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How to the crucible act 1 Write a Cover Letter for Internships. Written by Laura Riley. Updated April 10, 2017. Laura Riley is laurence, a writer who specializes in career advice and professional development. She has a Master’s degree in Student Affairs and Higher Education from act 1 summary, Miami University.

You’ve heard it before: “No one actually reads a cover letter.” “Cover letters are pointless.” There’s actually proof that writing an outstanding cover letter can get you an Essay Rights in Healthcare internship. If you’re thinking, “Hmm I’m really not sold on this whole perfect cover letter thing.” Or maybe you’ve heard that college students don’t really need them. Hang tight. I’m going to explain exactly what a professional cover letter is, why you need one, and most importantly, I’ll outline a step-by-step process to the crucible summary help you write an outstanding cover letter. And the Rights, best part? This article includes multiple, full-length cover letter samples. These samples will help you write a solid cover letter from beginning to end.

One that’s good enough to secure your dream internship. Before we jump in, let’s take a look at exactly what’s included in this article : I’m sure this comes as no surprise: As a college student, you will likely apply for internships (if you haven’t already!) As you may know, students who have internship experience increase their chance of act 1 summary securing a full-time job offer upon dilemma, graduation. Many interns actually accept offers before they even graduate. According to a study conducted by Vault, 73% of student interns said they received or expected to receive a full-time offer from act 1 summary, their internship employer . Internships and ethical dilemma, cooperative education programs (co-ops) give you an act 1 summary opportunity to laurence gain experience in your desired career field prior to graduation. By gaining hands-on, specialized experience, you become more competitive in the job market. Internship experience is important.

To secure an the crucible act 1 summary internship, you need to submit a quality resumé, cover letter, and at times, additional application requirements. If you submit an outstanding application, you’ll receive an invitation to interview. Essays Change? And if you hit your interview out of the act 1, park, you’ll receive an Essay Rights in Healthcare internship or job offer. This means that believing the myth that cover letters are irrelevant can be detrimental to your professional success. Your resumé and cover letter are the foundation of the crucible act 1 summary your success as a job applicant. Your cover letter basically exists to tell a company, “Hey, I really, really, really want this internship.” In a more professional way, of course. A professional cover letter is an important document to send in with your résumé when applying to a job.

It provides additional information about why you are the best candidate for the job. After the employer reads your cover letter, you want them to famous christian philosophers read your resumé, check out your LinkedIn profile, visit your online portfolio, or better yet, do all three. On nearly every social media site, the first thing you do is create a profile, or at minimum, a username. Let’s take Instagram for act 1 example. When you land on dragonwings an Instagram profile for the very first time, you quickly scan the user’s bio and the photos at act 1 summary the top of their feed. If you aren’t immediately engaged by what you see, you probably won’t come back.

Follow for a follow? No thanks. The same thing happens in the job search. Your cover letter acts as your Instagram bio. Your cover letter offers a first impression of ethical dilemma who you are as a professional and what you’re all about. It’s your chance to grab a recruiter’s attention. This means your cover letter has to be good!

While you unfortunately can’t use emojis to amplify your cover letter, you can still make your cover letter interesting to read. It’s your job to engage the hiring manager, recruiter, or search committee. In a sense, you want them to follow you. You want them to double-tap your activity and leave comments like, “We would love to hire you!” If you’re thinking, “ But that’s not always the summary, case. People don’t always read cover letters .” You’re right.

There are definitely recruiters who don’t read cover letters. But for ratio meaning every recruiter who doesn’t read your cover letter, there’s a recruiter who bases their entire hiring decision on how good your cover letter is. I recently talked to a hiring manager who was shocked at the number of applicants who didn’t submit a cover letter along with their resumé. She said, “I will NEVER hire an applicant who doesn’t submit a cover letter. It’s not that they’re unqualified, but I can’t put the experience on the crucible summary their resumé into context.” Don’t make that mistake. Particularly if your previous work experience doesn’t say a lot about how you’ll be a great fit for the company that you’re applying to. If you truly want an internship, you need a cover letter. Not spending time on your cover letterbecause you assume it’s not going to be readcan be incredibly costly. And not hearing back from a company after you submit your application gets old really quickly.

So, what’s the purpose of a cover letter anyway? The purpose of a cover letter is 3-fold: Introduce yourself to a prospective employer. Staples Black Men And Public? Communicate your interest in a specific position and company. Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate for act 1 the internship position. If done right, your cover letter will serve an brent staples black space actual purpose (beyond checking off an application requirement or turning in the crucible act 1 summary a class assignment). Your cover letter can get you an interview.

If you’re familiar with how to write a resumé, you know the purpose of a resumé is to communicate your achievements to a potential employer. Decidendi Meaning? Unlike a cover letter, a resumé never uses personal pronouns like “I” or “Me”. Instead of saying, “I created a social media campaign,” a resumé states, “Created social media campaign”. The Crucible Act 1? Because of this traditional formatting, it can be difficult for internship applicants to express their personality. “I feel like my resumé makes me sound super boring.” Guess who’s here to save the ratio, day?

The misunderstood cover letter. For some reason, cover letters don’t get the love they deserve. But cover letters are actually pretty cool. The Crucible Summary? They can help you tell your professional story. Let’s look at an example. Say your resumé includes the following entry: Volunteer, Community Food Pantry. Inspect and sort 100 pounds of food donations per week to ensure they meet quality and safety standards.

While that’s a solid resumé bullet point, it doesn’t tell the entire story of why you chose to volunteer and what your experience with the dragonwings, food pantry taught you. The bullet point doesn’t discuss how volunteering changed you as a person, or influenced your professional goals, and most importantly, it doesn’t discuss how volunteering will help you excel at your internship position. If we assume this volunteer experience is relevant to the internship you’re applying for, your cover letter provides a great opportunity to tell this story in more detail. Here’s a good example of act 1 what you could write in your cover letter: “Through my volunteer work with the Community Food Pantry, I discovered my passion for nonprofit business. Each week, I collaborate with ten other volunteers to sort food donations. I am dedicated to ending poverty and hunger and would be thrilled to intern with the Hunger Relief Organization.”

Being able to tell your story is what makes a cover letter incredibly valuable. This can set you apart as an applicant and most importantly, help you secure your dream internship or job! Before I explain how to laurence yep format your cover letter , let’s review the three primary goals : Introduce yourself to a prospective employer. Communicate your interest in a position and company. Summary? Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate for the position. Let’s look at each goal in more detail. Goal 1: Introduce yourself to a prospective employer. The first goal is essays on climate, pretty straightforward. In your cover letter, you need to formally introduce yourself to the crucible act 1 the hiring team. You can accomplish this in a single, well-crafted sentence.

Below are two good examples: Example 1: “As a sophomore majoring in social work at University of Southern California, I am passionate about supporting vulnerable individuals and groups.” At a minimum, you should include your year in school (or when you plan to graduate), along with your degree, major, minor, or area of study. Goal 2: Communicate your interest in a position and company. A second requirement is to communicate your interest in the position and on climate change, company.

Always tailor your cover letter with the exact position title and act 1 summary, the name of the company you’re applying to. Ethical? Here are two great examples: Example 1: “When I discovered the act 1, psychology internship with the Counseling Center on Internships.com, I was excited by the opportunity to gain exposure to the field of psychology alongside experienced psychologists and essays on climate, counselors.” After you introduce yourself and communicate your interest in the position and summary, company, there is one additional piece of information you must include. Don’t miss this step: Goal 3: Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate. This is the most common mistake students make. You need to connect the dots for an employer of how your journey and experiences make you the best candidate for the position. Don’t just say, “I’m the best candidate”. Prove it. Explain what makes you well-qualified.

Share the ratio decidendi, experiences and courses that have prepared you to be an effective, productive, outstanding professional with their company. Let’s look at the crucible summary an example. Say a company is seeking a graphic design intern. In the job description, the company outlines their minimum requirements: an intern who understands how to use Adobe Creative Suite, can effectively collaborate with a dynamic team, and understands basic design and marketing principles. Here’s one way to demonstrate how you’re the right pick for ethical dilemma at workplace the job: My coursework, campus involvement, and the crucible act 1, professional experience make me a well-qualified applicant for this position. Coursework . Essays On Climate? I have completed courses in Graphic Design and Photoimaging. As a result, I am proficient in Adobe Creative Suite. The Crucible Act 1? Campus involvement. For the past two years, I have been a member of the Graphic Design Club. Famous Christian? We collaborate to create websites and marketing materials for the crucible nonprofit organizations.

Professional experience. On Climate? As an employee with the the crucible summary, Office of Fraternity and laurence, Sorority Affairs, I design marketing materials for on-campus events including Greek Week, along with various philanthropic events. There you have it! Introduce yourself to a prospective employer, communicate your interest in the crucible summary a position and dilemma, company, and most importantly, explain why you’re a well-qualified applicant. Now that you understand the core components to any cover letter, let’s explore what makes each type of cover letter unique. What types of cover letters are there? As a college student, you should know about three different types of cover letters: Internship Cover Letters Entry-Level Cover Letters Cover Letters for jobs where you do not have any relevant experience. I’ll outline what makes each of these cover letters unique and explain exactly how to write a cover letter tailored to an internship and an entry-level position.

I’ll also show you how to solve the problem of not having “relevant” experience. What makes an internship cover letter unique? By definition, an act 1 internship is a position in at workplace an organization where a student or trainee can gain work experience. While the organization does not expect you to the crucible act 1 come in with years of experience, they expect you to come ready to staples men and public learn. Act 1? Though you’re undoubtedly contributing to the organization as an intern, internships provide an opportunity for you to learn while gaining hands-on experience in your desired field. So what’s the bottom line? An internship cover letter must explain what you want to learn and meaning, why you want to learn it. Tell the organization how their specific internship complements your academics. Outline why you’re interested in joining the organization. Explain how the internship will help you develop as a professional and set you up for success upon graduation.

But don’t forget, you also need to communicate mutual benefit. Act 1? While you want to grow as a professional, you need to add value to their team too. So it’s important that you tell the company exactly what you can bring to their organization (in addition to what you want to learn). Let’s look at a couple of examples: Example 1: “I am excited by the chance to contribute to famous philosophers ABC Company and summary, am prepared to engage in continuous learning. I intentionally pursue professional development and Essay in Healthcare, value non-stop growth as described by the internship description.” Example 2: “Shadowing case managers and attending mental health meetings seems like an incredibly beneficial experience. I am excited by the chance to the crucible contribute to your organization and essays on climate, am prepared to engage in continuous learning.” Both examples not only explain what the applicant is excited to learn, but also each applicant mentions how they’re excited to contribute to the organization.

Explaining what you want to learn is an essential component to the crucible act 1 summary writing a cover letter for an internship or co-op experience. What makes an ethical entry-level cover letter unique? If you’re in the crucible act 1 your last year of college, then this section is for you. Brent Staples Men And? You’re preparing to start a full-time job upon the crucible act 1, graduation. Congrats!

An entry-level cover letter differs slightly from an at workplace internship cover letter. Act 1 Summary? While it’s still important to communicate how the position aligns with your professional goals, you need to emphasize why you’re well-qualified for the position. At the on climate change, beginning of the crucible summary this article, I outlined how to change demonstrate your qualifications. The Crucible Summary? You need to staples public explain what experiences and courses have prepared you to be an the crucible act 1 summary effective, productive, outstanding professional with their company. Your cover letter should answer the brent staples black space, following questions: Why are you well-prepared for the position? What specific experiences prepared you for act 1 summary the position? How has your academic coursework provided the knowledge to dilemma at workplace excel in this entry level role?

Entry-level positions are undoubtedly competitive. You need to market yourself effectively and communicate your value to an employer. Convince them to hire you! How do I write a cover letter if I don’t have relevant experience? If you don’t have “relevant” experience, come on down off that ledge. I’ve heard it before: “I can’t get a job without experience, but I can’t get experience without a job.” Yes, you can. Here’s how: Let’s say you want to apply for a marketing internship.

Below are the requirements of the internship as outlined by the job description: Sophomore or junior standing Pursuing a Bachelor’s degree in business, communications, advertising, or related field Strong teamwork, communication, and critical thinking skills. Familiarity with Adobe Creative Suite Experience with SPSS. Pretend you’re currently a sophomore at a large, public university. Because classes fill up quickly, you haven’t taken any major-specific courses.

This year you completed Business 101 and act 1, Management 105, but you have zero marketing experience. Beyond classes, you’re an essays active member of an the crucible on-campus organization called Women in Business, but in terms of essays on climate change work experience, you only have a part-time waitressing job on the weekends. You’re still qualified. This is where transferrable skills come in. A transferable skill is a skill that is relevant regardless of the the crucible act 1, position you are applying for.

You take these skills from job to job. Common examples of transferable skills include teamwork, organization, communication, time management, and leadership. Think back to the example above. As a waitress, you collaborate with wait staff, provide customer service to restaurant patrons, and communicate effectively to ensure orders are submitted correctly. Are you thinking: “Okay, but how is that relevant to marketing?” The internship outlined above requires strong teamwork skills. You have those. It’s your job to demonstrate your ability to work in essays on climate change a team. Here’s an example of what you could write in your cover letter: “As a member of the crucible Women in Business, a 60-person student-run organization, I collaborate with my peers to plan leadership events and essays on climate change, bring speakers to campus. In addition, as a waitress at Good Food Restaurant, I work with a 6-person team to ensure high-quality service and satisfied guests. The Crucible Act 1? I enjoy collaborating with colleagues and would appreciate the opportunity to dragonwings laurence yep learn alongside your team of experienced marketing professionals.”

You have the skills. Act 1 Summary? You just have to dilemma prove it. Even if you don’t have hours of specialized work experience in your field of study, you have more transferable skills than you realize. Give yourself some credit. At this point, we’ve already covered quite a bit. You understand what a cover letter is, what purpose it serves, and act 1 summary, why you need one as a college student. You know three types of cover letters and what makes each type unique.

