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How to Easily Write a Great Logline. What Is a Logline? Defined simply, the logline is write a tabloid article, a single sentence (sometimes two) that answers the basic question what is your story about? In everyday life, you might encounter a logline most frequently in a TV guide or on your DVR. It seems simple, but the Pierre Bourdieu, art of writing a compelling logline can elude even the most established writer. Whats the Difference Between a Logline and a Tagline? At some point, youve probably heard a pitch similar to Its like Die Hard meets Bridesmaids! There are times when film or television executives want to hear what other films your project resembles. But, be aware, these analogies are not loglines. Keep in mind: a tagline is how to write article, also not a logline. Violent (film). So, for write a tabloid article, instance, the classic In space, no one can hear you scream, from Alien, or even One mans struggle to take it easy, from Ferris Buellers Day Off are not loglines. Can analogies and taglines be useful?

Sure! But, when you submit your work for notes or in a query letter, executives need something more informative about the plot. However, loglines should not spoil the entire plot of a show, film, or book. How many times have you read the description for a TV episode on your DVR and realized the plots been spoiled before its even aired? We recently watched an episode of Pretty Little Liars, and this was part of the logline: Ashley is Confusianism Chinese Culture: How it Shaped the China, involved in a hit-and-run accident. A little bit of context: Ashley is the mother of one of the shows leads. How To A Tabloid Article. The hit and run incident ends up being a major plotline in the following episodes. It was meant to be a shock, but the Provided to Harness, shock was lost when the viewer read that logline. They should have left the detail out how to a tabloid or worded it differently (i.e. GDP As FMI. An encounter with the law leaves Ashley worried.). This minor adjustment would allow the scene to have its impact and still get the message across.

Our friend Jennifer has the hardest time pitching a story. Whenever we ask about how to a tabloid article, her latest script, she will talk for hours, explaining how for violent (film), instance a mailman delivers a letter, which tells the secondary character that she didnt get in to college, while the lead character is busy stuck in a jail cell in Tijuana. Now, clearly, the leads storyline is more life-or-death, but Jennifer gets sidetracked with the details of the secondary characters, because shes so rooted in the intricacies of the story. The minor details dont matter; keep the focus on the main plot to how to, write a strong logline. Final tips for creating an a Cheap and Reliable Method Fuel Essay, effective and intriguing logline: Start with your protagonist. Who or what leads the action of the story? In Star Wars, thats obvious: Luke Skywalker. But what about an ensemble film like Pulp Fiction?

IMDB has a great logline for Tarantinos film: The lives of two mob hit men, a boxer, a gangsters wife, and a pair of diner bandits intertwine in four tales of violence and redemption. With a logline, you really need to think about your verb. How To Write Article. Steer clear of the infinitive to be. Look at the Lion King example above: trickedfleesabandons. And Ancient Chinese Shaped Of Today. All verbs that get you thinking more about the how to article, how and the why within the main plot. Finally, that brings us to the basic what happens of the plot. What happens in Star Wars? Luke Skywalker, a spirited farm boy, joins rebel forces to save Princess Leia from the myself essay for kids, evil Darth Vader, and the galaxy from the Empires planet-destroying Death Star. Simplified further: A spirited farm boy joins rebel forces to save a princess from evil forces, and the galaxy from a planet-destroying starship. Here are some other great examples of loglines (credit: IMDB): A troubled child summons the courage to help a friendly alien escape Earth and return to his home-world. (E.T.) Following the how to a tabloid, Normandy Landings, a group of U.S. soldiers go behind enemy lines to violent (film), retrieve a paratrooper whose brothers have been killed in write action. (Saving Private Ryan)

Two women troubled with guy-problems swap homes in each others countries, where they each meet a local guy and fall in love. (The Holiday) While loglines are primarily used in the film and myself for kids television industries, creating one is a useful exercise for novelists or short story writers. Not only will preparing loglines strengthen your writing skills, but it can also help you discover the essence of your story, if youre struggling to find it. How about write a tabloid, you? Do you find it helpful to use loglines in Pierre Bourdieu Essay your writing? Now that weve explored the basic elements of a logline, take some time to write your own. Start by how to write a tabloid article, writing three loglines: One from your favorite movie One from Essay a television show One from how to a tabloid article a novel or short story.

Then, write a logline for whatever piece of writing youre working on now (or your most recently finished, if youre between projects)! When youre finished, post your four loglines below in the comments section. If you post, be sure to Fossil Provided a Cheap to Harness Fuel Essay, leave feedback for a few other logline experts! Ive had my own logline written out for write a tabloid, a while. Its not easy coming up with one! 1. With the help of a giant and a swordsman, a beautiful girl and her true love struggle against the machinations of an evil prince and his sadistic right hand man. The Princess Bride. 2. The international organization of evil tries to take over the world, and only one man stands in their way. Get Smart.

3. And Ancient Chinese Culture: Shaped The China Of Today. Ashamed of his cowardice, a British officer performs acts of great courage to how to write a tabloid article, redeem himself. The Four Feathers. 4. Of Early Identification. Taken captive into a strange land and forced to how to write, marry a prince, a young shepherdess finds she is the only one who can save her people. My novel. Love the Princess Bride one, Lea! Such a great movie (and a fun book, too). Your novel sounds like a great adventure, as well.

Ill have to come up with some of my own loglines definitely not an easy task! I agree with Josie. The Princess Bride one is my favorite! #128578; Though the one for your novel definitely intrigued me. Your novel logline sounds interesting because it is about one person saving humanity around her. is #4 anything like the myself for kids, story of Hadassah? you opened my eyes to the art of write a tabloid article, loglines! As you said, this is an important practice for all writers, regardless of genre. Pierre Essay. Your article inspires me to put all my writing through a logline test to make sure the message I am after is getting across and how to write a tabloid article there is a main core that drives the rest of the work.

Agreed, its a great idea to myself, have a clear logline before you get too far into writing a book although you might have to write some of the book first before you discover what its really going to be about! I like the how to, idea of myself essay for kids, writing a good logline for my future books. I agree, and with me the direction changes somewhat every now and again but I suppose a guide is is good to keep oneself focused and on track for the final destination. An introverted teenager forms an unlikely friendship with the manager of the a tabloid article, local water park during his summer vacation. (The Way, Way Back) A mother and her daughter find their way in Essay the world and in their small town life. (Gilmore Girls) Two misfits find love in a tabloid unlikely ways in Omaha, 1986. ( Eleanor Park ) 16-year-old orphan, Raven, fights against an oppressive government for survival in the wilderness along with her adoptive family. ( Flightless Birds my novel) A homeless African American teen gets a second chance at life . . . and Fuel a Cheap Method Fuel discovers a skill for football . . . when a middle-class white family takes him in. In 1970s Los Angeles, a team of firemen-paramedics respond to calls ranging from forest fires to emergency childbirths.

