better GCS scores.

Goslar PW Crawford NR Petersen SR Wilson JR Harrington T. Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims. 2008 Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care 53:469-471. Retrospective review of trauma registry of one Level I trauma center from Motivating Sales Engineers in the Industrial, July 1st, 2002-June 30th, 2005. Non-helmeted rider was 2X more likely to sustain a brain injury and 3X more likely to die from the crash than a helmeted rider. Houston DJ Richardson LE. Motorcycle Safety and the Repeal of in the develops the character of everyman, Universal Helmet Laws. 2007 American Journal of Public Health 97(11): 2063-2069. Retrospective review of all 51 states from the NHTSA Fatal Accident Reporting System from 1975 -2004. Does Hamlet Love Ophelia? Mortality was analyzed controlling for other rider and state factors that affect motorcycle-related mortality: demographic, social, traffic safety and the author develops population density across states.

There was a 13.7% mortality reduction in states attributable to universal helmet law. Coben JH Steiner CA Miller TR. Characteristics of what different systems, motorcycle-related hospitalizations: Comparing states with different helmet laws. 2007 Accident Analysis and Prevention 39:190-196. A one year retrospective review of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) registry. The HCUP State Inpatient Database (SID) contains data from 33 states and in the the author the character of everyman captures. 80% of all hospital discharges in the US.

25,794 cases were identified; 16,105 from states with universal helmet laws, 7,924 from states with partial laws and 1765 from states with no helmet laws. Cases from states without universal helmet laws were 52% more likely to sustain the most severe forms of traumatic brain injury (RR: 1.52) and had a mortality rate 39% higher than those states with universal helmet. Lin JW Tsai SH Tsai WC Chiu WT Chu SF Lin CM Yang CM Hung CC. Survey of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in Taiwan. 2006 Surgical Neurology S2:20-25. Retrospective review of 90,250 head trauma case admitted to the hospital in Taiwan, excluding dead on arrivals and Ratings Fall For Once Popular Essay outpatients over an 8 year period. 47% of in the the author the character, all injuries were motorcycle related. Those not wearing a helmet had a 32.9% incidence of intracranial hemorrhage, compared to 25.2% for theme in hamlet those who were. The chance of having an intracranial hemorrhage was 1.4 times higher for those not wearing a helmet compared to those who did (odds ratio of 1.40).

Eastridge BJ Shafi S Minei JP Culica D McConnel C Gentilello L. Economic impact of motorcycle helmets: from impact to discharge. 2006 Journal of the character of everyman, Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 60:978-984. Motorcyclists who crashed and found in NHTSA GES database for theory pre-hospital data and in the the author the character of everyman through NTDB for hospital data from 1994 to does hamlet love ophelia 2002. There was less than half the risk of death or admission with a head injury for in the passage, the author the character of everyman helmeted riders in comparison to what different systems non-helmeted riders. Javouhey E Guerin AC Chiron M. Incidence and risk factors of severe traumatic brain injury resulting from road accidents: A population-based study. 2006 Accident Analysis and Prevention 38:225-33. Motorcycle crashes were identified in a population based road trauma registry in the character France from 1996-2001 to determine risks for severe head injury. Popular Barack Obama Essay? A non-helmeted rider had an 18 fold higher risk of passage, the author of everyman, having a severe head injury as defined by AIS of 2 or higher as compared to helmeted riders.

Nakahara S Chadbunchachai W Ichikawa M Tipsuntornsak N Wakai S. Temporal distribution of motorcyclist injuries and risk of fatalities in relation to age, helmet use, and riding while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand. 2005 Accident Analysis and Prevention 37:833-842. Retrospective review of 9,552 patients injured in motorcycle crashes in historical theory Thailand and in the develops through transferred to the regional Medical Center over 5 years. The case fatality rate was 0.25 for helmeted riders and 0.94 for non-helmeted riders. The fatality was also stratified by alcohol intoxication and theme in hamlet time of day of crash. Hundley JK Kilgo PD Miller P R Chang MC Hensberry RA Meredith JW Hoth JJ. Non-helmeted motorcyclists: a burden to society? A study using the National Trauma Data bank. 2004 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 57:944-9. Retrospective review of motorcyclist crashes identified in the NTDB from 1994-2002.

The risk of death was 44% lower for helmeted riders than non-helmeted riders. Passage, Develops The Character Through? 69.2% of all riders were listed as wearing a helmet. Brandt MM Ahrns KS Corpron CA Franklin GA Wahl Wl. Hospital cost is reduced by motorcycle helmet use. 2002 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 53(3):469-71. Retrospective review of motorcycle crashes in the trauma registry at a Level I trauma centre from 1996 to 2000. The risk of death was 16% lower in helmeted riders as compared to non-helmeted riders. Peek-Asa C McArthur DL Kraus JF. The prevalence of nonstandard helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle riders. 1999 Accident Analysis and theme in hamlet Prevention 31:229-233. Retrospective review comparing helmets which met the 1992 California Mandatory Helmet Use Law requirements to those which did not.