You also understand how to leverage transferable skills when you don’t have “relevant” experience. Let’s get to the actual writing. How should you format your cover letter? Whichever type of cover letter is most appropriate for youinternship, entry level, or no relevant experiencethe fundamentals remain the on climate change, same. While you want to stand out and the crucible summary, be creative, there are a few specifications you need to abide by. In this section I’ll discuss the following: length, margins, font size, font style, color, quantity of paragraphs, and bullet point usage. (We've gone into Essay Rights and Responsibilities in Healthcare even more detail about the different cover letter formats in our Cover Letter Format Guide for Internships article)

Length: As I’ve mentioned, a cover letter gives you a chance to tell your story. But slow down. You aren’t writing a novel. A cover letter should never be longer than one, single-spaced page. In terms of word count, your letter will typically be only the crucible act 1 200-400 words. Margins : It’s best to essays change use standard 1-inch margins, but you may use margins as small as .5 inches. Act 1? Whatever you choose, be sure the margin size is consistent on all sides.

Font : When choosing a font, make sure it’s easy to ethical at workplace read. Some appropriate fonts include Arial, Calibri, Garamond, Georgia, Tahoma, or Times New Roman. Stay away from fancy curls and fonts that only belong on horror movie posters. As a way to brand yourself, you may choose a different font for your name in the header of your cover letter. Other than this exception, be sure to use the same font throughout for consistency’s sake. Font Size: Use size 10- to 12-point font.

This will ensure the font is large enough to read, but small enough to act 1 summary create a professional and brent staples, polished look. Color : Unless you’re a graphic design major or a creative professional, you’ll typically use black font. If you’re applying to the crucible act 1 summary a creative industry, a tasteful splash of color may be appropriate (recommendations are covered at the end of black men and this article in more detail). If you’re printing your cover letter to mail or use at a career fair, use black ink on the crucible summary white, cream, or ivory paper. Left align each paragraph. Essay On Patients' Rights And Responsibilities? There is no need to indent the first sentence of act 1 summary each paragraph. Instead “Return/Enter” between each paragraph. This will create a balance of text and whitespace, making your cover letter easier to on climate read. Bullet Points: Some resumés use a lot of bullet points to outline someone’s accomplishments, but can bullet points be used on a cover letter? Sparingly. Use bullet points to briefly summarize information where appropriate.

For example, you may write something like this: My academic background, communication skills, and leadership experience have prepared me well for this computer science internship. Academic background. I have completed courses in computer science, statistics, and systems programming resulting in act 1 a 3.9 Major GPA. Communication skills. As the professional development chair of University of Southern California’s Computer Science student organization, I develop and facilitate computer science presentations. Leadership experience.

This year, my classmates elected me as the sophomore representative for the college student government assembly. Bullet points can be an ethical effective way to communicate multiple qualifications, while abiding by the one-page length requirement. Those are the the crucible summary, basic style guidelines when it comes to creating a cover letter. Change? Now let’s check out the key sections of act 1 a letter. What are the famous christian, key sections of the crucible act 1 summary your cover letter? The following are essential cover letter sections: header, date, greeting, company address, and salutation. Decidendi Meaning? I’ll define each section and discuss exactly what to include. I’ll also share detailed examples of what to the crucible write. Header : A cover letter header is the information at the top of your cover letter. Change? It includes your name and summary, contact information, the date you’re applying, and famous christian philosophers, the company’s mailing address.

In the header, it’s important to include your full name. If you’re in the process of act 1 summary changing your name, plan to change your name during the recruitment process, or recently changed your name, it may be appropriate to include your new name with your former name in famous parentheses. If your name is “Elizabeth” and the crucible, you go by “Beth,” then it’s entirely acceptable to use Beth on your documents. If your legal name is Essay on Patients' and Responsibilities in Healthcare, “Wayne” and you prefer to summary go by “Thomas,” then you may write it as “Thomas (Wayne) Johnson” to avoid any confusion. When it comes to contact information, you should include your email address and ratio decidendi, a phone number where the company can reach you with follow-up questions, or to schedule an interview. You may also choose to include a URL link to your LinkedIn profile or an online portfolio showcasing your work. Here’s the most important part: You must use a professional email address. Your school email address is a good option. If you prefer to use a personal email, make sure it’s professional.

While you want to stand out, a creative email address like alliecat@ or iwantajob@ isn’t the way to do it. Act 1? Create a generic johnsmith1@ account, or use the .edu email address provided by your university. Unprofessional email addresses get resumés rejected more than 75% of the time. Date : After you include your name and contact information, you need to include the date you’re applying for the position. Right-align the date in famous the space below below your name and act 1, contact information. Company Address: While you probably won’t snail mail your cover letter, as a professional document, tradition tells us to include the company mailing address. Change? Although you’re not typically submitting a hard copy of your resumé, after sending off your application, it’s in the possession of act 1 summary human resources. You don’t know if it will be printed, mailed, sent to another department for review, or any combination of these scenarios. Determine the company name, mailing address, and famous christian philosophers, department (if applicable). Left-align this information after the date. Greeting : The most appropriate option for a greeting is ‘Dear’.

It’s also advantageous to refer to act 1 the hiring manager by dragonwings, their name in your salutation. For example, “Dear Ms. Mary Johnson,”. When writing the the crucible, salutation, ensure the name and title are correct. Dragonwings Laurence Yep? For example, a person with the the crucible, name ‘Taylor’, may prefer the title Mr., Ms., Mrs., or none of the dragonwings yep, above. Make sure you use the correct title before their surname.

If you don’t know what to use, opt for their first and last name only. Salutation: Don’t use “To Whom It May Concern”, or “Dear Sir/Madam”. Do your homework and figure out the act 1 summary, “Whom” actually entails. If you’re lucky, a company will list a contact person near the bottom of the job description. Famous? Use this contact name in your cover letter. If the company does not specify who the the crucible, hiring manager or recruiter is, still do not resort to, “To Whom It May Concern”.

In this case, here’s what you should do: After thoroughly reviewing the job description, work up the courage to essays call human resources. HR is your friend, so there’s no need to be anxious. Here’s what you could say: “Hi, I’m preparing an application for your open internship position #12345. I’m wondering who the hiring manager is for this position.” Oftentimes, human resources will provide you with the the crucible act 1, information. On Climate? Other times, they may say, “Just address it to HR.” In this case, I recommend using “Dear Hiring Manager and the crucible, Search Committee” as your salutation. Now that we’ve covered the basic formatting rules and the core sections of a cover letter, let’s talk about an incredibly important rule for every cover letter you write. Don’t forget this: You must tailor your cover letter to every single position and at workplace, unique company you apply to. What does it mean to tailor a cover letter?

Tailoring a cover letter is summary, exactly what it sounds like. A tailor, or a person who alters clothing, adjusts clothing to fit unique, individual people. A shirt tailored for Person A will not fit Person B as well as it fits Person A. You should take the same approach when writing a cover letter. It’s kind of like giving a birthday gift. While you could safely give any person a gift of cash, it can come off as impersonal (like you forgot it was even their birthday). Why? Because it’s a generic gift. Just as you would avoid giving a generic gift to your best friend.

You should avoid giving a generic cover letter to your dream employer. In short, you should never submit the exact same cover letter to more than one position or company. Tailoring a cover letter requires additional effort on your behalf. You need to conduct company research and understand the position inside and out. Essay Rights? You’ll use this information to create a unique cover letter that is appropriate for a specific job and the crucible act 1, a unique company. If you’re thinking, “How would one company know if I send them the same exact cover letter I sent another company?” Truth be told, they probably won’t find out. But that’s not the point. If your cover letter is so generic that you can submit it to multiple positions at different companies, it’s not unique enough.

The recruiter will immediately recognize your cover letter as a generic template, and it will end up in the trash can. Let’s go back to the birthday gift analogy. When you purchase a birthday gift for your best friend, you most likely base your decision on a few things: What are they interested in? What do they enjoy? What do they need? What do they want?

You then use what you know about your friend to dragonwings yep inform your decision of what to buy. It’s the same when it comes to act 1 writing a cover letter. You must conduct company research to answer similar questions: What type of candidate is the company interested in? What does the Essay on Patients' in Healthcare, company value and enjoy? What needs and pain points does the company need to solve? What does the company want from you as an applicant? To be successful, you must integrate the the crucible summary, answers to these questions into your cover letter. Laurence? While some of the content in each letter will undoubtedly overlap, do your best to create unique content for each position. While the the crucible summary, term ‘research’ can be intimidating, I have good news:

You don’t have to be a scientist to do good research. To conduct company research, there are a few key resources: Explore the company website. Essays Change? Google the company to discover current events. The Crucible Act 1? Visit websites such as Glassdoor.com, where candidates, current employees, and former employees rate companies. Some examples of ethical dilemma what you may research are the company mission, vision, or recent news. You’re looking for information that is relevant to summary the position and details that make you excited about the company. At this point, you understand what a cover letter is and what it means to tailor your cover letter. This cover letter template is not tailored to any specific company or position. This is dragonwings laurence, a bad, scratch that, TERRIBLE cover letter: To Whom It May Concern,

I am writing to apply for an internship I recently found on your website. Summary? I believe I am the best candidate for this position based on my academic coursework and my relevant experience. I match exactly what you are looking for ratio decidendi in a candidate. As a college student, I understand how to use Microsoft Word and Excel. The Crucible Act 1 Summary? I am passionate, detail oriented, and hard-working. I am really excited about the opportunity to join your company. Attached you will find my resumé which explains my experience in further detail. Thank you for your time. I look forward to ethical the possibility of interviewing. It may be more appropriate to end that letter with, “I am sincerely boring,” but you get the point. In brief, this is what is wrong with the above example:

X No header (i.e. applicant name, contact information, date, company address) X Generic and outdated salutation (i.e. The Crucible Act 1 Summary? “To Whom It May Concern”) X Cliché and boring introduction. X No mention of the internship title. X No mention of the company name. X No proof as to why the applicant is the “best candidate”

X Applicant includes generic skills (i.e. Rights? Microsoft Office and Excel) Don’t write a cover letter like this. The Crucible Act 1? You will put the essays change, recruiter to sleep. Minneapolis, MN 12345. Fashion and Design. New York City, NY 56789. Dear Ms. Debra Glod,

When I discovered the the crucible, fashion internship with XYZ Company on Internships.com, I was excited by the opportunity to complement my coursework with experience in a fast-paced environment. Ratio Meaning? As a junior majoring in Fashion Merchandising at University of Southern California, I am passionate about creating original concepts and executing designs. My leadership experience, design coursework, and creative portfolio make me a well-qualified applicant for this position. Leadership experience. The Crucible? As the President of the on-campus student organization, Fashion and Business, I produce an annual fashion show with over 30 models and 250 attendees. Dragonwings? Design coursework. I have a 3.9 Major GPA after taking introduction to textiles, fashion sketching, computer-aided fashion design, and advanced apparel development. Creative portfolio. My portfolio includes original sketches and the crucible summary, drawings created in Adobe Illustrator.

It can be viewed by visiting dakotatailor@design.com. As described by the internship description, I am eager to grow into a bold and interactive designer. I believe your organization provides a rewarding opportunity to engage in continuous learning. My enclosed resumé expands on my leadership experience and Essay Rights, academic coursework. As I prepare for the crucible a career in brent black men and space fashion, I am dedicated to understanding the field by collaborating with an experienced design and production team. Thank you for your time and consideration.

I look forward to the crucible summary hearing from you soon. In brief, this is a great example because it includes the following: ? Name, contact information, date, and company address. ? Tailored salutation including the hiring manager’s first and last name. ? Unique introduction that communicates the applicant’s interest and passion in the position, company, and industry. ? Specific internship title “Fashion Internship” ? Company name, “XYZ Company” ? Use of the term “well-qualified applicant” vs. “best candidate” ? Unique skills that are relevant to the position (i.e. leadership, design, and black public, creative work) ? Description of the applicant’s desire to grow as a professional. Use this as a model when crafting your letter.

What to include in your actual cover letter? Now I’m going to walk you through a 4-step process for writing a cover letter. This process helps you narrow down your experience and determine what is most relevant to the position and company. You only have one page to communicate how you match exactly what the employer is looking for in a candidate. Let’s use a 4-step process to accomplish this task. Step 1: Highlight the job description. Step 2: Select three job responsibilities you want to focus on in your cover letter. Step 3: Identify three of your accomplishments that are relevant to the crucible act 1 summary those responsibilities. Step 4: Connect your accomplishments to the qualifications the employer seeks. I’ll take you through each step and describe exactly what to do.

This is an effective way to write a cover letter. Let’s jump in! Step 1: Highlight the job description. You may be asking, “What’s the point of this?”. As you already know, the purpose of a cover letter is to get a potential employer to read your resumé. You do this by demonstrating how you match exactly what they’re looking for. Well, what are they looking for? The answer to dilemma this question is in the job description. The purpose of this step is to the crucible act 1 determine the ratio decidendi meaning, most important requirements. To highlight the job description, either print a hard copy and grab an actual highlighter, or copy and act 1, paste the ethical at workplace, contents of the job description into your favorite word processing program.

You should make note of the following: Core responsibilities Required qualifications Preferred qualifications Keywords Patterns and the crucible act 1, themes. A job description will typically label the core responsibilities, required qualifications, and preferred qualifications. Those should be easy to determine. That being said, there won’t be a section labeled “Keywords” or “Themes.” This is men and public space, where you have to do a little work. It’s your job to read through the job description and determine what is most important to the employer. Ask yourself the following questions: What words are repeated throughout the job description?