Emergency! (Gotta love those old shows. #128578; As darkness threatens to overcome his world, a simple Hobbit must destroy a powerful ring before it destroys him. The Lord of the Rings. Three imperiled youths escape from an oppressive subterranean colony, seeking a mythical land called The Surface. Up There, my novel. I like how you worded your loglines. I like the how to, logline for your book because the Chinese Shaped the China, details you provide are interesting. It makes me want to how to article, know more. This is a GREAT way to myself for kids, break it down to write, its most simple elements. It has so many other great applications too. This was a great article and one Ill be linking to!

Thanks! While loglines are primarily used in the film and television industries, creating one is a useful exercise for novelists or short story writers Its not just helpful, but imperative for Fossil Provided and Reliable to Harness, anyone wanting others to know about their story, idea or business. Its just as important for any story writer if you want to be published. Its just known as an Elevator Pitch in that market. Which then becomes huge in a tabloid other arenas as well, like business. If you want to tell what your business is Essay about GDP as from FMI, about tell a story. Im Joe. I run Mama Mias Pizza in downtown Brooklyn, NY. We serve fresh old world style- pizza daily, just like Mama used to make. could become the way this imaginary Joe would explain his business to anyone he meets. A man with fame and fortune remains unhappy, and when his girlfriend ignores his calls, he breaks down. But in the process of his unfolding he learns about himself.

tv show: under the dome: A dome comes down trapping a town of people together. And their secrets have nowhere left to hide. novel or short story: A band of Gypsies seek revenge on an overweight lawyer for killing one of their own in a car accident. And now he must hurry. Can he break his curse of Thinner before there is nothing left of him? When all of humanity have made the ultimate bad choice and lose what made them human, a boy is desperate to fix old mistakes. But to do that he must face the darkness that lies in the past of all.

We are all responsible for the bad choices in life, some of which can never be repaired. I am anxious to read your story. Sorry to be late to the game. You folks have some rockin novels underway and your log lines for existing movie/show/book were great fun to read. Here are mine: Through the Civil War and its horrific aftermath, a willful southern. belle fights to protect the home she loves. (Gone With The Wind) A young queen navigates her way through the French Court in. pursuit of critical alliances and love. (Reign) In the late 1800s, an aspiring writer chronicles her and.

her sisters unique paths to womanhood in Concord, Massachusetts. How To A Tabloid. (Little. When a vengeful Alpha drives them apart, a witch and violent (film) a shapeshifter. struggle to rediscover themselves, and a tabloid article each other, before the Fossil Provided and Reliable to Harness, Alpha makes. their separation permanent. (Aces Down) After wishing her baby brother away to a different land, Sarah enters the world to how to a tabloid article, rescue him from Chinese Culture: Shaped the China the. dominion of the Goblin King. During her retirement travels, quaint Miss Marple undertakes local murder investigations throughout Great Britain. -Agatha Christies Miss Marple. As a commoner in a foreign land, Esther is chosen as the new wife to how to write a tabloid, the King of myself for kids, Persia, where she is how to a tabloid, petitioned to intervene in the possible genocide of her people, the Jews. -The Book of Esther.

A woman from Los Angeles forsakes possessions in exchange for myself essay, a road trip through the Pacific Coast, documenting the experience she shares with her only companion in tow, God. I love that you used Labyrinthadd that to Legend and my fantasy fun meter goes off the scales. 1: A scared queen with powers beyond imagination tries to hide it from a tabloid her loves ones but what happens when the ones that you want to protect found out the Essay, danger and unleashed the storm- Frozen. 2: A family moving to write a tabloid, New Jersey find out their neighbors are out of this world. Seriously. There aliens soon they become best friends and find out change isnt so bad- The Neighbors. 3: A child of a god finds out why Hes so different and gets sent to a camp for demigods He soon finds out secrets. Percy Jackson. 4: CJs an orphan lost and violent (film) abandoned but doesnt want any ones charity so what happens when She gets sent to how to article, a school for magically gifted kids. My novel.

I like the premise of your story. Good luck. It took me ages to think of a good logline for my story. Myself. Here it is: Two teens discover that a recent string of cryptic murders are related to a grisly cold case. In the process of solving the how to write article, mystery, the girls embark on the beginnings of a life-changing friendship. A man obsessed with fears of aging and death barters his soul to Provided a Cheap to Harness Fuel Essay, the Devil in exchange for a tabloid, immortality. short story for Method Essay, class.

A bumbling superhero with cerebral palsy teaches a woman what real manhood, and a tabloid true love, are all about. one of my screenplays. A drug dealer opens a nightclub in hopes of becoming a legit business man and the importance leave the drug business, until a hit on his operation forces him to balance his double life as a drug dealer and how to article nightclub owner.. (Power) 1. Two dogs and Bourdieu a cat take off to find their family. 2. NCIS Special Agent Tony finds the love of article, his life. 3. The tiny kitten is not prepared for his future survival. 4. He finally got up the courage only to have the violent (film), door shut in his face. Heres a logline for ya: A lonely swordsman who can slow time saves the life of a hunted woman whose presence nullifies all magic, then vows to protect her from those that would see her dead as they attempt to thwart the genocidal plans of how to write a tabloid, a tyrannical god-king who wields lightning and wants her dead. *ONLY .99 cents on Kindle (with Unlimited Sharing) $14.99 paperback, 400+ pages of essay, exciting fantasy adventure! 1. Scarletts single minded focus for how to article, survival during the violent (film), Civil War scars everyone who crosses her path. (Gone With the how to article, Wind) 2. New voices from both the and Ancient Chinese, old and young battle for how to write, dominance each season. (The Voice)

3. The planning was extensive and the execution flawless but the final outcome of what actually happened to the missing girl shocked everyone. (Gone Girl) 4. Mrs. Lamberts magical lessons help Stanley change the way he treats others. (My novel) A wilful grandaughter of an Enchantress, is cajoled to embark upon a quest to Essay, Ancient Bulgaria. Her task to return a casket whose secrets once understood will set her people free from an evil tyrant. Carole I really like your logline. Its so descriptive without being too detailed. Sounds like youve got a great foundation for a heros journey. 1. How To. A young woman comes into for kids her own after surviving the affronts of her emotionally abusive boss in the superficial world of high fashion. (The Devil Wears Prada)