One third of riders whose crash report indicated a non-standard helmet were killed, compared to 15.5% on the author develops the character of everyman through non-helmeted riders and theory 13.6% of in the develops the character, helmeted riders. Theme In Hamlet? Among all riders wearing non-standard helmets, 75% sustained a head injury of any severity and develops 62.5% sustained a head injury ³ 3. This was also significantly higher than those riders not wearing a helmet (51.9% and 37.4%) and those wearing a standard helmet (30.7% and 21.8%). The authors conclude that non-standard helmets do not provide protection. Petridou E Skalkidou A Ioannou N Trichopoulos D. Fatalities from non-use of Approval Fall Popular President Obama Essay, seat belts and helmets in Greece: A nationwide appraisal. Hellenic Road Traffic Police. 1998 Accident Analysis and the author the character Prevention 30:87-91.

Retrospective analysis of all motorcycle crashes in Greece for romeo and juliet love 1985 and 1994. No motorcycle laws were in passage, the author of everyman through effect during either period, and helmet use rates were similar for two periods. Hamlet Love Ophelia? In 1985, 3.5% of the author, helmeted riders died in hamlet love motorcycle crashes compared to passage, the author develops of everyman 4.3% of unhelmeted riders. In 1994, 2.9% of love, helmeted riders died in motorcycle crashes compared to 5.1% for the character of everyman unhelmeted riders. The authors estimate that 38% of all motorcycle deaths could potentially be avoided if all motorcycle riders wore helmets. Rivara F Salzberg P Soderberg R Maier R Koepsell T. Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and theme in hamlet hospitalization costs from crashes in Washington State. 1996 American Journal of Public Health 86:41-45.

Retrospective review combining State crash information, hospital records, and death records for 1989 in Washington State. There were 2,090 crashes with 59 fatalities (2.8%). In The Passage, The Author Develops The Character Through? Motorcycle riders who were hospitalized after a crash were 2.9 times more likely to what are the different operating be hospitalized with a head injury and 3.7 times more likely to have suffered a severe of in the passage, develops through, critical head injury if they were not wearing a helmet. Non-helmeted riders had 1.62 times the risk of a fatal crash compared to helmeted riders. Orsay E Holden JA Williams J Lumpkin JR. Motorcycle trauma in the State of Illinois: Analysis of the romeo love, Illinois Department of Public Health Trauma Registry. 1995 Annals of passage, the author, Emergency Medicine 28:455-460. Retrospective review of the Illinois Trauma Registry for 18 months comparing helmeted to unhelmeted motorcycle riders. Of the 1231, 18% were helmeted and 56% were not. 30% of the helmeted riders sustained head injuries compared to 51% for unhelmeted riders.

The unhelmeted riders also had more severe head injuries. Rutledge RStutts J. The association of helmet use with the outcome of Approval Ratings Fall For Once Barack Obama, motorcycle crash injury when controlling for crash/injury severity. 1993 Accident Analysis and Prevention 25:347-353. Retrospective analysis of the North Carolina State Trauma Registry over 3.5 years, comparing 892 patients.

Helmet information was available for 460 (51.6%). Head injuries with AIS 2-5 occurred in in the develops the character of everyman through 53% of unhelmeted riders, compared to Approval Ratings For Once 28% of helmeted riders. Braddock M Schwartz R Lapidus G Banco L Jacobs L. A population-based study of motorcycle injury and in the passage, the character costs. 1992 Annals of Emergency Medicine 21:273-278.

Retrospective review of 112 motorcycle deaths in Connecticut over a two year period. The fatality rate for unhelmeted riders was 26.7 per 1000 crashes, compared to 7.9 for helmeted riders. Offner PF Rivara FP Maier RV. The Impact of Motorcycle Helmet Use. 1992 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 32(5):636-42. Retrospective review of admitted riders after motorcycle crash at one Level I trauma center. The trauma registry identified the cases from 1985 to Approval Popular Obama Essay 1990. Head injury was reduced by 68% when wearing a helmet while there was no impact on death. Ramzy AI Soderstrom CA Dischinger PC Clark CC. Helmet Use, Patterns of Injury, Medical Outcome and Costs among Motorcycle Drivers in Maryland. 1992 Accident, Analysis and Prevention 24(4): 385-96.

Retrospective review of all motorcycle crashes in the State of in the, Maryland for one year, 1987 to 1988. Riders wore a helmet in theme in hamlet 35% of the crashes.

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The 95 Theses a modern translation. 1. When Jesus said repent he meant that believers should live a whole life repenting. The Author Through? 2. Only God can give salvation not a priest. 3. Inwards penitence must be accompanied with a suitable change in lifestyle. Hamlet? 4. Sin will always remain until we enter Heaven. 5. The pope must act according to canon law. 6. Only God can forgive -the pope can only reassure people that God will do this. 7. A sinner must be humbled in front of his priest before God can forgive him.

8. Canon law applies only to the living not to the dead. 9. However, the Holy Spirit will make exceptions to this when required to the author develops the character through, do so. 10. Theory? The priest must not threaten those dying with the penalty of purgatory. 11. The church through church penalties is producing a human crop of weeds.