What responsibilities are emphasized in the job description? Let’s look at the following example of a job description for a marketing internship. The Crucible Summary? The example outlines responsibilities, minimum qualifications, and preferred characteristics. Carefully read through each section. Marketing Internship Job Description. Conduct social media marketing campaigns Collect quantitative and qualitative data Perform market analysis and christian philosophers, research on competitors Collaborate with co-interns and marketing team to analyze data Support marketing team in the crucible act 1 daily administrative tasks Present findings to marketing team. Sophomore or junior standing Pursuing a bachelor’s degree Interested in marketing and/or business-related career Effective writing and verbal communication skills. Pursuing a degree in marketing, business, graphic design, communications, or a related area of study. When you review this job description, a few things should be obvious. Decidendi? You know the employer is looking for an intern who is act 1, interested in philosophers social media marketing and data analysis.

After further review, you can also make an additional conclusion: Conclusion : The company seeks an intern who is an effective communicator. Clues : The job description not only requires someone with “effective writing and verbal communication skills”, but the intern must also be able to collaborate with colleagues and present findings to the crucible act 1 the marketing team. Both of yep these responsibilities require a heightened level of the crucible communication. That’s a pattern or theme. After reviewing the job description in detail, you observe a common thread, pattern, or theme regarding one skill across multiple bullet points.

Use this knowledge to your advantage. Dedicate several sentences in decidendi meaning your cover letter to proving how you’re an effective communicator. For example, you may write: “After reviewing the job description, it is clear that XYZ Company values effective communication. If hired as the Marketing Intern, I would leverage my experience in Toastmasters International, a non-profit organization dedicated to helping members develop public speaking and leadership skills. The Crucible Act 1 Summary? I have a proven ability to communicate messages effectively and would apply this ability as a Marketing Intern.” Let’s say you highlight the job description and determine there are ten core responsibilities and qualifications the on climate, employer wants.

Do you write about all ten? Probably not. If you remember correctly, a cover letter can only the crucible summary be one page long. You cannot adequately cover ten different requirements in a single page. So how do you determine which skills to focus on? This is brent staples men and public space, where step two comes in. Step 2: Select which job responsibilities you want to focus on. After you review the job description in detail and highlight the most important parts, you need to choose which of the many responsibilities you want to focus on in your cover letter. Unless the job description is very shortand the company only highlights three requirementsit’s unlikely you will be able to discuss every single requirement in act 1 your cover letter.

Here’s what you do: Determine what the ratio decidendi meaning, company values the most . What does the company emphasize in the job description? Take into consideration your own experience and qualifications. Summary? If the job requires communication, teamwork, accounting, and customer service, and you’re not confident in your accounting skills, then you don’t need to focus on ethical at workplace that requirement in your cover letter. At the same time, if accounting skills are listed as a minimum required qualification, then you’re not qualified for the internship. Take time to narrow down not only what is most important from the company’s perspective, but also what you are most qualified for. To simplify the writing process, I recommend choosing three job responsibilities to the crucible focus on.

Once you do this, you’re ready for step three. Step 3: Identify specific accomplishments that are relevant to essays change those responsibilities. After you’ve identified three job responsibilitiesas outlined in act 1 the job descriptionyou now need to identify specific accomplishments that are relevant to those responsibilities. You should only highlight the most relevant accomplishments. Not necessarily the most exciting achievement, but instead, the accomplishments and activities that are closely related to what you would actually be doing with the on Patients' Rights and Responsibilities in Healthcare, company.

After choosing three requirements and three accomplishments, you’re ready for step four. Step 4: Connect your accomplishments to the qualifications they seek. In a sense, you need to put together the pieces of the puzzle. You need to demonstrate how your skills and accomplishments match what the company is the crucible act 1 summary, looking for. You have three responsibilities and three accomplishments. Famous Christian? Connect the dots.

We’ll look at additional examples of summary how to do this in ethical dilemma the next section. How do I write the introduction, body, and closing? As with any good story, the cover letter has a beginning, middle, and end. I will refer to these as the introduction, body, and closing. Let’s look at each section in further detail.

I’ll describe how to write each section and show you real samples of what you could write. Th intrduction two a covr leter is crushal. If you want your cover letter to end up in the trash in record-breaking time, make an the crucible act 1 summary ugly spelling error in your first sentence. Hiring managers quickly disqualify candidates from consideration because of Essay on Patients' spelling errors. The core components of your introduction include the following: 1) Briefly introduce why you’re writing. 2) Give a short overview of who you are. 3) Tailor the introduction to the company and position. If you want to immediately bore a recruiter, open your letter with, “I am writing to apply for”. As one of the most common introductions, that’s not an effective way to stand out the crucible act 1 summary, from the on climate, other applicants. Even if you spend significant time tailoring the rest of your cover letter, a recruiter may assume you submitted a template because the phrase is so overused.

It’s cookie cutter and unfortunately, we’re not making cookies. Avoid this phrase and replace it with something more creative. Summary? Begin your cover letter with a sentence that communicates your personality, while still remaining professional. You can accomplish this by starting with a personal anecdote. Ratio Meaning? For example, you could write: “When I was a teaching assistant at my local middle school, I discovered my passion for working with kids. I am committed to”

Don’t feel confined by what is considered standard or traditional. The Crucible Act 1 Summary? As long as your content is professional, you can be a little creative. This is your opportunity to ethical dilemma infuse your personality. Think of the crucible act 1 summary it this way: If you were reading a cover letter, what would engage you? As you explore samples, make note of the cover letters that seem boring and those that inspire you to dragonwings laurence keep reading. After you engage the reader, it is important to demonstrate two things: You did your research. The Crucible? You tailored the letter to the specific company and position.

Here are a few great examples: “When I discovered the Essay Rights and Responsibilities in Healthcare, environmental science internship on Internships.com, I was immediately excited by the opportunity to join a sustainable organization like XYZ Company.” This opening sentence indicates your interest, why you’re writing, and demonstrates that you researched the company. By including the single word “sustainable,” the company will know that you did your research, provided they’re truly a sustainable company. It may be tempting to act 1 say, “I believe I am the best candidate for the position.” This is an empty claim. Staples Men And Space? Instead, use the remainder of the the crucible summary, letter to prove that you are well-qualified for the position. Those are the building blocks of a quality introduction. One succinct, yet engaging paragraph where you do the following: State why you are writing. Ethical At Workplace? Provide a brief overview of who you are. Tailor to company and act 1, position.

Give a brief overview of ethical dilemma what you’re about to discuss in the crucible summary the body. If done well, the dragonwings laurence yep, introduction will invite the recruiter to continue reading. Act 1 Summary? Let’s talk about what you include in the body. How do I write the body of a cover letter? After you grab the recruiter’s attention with an engaging introduction, it’s time to dragonwings laurence yep craft a compelling body. The purpose of the act 1, body is to prove your qualifications to the reader. It’s important to dragonwings laurence be specific about your qualifications and act 1 summary, clearly describe how they relate to the position.

This is essays on climate, where you need to match the requirements outlined in the job description with your most relevant skills and qualifications. Let’s look at two different examples. Here’s an example using bullet points: My academic coursework, communication skills, and leadership experience have prepared me well for this position. Academic coursework. I have completed courses in act 1 summary business communications, marketing, and Rights and Responsibilities in Healthcare, strategic human resource management, resulting in a 3.8 GPA. Communication skills. As the professional development chair of act 1 summary University of Southern California’s SHRM Chapter, I develop and facilitate presentations on behalf of the organization. Leadership experience.

This year, my classmates elected me as the junior representative for the college student government assembly. I am excited by the chance to contribute to your organization and am prepared to engage in continuous learning. I intentionally pursue professional development and value non-stop growth as described by the internship description. Here’s a traditional example (without bullet points): As outlined in the job description, it is clear you seek an intern who is familiar with human resources.

Over the past two years, I have completed courses in business communications, marketing, and strategic human resource management, resulting in a 3.8 Major GPA. I would leverage this understanding to advance the ratio decidendi, Human Resources division with your company. Additionally, as the professional development chair of summary University of famous Southern California’s SHRM Chapter, I develop and the crucible act 1 summary, facilitate presentations on brent staples black public behalf of the organization. I have a proven ability to communicate effectively in writing and in person. I am well prepared to present information on behalf of the crucible act 1 human resources and would enjoy learning alongside your skilled team of representatives. I am excited by the chance to on Patients' Rights and Responsibilities in Healthcare contribute to your organization and am prepared to engage in continuous learning. The most important part of the body is demonstrating how you match the requirements outlined in the job description . If you can do that, you will set yourself up for success. How do I write the conclusion of a cover letter? Finally, like any good letter or story, you need a well-crafted conclusion. In the the crucible summary, closing section, you should do a few things:

Summarize why you are qualified for dragonwings laurence yep the position. Act 1? Express your appreciation for their time and consideration. Here’s a solid example of how to wrap up a cover letter: My enclosed resumé expands on christian philosophers my academic coursework, communication skills, and leadership experience. As I prepare for a career in the crucible act 1 human resources, I am eager to gain a more detailed understanding of the field.

Thank you for your time and consideration. Dilemma At Workplace? I look forward to act 1 hearing from essays on climate change, you soon. That’s it. An introduction, body, and conclusion tailored to the company and position. Prove that you can do the job and you’re incredibly excited by the opportunity.

We’ve covered a lot so far. By this point, you understand what a cover letter is, the purpose, why you need one, and a step-by-step process for writing an outstanding letter tailored to a unique position and company. Now let’s check out the top 10 tips for crafting your cover letter. Top 10 cover letter tips and hacks. Be a person. If you think back to earlier in this article, you’ll remember a common resumé concern is: “I feel like my resumé makes me super boring.” The same can happen with your cover letter. I highly recommend infusing your personality. In addition to highlighting your skills and the crucible act 1 summary, campus involvement, your cover letter should express your individual personality.

You’re a human after all. Make sure your cover letter expresses who you are. Address the on climate, right person. I shared tips for finding the correct person to address your cover letter to. Make sure you not only find the correct person, but adjust the salutation for each letter you write. It can be an the crucible summary awful mistake to tailor your entire cover letter and forget to brent black space look up the act 1, correct contact person. Worse yet, you leave the contact person from the last company you applied to on your letter to a new company. Make sure you address the correct person and spell their name correctly. Engage the reader at the beginning. Decidendi Meaning? Just like a good book, the first sentence of your cover letter needs to draw the reader in.

Avoid cliché phrases like, “I am writing to apply for your internship.” Or, “I’m writing in response to your recently advertised position.” Instead, write something unique, yet professional. Share your passion. If you have a connection with the company, don’t be afraid to name drop. Name dropping is the crucible act 1 summary, when you include the name of a friend, family member, or acquaintance who is connected to the company. If done correctly, this may improve your credibility and Essay Rights, your chances of securing the internship or full-time position. For example, you may write: “After speaking with the current principal, Kathy Johnson, at your meet-and-greet event, I am incredibly excited to act 1 summary apply for the summer school teaching position with Unicorn Unified School District.” Name dropping can showcase your professional network, while signifying an extra level of effort.

Focus on on climate the most relevant examples. Do not include a comprehensive list of your college involvement. Your cover letter should not look like you turned the contents of your resumé into the crucible act 1 summary complete sentences and staples men and, paragraphs. The Crucible Act 1? Instead, choose a few relevant examples and tell a story. Be specific. Don’t write, “I conducted in-depth marketing research”. Instead write, “I used SPSS to brent black space analyze survey data.” Using generic claims and buzzwords does not add value to your cover letter. The Crucible Act 1? Tell the hiring manager exactly what you did and why it matters to their company. Showcase the results of your work. Let’s extend the christian, previous example, “I used SPSS to analyze survey data.” Why did you do that? What was the result of your work?

And most importantly, why does it matter to the employer? To strengthen that sentence, you could write, “I used SPSS to analyze survey data and better understand the target audience. The Crucible? This experience will be incredibly beneficial as a Marketing Intern with ABC Company. Include key ideas as outlined in the job description. Philosophers? Earlier in act 1 summary the article, I told you how to determine keywords and patterns by reviewing the job description. Here’s a trick for finding keywords. Use the ‘Find’ function. The ‘Findrsquo function is a keyboard function where you press and hold Control+F (Windows), or Command+F (Mac). After you release the buttons, a search box will appear on your screen. Christian Philosophers? Type in act 1 summary likely keywords such as “communication” or ldquo;communicate”. Your computer will highlight every appearance of this word.

Determining where the word is used will help you tailor your cover letter. Keep it brief. No cover letter should be longer than one page. By focusing on the most relevant skills and Essay on Patients' Rights and Responsibilities, not reiterating your entire resumé, you’ll be well on your way to summary writing a succinct cover letter. Staples? At the same time, you need to the crucible act 1 find a happy medium. Your letter should not be several sentences. Create 3-5 well-written, concise, yet detailed paragraphs. Follow the employer’s instructions.

The employer’s instructions outweigh any recommendation you find online (or in this article). If the ethical dilemma, employer asks you to answer a specific question, or share your availability in the cover letter, follow their instructions. There are a few exceptions to this rule. It is against the law for an employer to ask you for the crucible the following information: What country are you from? Is English your first language? Do you drink socially? Are you married?

Have you ever been arrested? What religious holidays do you observe? Do you have children? If an employer requests this information (or any other information you feel uncomfortable sharing), you do not need to include that information in your application. It may be a red flag and you probably do not want to work for that company. Those are the top 10 cover letter tips and dragonwings laurence yep, tricks! Be sure to check out our seperate article regarding cover letter tips and tricks. Next let’s check out some common cover letter pitfalls and how to avoid them. Top 10 cover letter mistakes to avoid.

Typos. I can’t say this too many times. The Crucible Summary? Ensure that your cover letter is free of typos. Review the letter yourself, read the letter out loud, and have a friend check it over. You will kill your chances of being interviewed if you make one too many mistakes. Focusing too much on yourself. A cover letter is dragonwings laurence, your chance to explain why you’re qualified and passionate about the job opportunity, but it is not ALL about you. The key to a great cover letter is the crucible act 1, explaining how you can solve a problem for the employer. You need to explain why you’re interested in the company.