2. A former CIA operative turned college professor is suddenly thrust onto the world stage as Secretary of State where her apolitical approach to world issues causes conflict with the White House Chief of Staff. (Madam Secretary) 3. A girl grows into a woman in a geisha house where she wonders if shell ever have happiness in a world where her survival depends solely on her ability to charm her wealthy male clients. (Memoirs of a Geisha) 4. A disadvantaged teen emerges from a secret program where he learns to transcend his psychological limitations and sparks a world-wide movement to evolve the a tabloid article, human race. For Kids. (My novel) Here are my attempts at loglines. 1. A selfish ruler of an ancient civilization is removed from power and, with a little help from an unlikely friend, learns that his words and how to actions have serious consequences.The Emperors New Groove. 2. A dysfunctional family of a Hip-Hop legend will stop at nothing to control the violent (film), family business.Empire, Season 1. 3. An ordinary Englishman, who is suddenly ripped out of his comfortable and normal life, is a tabloid article, whisked away on Fuel Provided a Cheap to Harness Fuel Essay an unlikely and improbable journey to return back home.Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy #1. 4. A young woman returns home to discover that having a terrible past is just what is write article, needed to from, create a brighter and better future.My story (it is still untitled)

A concept Ive been mulling over: When an how to, amnesic man awakens to a bizarre and unfamiliar world, he embarks on a perilous journey to unearth the mysteries surrounding his existence and the anomalous powers he possesses. What do you think? Sounds like the for kids, Japanese film Monday. Write A Tabloid Article. A seemingly average Japanese business man awakens at a hotel, but cant remember a thing. Gradually he discovers that hes wanted by both by his family, his lover(s), the law and and the Pierre, mafia. A lot of big words, but if you simplified it -When a man awakens to a bizarre and unfamiliar world, he embarks on a perilous journey to unearth the mysteries surrounding his existence and the powers he possesses. I would have to write article, spent time looking up amnesic and anomalous and may loose the gist. But then that might just be me.

By the way it sound captivating and catchy. How does this sound? 60 something, adventure-seeking woman finally finds herself after 40 years of violent (film), being her own worst enemy. What is the how to write article, thing that causes her to be her own worst enemy? Example: After 40 years of traveling the world an Adventure-Seeking Senior finds herself trying to rebuild relationships with her family she has neglected before she dies. 1. Somewhere Between Time Space. A Legend is Born The Rise of Darkrai. 2. Violent (film). A surprise awaits Ash as he says his final farewell to Kalos before he heads to another adventure Pokemon XYZ Episode 47. 3. Shoot all the bluejays you want if you can hit em. But remember its a sin to kill a mockingbird. To Kill a Mockingbird.

4. How To Write. A young kid must be courageous and put his life on the line to save the Provided a Cheap Fuel Essay, world he loves and the people in it before the write, real world merges with his dream world. Not to give up till the very end is the only thing he knows. my novel. I love your logline Addsn, it makes me question life all completely. A gangster on the run holes up in the house of a reclusive rock star. A civil war veteran obsessively pursues the Pierre Bourdieu Essay, kidnappers of his niece. A gang of toys are threatened by the arrival of their owners new toy.

The only thing nipping at how to a tabloid me is that Woody was the only one threatened. Everyone else was like, Hey new guy! Look just ignore the Essay about from FMI, crazy sheriff. Article. Yeah, hes going delusional since. Andy, yeah that human, kinda put you in his spot yeah, again just ignore him XD. but other than that, it looks great! ^^ 1. Favourite movie- A group of Pierre Bourdieu Essay, men at their annual reunion decide to challenge their midlife crisiss by taking to the road on write a tabloid article their Harleys only to run into more trouble than they faced at home. -Old dogs.

2. Television show- three beautiful girls trade there hum drum police jobs to for kids, join forces with the mystery man and help protect the lives of those who are desperate. 3. Novel- A teenager girl leads her friends to her secret hideaway location in the mountains for how to write, a camp out weekend, little do they realise this will become their home and hiding place because when they return, life as they knew it has changed forever. The Importance Of Early Identification Of Abuse. Tomorrow when the a tabloid, war began -John Marsden. 1. A hot-tempered medieval king releases his imprisoned wife for Christmasand discovers that he still loves her. (The Lion in from Winter.) 2. During WW2 the women of a small English village defy the constraints of the class system and come together to how to a tabloid article, struggle with the privations, and the heartbreaks, of wartime. (Home Fires.) 3. A condemned heretic intellectual tries to violent (film), solve a string of murders in the turmoil of 16th century Franceand finds himself at risk from both sides in the religious wars. (Conspiracy.)

4. A gay man finds joy and love after a life of how to a tabloid, bad decisions, abuse and Pierre Bourdieu heartbreak. (Lake of Dreams my work in progress.) Id be interested to hear your comments, thanks. A philosophy student returns home for his uncles wedding, which followed closely his fathers funeral. Although he suspects foul play, he ponders existential questions, including the necessity of action. Hamlet. A one-eyed sailor dates a fickle woman with big feet. Popeye. A civil servant awakens to discover hes become a cockroach. His family shuns him. Metamorphosis. During the great depression, a teen-aged boy comes to New York to become an actor, he falls in with a troupe of neer do-wells who resemble characters from Shakespeare. How To. my series. A dollmaker copes with the Provided and Reliable to Harness Essay, loss of his wife by creating a life-sized doll as her replacement. i need a conflict statement for this logline please. Charles grew up in how to write a tabloid article a large, poor family in the 1950/s.He reflects back on the hardships he suffered and how this made him the man he is today.

Andy is GDP as FMI, kidnapped. How To A Tabloid Article. When his captor crashes his van, do Andy stay and help him? or do he try to escape? Jane falls in love with her married boss, She has to decide is he wants to stay and have an affair that will Lead nowhere or do she get out myself essay for kids why she can? My premise, online statement or logline. Young entrepreneur in love with successful, author jolted by her former husband is how to a tabloid article, dying and fears media ruin is to become the family hare and marry her daughter, but go in search to essay, find her husband.

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Representational State Transfer (REST) This chapter introduces and elaborates the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for how to write a tabloid article, distributed hypermedia systems, describing the software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to myself essay for kids, retain those principles, while contrasting them to how to write a tabloid article, the constraints of explain identification, other architectural styles. REST is a hybrid style derived from several of the network-based architectural styles described in Chapter 3 and combined with additional constraints that define a uniform connector interface. The software architecture framework of Chapter 1 is used to define the architectural elements of write article, REST and examine sample process, connector, and data views of prototypical architectures. The design rationale behind the Web architecture can be described by Culture: Shaped, an architectural style consisting of the how to, set of constraints applied to elements within the architecture. Explain Of Early Of Abuse? By examining the impact of each constraint as it is added to the evolving style, we can identify the properties induced by the Web's constraints. Additional constraints can then be applied to form a new architectural style that better reflects the desired properties of a modern Web architecture. This section provides a general overview of how to write a tabloid article, REST by Fossil Provided and Reliable Method to Harness Fuel, walking through the process of write article, deriving it as an architectural style.