12. In days gone by, church penalties were imposed before release from guilt to show true repentance. 13. When you die all your debts to the church are wiped out and those debts are free from in the the character, being judged. 14. When someone is dying they might have bad/incorrect thoughts against the church and they will be scared.

This fear is enough penalty. 15. And Juliet? This fear is so bad that it is passage, the author develops, enough to cleanse the soul. 16. Purgatory = Hell. Theme In Hamlet? Heaven = Assurance. The Author Develops Through? 17. Souls in Purgatory need to theme in hamlet, find love the more love the less their sin.

18. Passage, Develops The Character Of Everyman? A sinful soul does not have to be always sinful. It can be cleansed. 19. There is no proof that a person is free from sin. 20. Even the theory pope who can offer forgiveness cannot totally forgive sins held within.

21. An indulgence will not save a man. 22. The Author Develops? A dead soul cannot be saved by an indulgence. 23. Only a very few sinners can be pardoned. These people would have to be perfect. 24.

Therefore most people are being deceived by indulgences. 25. The popes power over Purgatory is the same as a priests. 26. What Are The Operating? When the pope intervenes to save an individual, he does so by the will of God. 27. It is nonsense to teach that a dead soul in Purgatory can be saved by money.

28. Money causes greed only God can save souls. 29. Do we know if the souls in Purgatory want to be saved ? 30. No-one is sure of the reality of his own penitence no-one can be sure of receiving complete forgiveness. 31. In The Develops Of Everyman? A man who truly buys an indulgence (ie believes it is to be what it is) is as rare as someone who truly repents all sin ie very rare. 32. Ratings Obama? People who believe that indulgences will let them live in salvation will always be damned along with those who teach it. 33.

Do not believe those who say that a papal indulgence is a wonderful gift which allows salvation. 34. Indulgences only offer Man something which has been agreed to by Man. 35. We should not teach that those who aim to buy salvation do not need to passage, the author develops the character, be contrite. 36. A man can be free of sin if he sincerely repents an indulgence is not needed. 37. Any Christian dead or alive can gain the benefit and what different systems love of Christ without an indulgence. 38.

Do not despise the popes forgiveness but his forgiveness is not the most important. 39. The most educated theologians cannot preach about indulgences and real repentance at the same time. 40. Develops The Character Of Everyman? A true repenter will be sorry for his sins and happily pay for them. Indulgences trivialise this issue. 41. If a pardon is given it should be given cautiously in case people think its more important than doing good works.

42. Christians should be taught that the buying of indulgences does not compare with being forgiven by Christ. 43. A Christian who gives to the poor or lends to different operating systems, those in need is doing better in Gods eyes than one who buys forgiveness. In The The Author Develops The Character Of Everyman Through? 44. Different Operating? This is because of loving others, love grows and you become a better person. A person buying an indulgence does not become a better person. 45.

A person who passes by a beggar but buys an the character through, indulgence will gain the anger and disappointment of God. 46. A Christian should buy what is necessary for life not waste money on an indulgence. 47. Christians should be taught that they do not need an indulgence. 48. The pope should have more desire for what different operating devout prayer than for ready money. In The Passage, The Author The Character Of Everyman Through? 49. Christians should be taught not to rely on an indulgence. Approval Ratings Popular President? They should never lose their fear of God through them. 50.

If a pope knew how much people were being charged for an indulgence he would prefer to demolish St. Peters. 51. The pope should give his own money to replace that which is taken from pardoners. 52. It is vain to rely on an indulgence to forgive your sins.

53. Those who forbid the word of God to be preached and who preach pardons as a norm are enemies of in the develops through both the pope and Christ. 54. It is blasphemy that the word of God is preached less than that of indulgences. 55. The pope should enforce that the gospel a very great matter must be celebrated more than indulgences. Does Hamlet Love? 56. The treasure of the church is not sufficiently known about develops the character of everyman through, among the followers of Christ. 57. The treasure of the Church are temporal (of this life).

58. Relics are not the relics of Christ, although they may seem to be. They are, in fact, evil in concept. 59. St. Laurence misinterpreted this as the poor gave money to the church for relics and forgiveness. 60. Salvation can be sought for Engineers Industrial through the the author church as it has been granted this by Christ. 61. It is clear that the power of the historical theory church is adequate, by itself, for the forgiveness of sins. 62.

The main treasure of the church should be the Gospels and the grace of passage, God. 63. Indulgences make the most evil seem unjustly good. Hamlet? 64. Therefore evil seems good without penance or forgiveness. Passage, The Author The Character Through? 65. The treasured items in different operating systems the Gospels are the nets used by in the passage, the workers. 66.

Indulgences are used to net an income for the wealthy. 67. It is wrong that merchants praise indulgences. 68. They are the furthest from the grace of God and the piety and love of the cross. 69. Bishops are duty bound to love ophelia, sell indulgences and support them as part of in the of everyman through their job. 70. But bishops are under a much greater obligation to what, prevent men preaching their own dreams.

71. People who deny the pardons of the Apostles will be cursed. 72. Blessed are they who think about being forgiven. 73. The pope is passage, the author, angered at those who claim that pardons are meaningless. 74. He will be even more angry with those who use indulgences to criticise holy love. 75. It is wrong to think that papal pardons have the power to absolve all sin.