Be careful not to focus on dilemma yourself too much. Not tailoring your letter to summary the company or position. Generic phrases such as “Dear employer” or “I would love to work for your company” can create an ratio meaning altogether weak cover letter. Take my advice and tailor your cover letter to the specific position and the crucible act 1, company. Dissect the job description and and Responsibilities in Healthcare, conduct company research. Act 1? You will quickly stand out as a quality applicant if you can prove your interest in the position and organization.

Including taboo topics. Sometimes it can be difficult to know what’s allowable and what is taboo. Essay And Responsibilities? While you want to add personality to your cover letter, you must avoid writing about things that are uncomfortable or irrelevant to the position. Do not include information that is considered protected class such as your religion or race. Unless these are integral to the positionfor example, you’re applying to be a choir director at a churchthese are unnecessary additions.

Being cliché. I get it. It can be tempting to act 1 Google, “cover letter sample” and use a ready-made template found on the internet. While this may seem like the essays on climate change, easy option, it will hurt your chances of securing an act 1 summary internship or full-time job. Recruiters review resumés every day. They can immediately spot a template cover letter.

If you found the cover letter example online, so can they. Take time to essays on climate change write a unique cover letter that expresses your personality and communicates your qualifications. Rewriting your resumé. A cover letter is the crucible act 1, not a resumé. It serves an entirely different purpose. Don’t waste cover letter space by ethical at workplace, simply reiterating what is on your resumé. Include a story, integrate your personality, talk about the act 1, company, and discuss your passion. Over-explaining. Don’t be a rambler. Take time to cut out unnecessary words and ratio decidendi meaning, phrases. Refrain from repeating the same skill multiple times with different examples.

If you want to discuss how you’re an excellent public speaker, share one example. Remember, you submit a cover letter and resumé in hopes of securing an act 1 interview. If you receive an invitation to interview, you’ll have the opportunity to staples men and public describe your experiences in further detail. Being too pushy. If you search the the crucible, web for cover letter samples, you’ll inevitably come across samples that say something like, I will call your office in a week to schedule an essays on climate interview. While you want to summary present yourself as an assertive and confident professional, that approach is typically too pushy and can hurt your chances of ratio meaning getting an act 1 interview. An alternative is to say, I welcome the opportunity to speak with you about how I can contribute. Men And? Or “I look forward to hearing from you soon.” You can communicate your sincere interest without being pushy.

Starting with your name. Act 1 Summary? While your name is an important piece of information to include on your cover letter, opening a letter with “My name is Casey Smith” takes away prime real estate. Instead, start with a relevant skill or qualification to grab their attention. Unless you’re a celebrity and everybody knows your name, it’s not the best option. Sharing irrelevant information. I get it! You care about famous philosophers ALL the experiences you have gained. This attachment can make it incredibly difficult to let things go. The Crucible Summary? But letting go of irrelevant information is key to writing an outstanding cover letter. Yes, it’s awesome that you volunteer with ten different organizations, but not all ten volunteer experiences are relevant to at workplace every internship or job you apply for. You need to narrow down your accomplishments and delete what is irrelevant.

This will not only cut down on the fluff, it will highlight what’s truly important. There you have it. Essential tips and mistakes to the crucible act 1 summary avoid. Before we wrap up, I want to essays discuss two nontraditional cover letters and summary, share a helpful sample. What do nontraditional cover letters look like? By now, you understand how to make your cover letter unique and why it’s important to infuse your personality.

There are a few industries and positions that call for black men and public space an extra level of creativity and design. If you’re pursuing a creative degree, this is for you. Graphic Design Cover Letter . If you’re a graphic design major, or another creative type, it’s advantageous to the crucible summary reflect this in ethical your cover letter. Act 1 Summary? But don’t forget the basics. Before you attack the ethical at workplace, design, ensure the spelling, grammar, and sentence structure is solid. Then, take a few liberties with your design. Adjust the the crucible act 1 summary, layout, choose the perfect typography, and add a splash of ethical dilemma at workplace color. The Crucible? While you don’t want to go overboard, you should use your letter as an opportunity to demonstrate your skills. As a creative major, you should also include a link to on climate change your online portfolio.

The hiring team will review your portfolio for design basicsfrom color choice to the crucible act 1 typography, white space usage to contrast. While this is an black men and awesome opportunity to showcase your work, it requires a heightened attention to detail. Check for spelling and grammar throughout. Video Cover Letter. A video cover letter can be a unique way to showcase your skills. Some IT companies and tech-based startups are opting for video cover letters in summary place of essays traditional letters. Just like a traditional letter, you want the content to engage the viewer and encourage them to the crucible check out your resumé and portfolio. You’re essentially creating a movie trailer. Where a traditional cover letter is bound to one page, a video cover letter rarely exceeds 60 seconds in length. Brevity is on climate, still important. Keep in mind the purpose of a cover letter and craft your content around these three primary goals:

Introduce yourself to a prospective employer. Communicate your interest in a position and company. Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate for the position. What’s key here is that your personality and the crucible, energy come through. Unless you’re camera-shy, there’s no need to write an entire script. Choose a few bullet points to focus on and discuss your qualifications. You want to come across as genuine as you can, without trying too hard!

456 Business Road. Phoenix, AZ 85001. Ms. Nichole Favret. 123 Business Street. Phoenix, AZ 85001. Dear Ms. Nichole Favret, When I discovered the accounting internship with XYZ Company on dragonwings yep Internships.com, I was excited by the crucible summary, the opportunity to complement my coursework with practical experience. As a junior majoring in Accounting at University of Southern California, I am enjoy compiling reports and brent public, completing audits. My academic background, communication skills, and leadership experience have prepared me well for act 1 summary this position.

Academic coursework . I have completed courses in intermediate accounting, cost accounting, business law, and individual income tax, resulting in men and space a 3.9 Major GPA. Summary? Communication skills . As the professional development chair of University of Southern California’s Accounting Club, I develop and facilitate presentations on behalf of the organization. Leadership experience . As a chapter leader of Delta Sigma Pi, a business fraternity on laurence campus, I recruit new members and discuss the value of the organization. I am excited by the chance to contribute to your organization and am prepared to engage in the crucible summary continuous learning. Ethical? I intentionally pursue professional development and the crucible act 1 summary, value non-stop growth as described by the internship description. My enclosed resumé expands on my academic coursework, communication skills, and leadership experience. As I prepare for an accounting career, I am eager to gain a more detailed understanding of the field.

Thank you for your time and consideration. I look forward to hearing from you soon. That’s what a solid cover letter looks like from beginning to ratio decidendi end. Check out more professional cover letter examples here. People read cover letters.

As you now know, an outstanding cover letter can get you an internship. You have every tool, example, and piece of advice necessary to write a superior cover letter. You understand exactly what a cover letter is, why you need one, and most importantly, you have a step-by-step process to help you write an act 1 summary outstanding cover letter. Whether you’re applying for a summer internship, or submitting your first application to a full-time position, you’re well prepared. Congratulations on decidendi meaning getting this far. Set aside time to the crucible write an outstanding letter.

It will be easier than you think and dragonwings, more rewarding than you imagine.

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26 Graphic Design Resume Tips for Landing Your Dream Job. When it comes to creating resumes, graphic designers are lucky. Not many fields allow for potential employees to directly demonstrate their work-related skills with the resume itself. Pastry chefs don#8217;t get to bake their resumes into the crucible act 1 summary, a cake, teachers can#8217;t assign their resumes as homework, and laurence, lawyers aren#8217;t given the summary, chance to defend their resumes to a jury. But graphic designers can – and should – treat their resume as they would a sample in Essay on Patients' in Healthcare, their portfolio. The design of your resume can help potential employers and act 1 summary, clients get a feel for your style and creativity, which is something you just can#8217;t get from ratio decidendi a standard letter-style resume.

Graphic design resumes can be challenging, since the standard rules of resume creation do not apply . Your resume has to ride a fine line between pizazz and professionalism—too much of one and act 1, not enough of the other can hurt your chances of employment. Essays On Climate! Whether you#8217;re just starting out your career or you#8217;re an act 1 summary, old pro who#8217;s looking for new opportunities, these graphic design resume tips will help put you one step closer to your goal. The very first item to include in your resume is your full contact info. Essays On Climate! Include your name, phone number, e-mail address and any pertinent URLs, such as your online portfolio or website. Depending on the situation, you may want to summary include more information. If you#8217;re sending your resume via snail mail, then you#8217;ll definitely want to decidendi include your home or office address. Forget to add your contact information to your resume and you can kiss your chances of getting hired goodbye. Photo Credit: Charlotte Allen. The Crucible Act 1! Your contact info should be placed at the very top or bottom of the ratio, page so that it can be easily located. If your resume is two pages, be sure to the crucible act 1 include the contact info on the second page as well. This way, potential employers will still be able to contact you in the event that your resume pages are accidentally separated.

A long time ago, someone decided it was a good idea to include an #8220;objective#8221; statement at essays on climate change the top of a resume—even though everybody knows that the objective of any resume is to the crucible summary find employment. As such, objective statements are starting to go out of fashion-frankly, you can take them or leave them. Famous Philosophers! Graphic design resume already tend to have very unique formats; it doesn’t seem all that important to stay traditional when your resume itself will be anything but. The Crucible Act 1! If you do decide to include an objective statement, make sure it#8217;s not something generic like #8220;Objective: I want to dilemma at workplace have a career as a professional designer.#8221; Put your unique spin on your objective statement and personalize it for the job you#8217;re applying for. Make the objective something that would benefit your employer as much as it would benefit you.

For example, your objective could be to help new businesses create long-lasting, recognizable brand identities. The Crucible Act 1 Summary! If possible, your resume should fit on a single page. Ratio! Photo Credit: Anton Yermolov. You#8217;ve done a lot of great things with your life, both professionally and personally—but not every one of your achievements needs to be listed in your resume. Summary! Keep it simple. The person reading your resume has to go through several applicants, and if your resume is too long or too dense, you#8217;ll hurt your chances of making an dilemma at workplace, impression. Think of your resume like a snapshot—a single photograph can tell a detailed, vivid story without needing extraneous details. Your resume is like a snapshot of your entire professional career thus far. It#8217;s like a highlight reel that shows only the best of the the crucible, best. The best resumes are a single page, if possible.

It#8217;s entirely okay to spill over onto two pages if necessary, but it#8217;s always a good idea to have a one-page version of your resume ready to go in on Patients' and Responsibilities, case an employer specifies that they only want to see one-page resumes. Act 1! There was a time when #8220;everybody#8221; exaggerated on ethical their resumes, but that was before Google was invented. These days, employers and act 1 summary, clients can and will find out everything there is to know about a designer before working with them, so resist the urge to embellish. Dragonwings Yep! For one thing, if you#8217;re caught in your own lie, it#8217;s going to pretty much nullify your chances of getting the job. But the other factor you have to consider is that employers are going to hold you to the crucible whatever skill level you claim to have. If you can#8217;t deliver the results they expect, the job may not last long even if you get it.

There are, however, some gray areas where honesty is concerned. If there are a few blemishes in your work history (such as being let go from a previous position), you can decide exactly how much information you want to reveal. Don#8217;t feel like you#8217;re obligated to showcase your worst moments along with your best. Ethical At Workplace! Unless you#8217;re going for summary, a truly offbeat presentation, employers could probably care less about your preference for brent black men and space, fruity shampoo. Photo Credit: Luke Sutton. Stick to the facts—your resume should be a representation of your professional experience and skill level. The Crucible Act 1! You don#8217;t need to include extraneous details like your age, your part-time job in brent staples black men and space, high school or your favorite hobbies.

Your resume should focus on the information that makes you look like the top candidate for the job. However, there are a few details you may want to include that don#8217;t necessarily line up directly with the job you#8217;re applying for, but are helpful for understanding you as a person. For example, if you served in the crucible act 1 summary, the military, you#8217;d want to consider including that detail if your military experience helped to staples black men and public inform the way you conduct your work as a designer (you#8217;re used to taking orders and staying cool in high-pressure situations). Make sure to the crucible be detailed when talking about famous christian philosophers your past work experiences and clients. Recruiters want to know what you did for the crucible act 1, past employers, but it#8217;s not enough to just list a bunch of tasks that you were responsible for. You also want to include the results of your hard work.

Just saying that you helped a past client run a print campaign isn#8217;t going to excite anyone. But proving that your print designs helped drive up sales and conversions will definitely get people#8217;s attention. If you can provide specific statistics to back up your claims, you#8217;ll make a much bigger impression. Please do not call yourself a #8220;graphic design ninja.#8221; Please. Recruiters hate this kind of stuff, and you won#8217;t be the first designer to try and essays on climate change, dazzle them with how cool and witty you are. And in the crucible act 1 summary, doing so, you#8217;ll automatically look the opposite Essay on Patients', of cool or witty—you#8217;ll come off as an annoying slave to trends. There may be the rare occasion when you see a job advertisement looking specifically for a #8220;design ninja#8221; or #8220;rock star#8221; or something equally weird. If that#8217;s the case, then by all means, play to the crucible the room—but you#8217;ll probably want to do that in the cover letter anyway. One of the most common graphic design resume mistakes that people make is writing a cover letter that#8217;s basically just a long form version of their resume. That#8217;s not what a cover letter is for—it#8217;s your introduction to the employer and a chance to explain why you fit what they#8217;re looking for.

Your cover letter should be personalized for ethical dilemma, the business you#8217;re applying to. When responding to a job listing or want ad, your cover letter should be a direct response to whatever it is the summary, employer is asking for in a designer. For example, if the ad stresses that they need someone who can start working as soon as possible, your cover letter should mention your availability. Keep the letter brief; it should only Rights and Responsibilities, be one page, period. Use small paragraphs and get to the crucible summary the point as quickly as possible.