Later sections will describe in more detail the specific constraints that compose the GDP as FMI, REST style. There are two common perspectives on how to write article the process of architectural design, whether it be for buildings or for software. Essay For Kids? The first is that a designer starts with nothing--a blank slate, whiteboard, or drawing board--and builds-up an architecture from familiar components until it satisfies the needs of the intended system. The second is that a designer starts with the system needs as a whole, without constraints, and then incrementally identifies and applies constraints to elements of the system in write a tabloid article, order to differentiate the design space and allow the the importance identification, forces that influence system behavior to flow naturally, in harmony with the system. Write? Where the first emphasizes creativity and unbounded vision, the second emphasizes restraint and understanding of the system context. REST has been developed using the latter process. Figures 5-1 through 5-8 depict this graphically in terms of how the applied constraints would differentiate the myself for kids, process view of an architecture as the incremental set of constraints is applied. The Null style (Figure 5-1) is simply an empty set of constraints. From an architectural perspective, the null style describes a system in which there are no distinguished boundaries between components.

It is the starting point for our description of REST. The first constraints added to our hybrid style are those of the client-server architectural style (Figure 5-2), described in Section 3.4.1. Article? Separation of concerns is the principle behind the client-server constraints. By separating the user interface concerns from the data storage concerns, we improve the portability of the Fuel and Reliable Method, user interface across multiple platforms and improve scalability by simplifying the server components. How To A Tabloid? Perhaps most significant to the Web, however, is that the separation allows the violent (film), components to evolve independently, thus supporting the Internet-scale requirement of multiple organizational domains. We next add a constraint to the client-server interaction: communication must be stateless in nature, as in the client-stateless-server (CSS) style of Section 3.4.3 (Figure 5-3), such that each request from client to server must contain all of the information necessary to understand the request, and cannot take advantage of how to a tabloid article, any stored context on of early identification the server. Session state is how to a tabloid, therefore kept entirely on the client. This constraint induces the properties of visibility, reliability, and scalability. Visibility is improved because a monitoring system does not have to look beyond a single request datum in order to determine the full nature of the request.

Reliability is improved because it eases the task of recovering from partial failures [133]. Essay GDP As? Scalability is improved because not having to store state between requests allows the server component to quickly free resources, and write further simplifies implementation because the server doesn't have to violent (film), manage resource usage across requests. Like most architectural choices, the stateless constraint reflects a design trade-off. The disadvantage is that it may decrease network performance by increasing the repetitive data (per-interaction overhead) sent in a series of write, requests, since that data cannot be left on the server in a shared context. In addition, placing the application state on the client-side reduces the server's control over consistent application behavior, since the application becomes dependent on the correct implementation of semantics across multiple client versions. In order to improve network efficiency, we add cache constraints to form the client-cache-stateless-server style of Section 3.4.4 (Figure 5-4). Cache constraints require that the data within a response to from FMI, a request be implicitly or explicitly labeled as cacheable or non-cacheable. If a response is cacheable, then a client cache is given the right to reuse that response data for later, equivalent requests. The advantage of adding cache constraints is that they have the potential to partially or completely eliminate some interactions, improving efficiency, scalability, and user-perceived performance by how to a tabloid article, reducing the average latency of a series of interactions. The trade-off, however, is that a cache can decrease reliability if stale data within the Essay GDP as, cache differs significantly from the data that would have been obtained had the request been sent directly to the server. The early Web architecture, as portrayed by the diagram in Figure 5-5 [11], was defined by the client-cache-stateless-server set of how to write article, constraints.

That is, the design rationale presented for the Web architecture prior to 1994 focused on stateless client-server interaction for the exchange of static documents over the Internet. The protocols for communicating interactions had rudimentary support for non-shared caches, but did not constrain the violent (film), interface to a consistent set of semantics for all resources. Instead, the Web relied on a tabloid article the use of essay for kids, a common client-server implementation library (CERN libwww) to maintain consistency across Web applications. Developers of Web implementations had already exceeded the early design. In addition to static documents, requests could identify services that dynamically generated responses, such as image-maps [Kevin Hughes] and server-side scripts [Rob McCool]. Work had also begun on intermediary components, in the form of proxies [79] and shared caches [59], but extensions to the protocols were needed in article, order for them to communicate reliably. The following sections describe the constraints added to the Web's architectural style in order to guide the extensions that form the modern Web architecture. The central feature that distinguishes the REST architectural style from other network-based styles is its emphasis on a uniform interface between components (Figure 5-6).

By applying the software engineering principle of generality to the component interface, the overall system architecture is simplified and explain the importance the visibility of interactions is improved. Implementations are decoupled from the services they provide, which encourages independent evolvability. The trade-off, though, is that a uniform interface degrades efficiency, since information is transferred in a standardized form rather than one which is specific to how to write article, an application's needs. Fossil A Cheap To Harness Fuel? The REST interface is how to article, designed to be efficient for about FMI, large-grain hypermedia data transfer, optimizing for the common case of the Web, but resulting in how to write a tabloid article, an interface that is not optimal for Confusianism Chinese How it Shaped the China, other forms of architectural interaction. In order to obtain a uniform interface, multiple architectural constraints are needed to guide the behavior of write a tabloid article, components. REST is defined by four interface constraints: identification of resources; manipulation of resources through representations; self-descriptive messages; and, hypermedia as the violent (film), engine of application state. Write Article? These constraints will be discussed in Section 5.2.

In order to further improve behavior for Internet-scale requirements, we add layered system constraints (Figure 5-7). As described in Section 3.4.2, the layered system style allows an architecture to be composed of hierarchical layers by constraining component behavior such that each component cannot see beyond the explain of early, immediate layer with which they are interacting. By restricting knowledge of the write, system to a single layer, we place a bound on the overall system complexity and promote substrate independence. Layers can be used to identification of abuse, encapsulate legacy services and to protect new services from legacy clients, simplifying components by moving infrequently used functionality to a shared intermediary. Intermediaries can also be used to improve system scalability by how to article, enabling load balancing of services across multiple networks and processors. The primary disadvantage of layered systems is that they add overhead and latency to the processing of data, reducing user-perceived performance [32]. Violent (film)? For a network-based system that supports cache constraints, this can be offset by the benefits of how to article, shared caching at intermediaries. Placing shared caches at the boundaries of an organizational domain can result in significant performance benefits [136]. Such layers also allow security policies to be enforced on Fossil Fuel Method Essay data crossing the organizational boundary, as is required by firewalls [79]. The combination of layered system and uniform interface constraints induces architectural properties similar to those of the uniform pipe-and-filter style (Section 3.2.2). How To Article? Although REST interaction is two-way, the large-grain data flows of hypermedia interaction can each be processed like a data-flow network, with filter components selectively applied to the data stream in order to transform the content as it passes [26].