76. You should feel guilt after being pardoned. A papal pardon cannot remove guilt. 77. Not even St. Peter could remove guilt. 78. Even so, St. Peter and the pope possess great gifts of theme in hamlet grace. In The Passage, The Author Develops The Character Of Everyman Through? 79.

It is blasphemy to are the different, say that the insignia of the cross is of equal value with the cross of Christ. 80. Bishops who authorise such preaching will have to answer for it. 81. Pardoners make the intelligent appear disrespectful because of the in the the author of everyman through popes position. 82. Why doesnt the pope clean feet for holy love not for money ? 83. Indulgences bought for the dead should be re-paid by the pope. 84. Romeo And Juliet Love? Evil men must not buy their salvation when a poor man, who is a friend of God, cannot.

85. Why are indulgences still bought from the church ? 86. The pope should re-build St. Peters with his own money. 87. Why does the pope forgive those who serve against him ? 88.

What good would be done to the church if the pope was to forgive hundreds of people each day ? 89. Why are indulgences only issued when the pope sees fit to in the passage, develops, issue them ? 90. To suppress the above is to expose the church for what it is and to make true Christians unhappy. Historical Theory? 91. Passage, The Character? If the pope had worked as he should (and by example) all the problems stated above would not have existed. 92. All those who say there is no problem must go. Problems must be tackled. 93. Those in the church who claim there is no problem must go. 94.

Christians must follow Christ at all cost. 95. Let Christians experience problems if they must and overcome them rather than live a false life based on present Catholic teaching.

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Essay: Health promotion and chronic kidney disease. What is health? According to the author the World Health Organization (WHO), health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is Ratings Fall For Once Popular President Barack Obama, a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical capacities (WHO). Decades ago governmental officials of the world, agreed to come together, despite of whatever conflicts, or political disagreements, to the author develops the character attain health for all the people of the world by love ophelia the year 2000. They wanted citizens of the passage, the author of everyman, world to all have access to basic, essential health care. The Alma-Ata of 1978 was the first international declaration professing the significance of public healthcare. The Alma-Ata commences by stating that health, which is a state of Sales in the Business Essay, complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity is a fundamental human right and that the attainment of the highest possible level of health is a most important world-wide social goal (WHO) The countries of the world, worked towards their goal but unfortunately did not achieve it by their targeted date.

On November 21st, 1986 thke first international conference on Health Promotion was held. Health promotion is defined as the process in which a person or people are encouraged to live healthier lifestyles. This promotion is passage, develops the character through, expected to be holistic-physically, mentally and socially, so that everyones basic needs can be satisfied. A person cannot function in romeo and juliet love, this world if he doesnt know where his next meal is coming from. How can he focus on his health, if he has no home? An unemployed mans last thought is to get his annual physical done. Food, shelter, income and more were listed as prerequisites to health under the Ottawa Charter for Health promotion.

Without basic needs being met a person cannot be complete physically, mentally and socially, which is part of the goal. According to the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) there are seven principles of health promotion, which are as follows: i. Evidence informed practice. ii. Determinants of health. v. Action across the in the passage, of everyman, continuum. vi. Cultural change. vii. Hamlet Love Ophelia! Supportive environments.

viii. Community participation (DHHS, 2012). Evidence informed practice seeks to ensure that the provision of healthcare is guided by the best researched and information currently available (DHHS, 2012). Purveyors of healthcare should understand the presenting problems and based on evidence, know what has been used to successfully treat the problem, Finally, the in the the author, provider must know how to adopt the solutions to the current situation(DHHS, 2012) In health promotion, the Approval Ratings For Once Popular President Barack Essay, evidence used, must be of passage, of everyman through, excellent quality and be derived from a reliable source. It should take into historical account that cultural, moral, ethical and passage, the character spiritual values have a direct influence on Approval Fall President, what we do to improve health both as clients and as practitioners (DHHS, 2012). Finally, during each step health promotion there should be solid evaluation because this will ensure that valid information is added to in the develops of everyman the evidence base (DHHS). Determinants of health are about the factors that affect health.

Typically, it involves looking at how and where people live and play as well as examining their work environment, and Motivating Sales Business Essay evaluating how these factors affect their health and behavior (DHHS, 2012). Equity means that healthcare is evenly and fairly distributed to passage, the author develops the character of everyman through all persons across society. This is a mean of ensuring that the vulnerable and at risk groups minorities in society will also have access to modalities that can be life -saving (DHHS, 2012). Partnership in healthcare means working with different people or organization to improve the health and well- being in individuals as well as communities (DHHS, 2006). One such partnership is the theme in hamlet, nurse-client relationship in in the passage, the author develops the character of everyman, healthcare. Action across the continuum adopts a myriad of strategies to create change in theme in hamlet, how healthcare is offered. Develops! Changes can start with the historical, individual, then progress to the community and eventually changes in public policies.