You can assume your cover letter is going to be skimmed for information, so don#8217;t make it too dense. End your letter with a professional salutation that includes your contact information. When you#8217;re done writing your resume, you#8217;re not actually done writing your resume. Black Men And! You still have to edit for spelling, grammar and clarity. Automatic spellcheckers aren#8217;t infallible, and don#8217;t always account for summary, phrasing and proper nouns. Essays! You#8217;ll want to make sure the names of your references and past employers are all spelled correctly. Grammar is a little harder to check, and even spellcheckers that also check grammar can miss glaring errors. It helps to read your resume out loud; when something doesn#8217;t sound right, it can be an indication that the grammar is off.

This also helps you catch omitted words. If you don#8217;t feel comfortable with checking your own work, have someone else do it for you. Summary! This is a good idea even if you do feel confident in your own abilities as an editor; a second pair of eyes will often catch something you never noticed before. Put away Microsoft Word for now. When creating the look of ethical at workplace, your resume, whip out design software such as InDesign or Illustrator. That way, you can create a cohesive design scheme that you can use both online and in print. This also helps make it easier for employers and clients to bridge the gap between your print resume and your online portfolio, since they have a similar visual brand. The look of your resume gives you a chance to show off the more unique parts of summary, your personality. Photo Credit: Rianti Wong. On Patients' Rights And Responsibilities! Showing people your true personality is a bit of a risk. After all, there#8217;s a chance you might not be the sort of person they want to work with.

But that#8217;s okay. In the long run, you#8217;re going to have more success working for clients who understand and appreciate you and your work. Act 1 Summary! It#8217;s better to essays change be rejected for the crucible summary, being yourself than to ratio try and the crucible, fake a completely made-up persona because you think it#8217;s what employers are looking for. That being said, you still need to be professional and staples men and public, demonstrate to act 1 employers that you can use your style to sell a brand. In this case, the brand just happens to be you, so you should approach it from the same angle you#8217;d approach any other client. On Climate! Figure out what makes you stand out and inject those unique qualities into your work, but in a way that will reach your audience (who, in this case, are potential employers and clients.) Templates are useful tools for making quick designs, but as a rule of the crucible, thumb, you shouldn#8217;t use templates to create your resume. Laurence Yep! For starters, you never know who else is using the same template. If a potential client or employer sees you have the same resume design as another designer, they#8217;re likely going to the crucible summary ignore the both of you. Worse case scenario: the employer is actually impressed by the template design, and then disappointed later on when they discover that you have a different style and skill level altogether. The design you pick for your resume should be representative of dilemma at workplace, what you can do for a potential employer. Sure, you save time and energy using a template—but you should want to the crucible act 1 put time and energy into something that represents you.

If you do decide to use a template, you should at least make enough alterations to the design so that it doesn#8217;t look like you used a template. Graphic design resume templates can be a good learning tool for figuring out techniques to laurence use in your own design, but using a template like a fill-in-the-blank form is just going to hurt your chances of employment. The Crucible Summary! Color in your resume works best in small doses. Ethical! Photo Credit: Sarah Catanzariti. The Crucible Act 1 Summary! Be smart about your color choices. Unlike other professionals, graphic designers get to dilemma inject some color and personality into the crucible act 1, their resumes. This can be highly advantageous, as different colors can invoke different emotions from your audience. Using the right colors in your resume can help you play to laurence the recruiter#8217;s emotions. For example, the color blue evokes feelings of security and stability, which would therefore make you seem like a secure choice for the job. Use too many colors at once, and you risk muddling your message and making your resume look unprofessional. Again, you have to think of summary, yourself as a brand; most brands only use one or two colors to represent themselves.

Plus, using fewer colors gives you more printing options (see CMYK vs PMS printing) and christian philosophers, makes the design easier to convert to black-and-white if need be. When it comes to resumes, fashion should never trump functionality. At the end of the day, your resume is still a resume and it has to function as one, which means recruiters need to be able to read the important information you#8217;ve included. Fonts should be simple and readable. Forget all the fancy flourished font faces and stick with something legible. Act 1! You should also make sure the on Patients' and Responsibilities, font size is big enough, both in your digital and physical resumes. The layout of your resume should have a logical flow and act 1 summary, arranged in a way that favors the dragonwings laurence yep, way we read the page (hint: it#8217;s left to right.) Color can also be an issue, both font color and the surrounding colors used in the design. Some colors clash and the crucible summary, can be hard to read, while others blend into one another in a way that makes them practically invisible. At the end of the day, the information in your resume should take priority over your design aspirations. Infographic-style resumes can make a great impression, so long as the change, style doesn#8217;t overpower the substance. Photo Credit: Stuart Mayhew.

Who doesn#8217;t love an infographic? They break down big picture ideas into easy-to-digest points, and do so in a way that#8217;s entertaining and exciting. A lot of the best graphic design resumes contain the best elements of infographics, and act 1, some designers have excelled at completely converting their resumes into an infographic format. Tread carefully if you decide to go this route. If you focus too much on the visual design, you#8217;ll run the risk of ethical dilemma at workplace, overshadowing the the crucible act 1 summary, important information your resume contains. If you go too far off the beaten path, you might find recruiters aren#8217;t really reading your resume at all. Remember, these people often have piles of at workplace, resumes to sort through, so if your resume takes more effort than most to read, it#8217;s going to come off as a negative.

Another way to appeal to recruiters who have to read dozens of act 1, resumes at a time is to use ample whitespace. This is true for both your resume and your cover letter, even if you stick to a standard, text-only resume. Whitespace helps break up your resume and christian, makes it easier to read. Summary! Photo Credit: Dejmus. Decidendi! Whitespace makes it easier to quickly scan for summary, information, which means that all the important points you make in your resume and cover letter have a better chance of actually being seen. Use lists to break up information and dragonwings yep, keep paragraphs brief. When your resume is a wall of text, it exhausts the eye and makes the recruiter miss out on a lot of the most important points because they#8217;re not reading every single word.

Be consistent in the way you present yourself. How many times in these tips do we have to say it? You are a brand, so treat yourself like one. Have a consistent branding design scheme in any media that represents you. Your resume should have a design that matches your portfolio, cover letter, business card and anything else you might show off to a potential employer.

The same goes for any digital portfolios, resumes or promotional websites you might use. This demonstrates to recruiters that you have the act 1 summary, ability to decidendi meaning craft an entire branded identity, and that you can keep that consistent design quality throughout multiple mediums. It also helps keep your work all tied together in a neat little package. Recruiters never need to play the guessing game as to which business card goes with which resume; they can tell just by looking that the two are a match. Your resume should match the brand identity of act 1 summary, your business cards, portfolio and essays on climate, any other print media you use. Photo Credit: Afifah Idrus. Send a digital copy in act 1 summary, PDF format. Depending on the situation, you may have to send a digital copy of your resume to potential employers.

In this case, PDF is the best format. Essay And Responsibilities! Why PDF? Well for the crucible, starters, you never know what kind of office program your employer is used to, and there#8217;s a chance that a text document that looks fine on your computer will not look the same on decidendi meaning theirs due to the crucible act 1 summary compatibility issues. Sure, most people can open a .doc file, but it#8217;s a somewhat unpredictable format depending on what program a person uses to open it. Practically everybody can open a PDF, and on Patients', it#8217;s going to look the same across the board no matter what (provided you embed fonts correctly).

You don#8217;t have to worry about compatibility issues or whether or not they#8217;ll have the right fonts. Most importantly, this allows you to have more graphical options for the look of your resume. The Crucible Act 1! Just one pro-tip for sending a digital copy of your resume: avoid using a generic file name like #8220;resume.pdf.#8221; Instead, put your name right inside the file name itself, such as #8220;John-Smith-Resume.pdf.#8221; Keep it as simple as that. You might use other words in your file names to on Patients' Rights and Responsibilities keep things organized (such as #8220;John-Smith-Resume-Final-Draft.pdf#8221;) but you want to keep these words out of the the crucible summary, file that you actually send to employers. Why would you go through the trouble of creating a resume that is colorful and visually appealing just to throw out on climate change, all of your hard work by photocopying it? Photocopies might be cost effective, but they#8217;re not as effective at getting you the act 1 summary, job, mostly because they strip away all the personality and christian, charm your resume design once had. The Crucible Act 1! For starters, unless you designed your resume to look good in black-and-white, you#8217;re going to lose a lot of the detail and impact your design once had.

Photocopies also tend to be extremely low quality. It#8217;s hard to control the quality of the ink, so you often end up with results that look too dark or washed out. Ethical! Photocopier paper is of cheap quality and it feels that way, too. Plus, photocopies always have that oily feel and strong smell from the ink that#8217;s used. Summary! The only time you want to decidendi meaning use a photocopier is act 1 summary if you#8217;re running off a text-only version of your resume or copying your cover letter. And even then, you#8217;ll have better results just running it off of brent black men and public, your printer each time, preferably on a professional-looking letterhead. Your resume should be nicely printed on quality stock. Photo Credit: Ashley Spencer.

You#8217;re asking employers and clients to invest in you as a designer; the least you can do is invest a little in yourself. The Crucible Summary! Make your resume really pop by using high quality paper stock. If a recruiter can simply feel the difference between your resume and everybody else#8217;s, it will be a huge help towards getting it to the top of the pile. Just like any other print media, the feel of your resume can say a lot about you to potential employers. A weak, flimsy stock portrays the message that you#8217;re a weak, flimsy designer, even if that#8217;s not the case. Dragonwings Laurence Yep! You don#8217;t have to go overboard. After all, you#8217;re trying to make money here, not spend it. But you should see this as an investment towards your future. It#8217;s worth the extra effort if the job or client is a big opportunity and every little thing you can do to demonstrate your value over the crucible act 1, every other designer is famous christian philosophers going to help bring you one step closer to the crucible your career goals. Make sure your files are high-quality.

For the ethical dilemma at workplace, best results when printing your resume, make sure the file is saved in a format with at least 300 dpi or more. The Crucible! This rings true for both printed and digital resumes, because there#8217;s always a chance your employer will print your resume for one reason or another. Yep! The importance of this step goes beyond just making sure your design looks its best—it#8217;s also to ensure that your resume is easy to read. At a smaller resolution, your text can look blurry, and the crucible summary, if your resume is hard to read, it#8217;s going to Rights and Responsibilities end up in the trash. Sometimes being a little weird and pushing your creativity to the limit can be a huge benefit towards making you stand out from the crowd. But other times, it can just be annoying.

A lot of designers who take the summary, high-risk/high-reward route when designing their resume get hung up on the #8220;reward#8221; part and forget the brent black public space, #8220;risk#8221; entirely. Stand out from the act 1, crowd, yes, but avoid being #8220;that person#8221; that goes down in infamy for on climate change, sending an entire resume on a jigsaw puzzle with a note that says #8220;figure me out.#8221; Believe it or not, graphic design firms are used to receiving unconventional resumes, which means you aren#8217;t being nearly as clever as you think and you run a higher risk of being annoying than adored. Creative, gimmick-based resumes can be effective, you just have to know how to reel in your ideas so that the creativity is a help, not a hindrance. The Crucible Act 1! Take the sample resume below that was sewn together using cloth. On Patients' Rights And Responsibilities! It#8217;s an original, unique idea that stands out act 1 summary, from the staples, crowd, but still has all of the pertinent information included. It#8217;d be harder for a recruiter to throw something like this away than a paper resume; this is something you#8217;d want to keep and show off. This sewn fabric graphic design resume is a cool gimmick that isn#8217;t annoying. Photo Credit: Melissa Washin. Show it off to someone who isn#8217;t a designer. There#8217;s a good chance that the person who will be reading your resume first is the crucible act 1 summary someone who works in HR, not a fellow graphic designer. Even design firms have HR people who might know enough about the business to Rights and Responsibilities in Healthcare know what to look for in an employee, but not so much that they#8217;re going to appreciate every little design idea you implement.

It#8217;s worth having a second set of eyes review your resume—this is true for any person looking for a job in any field. But in the case of graphic designers, you should try to find someone who isn#8217;t a fellow designer. This will give you a better understanding of how your resume will be received by your typical person off the the crucible act 1, street. This is brent black public space also a good litmus test for the crucible, whether or not your creativity is overwhelming your content. Ask the in Healthcare, person reviewing your resume if it#8217;s easy to act 1 read and at workplace, understand. You might even want to act 1 summary ask them what their overall impression of you would be after reading the in Healthcare, resume. Don#8217;t forget that the recruiter who receives your resume will likely skim it for information, so see if your test subject can infer the main points of your resume with a quick glance. It#8217;s always a good idea to have multiple versions of your resume available to suit any career situation you might encounter. This is the crucible summary especially important if you like to do work in certain industries or if you#8217;re particularly skilled in one area of design. Try having a standard resume that will work for any occasion and a separate resume that#8217;s specially designed for clients and dragonwings laurence yep, employers in your field of the crucible act 1, interest.

Making multiple resumes also allows you to perform A/B testing to public find out the crucible summary, which of your designs get the best response. You may find you get a great response to dragonwings laurence one resume style, while another doesn#8217;t do as well. You can then optimize your resume design so that it gets the most attention possible. Be professional when presenting your resume. Many designers make the mistake of the crucible act 1, focusing on dragonwings yep the creation of the the crucible summary, resume and preparing for an interview that they completely botch an important step in ethical dilemma at workplace, between: making contact and presenting the the crucible act 1 summary, resume. Laurence! In some cases, you#8217;ll be presenting your resume in person, either to a receptionist, an HR representative or directly to the crucible act 1 the client. No matter who you#8217;re presenting to, you want to dragonwings yep make a good first impression. The Crucible Act 1! Dress professionally, look neat and clean and be sure to conduct yourself in a polite, professional manner. Be prepared to bring a number of different materials, such as a business card or your portfolio. You never know how an initial meeting with a potential employer will go, and many times you may be asked questions or have a chance to talk briefly about the dragonwings yep, position.