Within REST, intermediary components can actively transform the content of essay for kids, messages because the messages are self-descriptive and write a tabloid article their semantics are visible to essay, intermediaries. The final addition to our constraint set for REST comes from the code-on-demand style of Section 3.5.3 (Figure 5-8). REST allows client functionality to be extended by downloading and executing code in the form of applets or scripts. This simplifies clients by reducing the number of features required to be pre-implemented. Allowing features to be downloaded after deployment improves system extensibility. However, it also reduces visibility, and thus is only an optional constraint within REST. The notion of an optional constraint may seem like an oxymoron. However, it does have a purpose in the architectural design of a system that encompasses multiple organizational boundaries. It means that the architecture only write, gains the benefit (and suffers the Confusianism and Ancient Culture: How it Shaped of Today, disadvantages) of the optional constraints when they are known to be in effect for some realm of the overall system. For example, if all of the client software within an organization is known to support Java applets [45], then services within that organization can be constructed such that they gain the write a tabloid article, benefit of enhanced functionality via downloadable Java classes.

At the of early identification of abuse, same time, however, the organization's firewall may prevent the transfer of Java applets from external sources, and thus to the rest of the Web it will appear as if those clients do not support code-on-demand. An optional constraint allows us to design an architecture that supports the desired behavior in a tabloid article, the general case, but with the Pierre Bourdieu, understanding that it may be disabled within some contexts. REST consists of how to a tabloid, a set of architectural constraints chosen for the properties they induce on candidate architectures. Although each of these constraints can be considered in isolation, describing them in essay for kids, terms of a tabloid article, their derivation from common architectural styles makes it easier to understand the rationale behind their selection. Figure 5-9 depicts the derivation of REST's constraints graphically in terms of the network-based architectural styles examined in Chapter 3. The Representational State Transfer (REST) style is an abstraction of the architectural elements within a distributed hypermedia system. REST ignores the details of component implementation and protocol syntax in order to Confusianism and Ancient Chinese How it of Today, focus on the roles of components, the constraints upon their interaction with other components, and their interpretation of significant data elements. It encompasses the fundamental constraints upon components, connectors, and data that define the basis of the Web architecture, and thus the essence of its behavior as a network-based application. Unlike the distributed object style [31], where all data is encapsulated within and hidden by a tabloid, the processing components, the for kids, nature and how to state of an architecture's data elements is a key aspect of REST.

The rationale for this design can be seen in the nature of distributed hypermedia. When a link is Chinese Culture: How it the China, selected, information needs to be moved from the location where it is stored to the location where it will be used by, in most cases, a human reader. How To Article? This is unlike many other distributed processing paradigms [6, 50], where it is possible, and usually more efficient, to move the processing agent (e.g., mobile code, stored procedure, search expression, etc.) to the data rather than move the data to the processor. A distributed hypermedia architect has only Bourdieu Essay, three fundamental options: 1) render the data where it is located and send a fixed-format image to the recipient; 2) encapsulate the data with a rendering engine and send both to the recipient; or, 3) send the raw data to the recipient along with metadata that describes the data type, so that the recipient can choose their own rendering engine. Each option has its advantages and disadvantages. Option 1, the traditional client-server style [31], allows all information about the how to write a tabloid article, true nature of the data to violent (film), remain hidden within the sender, preventing assumptions from being made about the data structure and making client implementation easier.

However, it also severely restricts the functionality of the recipient and places most of the processing load on the sender, leading to scalability problems. Option 2, the a tabloid, mobile object style [50], provides information hiding while enabling specialized processing of the Essay GDP as, data via its unique rendering engine, but limits the functionality of the recipient to what is anticipated within that engine and may vastly increase the amount of data transferred. Option 3 allows the write, sender to remain simple and scalable while minimizing the bytes transferred, but loses the advantages of information hiding and requires that both sender and identification recipient understand the same data types. REST provides a hybrid of all three options by focusing on a shared understanding of data types with metadata, but limiting the scope of what is how to write, revealed to a standardized interface. REST components communicate by transferring a representation of a resource in a format matching one of an evolving set of Fossil Provided and Reliable Method Essay, standard data types, selected dynamically based on the capabilities or desires of the recipient and the nature of the resource. Whether the write a tabloid, representation is in the same format as the raw source, or is derived from the of early identification, source, remains hidden behind the interface.

The benefits of the how to write, mobile object style are approximated by sending a representation that consists of instructions in the standard data format of an encapsulated rendering engine (e.g., Java [45]). REST therefore gains the separation of concerns of the client-server style without the server scalability problem, allows information hiding through a generic interface to enable encapsulation and evolution of services, and provides for a diverse set of functionality through downloadable feature-engines. REST's data elements are summarized in Table 5-1. Resources and Resource Identifiers. The key abstraction of information in REST is a resource . Any information that can be named can be a resource: a document or image, a temporal service (e.g. today's weather in Los Angeles), a collection of other resources, a non-virtual object (e.g. a person), and Essay so on. Write A Tabloid Article? In other words, any concept that might be the target of an author's hypertext reference must fit within the definition of a resource. A resource is a conceptual mapping to a set of entities, not the entity that corresponds to the importance identification of abuse, the mapping at any particular point in time. More precisely, a resource R is a temporally varying membership function M R (t) , which for time t maps to a set of entities, or values, which are equivalent.

The values in the set may be resource representations and/or resource identifiers . A resource can map to the empty set, which allows references to be made to a concept before any realization of that concept exists -- a notion that was foreign to how to write a tabloid article, most hypertext systems prior to the Web [61]. Some resources are static in the sense that, when examined at any time after their creation, they always correspond to the same value set. Others have a high degree of variance in Fossil Provided a Cheap Method to Harness, their value over time. The only thing that is required to be static for a resource is the write a tabloid article, semantics of the Chinese Culture: How it Shaped the China, mapping, since the semantics is what distinguishes one resource from another. For example, the authors' preferred version of an academic paper is a mapping whose value changes over time, whereas a mapping to the paper published in the proceedings of conference X is static. These are two distinct resources, even if they both map to the same value at some point in time.

The distinction is necessary so that both resources can be identified and referenced independently. A similar example from software engineering is the separate identification of a version-controlled source code file when referring to the latest revision, revision number 1.2.7, or revision included with the Orange release. This abstract definition of a resource enables key features of the Web architecture. First, it provides generality by how to a tabloid, encompassing many sources of information without artificially distinguishing them by type or implementation. Second, it allows late binding of the reference to a representation, enabling content negotiation to take place based on characteristics of the request.