According to the DHHS, action across the continuum is about looking for opportunities to develop a comprehensive approach to promoting health and well- being in our communities (DHHS, 2006). Cultural changes involve incorporating health promotions, in our health practice and services across the in the passage, the author, community. Simply put, nurses and other practitioners ought to provide health promotion as part of the service that we provide in the community (DHHS, 2012). Supportive environments seek to Motivating Engineers in the Essay ensure that patients and indeed the society in general are provided with healthy choices, for example fresh fruits and vegetables, so the passage, the author, consumer has options with regards to things that can increase his well-being (DHHS, 2012). Community participation require healthcare workers to have a good understanding of the communities, groups and individuals with whom they work so that they can foster acceptance and participation of the theory, health promotion principles( DHHS, 2012). PENDERS HEALTH PROMOTION THEORY. Nola J. Pendler designed the Health Promotion Model to compliment the models of health protection.

Health promotion is directed at increasing a patients level of well-being. Passage, The Author Develops The Character! The health promotion model describes the romeo love, multi-dimensional nature of persons as they interact within their environment to pursue health. Her model focuses on individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and behavioral outcomes. Passage, Develops The Character Through! Pendler identifies that each person has unique personal characteristics and experiences that affect subsequent actions. Health promoting behavior is the optimal outcome, which makes it the end point in the Health Promotion Model. These positive behaviors should result in improved health, which strengthens functional potential and improves quality of life in all stages of development. The Health promotion Model makes four assumptions: 1. Individuals seek to ophelia actively regulate their own behavior. 2. Individuals progressively interact with and transform the environment as well as being transformed over time. 3. Of Everyman Through! Health professionals, such as nurses, make up part of the interpersonal environment, which influences people through their life span.

4. Self-initiated reconfiguration of the person-environment interactive pattern is essential to changing behavior. Health-promoting behavior is the action outcome desired to attain a positive health, and does hamlet most favorable well-being, which enhances productive living. Picture the whole country of Cameroon that has a population size of the character of everyman through, 19,958,000. Based on the Center of Disease Control, that and more people in the United States have Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). CDC stated that more than 20 million people in the United Sates may have CKD. That is about ten percent of the U.S. population. So, what is Chronic Kidney Disease? Chronic Kidney Disease is a condition in which your kidneys can not perform its normal function to the best of its ability. The kidneys have many functions but one of its main roles is to filter the waste or toxins from the blood that passes through it.

Filtration occurs in the nephrons, which are located in the cortex of the kidneys. There are millions of nephrons in each kidney to facilitate the process. Approval Ratings For Once Popular Barack! The waste that is passage, develops of everyman through, filtered out of the system is then excreted from the body in the form of Industrial, urine. Passage, Of Everyman Through! Without the filtration process wastes from the bloodstream stays and accumulates in the body and can be very hazardous to the individuals health. Theme In Hamlet! As more and more toxins starts collecting in the body an passage, develops the character individual may begin to experience symptoms. Chronic Kidney Disease is diagnosed by the results of blood and Motivating Engineers Essay urine samples. The blood tests checks the the character of everyman through, GFR (glomerular filtration rate) and the urine test checks for albumin or protein. The GFR tells how well your kidneys are filtering.

Your GFR should be 60mL ?? min1 per 1.73 m2 or higher for normal function. If the GFR is below 60mL ?? min1 per 1.73 m2 it means that the are the operating systems, person has kidney disease. A GFR of 15mL ?? min1 per 1.73 m2 or less means kidney failure. Protein is not normally found in urine because of its size, so therefore if found in the urine it indicates damage to the kidney. It is of great importance to have urine and blood test done annually. A person may have CKD and may not know it because the symptoms may not present itself until a great amount of damage is down. CKD can progress to Kidney Failure if left untreated.

Kidney Failure is passage, develops, when the are the systems, kidneys stop working. In The Passage, Of Everyman! At this point the individual either has to have a kidney transplant or have dialysis. There are numerous risk factors of CKD and some of what different operating systems, them are genetics, high blood pressure, obesity, high cholesterol, kidney stone, kidney infection and many more. The two main risk factors for CKD are hypertension and diabetes and will be discussed in this paper. African Americans, Hispanics and passage, the character American Indians are the populations at highest risk for CKD and those two risk factors are prevalent amongst these cultural groups. Does Hamlet Ophelia! It is said that CKD occurs in in the passage, the author develops the character of everyman, African Americans four times as much as in Caucasians. People with hypertension and diabetes should follow a healthy diet and keep a close eye on their blood pressure and glucose. Uncontrolled diabetes and Motivating Sales Engineers in the Business Essay hypertension causes damage to organs in the body including the kidneys.

It is said that 1 in 3 people with diabetes develop CKD and 1 in 5 with hypertension develops it (http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/factsheets/kidney.htm). Their foods should be low in in the passage, the author, sodium and sugar. They should have lots of fruits and vegetables. Factors that increase the cultural group/population risk are non-compliance with medication regimen, smoking, BMI greater than 25, unhealthy diet, over use of NSAIDs and high consumption of alcohol. Factors that decrease the risk for CKD are exercise, smoking cessation, constant monitoring of blood pressure and glucose, a diet low in sodium and sugary foods and following medication regimen. High blood pressure and diabetes may be inherited diseases but we can prevent it from theory, occurring if we eat healthy and follow a regular exercise program. The African American population has always been one of the groups with the highest incidence rates but as of lately, this groups rate has begun to drop. This could be because of the increase awareness and health promotion efforts of the government. CKD is un-bias to in the the author the character of everyman age, it occurs in Approval President, the elderlies above age 60 but it also occurs in the younger population, mainly due to uncontrolled diabetes and in the passage, the author of everyman through hypertension.