Treat this like a sort of pre-interview. In other cases, you#8217;ll be submitting via e-mail, which is act 1 why it#8217;s important that you have a digital copy of your resume. The same #8220;pre-interview#8221; rules apply; you may not be making face-to-face contact, but this is your chance to make a good first impression. Structure your e-mail like a professional business letter and wherever possible, be sure to brent staples men and public address the person you#8217;re sending the resume to by name. If you don#8217;t know who will receive the resume, try your best to act 1 summary find out. If you still don#8217;t know, try using a formal title such as #8220;Dear Hiring Manager#8221; instead of something generic like #8220;To Whom It May Concern#8221; or #8220;Dear Sir or Madam.#8221; Your resume is ratio decidendi meaning never truly finished. So you#8217;ve put all the work into making your resume and you#8217;ve found a new client or two, or possibly full time employment at a design firm.

You might think that your task is complete, but there#8217;s really no #8220;complete#8221; when it comes to a graphic design resume. Keep your resume up-to-date, even when you#8217;re already working. You never know when awesome opportunities will pop up that you#8217;ll want to shoot for. Having your resume already updated and act 1, ready to go can be a big help, especially in a highly competitive industry where landing a job means being the and Responsibilities in Healthcare, first one to make an act 1 summary, impression. Every now and then, you may find yourself wanting to do a complete overhaul of in Healthcare, your resume. Maybe you#8217;ve grown so much in your career that you need more space to list your accomplishments. Or maybe you just want to update your design to better reflect your growth as a designer. Whatever the act 1, reason, it#8217;s a good idea to keep things fresh every now and then. Even the staples men and public, most impressive resume will start to lose its luster after a while. Taking the time to update your look helps to make you excited about your resume all over again—and if you#8217;re excited, recruiters will be too.

At the end of the day, you want a resume that you can stand behind—something that you like and the crucible act 1, that you think fairly and accurately represents your personal styles and essays change, tastes. You may find that what you like and what your potential employers and clients like are wildly different. But that#8217;s okay. Because sometimes recruiters will be able to look past their own personal tastes and the crucible summary, see your true potential. Essays On Climate Change! Other times, they#8217;ll pass on you and go with someone they think is the best choice for their brand. Rejection is an summary, unfortunate part of the process, but in the long run, it helps you to find a career that#8217;s the best fit for laurence yep, you. Otherwise, if you fall into a job that#8217;s not a good match you#8217;ll just be updating your resume and act 1, doing it all again in the near future. Now we want to hear from you. We want to Essay see your creative graphic design resumes, so post your samples and the crucible act 1 summary, tips in the comments below.

Who knows, maybe someone will see it and offer you a design job! Don`t neglect your friends, share this right away. Ethical At Workplace! As CEO of CompanyFolders.com, Vladimir is the crucible act 1 a knowledgeable authority in print marketing and philosophers, graphic design for the crucible, businesses. With his team of ratio meaning, designers and experts, he helps customers put forth the best possible impression with high-quality collateral. Learn more about Vladimir’s history and experience, and act 1 summary, connect with him on Google+ and Twitter. Wow this is an awesome guide!

Thank you so much for sharing this. Ethical At Workplace! I#8217;ve always told people to make sure that their resume looks good on the crucible act 1 summary a computer and in ethical at workplace, print. So many people ask for act 1 summary, digital copies now a days, but occasionally I hand out a print copy. Truly inspiring and laurence yep, superbly informative guide. As a Graphic Designer who is the crucible looking to update my resume and website that has always struggled with selling myself, I find this a great help. I shall post my results#8230;#8230; Very informative, and for us #8216;crusty ole#8217; designers this is a breath of fresh air, well done and thank you #128578; This is one of the most informative and well crafted guide about resumes. On Patients' Rights And Responsibilities! I personally think that a resume must be subtle yet still visually attractive. Here are some good examples of what I mean: http://www.creative-resume-templates.com/16-ms-word-resume-templates-with-the-professional-look/ Was misspelling #8220;spellcheckers#8221; intentional or just unfortunate happenstance?

My thoughts exactly—I am OBSESSED with spelling (even as a designer)—so the second I read #8220;spellchckers#8221; I pretty much stopped reading this article. I thought it was really great up until this point, as there are so few articles geared towards the DESIGNER when creating a resume. I truly hope the the crucible, pun was intended#8230; I have spent a lot of energy creating my designed resume, only now finding out that Applicant Tracking Systems will not read them correctly or at all. I have read that they might just get dumped before a #8220;real person#8221; will ever set eyes on it. And what makes it worse is essays change that, I was told only 19% of pdfs are considered.

There are so many defined rules that need to be met and nobody is explaining this. Only 25% of resumes are making it through this process. It makes sense because when i post my pdf the fields are not filled correctly. Even my non-formatted Word doc does not filter in right. It also explains why you see the same position several times being posted. But why not apply this to hiring, when we are now trying to get driver-less cars to the crucible act 1 summary be part of our lives. We are the essays, standard bearer of online folder printing delivering absolute quality infused with the design knowledge of an advertising agency. We guarantee the quality of our products for a lifetime.

If anything is summary less than 100% at any time, we will reprint and famous, ship replacements for the crucible, free.

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Clearing the Muddled Path of the crucible summary Traditional and Contemporary Mindfulness: a Response to Monteiro, Musten, and Compson. In their article, Monteiro, Musten and Compson ( 2015 ) explored the criticisms regarding the proliferation of contemporary mindfulness programs by attempting to represent the positions and concerns of the traditional Buddhist community. They noted that traditional Buddhists have raised alarms over the proliferation of mindfulness programs primarily because such contemporary applications have significantly diverged from canonical definitions of mindfulness as derived from the christian, vast corpus of traditional Buddhist texts and practices. The Crucible. In addition, they characterized such objections by traditional Buddhists as a groundswell of protest, particularly when concerns are raised over the absence of ethics, or sila , in clinical and nonclinical mindfulness programs. They also touch on issues pertaining to a clash of worldviews between religion and science, as well as the teaching of secular mindfulness programs in corporations and the military. Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) framed the debate, first in terms of two streams, the traditional Buddhist community (which is depicted as fiercely critical of the other stream)—namely, contemporary mindfulness, as propagated and practiced by secular and clinical mindfulness practitioners. Laurence. This framing has some merit, as the concerns raised have been the the crucible summary, subject of much debate and attention in both the black space, popular press and Buddhist blogosphere, such as Purser and Loy’s ( 2013 ) “Beyond McMindfulness,” North’s ( 2014 ) op-ed piece “The Mindfulness Backlash” in the New York Times , Thompson ( 2014 ), “The Mindfulness Wars,” Whitaker’s ( 2013 ) “2013 as the year of mindfulness: Critics and act 1 defenders,” and Roca’s ( 2014 ) “The Dark Night of the Soul.” In addition, numerous Buddhist teachers and religious studies scholars have weighed in on the medicalization and psychologization of mindfulness, considering how such reinterpretations alter the meaning, function and ends of such secular practices (Bazzano 2013 ; Brazier 2013 ; Buswell and Lopez 2014 ; Cohen 2010 ; Lopez 2012 ; Samuel 2014 ; Stanley 2013 ; Thanissaro 2012 ; Wallace 2007 ). In addition to analyzing and describing the trend towards the decontextualization of mindfulness and the role it plays within an integrated Buddhist path of liberation, a number of scholars have also described, perhaps more importantly, how contemporary mindfulness applications have undergone a refashioning and make over in order to accommodate the at workplace, needs of Western society deeply rooted in individualism, consumer capitalism, along with its pragmatic demands for tangible and worldly benefits (McMahan 2008 ; Schedneck 2013 ; Stanley 2013 ; Wilson 2014 ). “…I do not think we need be alarmed about the adaptation of Buddhist practices for the crucible act 1, secular ends. I call to mind a statement the Buddha made in the weeks before his death: ‘The Tathagata has no closed fist of a teacher with respect to ethical teachings.’ By this he meant that he had taught everything important without holding back any esoteric doctrines, but I like to interpret his words to mean that we can let anyone take from the Dhamma whatever they find useful even if it is for secular purposes.” In their characterization of “a growing and sometimes-fraught debate” between traditional and contemporary mindfulness, Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) apparently have chosen to the crucible act 1 omit the equally numerous criticisms and defensive retorts coming from brent staples black public, contemporary mindfulness advocates (Goldstein 2013 ; Halliwell 2011 ; Hunter 2013 ; Nicklebine 2013 ; Segal 2013 ), which have not been exactly congenial to the traditional Buddhist community. More importantly, this narrow framing of the issues serves to deflect attention away from the “mystification” of mindfulness, a term Wilson ( 2014 ) has recently used to the crucible act 1 summary describe the intentional rhetorical tactics and processes involved in extracting and uprooting mindfulness from its grounding in a religious tradition, informed not only on a foundation of morality and ethics, but which is motivated by soteriological aims for the cessation of dukkha , liberation from samsara , and a compassionate commitment to brent black men and space act for the welfare of the crucible act 1 summary all sentient beings. Famous Philosophers. It is this process of mystification that also accounts for the widespread misconception in summary, the West that Buddhist practice is essays on climate change, synonymous with mindfulness meditation.

Such cultural appropriation was of course the outgrowth of the mainstreaming mindfulness for clinical and the crucible act 1 summary non-Buddhist populations, a movement that has now come to permeate the mass media with its appeal as a convenient remedy for the everyday stresses and anxieties of the Western consumer. Mixed Messages of Contemporary Mindfulness. Another problem in this categorization scheme is that while contemporary mindfulness is essays, defined as “all forms of mindfulness programs that are not explicitly based in Buddhist practice” (Monteiro et al. 2015 , p. 1), the most established, popular, and researched clinical program, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), now advertises its training and curriculum “as a vehicle for embodying and transmitting the the crucible act 1 summary, dharma in a wholly secular and universal idiom. It is a recontextualizing of dharma, not a decontextualizing of it” Center for Mindfulness ( 2014 ). Williams and Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 , p. 15) have even gone so far to say that MBSR and MBIs are a recontextualization of the Buddhist teachings in all of their “essential fullness.”. In fact, the preface statement to the standards and principles expected of a MBSR teacher explicitly makes mention of the fact that MBSR derives much of black its approach from the crucible summary, Buddhist practices, underscoring that mindfulness is “the heart of ratio meaning Buddhist meditation.” Prospective MBSR teachers are expected “to be a committed student of the dharma, as it is expressed both within the Buddhist meditation traditions and in more mainstream and the crucible universal contexts exemplified by MBSR” (Center for Mindfulness 2014 ). This strong requirement—to be committed to the dharma, with an on climate explicit emphasis on Buddhist meditation—is qualified, however, by a curious exemption clause: “This has nothing to do with being or not being a Buddhist” (Center for Mindfulness 2014 ). How should one make sense of the crucible act 1 these mystifying statements? It appears that MBSR teacher training is indeed explicitly based in meaning, Buddhist meditative practice and in a Buddhist context; its teachers are expected to act 1 be committed to the “dharma” and undertake long, 7–10-day silent retreats, preferably in the Western Buddhist vipassana tradition. At a meeting of MBSR teachers in change, Northern California, Saki Santorelli, the Executive Director for the Center for Mindfulness, emphasized the need for the crucible summary, more in-depth teacher training and declared that the Center for Mindfulness (CFM) is in the business of training dharma teachers.

And a senior MBSR teacher-trainer at the CFM has adamantly stated, “I really feel MBSR is not secular …” and dilemma at workplace that “MBSR is very spiritual and holy. If you look inside the curriculum you will find it is act 1, inspired from the essence and in Healthcare heart of the Dhamma.” Cullen ( 2011 ), a seasoned MBSR teacher, identified MBIs as a new lineage and an emergent stream of a “new American dharma,” one that is widely accessible, non-dogmatic, and pragmatic. Given the explicit use of such terms as “dharma,” “spiritual,” “holy,” and “lineage” by the crucible summary, these senior MBSR teachers, these declarations do not exactly have a secular ring but border on the evangelical. Dilemma. Indeed, the juxtaposition of the “traditional” versus the “contemporary” mindfulness streams appears to be blurred and questionable, if not, misguided. It is understandable, however, why Monteiro et al. would subscribe to such a polarization between the two streams, as well as the ambiguous stance the Center for act 1 summary, Mindfulness has towards Buddhism as a tradition and religious practice. First, distinguishing contemporary from traditional (Buddhist) mindfulness is dependent upon a selective reading of clinical mindfulness programs, particularly MBSR. This is ratio decidendi, due to the fact that MBSR is usually presented as wholly secular, medical, scientific, evidenced-based clinical program, devoid of any religious affiliations. And this emphasis on the secular and scientific is certainly the the crucible act 1 summary, case when mindfulness-based programs are targeted for implementation in public schools, or in seeking grant funding from federal agencies such as National Institute of Health (NIH) and the Department of Defense (DoD).

In these cases, advocates engage in self-censorship, taking care not to emphasize the Buddhist connections. In other words, depending on the recipient, MBSR is billed, on the one hand, as an either wholly secular and contemporary program, or on the other hand, as a sacred, spiritual, and holy practice—a faithful recontextualization of the dharma. Brent Staples Black Men And. In attempting to have it both ways, MBSR has succeeded in extending its scope and reach, but at the expense of an impending identity crisis. The chameleon and shape-shifting nature of MBSR’s public face is a growing source of confusion. The Crucible Act 1 Summary. Training for MBSR teachers explicitly draws from Buddhist sources (albeit in a highly modified and truncated fashion), and its senior teachers have even declared MBIs are a new transmission of the dharma. Christian Philosophers. Many Western Buddhist centers (mostly Western Insight Meditation and some progressive Zen centers) even offer MBSR courses alongside traditional Buddhist classes.

Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 , p. 12) has even referred to MBSR and the crucible act 1 other related MBIs as “Dharma based portals.” Despite this intermingling, there is still an intentional distancing from Buddhism as a faith tradition, which should come as no surprise, since in laurence yep, a secular society, many consider religious traditions to the crucible act 1 summary be suspect—the legacy of outdated, corrupt, and authoritarian premodern institutions. CFM’s qualifying statement that MBSR teacher training, “…has nothing to do with being or not being a Buddhist” (Center for essays on climate change, Mindfulness 2014 ) can also be seen even within Western Buddhism. Because Monteiro et al. have focused on the extreme end of a spectrum that they label as traditional Buddhism, they failed to the crucible act 1 summary consider the middle ground of contemporary Western Buddhism—which has already distanced itself from laurence yep, religious Buddhism. In fact, in many Western neo-vipassana centers, one can be a Buddhist practitioner without having to become a Buddhist. The taking of Buddhist vows in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha (the traditional ceremony of Buddhist conversion) is generally not offered in such centers nor on act 1 summary meditation retreats, and the taking of Buddhist ethical precepts is usually limited to while one is on a retreat, rather than as a commitment to the whole of one’s life. “…mindfulness continues to operate in a religious or quasi-religious fashion, despite its advocates’ frequent insistence that it is not the case (or, at least, need not be) connected to religion. As we’ve seen, religion and values are downplayed by mindfulness authors to garner large audiences—but in many cases, the reason they want an audience in the first place is because they are convinced that mindfulness and famous other elements derived from Buddhism have a real ability to alleviate suffering (the goal of religious Buddhism)….Mindfulness is connected to a whole set of self-disciplinary and lifestyle practices that are given moral weight by their promoters.

Even if we accept the the crucible, protestations of many advocates that mindfulness is not a religion per se, it is nonetheless doing the work of religions.” “…such spiritually-laden language appears to be incongruent with the general presentation and famous philosophers conceptualization of MBIs in the crucible act 1 summary, relation to their operationalization within clinical settings. Thus, the identity of MBIs as well as their primary underlying “intention” (i.e., a means of improving psychosomatic well-being or a tool for spiritual development) appears to be slightly confused, and this is potentially confusing for service-users.” “Although, I am aware that sometimes, the presenters of mindfulness practices on the one hand, want to argue this [mindfulness] has nothing to do with Buddhism, it is secular…but at the same time, they want to argue this is the essence of the Buddhist teachings. I’ve often told them, you know, you cannot have it both ways. At Workplace. It is either secular, or you want to say its the essence of Buddhism, therefore it's a Buddhist practice. You cannot have it both ways.” This phenomenon of “dual identities” may have legal implications in terms of an evasion of act 1 summary professional accountability and a potential violation of informed consent laws. As Brown ( 2013 ) pointed out, there is ratio decidendi meaning, a growing controversy that Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM) providers may not be meeting the reasonable-person standard providing service users (clients) the information necessary to the crucible summary make informed decisions. Because both MBSR and MBIs can be considered forms of CAM, providing only information limited to medical risks is laurence yep, insufficient. Religious affiliations, ties or content must also be fully disclosed since these factors have bearing on the crucible act 1 patients “long-range goals and values,” which can include religious commitments (Brown 2013 , p. 201). When contemporary mindfulness providers communicate that their treatments have nothing to do with Buddhism, they are engaging in self-censorship and a tactic of what sociologists refer to as “camouflage” (Brown 2013 , p. 209).

Brown ( 2013 , p. On Climate. 209) described this communicative strategy as “elaborative techniques of concealing and gradual exposure.” A good example of such a flagrant bait-and-switch camouflage technique can be seen in tactics used to recruit new Scientology cult members with the pseudo-scientific “E-meter stress test.” The camouflage tactic of act 1 promoting contemporary mindfulness as exclusively and purely secular and scientifically based is used to appeal to brent staples space a segment of the population would consider Buddhism incompatible or even a threat to their own religious beliefs. The Crucible. This failure of ethical dilemma at workplace full disclosure may fall short of meeting the standards of the crucible summary informed consent, which legally and ethically requires whether such a treatment may, according to attorney Richard Steinecke, “offend a religious, ethical or personal belief of the patient” (Brown 2013 , p. 208). Meaning. According to the reasonable-person standard of informed consent, protecting patient rights requires respecting the personal autonomy of patients to make their own decisions and, in order to do so, they must have access to the necessary information that is material to their decision making. Drawing from the work of summary ethicist Beauchamp ( 2010 ), Brown ( 2013 , p. 201) reiterated his main premise that “patients cannot intentionally participate in CAM without understanding the consequences of their actions for both health and religion.” “Jon Kabat-Zinn minimizes spiritual vocabulary during his eight-week mindfulness-based stress reduction classes. But as students graduate, he recommends that they find an ongoing meditation group such as an Insight Meditation Society, an staples black space organization that Kabat-Zinn describes as having “a slightly Buddhist orientation” (p. 209). One reason why Kabat-Zinn and his MBSR teachers are so adamant that ethics remain “implicit” in their curriculum is that it is part of the crucible act 1 summary this camouflage strategy. In order to cast the widest possible net and “mainstream” mindfulness, an explicit commitment to ethics and famous philosophers or any appearance of religious affiliations with Buddhism would compromise that strategy. The camouflage strategy is particularly salient as MBSR and other MBIs are frequently offered to a vulnerable population, especially when such cases also involve experimental research.

Brown ( 2013 ) argued that in such instances “therapeutic misconception” may be occurring, whereas the patients who are consenting to the crucible such mindfulness treatments believe they are receiving medically and scientifically based therapies, when in reality they are gradually be introduced to religious practices, without full disclosure or informed consent. Even if such disclosure was forthcoming, Shonin et al. ( 2013 p. Essays On Climate Change. 3) also pointed out the claims that MBIs are “grounded” in the Buddhist teachings, or other such language as being “inspired” or “informed” by Buddhism, need to be honest and forthright in that such adaptations are “by no means congruent with the summary, traditional Buddhist perspective.” Up until now, MBSR and MBIs have maintained that the ethical dimension of their treatment is covered already by professional standards (such as the Hippocratic Oath), especially if such service providers are licensed psychotherapists or health service providers. However, many ethicists have criticized the decidendi meaning, professional practice standard as being inadequate in providing full disclosure of act 1 non-medical risks. Questioning the Buddhist Roots of Contemporary Mindfulness. Monteiro et al. devoted a considerable amount of time expounding on the function and brent black public space purpose of the Eightfold Path as a means for understanding behaviors and attitudes that are skillful and wholesome, as well as for contextualizing and defining right mindfulness ( samma sati ). They went on to make the claim that Eightfold Path could best be understood not only as a set of guidelines for the development of skillful conduct, meditative concentration, and wisdom but also as an universal cosmic law of act 1 nature.

They claimed that the Eightfold Path is actually a causal law of nature, “not an invention of the Buddha or any other teacher, any more than gravity, for example, was the invention of christian Newton” (Monteiro et al. 2015 ). While their source for this claim is derived from (Gethin 2001 , p. 220), their cherry picking and further extrapolations derived from this passage are quite problematic for a number of the crucible reasons. First, Gethin ( 2001 , p. 225) later clarified (in the same chapter that Monteiro et al. referenced) that the Noble Eightfold Path ( ariyo atthangiko maggo ) “was always primarily conceived of Essay on Patients' and Responsibilities in Healthcare as a way of practicing or of going along …” and that the eight factors of the path have always been “thought of as eight items that are to be collectively brought to rightness.” Gethin went on to point out that in the early stages of the path, the aspirant learns to abandon wrong views, which is still at the level of “ordinary right view.” At this stage, the aspirant still has many doubts as to whether the path will ultimately lead to the crucible summary the cessation of suffering. It is not until the aspirant develops supermundane right view, which is on Patients' Rights in Healthcare, considered noble, that the aspirant dispels all doubt, knowing with full confidence that the the crucible summary, path truly does deliver on its promise. Such a conversion experience is also known in the Pali literature as becoming a “stream-enterer” ( sotapanna ), which is Rights and Responsibilities, actually characterized, according to Gethin ( 2001 , p. 225) “as one who has complete trust ( avecca - ppasada ) in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha, as one who has overcome doubt.” Clearly, developing complete trust in the three jewels implies a direct knowledge of, and deep commitment to, the the crucible, Buddhist teachings. Monteiro et al.’s ( 2015 , p. Staples Black Space. 3) assertion “…but there is no reason in summary, principle why familiarity with explicitly ‘Buddhist’ teachings are a necessary condition for such liberation” is in brent men and space, direct contradiction to the crucible act 1 summary Gethin’s account of the ratio, stream-enterer on the path to act 1 liberation is one who develops “has complete trust in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.” Second, the comparison of the Eightfold Path as a universal and causal law of nature, not unlike that of gravity, is a faulty analogy. Change. Surely, the natural laws of gravity existed prior to Newton’s formulations, but the premise that the the crucible act 1 summary, specifics of the eight-path factors are eternal, universal, and cosmic laws operating on human beings in a similar fashion as gravity causes apples to fall from a tree is to at workplace commit a category error.

There are similar tropes often trotted out by the contemporary mindfulness community, such as we need not become believers in Islam in the crucible act 1, order to on Patients' Rights and Responsibilities in Healthcare use algebra, or become converts to Hinduism in order to the crucible act 1 summary use subtraction, or that there is no such thing as a Christian physics. Decidendi Meaning. These analogies are often used as attempts to defend cultural appropriation of mindfulness from Buddhist sources while simultaneously disavowing any affiliation and connections to Buddhism. The reason such analogies are faulty is summary, because science and its natural laws are not a cultural enterprise (Coseru 2014 ). Cultural artifacts, in this case, the formulation of the Noble Eightfold Path by the Buddha, is not amenable to, nor can be reduced to, scientific explanation. Gravity, algebra, and subtraction are not “cultural” artifacts nor are they culturally determined. As Coseru ( 2014 , p. Famous Christian. 1) pointed out, “the principles of mathematics [or laws of act 1 gravity] apply regardless of religious beliefs or cultural norms” and that there is a world of difference between the domains of scientific inquiry and at workplace culturally determined human values and endeavors. Whereas scientific laws are descriptive of the the crucible act 1, fundamental principles operative in the physical universe, human values are concerned “with what humans do, that is, with cultural practices writ large.” “Beethoven’s 9th symphony is not truer than Mozart’s, Jazz is not truer than classical music, and mindfulness meditation is philosophers, not truer than contemplative prayer because truth is not their currency, at least not scientific truth. As symbolic species, we have a tendency to imbue everything we do with meaning, and to act 1 seek meaning in everything we do. That is why we have social and on Patients' Rights cultural institutions. I don't mean to suggest that scientific inquiries and the kind of inquiries we pursue in act 1 summary, the humanities and ethical the social sciences should be kept apart, just that phenomena that fall under one description are not amenable to the crucible act 1 summary descriptions in other domains.”

Moreover, where lawfulness does operate in accordance with the Buddhadharma, it is that which pertains to the operation of karma and its results (extending across lives) and in the relation of the practices to the results of practice. But properly, these are matters that are described as paccatta veditabbo vinnuhi —“to be realized personally by the wise” (Bodhi 2014c ). They are not matters publicly demonstrable such as the physical laws of gravity (Bodhi 2014c ). By making an appeal to universality, Monteiro et al. appear to making a case for a “trans-historical Buddhism,” one which is immune to social, cultural, and historical contexts, thereby making it portable and adaptable for any secular purpose (Ivy 2005 ). Their claim that the “outcome of the training transcends Buddhist teachings” is not new (Monteiro et al. 2015 , p. 3); in fact, it can be traced directly to Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 ) assertions that the “dharma” is analogous to the fundamental physical laws of the universe, coupled with the claim that MBSR is the essence of a “universal dharma.” For example, Kabat-Zinn ( 2011b , p. Change. 57) exclaimed, “The word Dharma refers to both the teachings of the Buddha and also the way things are, the fundamental lawfulness of the universe. So although the Buddha articulated the Dharma, the Dharma itself cannot be Buddhist any more than the law of gravity is English because of Newton or Italian because of Galileo. It is the crucible act 1 summary, a universal lawfulness.” This statement resonates with other similar talking points that Kabat-Zinn has made both in writings and in public lectures, such as “the Buddha was not a Buddhist.” “The Buddha wasn’t a Buddhist….we turn the essays on climate, Buddha into some big thing.

But his fundamental teaching, you can think of him as more as a scientist, like a Galileo or an Einstein—with very, very deep insight into the nature of his own experience. But from the point of view of mindfulness, and although it is spoken of as the heart of Buddhist meditation, it’s about summary, paying attention. How Buddhist is and Responsibilities, that? It’s about awareness, how Buddhist is the crucible act 1, that? It’s about loving-kindness, how Buddhist is that? Or compassion? So, if we drop into its essence [mindfulness], which has always been its essence, then those kinds of questions are second-order. Dilemma At Workplace. It’s not like we are secretly trying to turn everyone into Buddhists, as if that was our hidden agenda.” In the the crucible act 1 summary, above public statements, it is decidendi meaning, apparent that Kabat-Zinn distances mindfulness from its Buddhist roots, arguing that the mental states and act 1 qualities resulting from the dilemma, practice of mindfulness meditation—such as paying attention, awareness, loving-kindness, and compassion—are not exclusive to the Buddhist domain.

This rhetorical strategy tracks with Wilson’s ( 2014 ) analysis of how the cultural appropriation of the crucible mindfulness is a progressive, multi-stage process. As Wilson pointed out, first Buddhism was made more palatable by singling out mindfulness as the heart of Buddhism, making Buddhism itself more marketable to the West. The next stage involves purging Buddhism and any overt associations to Buddhism in order to promote and sell mindfulness. This purging of Buddhism in order to promote secular mindfulness has rested squarely on the way the term “Dharma” has been appropriated by Kabat-Zinn. Dharma has a wide range of meanings including “law,” “truth,” “righteousness,” and “doctrine” (Davis 2004 , p. 21). However, as Davis ( 2004 , p. 22) pointed out, the decision to appropriate this term as a stand alone essence of the Buddhist teachings, as well as strategic means for purging its association with the Buddhist path, reduces its meaning to laurence yep mainly its philosophical and psychological aspects. In fact, Davis argued that this rhetorical move negates and discounts a crucial aspect of how the dhamma was conceived and taught in the crucible act 1, many of the Buddha’s discourses, which emphasized the application of the Dhamma - Vinaya —which “refer specifically to the restraint of a person’s unskillful mental and physical activity, and the cultivation of skillful mental and activity, for the purpose of developing insight and thus gaining total liberation from staples black public, suffering” (Davis 2004 , p. 22). There are a number of passages in the Pali Tipitaka where the Buddha makes it very clear that he taught the “Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata” (Bodhi 2014a ). “Mindfulness is an English word, not a foreign Sanskrit, Pali, or other Asian term.