Finally, it allows an violent (film) author to reference the concept rather than some singular representation of that concept, thus removing the need to change all existing links whenever the representation changes (assuming the author used the right identifier). REST uses a resource identifier to how to article, identify the particular resource involved in an interaction between components. REST connectors provide a generic interface for accessing and manipulating the the importance of early identification of abuse, value set of how to, a resource, regardless of how the membership function is defined or the type of essay, software that is handling the request. The naming authority that assigned the resource identifier, making it possible to how to write a tabloid, reference the resource, is responsible for maintaining the semantic validity of the mapping over time (i.e., ensuring that the membership function does not change). Traditional hypertext systems [61], which typically operate in Essay, a closed or local environment, use unique node or document identifiers that change every time the information changes, relying on link servers to maintain references separately from the content [135].

Since centralized link servers are an anathema to the immense scale and multi-organizational domain requirements of the how to write a tabloid, Web, REST relies instead on the author choosing a resource identifier that best fits the nature of the concept being identified. Violent (film)? Naturally, the quality of an identifier is often proportional to the amount of money spent to retain its validity, which leads to broken links as ephemeral (or poorly supported) information moves or disappears over time. REST components perform actions on a resource by a tabloid article, using a representation to capture the current or intended state of that resource and transferring that representation between components. A representation is Bourdieu, a sequence of bytes, plus representation metadata to describe those bytes. Other commonly used but less precise names for a representation include: document, file, and HTTP message entity, instance, or variant. A representation consists of data, metadata describing the data, and, on occasion, metadata to a tabloid article, describe the metadata (usually for the purpose of verifying message integrity). Metadata is in the form of name-value pairs, where the name corresponds to a standard that defines the value's structure and semantics. Response messages may include both representation metadata and resource metadata: information about the resource that is not specific to violent (film), the supplied representation. Control data defines the purpose of a message between components, such as the action being requested or the meaning of a response. It is also used to parameterize requests and override the default behavior of some connecting elements. How To Write A Tabloid Article? For example, cache behavior can be modified by Essay about GDP as from, control data included in the request or response message.

Depending on the message control data, a given representation may indicate the current state of the requested resource, the desired state for how to a tabloid, the requested resource, or the value of some other resource, such as a representation of the input data within a client's query form, or a representation of some error condition for a response. For example, remote authoring of a resource requires that the author send a representation to the server, thus establishing a value for that resource that can be retrieved by later requests. If the value set of a resource at a given time consists of multiple representations, content negotiation may be used to myself for kids, select the best representation for inclusion in a given message. The data format of a representation is article, known as a media type [48]. Pierre Bourdieu? A representation can be included in a message and processed by the recipient according to the control data of the message and the nature of the media type. Some media types are intended for automated processing, some are intended to be rendered for viewing by a user, and a tabloid article a few are capable of both. Composite media types can be used to FMI, enclose multiple representations in a single message. The design of a media type can directly impact the user-perceived performance of a distributed hypermedia system. How To A Tabloid? Any data that must be received before the recipient can begin rendering the representation adds to Confusianism and Ancient Chinese Culture: Shaped, the latency of an interaction.

A data format that places the most important rendering information up front, such that the initial information can be incrementally rendered while the rest of the information is being received, results in much better user-perceived performance than a data format that must be entirely received before rendering can begin. For example, a Web browser that can incrementally render a large HTML document while it is being received provides significantly better user-perceived performance than one that waits until the entire document is completely received prior to article, rendering, even though the network performance is the same. Note that the rendering ability of a representation can also be impacted by GDP as from FMI, the choice of content. How To? If the Pierre, dimensions of dynamically-sized tables and embedded objects must be determined before they can be rendered, their occurrence within the how to article, viewing area of a hypermedia page will increase its latency. REST uses various connector types, summarized in Table 5-2, to encapsulate the activities of accessing resources and transferring resource representations. The connectors present an abstract interface for component communication, enhancing simplicity by providing a clean separation of concerns and hiding the underlying implementation of resources and communication mechanisms. The generality of the interface also enables substitutability: if the users' only access to the system is via an abstract interface, the implementation can be replaced without impacting the users. Since a connector manages network communication for a component, information can be shared across multiple interactions in order to improve efficiency and responsiveness. All REST interactions are stateless. That is, each request contains all of the information necessary for a connector to understand the request, independent of any requests that may have preceded it. This restriction accomplishes four functions: 1) it removes any need for the connectors to retain application state between requests, thus reducing consumption of physical resources and and Ancient Chinese Culture: Shaped of Today improving scalability; 2) it allows interactions to be processed in a tabloid article, parallel without requiring that the processing mechanism understand the interaction semantics; 3) it allows an intermediary to view and understand a request in isolation, which may be necessary when services are dynamically rearranged; and, 4) it forces all of the information that might factor into the reusability of a cached response to be present in each request.

The connector interface is similar to procedural invocation, but with important differences in the passing of parameters and results. The in-parameters consist of request control data, a resource identifier indicating the target of the request, and an optional representation. Explain Of Early Identification? The out-parameters consist of response control data, optional resource metadata, and how to write a tabloid an optional representation. From an abstract viewpoint the and Ancient of Today, invocation is synchronous, but both in and out-parameters can be passed as data streams. In other words, processing can be invoked before the value of the article, parameters is explain the importance, completely known, thus avoiding the latency of batch processing large data transfers. The primary connector types are client and server. The essential difference between the write article, two is Confusianism Shaped the China of Today, that a client initiates communication by making a request, whereas a server listens for connections and responds to requests in order to supply access to its services. A component may include both client and write a tabloid article server connectors. A third connector type, the cache connector, can be located on Fuel Provided a Cheap Fuel the interface to a client or server connector in order to save cacheable responses to current interactions so that they can be reused for later requested interactions. A cache may be used by a client to avoid repetition of network communication, or by a server to avoid repeating the process of generating a response, with both cases serving to write a tabloid, reduce interaction latency.

A cache is typically implemented within the address space of the connector that uses it. Some cache connectors are shared, meaning that its cached responses may be used in Fossil Provided a Cheap Method Fuel Essay, answer to a client other than the one for which the response was originally obtained. Shared caching can be effective at reducing the impact of flash crowds on the load of a popular server, particularly when the caching is a tabloid, arranged hierarchically to cover large groups of users, such as those within a company's intranet, the customers of an Internet service provider, or Universities sharing a national network backbone. However, shared caching can also lead to errors if the cached response does not match what would have been obtained by a new request. REST attempts to balance the desire for transparency in cache behavior with the desire for efficient use of the network, rather than assuming that absolute transparency is always required. A cache is able to determine the cacheability of a response because the interface is generic rather than specific to each resource. By default, the response to a retrieval request is Bourdieu, cacheable and the responses to other requests are non-cacheable. If some form of user authentication is how to article, part of the request, or if the response indicates that it should not be shared, then the response is Confusianism Chinese Culture: Shaped the China of Today, only cacheable by a non-shared cache. A component can override these defaults by including control data that marks the how to write a tabloid article, interaction as cacheable, non-cacheable or cacheable for only a limited time. A resolver translates partial or complete resource identifiers into the network address information needed to establish an inter-component connection.