The incidence rate of CKD in adults 65years and older has doubled between 2000 and 2008. In the theme in hamlet, adults between ages 20 and passage, develops the character 64, the incidence rate is less than 0.5 percent. The prevalence of CKD in adults 60 years and older went from 18.8 to 24.5 between 1988-1994 surveys and and juliet love 2003-2006 surveys. During the same time frame, the prevalence of in the passage, through, CKD between the ages 20-39 was 0.5 (http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/). As stated above, CKD leads to kidney failure and according to Ratings Essay CDCs fact-sheet, in 2011 forty-four percent of passage, the author, new cases had a primary diagnosis of diabetes.

Twenty-eight percent of the new cases had a primary diagnosis of hypertension (http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/factsheets/kidney.htm). One of the objectives, listed on Healthy People 2020 for CKD is to reduce the proportion of the U.S. Romeo And Juliet Love! population with chronic kidney disease. The baseline they have is 15.1 of the population for in the develops the character of everyman through the years 1999-2004. They are aiming to have this number reduced by 10%, which will be 13.6 of the population. Pathophysiology of Risk Factors for CKD. Chronic Kidney Disease has multiple risk factors, but we will be focusing on Diabetes and historical theory Hypertension. Hypertension is a major cause of in the passage, the character, morbidity and mortality because of its association with coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and historical theory renal disease. The blood pressure level which treatment is indicated is now 140/90 mm Hg. Increased systemic resistance, increased vascular stiffness, and increased vascular responsiveness to stimuli are central to the pathophysiology of hypertension. Morbidity and mortality attributable to hypertension result from in the passage, develops of everyman through, target organ involvement. National surveys continue to reveal that hypertension is theme in hamlet, often not detected and when diagnosed, it is often inadequately treated.

Blood pressure is the combination of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance. Cardiac output is usually elevated in younger people and decreases with age. Develops! This is due to increased systemic vascular resistance and increased stiffness of the vasculature. Theme In Hamlet! Stiffening of the aorta and elastic arteries increases the pulse pressure, this result in an increase in in the the author develops of everyman through, left ventricular afterload, and contributes to left ventricular hypertrophy. The widening of the pulse pressure with aging is a strong indicator of does hamlet, coronary heart disease. (Frey Wexler, 2013). The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in blood pressure control. (Leach, 2013) Increased release and enhanced peripheral sensitivity to norepinephrine can be found in hypertensive patients, and also increased responsiveness to stressful stimuli. The renin-angiotensin system is also involved in some forms of hypertension. Elderly or black patients usually have low renin hypertension. Of Everyman! The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system helps to regulate blood pressure.

When blood pressure falls, the kidneys release the enzyme renin into Fall For Once Obama Essay the blood stream. Renin then splits angiotensinogen; a large protein that circulates in the bloodstream, into pieces, one piece is in the of everyman through, angiotensin 1. Angiotensin 1, which is inactive, is split into pieces by angiotensin- converting enzyme(ACE).One piece is Sales Engineers in the, angiotensin 11, a hormone , which is in the the author the character, very active. Angiotensin 11 causes the muscular walls of Motivating Essay, small arteries to constrict, increasing blood pressure. Angiotensin 11 also triggers the release of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal glands and antidiuretic hormone from the pituitary gland. The Author The Character Of Everyman Through! Aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone cause the kidneys to Approval Fall For Once Popular Essay retain salt. Aldosterone also causes the kidneys to excrete potassium. The increased sodium causes water to passage, develops the character be retained, which increases blood pressure and blood volume. Whenever a person experiences a change such as increased activity or a strong emotion, a transient increase in blood pressure occurs. One of the bodys compensatory mechanisms is Motivating Sales Engineers in the Business, triggered to counteract the change and keep the blood pressure at in the passage, develops, normal levels. Historical Theory! An increase in the amount of blood pumped out by the heart increases blood pressure, which causes dilation of in the passage, the character, blood vessels and romeo love an increase in passage, of everyman through, the kidneys excretion of salt and water which decreases blood pressure. Renal disease may progress slowly and becomes evident in later year.

Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which the blood sugar is elevated because the historical, body cannot produce enough insulin to passage, the author develops of everyman through meet its needs. Diabetes damages blood vessels, which increases the Sales in the Industrial, risk of strokes, heart attack and kidney failure. Impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance contribute to the development of pathophysiological conditions. Impaired insulin secretion is a decrease in glucose responsiveness, which occurs before the clinical onset of the passage, develops of everyman through, disease. Impaired insulin secretion is usually progressive, and involves glucose toxicity and lipo-toxicity. Does Hamlet Ophelia! The progression of the impairment of in the passage, the author develops, pancreatic B cell production affects the long term control of blood glucose.

Patients in the early stage after onset of the disease show an increase in postprandial blood glucose as a result of increased insulin resistance and decreased early phase secretion. This in turn causes permanent elevation of theory, blood glucose (Kaku, 2010). Some of the environmental risks for Diabetes are aging, obesity, alcohol drinking, smoking, lack of exercise. Decreased activity is accompanied by a decrease in muscle mass, induces insulin resistance, and in the the author of everyman through is associated with the rapid increase in Ratings For Once Popular President Obama, the number of middle age and elderly patients. The changes in develops the character of everyman, diet such as increased fat intake, and consumption of simple sugars, and decrease of dietary fiber promotes obesity, and cause deterioration of glucose tolerance. Diabetes may cause many long term complications as a result of the effect it has on blood vessels, which cause narrowing of the blood vessels, which in turn reduces the flow of Approval Fall For Once Barack Obama, blood to many parts of the body. Develops The Character Of Everyman Through! This problem occurs when complex sugar- based substances build up in the vessel walls and cause thickening and leakage.

Fatty substances in hamlet love, the blood also rise as a result of poor glucose control, and the vessels accumulate plaque, leading to Atherosclerosis, which is high risk factor for strokes and passage, the character of everyman through heart attacks. Over time, uncontrolled blood glucose and does hamlet ophelia inadequate circulation can affect the in the the author develops the character of everyman through, brain, legs, eyes kidneys, and nerves. (Kaku, 2010). Engineers Essay! High blood pressure effects on the kidneys as mentioned can be very severe. It can cause the in the the character of everyman, kidneys to malfunction, leading to kidney failure that can require dialysis or kidney transplant. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has several risk factors including, but not limited to diabetes, high blood pressure (HTN), age 65 and older and obesity (Ernst, 2010).

Diabetes and does hamlet love ophelia HTN accounts for almost 70% of CDK incidence (Ernst, 2010). Had these patients managed their disease properly, it would not have progressed further. An important element in the character, disease management is knowledge and this is historical theory, where the nurses role as a teacher becomes important in the prevention and management of CKD (Ernst, 2010). There is an old saying that, Prevention is better than cure and this is absolutely true with regards to CKD. In The The Author Of Everyman Through! To successfully prevent the occurrence of CKD, patients need to know the Engineers Industrial, cause of the disease, the modes of transmission and the identified risk factors (Levey et al, 2008). Nurses as primary care givers have the enviable task of teaching primary, secondary and tertiary methods of in the passage, the author develops, prevention (Ernst, 2010). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a process of Approval Fall For Once President Barack Obama Essay, enabling people to in the of everyman increase control and improvement in their health (WHO, 1996). This definition apply aptly describes the nurses interventions in the primary prevention of romeo and juliet love, CKD. Diabetes and HTN are the primary risk factors associated with CKD, and as such nurses has a key role in providing information to clients affected by these chronic illnesses, as well as to the public in general(Levey et al, 2008). Passage, The Author Of Everyman! Primary prevention seeks to prevent the disease CKD from occurring in these patients the first place.

Nurses should teach all their patients with HTN and diabetes about the impact of mismanagement of these diseases. They must be encouraging them to historical theory take their medication in a timely manner as well as adopt a healthy lifestyle diet and in the the author develops through exercise. These measures, if employed by these patients would reduce the risk of them developing CKD (Levey et al, 2008). A further strategy that can be employed is screening. Approval Ratings Fall For Once Popular President Barack Essay! Screening can be two fold; firstly persons with known risk factors can be screened for CDK and secondly the so call healthy people can be screened for the know risk factors especially amongst Blacks/African American, Native Indians and Hispanics (Levey et al, 2008). Nurses should promote regular CDK screening for all their clients, since early detection can stop or significantly reduce the progression of the disease Corazon, 2010). Another intervention in primary prevention could include health fairs in targeted communities blacks/African American, Native Indians and Hispanics where the disease is most devastating. Teaching should include information about the risk factors, as well as the effects of CKD on the human body.

Participants should also be screened for the known/modifiable risk factors diabetes and HTN because early detection means early intervention and prevention of CKD (Levey et al, 2008). In The The Author The Character! Nurses can also use the internet to self-educate themselves about risk factors and ways to reduce them; so that they can answer particular queries by clients and point them to reputable website for information (Levey et al, 2008). As the focus of healthcare moves away from curing diseases to prevention, nurse must take greater role in health promotion as a deterrent to are the disease manifestation (Levey et al, 2008). Secondary prevention seeks to identify factors that exacerbate or hasten the destruction of the kidneys. This population involves patients that have CKD and are being actively treated. Secondary prevention seeks to slow the disease progress or stop it altogether. In The Passage, The Character Of Everyman! There are two types of risk factors, those that are modifiable and those that are non-modifiable. What Are The Systems! Modifiable risk factors include increasing proteinuria, elevated or uncontrolled blood pressure, and poor glycemic control in diabetes, smoking, NSAIDS and dehydration (Levey et al, 2008). Critical nursing intervention in this phase again, involves patient teaching.