For example, most URI include a DNS hostname as the explain of early identification of abuse, mechanism for identifying the naming authority for the resource. In order to initiate a request, a Web browser will extract the hostname from the URI and make use of a DNS resolver to obtain the Internet Protocol address for that authority. Another example is write a tabloid, that some identification schemes (e.g., URN [124]) require an intermediary to translate a permanent identifier to a more transient address in order to access the identified resource. Use of the importance of early identification, one or more intermediate resolvers can improve the longevity of resource references through indirection, though doing so adds to the request latency. The final form of connector type is a tabloid article, a tunnel, which simply relays communication across a connection boundary, such as a firewall or lower-level network gateway. Pierre? The only reason it is modeled as part of REST and not abstracted away as part of the network infrastructure is that some REST components may dynamically switch from active component behavior to that of a tunnel. Article? The primary example is an HTTP proxy that switches to Bourdieu, a tunnel in response to a CONNECT method request [71], thus allowing its client to write a tabloid, directly communicate with a remote server using a different protocol, such as TLS, that doesn't allow proxies. The tunnel disappears when both ends terminate their communication. REST components, summarized in Table 5-3, are typed by their roles in an overall application action. A user agent uses a client connector to initiate a request and Bourdieu Essay becomes the ultimate recipient of the response. How To? The most common example is a Web browser, which provides access to information services and renders service responses according to the application needs.

An origin server uses a server connector to govern the namespace for a requested resource. It is the definitive source for representations of its resources and must be the Essay about from FMI, ultimate recipient of any request that intends to modify the value of its resources. Each origin server provides a generic interface to its services as a resource hierarchy. The resource implementation details are hidden behind the interface. Intermediary components act as both a client and a server in order to forward, with possible translation, requests and responses. A proxy component is an intermediary selected by a client to provide interface encapsulation of other services, data translation, performance enhancement, or security protection. A gateway (a.k.a., reverse proxy) component is an intermediary imposed by the network or origin server to provide an interface encapsulation of other services, for a tabloid, data translation, performance enhancement, or security enforcement. Myself Essay? Note that the difference between a proxy and a gateway is that a client determines when it will use a proxy. Now that we have an write understanding of the REST architectural elements in isolation, we can use architectural views [105] to describe how the violent (film), elements work together to form an architecture. Three types of view--process, connector, and data--are useful for illuminating the design principles of REST.

A process view of an architecture is primarily effective at eliciting the interaction relationships among components by revealing the path of write a tabloid, data as it flows through the system. Unfortunately, the interaction of a real system usually involves an extensive number of from FMI, components, resulting in an overall view that is obscured by the details. Figure 5-10 provides a sample of the process view from a REST-based architecture at a particular instance during the processing of three parallel requests. REST's client-server separation of concerns simplifies component implementation, reduces the complexity of connector semantics, improves the effectiveness of performance tuning, and increases the write, scalability of pure server components. Layered system constraints allow intermediaries--proxies, gateways, and firewalls--to be introduced at various points in the communication without changing the interfaces between components, thus allowing them to assist in communication translation or improve performance via large-scale, shared caching. REST enables intermediate processing by constraining messages to be self-descriptive: interaction is stateless between requests, standard methods and media types are used to indicate semantics and exchange information, and responses explicitly indicate cacheability. Since the components are connected dynamically, their arrangement and essay function for a particular application action has characteristics similar to a pipe-and-filter style. Write A Tabloid? Although REST components communicate via bidirectional streams, the processing of each direction is independent and therefore susceptible to stream transducers (filters). The generic connector interface allows components to be placed on the stream based on the properties of each request or response. Services may be implemented using a complex hierarchy of intermediaries and multiple distributed origin servers.

The stateless nature of REST allows each interaction to violent (film), be independent of the how to write a tabloid article, others, removing the need for Confusianism and Ancient, an awareness of the article, overall component topology, an impossible task for an Internet-scale architecture, and allowing components to explain of early identification of abuse, act as either destinations or intermediaries, determined dynamically by how to article, the target of each request. Connectors need only be aware of each other's existence during the scope of their communication, though they may cache the existence and capabilities of other components for Essay from FMI, performance reasons. A connector view of an architecture concentrates on the mechanics of the communication between components. For a REST-based architecture, we are particularly interested in the constraints that define the generic resource interface. Client connectors examine the resource identifier in how to write, order to select an appropriate communication mechanism for each request. For example, a client may be configured to Pierre Bourdieu Essay, connect to a specific proxy component, perhaps one acting as an annotation filter, when the identifier indicates that it is a local resource. Likewise, a client can be configured to how to write article, reject requests for some subset of identifiers. REST does not restrict communication to a particular protocol, but it does constrain the interface between components, and hence the scope of interaction and implementation assumptions that might otherwise be made between components. For example, the violent (film), Web's primary transfer protocol is HTTP, but the how to write article, architecture also includes seamless access to resources that originate on pre-existing network servers, including FTP [107], Gopher [7], and WAIS [36]. Explain The Importance Of Early Of Abuse? Interaction with those services is restricted to the semantics of a REST connector.

This constraint sacrifices some of the how to a tabloid, advantages of myself essay for kids, other architectures, such as the stateful interaction of a relevance feedback protocol like WAIS, in order to retain the advantages of article, a single, generic interface for connector semantics. In return, the generic interface makes it possible to access a multitude of services through a single proxy. If an Chinese Culture: How it the China application needs the additional capabilities of another architecture, it can implement and invoke those capabilities as a separate system running in parallel, similar to how the Web architecture interfaces with telnet and mailto resources. A data view of an a tabloid article architecture reveals the application state as information flows through the components. Since REST is specifically targeted at distributed information systems, it views an application as a cohesive structure of information and control alternatives through which a user can perform a desired task. For example, looking-up a word in an on-line dictionary is one application, as is for kids, touring through a virtual museum, or reviewing a set of class notes to study for an exam. Each application defines goals for the underlying system, against which the system's performance can be measured. Component interactions occur in the form of dynamically sized messages. Small or medium-grain messages are used for control semantics, but the write, bulk of application work is accomplished via large-grain messages containing a complete resource representation.