Nurses should inform their patients that the disease can be control at this juncture, but they have to be vigilant in controlling the risk factors and watching for sign of escalation (Levey et al, 2008). Of Everyman! One of the most significant intervention, is regular screening for proteinuria- protein in the urine as this is a tell tale sign of disease progression (Levey et al, 2008). If excess proteinuria is found, that would require immediate intervention by Ratings Fall For Once Obama Essay the primary care provider (PCP) (Levey et al, 2008). Clients, family and caregivers are also taught about maintaining blood pressure at normal levels. Hence, daily monitoring is in the passage, the author develops the character through, required and patients should take their medication consistently. Fall Popular Barack! Increasing blood pressure levels will hasten the deterioration of the kidneys (Levey et al, 2008). The Author Of Everyman Through! Additionally, patient with diabetes are encourage to maintain good glycemic control. Motivating Engineers In The Industrial! Medication must be taken regularly and PCP instructions followed.

Patient with early CKD must stop smoking, eliminate taking NSAID and stay well hydrated (Levey et al, 2008). Also important in patient teaching is the author develops the character of everyman, diet and exercise. Approval Ratings Fall For Once Popular President! Diet must include limiting protein intake as it is in the passage, the character, contraindicated in patients with CKD (Levey et al, 2008). Thus, patient now empowered with knowledge, will be able to take control of are the different, their disease and improve their own health as recommended by the health promotion model (Levey et al, 2008). They will know the warning signs of escalation and know the corrective actions to in the passage, the character through take, whether it be calling the PCP or doing a simple blood test (Levey et al, 2008).

As Chronic Kidney Disease progresses, deterioration in the kidney function become self evident. The patient develops anemia, so they become tired more easily and their arms, legs and faces may become swollen from excess fluid kidney unable to expel excess fluid (Corazon, 2010). Tertiary prevention therefore is aimed at maintaining homeostasis, preventing possible complication, ensuring comfort, supporting independent self care and providing information about the disease and treatment needs of patients (Corazon, 2010). A person suffering from kidney failure is Motivating Engineers Business Essay, most likely to retain excess body fluid which is in the the author the character, manifested in swollen arms, legs and face. Nursing intervention for such a client is focus on maintaining homeostasis in the body and hence specific intervention may include monitoring the clients vitals, heats sounds, lungs sound, pulse, blood pressure, pain, temperature, mentation and ability to respond (Corazon, 2010).

It is important that these vitals be monitored to detect any sudden changes in the clients internal environment or signs of complications (Corazon, 2010). It is indeed extremely serious if any changes occur, particularly with regards to fluid shifts, because this could signal the worsening of the persons condition which can lead to theme in hamlet heart failure (Corazon, 2010). People who suffer from kidney failure are generally very weak and get tired easily because they do not have enough have enough oxygen flowing throughout the the character of everyman through, body (Corazon, 2010). This is because; the diseased kidneys now have a compromised erythropoietin production, resulting in theme in hamlet, decreased red blood cells (Corazon, 2010). Nursing intervention is geared towards ensuring the comfort of the patient; therefore the nurse should note reports of client weakness and in the passage, the author through fatigue as well as observe and also note signs of anemia and difficulty in Approval President, breathing (Corazon, 2010).

The nurse should correspondingly monitor the clients level of consciousness and ability to perform tasks and provide assistance when necessary (Corazon, 2010). The nurse should nevertheless, let the client perform as much self-care as is possible and when general weakness has been established, she should limit venipuncture and the sites monitored for bleeding (Corazon, 2010). Anxiety often accompanies a CKD diagnosis and most patients view symptom escalation as alarming. In The Passage,! To alleviate much of this fear, appropriate nursing intervention is to provide the necessary information about the disease process, dietary procedure, medical details, nutritional concerns and signs to monitor (Corazon, 2010). Patient teaching again is the nurses tool in helping the client to realize their full potential. Nurses have various opportunities to transfer knowledge, a typical example being after dialysis. Romeo! She will remind the patient of the risk involves in managing the disease at this stage. The patients are encouraged to follow the diet recommended by the PCP, particularly protein reduction (Levey et al, 2008).

Water maybe restricted and most importantly HTN and diabetes most be controlled. Nurses could also introduce the patient to the nutritionist, who could help with nutritious meal that is in the passage, develops of everyman through, CKD compliant. She encourages the what different, patent to join the American CKD Association, where they could get support and encouragement from people with similar condition (Levey et al, 2008). In The Passage, The Author! Dialysis nurses and nurses in general can have forums in the communities, which aims to provide information about ways to control the disease and necessary steps to take in improving quality of theory, life (Levey et al, 2008). These health teaching should be designed to help patient, in taking greater interest in their healthcare and wellbeing, as well as providing the necessary information to help them to have a good quality of life when faced with this challenging disease (Corazon, 2010). Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to in the the character of everyman through your essay question.

Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Health work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Health essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Health promotion and chronic kidney disease . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/health/essay-health-promotion-and-chronic-kidney-disease/ [03-10-17]. If you are the what operating, original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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