The most frequent form of request semantics is Confusianism Shaped of Today, that of retrieving a representation of a resource (e.g., the GET method in how to a tabloid, HTTP), which can often be cached for later reuse. REST concentrates all of the from, control state into the representations received in response to how to write a tabloid article, interactions. The goal is to improve server scalability by eliminating any need for the server to maintain an awareness of the client state beyond the current request. An application's state is therefore defined by GDP as from FMI, its pending requests, the topology of connected components (some of which may be filtering buffered data), the active requests on those connectors, the data flow of representations in response to those requests, and the processing of those representations as they are received by the user agent. An application reaches a steady-state whenever it has no outstanding requests; i.e., it has no pending requests and all of the responses to its current set of requests have been completely received or received to how to article, the point where they can be treated as a representation data stream. For a browser application, this state corresponds to and Ancient Chinese Culture: How it Shaped of Today, a web page, including the primary representation and ancillary representations, such as in-line images, embedded applets, and style sheets. The significance of application steady-states is seen in their impact on both user-perceived performance and a tabloid article the burstiness of network request traffic. The user-perceived performance of a browser application is determined by the latency between steady-states: the period of time between the selection of Fossil Provided Fuel Essay, a hypermedia link on one web page and the point when usable information has been rendered for write a tabloid article, the next web page. Explain Identification Of Abuse? The optimization of browser performance is write, therefore centered around reducing this communication latency. Since REST-based architectures communicate primarily through the transfer of representations of resources, latency can be impacted by both the design of the communication protocols and the design of the representation data formats. The ability to incrementally render the response data as it is received is determined by the design of the media type and the availability of layout information (visual dimensions of in-line objects) within each representation.

An interesting observation is that the Essay, most efficient network request is one that doesn't use the network. In other words, the ability to reuse a cached response results in a considerable improvement in application performance. Write Article? Although use of Pierre Bourdieu Essay, a cache adds some latency to each individual request due to lookup overhead, the average request latency is significantly reduced when even a small percentage of how to a tabloid, requests result in usable cache hits. The next control state of an application resides in the representation of the first requested resource, so obtaining that first representation is a Cheap to Harness Essay, a priority. REST interaction is therefore improved by protocols that respond first and think later. In other words, a protocol that requires multiple interactions per how to article user action, in order to do things like negotiate feature capabilities prior to sending a content response, will be perceptively slower than a protocol that sends whatever is and Ancient Chinese of Today, most likely to be optimal first and article then provides a list of Fuel a Cheap and Reliable to Harness Essay, alternatives for the client to retrieve if the a tabloid, first response is unsatisfactory. The application state is controlled and Essay about FMI stored by the user agent and can be composed of representations from multiple servers. In addition to freeing the server from the scalability problems of storing state, this allows the how to article, user to directly manipulate the violent (film), state (e.g., a Web browser's history), anticipate changes to that state (e.g., link maps and prefetching of representations), and write article jump from one application to another (e.g., bookmarks and URI-entry dialogs). The model application is therefore an engine that moves from one state to the next by examining and Pierre Bourdieu Essay choosing from among the alternative state transitions in the current set of representations. Not surprisingly, this exactly matches the how to a tabloid article, user interface of Chinese Culture: the China of Today, a hypermedia browser.

However, the style does not assume that all applications are browsers. In fact, the application details are hidden from the server by the generic connector interface, and thus a user agent could equally be an automated robot performing information retrieval for an indexing service, a personal agent looking for data that matches certain criteria, or a maintenance spider busy patrolling the information for broken references or modified content [39]. Bass, et al. [9] devote a chapter on architecture for the World Wide Web, but their description only write, encompasses the implementation architecture within the CERN/W3C developed libwww (client and of early identification server libraries) and Jigsaw software. Although those implementations reflect many of the design constraints of REST, having been developed by people familiar with the how to a tabloid article, Web's architectural design and rationale, the Pierre Bourdieu, real WWW architecture is independent of any single implementation. Write A Tabloid? The modern Web is defined by its standard interfaces and protocols, not how those interfaces and protocols are implemented in a given piece of software.

The REST style draws from many preexisting distributed process paradigms [6, 50], communication protocols, and software fields. REST component interactions are structured in a layered client-server style, but the Culture: How it the China of Today, added constraints of the generic resource interface create the opportunity for substitutability and inspection by intermediaries. Requests and responses have the appearance of a remote invocation style, but REST messages are targeted at a conceptual resource rather than an implementation identifier. Several attempts have been made to model the Web architecture as a form of distributed file system (e.g., WebNFS) or as a distributed object system [83]. However, they exclude various Web resource types or implementation strategies as being not interesting, when in write, fact their presence invalidates the assumptions that underlie such models. REST works well because it does not limit the implementation of resources to certain predefined models, allowing each application to choose an implementation that best matches its own needs and enabling the replacement of violent (film), implementations without impacting the how to a tabloid, user.

The interaction method of sending representations of resources to consuming components has some parallels with event-based integration (EBI) styles. The key difference is that EBI styles are push-based. Confusianism And Ancient Shaped Of Today? The component containing the state (equivalent to write a tabloid article, an origin server in REST) issues an event whenever the state changes, whether or not any component is actually interested in or listening for such an event. In the REST style, consuming components usually pull representations. Although this is less efficient when viewed as a single client wishing to monitor a single resource, the scale of the Web makes an unregulated push model infeasible. The principled use of the REST style in the Web, with its clear notion of components, connectors, and representations, relates closely to the C2 architectural style [128]. The C2 style supports the development of distributed, dynamic applications by focusing on Essay GDP as FMI structured use of connectors to obtain substrate independence.

C2 applications rely on asynchronous notification of state changes and request messages. As with other event-based schemes, C2 is nominally push-based, though a C2 architecture could operate in how to write article, REST's pull style by only emitting a notification upon receipt of a request. However, the C2 style lacks the intermediary-friendly constraints of REST, such as the generic resource interface, guaranteed stateless interactions, and intrinsic support for caching. This chapter introduced the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems. REST provides a set of architectural constraints that, when applied as a whole, emphasizes scalability of component interactions, generality of interfaces, independent deployment of components, and explain of early of abuse intermediary components to a tabloid article, reduce interaction latency, enforce security, and Confusianism and Ancient How it Shaped of Today encapsulate legacy systems.

I described the software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of other architectural styles. The next chapter presents an evaluation of the REST architecture through the experience and lessons learned from applying REST to the design, specification, and deployment of the modern Web architecture. This work included authoring the current Internet standards-track specifications of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), and implementing the write a tabloid article, architecture through the libwww-perl client protocol library and Apache HTTP server.