It can be used comfortably without any indication of being specifically Buddhist, and therefore was of use for Kabat-Zinn’s agenda. The Crucible. At the same time, he intended mindfulness to mean not only awareness and decidendi meditation but also a shorthand for the Buddhist tradition, so that Buddhism could be brought into non-Buddhist settings by simply substituting a different word that would not set off alarm bells. Arguably, then, when Kabat-Zinn speaks of mindfulness-based stress reduction he in fact means Buddhist-Based (or at the crucible act 1 least Dharma-Based) Stress Reduction, given this intended double definition of mindfulness” (italics in original). At the Buddhism in America conference, Kabat-Zinn explained his view: “The Dharma, to me, is pointing to something that really is famous christian philosophers, universal … The cultural and ideological overlays, and the historical elements of the crucible act 1 summary [Buddhism], beautiful and honorable and wonderful as they are, are not necessarily the heart of the Dharma, which transcends them.” However, the essays, premise that the “Dharma” can be extracted from the Buddhadharma, and essentialized, is the crucible act 1 summary, equivalent to closed system thinking (Wilden 1980 ). No system, especially the teachings of the Dharma, is ever totally closed, or ever totally independent. Moreover, the notion of a universal “essence” actually contradicts one of the core Buddhist teachings of no-self nature, or annatta , for an essence assumes the characteristic of a “thing” independent of interactions, relationships and a social-historical context. In many respects, Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 ) and Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) fall prey to the belief that contemporary mindfulness is a universal, “noncultural” form of Buddhism, reflective of a collective blind spot among North Americans to downplay the importance of culture. Sociologists have pointed out that for most North Americans, culture and its effects on them, are largely invisible and hidden from view (Bellah 1985 ; Stewart and Bennett 1991 ). This tendency to downplay or minimize the cultural dimension shows up in dragonwings laurence, the contemporary mindfulness movement’s celebration of the crucible personal freedom, authenticity, and the emphasis on the primacy of the individual as the sole moral agent and source of ethical dilemma authority. “One possible irony of the mindfulness movement is that it emerged in part from movements that desired to reform Buddhism and get back to its original, authentic teachings of the historical Buddha.

Many early Western authors espouse a radically modified form of Buddhism pruned of what they call “Asian trappings” that were accumulated by supposedly “impure mixtures” of the crucible basic Buddhism with local cultural traditions and famous christian philosophers outside religions, such as Confucianism or animistic cults. ….Yet, this newly pared-down Buddhism that supposedly returns to Indian roots is eminently prepared to be applied to the worldly cultural concerns of Americans, especially those in the middle-class, mainly white communities that have dominated the public conversation over what American Buddhism should be. ….Thus the the crucible act 1 summary, immense popularity of mindfulness does not represent, as its proponents sometimes allege, a universal, noncultural Buddhism. Essay On Patients' Rights In Healthcare. Instead, the application of act 1 summary mindfulness to so many aspects of American culture is in fact clearly yet another “practical benefits” approach to Buddhism, pursued in this case by American Buddhists and sympathizers. Though some believe they have done away with “attachment-based” utilizations of Buddhism, in fact their stripped-down approach makes aspects of Buddhism available for attachment to new culture-specific concerns such as overeating, wasteful consumption, parenting difficulties, and workplace stress—so available, in fact, that many of the people developing such applications are not Buddhists themselves.” In tracing the development of the laurence yep, contemporary understanding of mindfulness, Monteiro et al. Summary. ( 2015 ) turn to Sharf’s ( 2013 ) critique of “Buddhist modernism,” linking the Essay on Patients' and Responsibilities, therapeutic turn in the crucible act 1 summary, mindfulness to the Theravada revival movement of the early twentieth century. Dilemma At Workplace. Sharf’s critique, however, went beyond establishing such a link, as he also provided historical examples that show the secularization of mindfulness/meditation reaches much farther back in Buddhist history. For example, Sharf traced the notions of “bare attention” and the crucible summary “present-centered awareness” to other historical instances besides the Theravada reform movements, particularly the ratio meaning, popularization of Chan meditation in eighth-century China. The Crucible Act 1. In this latter case, Sharf noted that some Zen (Chan) sects promoted a method of meditation to the laity—a method that emphasized dwelling within present moment experience with promises of a fast-track to liberation. However, a number of Zen reformers, such as Dahui, were vehemently critical of this method of meaning “present-centered awareness,” and considered it to the crucible act 1 summary be a form of “meditation sickness,” whereby the meditator becomes passively content with quiescence, losing interest in and responsiveness to the suffering of the world. Sharf’s critique revealed that even in the Buddhist world, mindfulness meditation has been decontextualized and stripped of its moral and philosophical theories, and that such critiques have been commonplace among Buddhists reformers for at least a millennia.

There are also a number of historical inaccuracies regarding the Theravada reform movement that are in need of black men and public correction. While Mahasi Sayadaw is act 1, often attributed to be the forerunner of the ethical at workplace, Theravada vispassana reform movement, his role was paved by many prominent Burmese monks before him, such as the notable Ledi Sayadaw (Braun 2013 ). Mahasi Sayadaw was also an accomplished textual scholar who had a full mastery of Buddhist doctrine (Bodhi 2014b ). He certainly would not have downplayed ritual for ordinary Buddhist practice, but during his meditation retreat rituals were not conducted. Thus, he was quite different from the secular proponents of modern mindfulness. Even S.N. Goenka, who might also be considered a “Buddhist modernist,” actually incorporated ritual into his meditation courses, with chanting and his invocation of the blessings of the “Bodhi Dhatu, Nirvana Dhatu” upon the crucible act 1 summary the meditators at the beginning of each day’s practice. Moreover, neither Buddhist modernism nor Mahasi Sayadaw were responsible for the “dry insight” method which bypassed development of the jhanas . Meaning. The path of the bare insight practitioner is already found in the Visuddhimagga and the Pali commentaries. For intensive meditation practice in any tradition, intricate doctrinal instruction may not be not given, but an accomplished Buddhist teacher will guide the students on the basis of summary his own knowledge of doctrine through the christian, stages of development. In the case of the Mahasi method, bare mindfulness of the present is the starting point of the practice, but with the progress of the practice the student is the crucible, guided into ratio meaning the stages of the crucible act 1 summary insight according to the classical model laid out in texts like the Patisambhidamagga and the Visuddhimagga (Bodhi 2014b ). Contrary to Monteiro et al.’s ( 2015 ) claim that the ethical at workplace, Theravada reform movement required no familiarity with Buddhist philosophy or traditional commentarial texts such as the Abhidhamma , one the foremost pioneers and leaders of act 1 summary this movement, Ledi Sayadaw, was a strong advocate for systematic study, textual learning, particularly the Essay on Patients' Rights and Responsibilities, Abhidhamma , on the part of the act 1, laity (Braun 2013 ). While it is true that both Mahasi Sayadaw and Ledi Sayadaw downplayed the cultivation of concentration ( samadhi ), they stressed meditation as a practice depended on textual learning.

The de-emphasis on learning and guidance from traditional Buddhist commentaries occurred after it was imported by brent staples black public, American insight meditation teachers. Cultivation of Therapeutic Well-Being vs. a Transformative Vision of Moral Engagement. The description and function which Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) provided of contemporary mindfulness-based interventions is essentially therapeutic, with an overall focus on the crucible summary the cultivation of individual well-being. They presented a components model of mindfulness-based interventions targeted to MBIs that have their origins in MBSR and which are claimed to have connections to “Buddhist principles” of practice. They also include mindfulness-based mind fitness training (MMFT), which is a recent adaptation of MBSR for christian, delivering pre-deployment mindfulness programs to military personnel. The first component is described as “contemplative practices that are spiritual and/or religious” and as serving to “center us, bring us away from mental dispersal, and connect us with our immediate experience.” Typically, these practices consist of a combination of act 1 sitting and walking meditations. They are clear that such contemplative practices are adapted for participants in MBIs courses. These adaptations are significant, both in function and purpose, as evident by the aim as described: to famous christian philosophers connect individuals with their immediate, present-moment experience.

Describing the the crucible act 1, meditative practice of MBIs as a means of “centering” and reducing “mental dispersal,” appears to change be equivalent to reducing mental ruminations about the the crucible summary, past and future in order to at workplace enhance the connection with immediate experience. Viewed as a therapeutic modality for sensory enhancement, contemplative practice is construed as focusing on everyday activities to cultivate a mode of the crucible summary attentiveness for dealing with the stresses and anxieties of ordinary life (Purser 2014 ). Perhaps the signature example of this mode of mindfulness-as-sensory enhancement is the ethical dilemma, mindful eating of a raisin, the first MBSR exercise introduced in the beginning of an the crucible summary eight-week program. The mindful of famous christian eating the raisin brings the immediacy of experience back to the crucible summary life; the on Patients' Rights and Responsibilities, participant comes to know and appreciate the raisin in summary, a different way by focusing attention on the sensations of eating it. This mode of contemplative practice focuses on the epistemological aspect of meditation. The self-as-knower engages in a meditative practice that results in men and, a sensory enhancement of the immediacy of experience and which, in no doubt, has therapeutic benefits. Buddhist contemplative practices also focus on the epistemological dimensions of experience, particularly those whose purpose and function is to enhance concentration and mental stability (e.g., s amatha , calm abiding). However, such concentration practices are often considered as foundational supports or preliminaries to the development of insight and wisdom. The practice of insight meditation, along with other related practices whose purpose are the act 1 summary, development of essays change wisdom, or prajna , are aimed to effect a fundamental ontological shift in being and radical transformation of the self, or the one who knows. The outcome is not merely therapeutic in nature (sensory enhancement in the service of act 1 individual well-being or stress reduction) but the laurence, emergence of a radical transformation in one’s vision of reality coupled with a spontaneous moral engagement with the world.

However, there is another epistemological aspect of the crucible summary Buddhist philosophy (and by ethical at workplace, implication Buddhist meditative practices), which has to do with a fundamental error of perception. This perceptual error is the crucible summary, often referred to as “basic or fundamental ignorance,” but such a translation falls short in explicating the innate and reflexive perceptual process that is also considered the root cause of dukkha (and for now, this term will not be rendered or translated as “suffering,” which will become more apparent later). Basic ignorance, or delusion, is derived from the Sanskrit term avidya (in Tibetan ma - rig - pa ). The antonym is vidya , which is often translated as “seeing.” However, in this context, it refers to the perceptual capacity for clearly seeing the true nature of reality and things as they are (this includes subjects and objects), that is, as impermanent, interdependent and lacking any intrinsic reality (Garfield 2015 , p. 26). “ Dukkha , however, is caused by christian philosophers, a perceptual process. The Crucible. It is dragonwings laurence yep, not that we engage with the world, or contemplate ourselves, and infer or decide that we or the things around us are permanent, independent and have identifiable intrinsic natures. Summary. Rather, we take the famous philosophers, world and ourselves to be like that in our immediate perceptual engagement.

Perception itself is therefore shot through with reification.” As Garfield made clear, the perceptual process is tainted and distorted by act 1, the superimposition of reification; a process that is not in the conscious domain of a cognitive skill or even philosophical analysis. In fact, Garfield preferred the term “primal confusion,” to better describe avidya , delusion or basic ignorance. The Buddhist path culminating in the development of brent men and public space wisdom is aimed to the crucible dispel primal confusion by developing and cultivating the power of ratio decidendi insight to uproot the innate and latent tendencies that infiltrates the perceptual processes leading to the reification of both self and objects. Thus, the cessation of dukkha requires a thoroughgoing reorientation, facilitated by the crucible, the orchestrated synergies of the entire Noble Eightfold Path—aimed at the deepest strata of ontology in order to effect a fundamental transformation in epistemology. In contrast, according to dilemma at workplace Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ), the act 1 summary, reduction of suffering, allegedly through Buddhist-based concepts, amounts to the cultivation of men and public space “experiential awareness” (isn’t all awareness experiential?), but such concepts, they went on to add, are not at all unique to Buddhism—they are also operative in such psychotherapeutic approaches as Gendlin’s focusing therapy, which also trains clients to be attentive to their bodily felt sensations. It should be apparent by now why it is so important to clarify exactly what is meant by the crucible act 1 summary, “Buddhist philosophy” in order to understand both the decidendi meaning, commonalities as well as the major points of act 1 summary departure between contemporary and traditional mindfulness.

Moreover, because the term “Buddhism” is a modern invention of christian European orientalists, and summary is far from being monolithic, making sweeping claims to “Buddhist philosophy” without contextualizing such claims is fraught with perils. The tendency to laurence date has been towards a cross-cultural conflation and an uncritical transposition of the crucible act 1 Buddhist terms, principles and concepts from the religious domain into clinical and therapeutic contexts. This is problematic as many Buddhist terms have a wide semantic range and ratio their intended meaning, role and function can only be understood within their respective religious and historical contexts, which means taking into account their embeddedness within a soteriology and the crucible act 1 summary systematic path oriented towards liberation and awakening. There are a number of examples of where such linguistic and conceptual conflation is resulting in what Rosch ( 2007 , p. 259) referred to as a “confusion of levels.” For example, Dorjee ( 2010 ) made an brent staples black public space important distinction regarding the role of mindfulness as a precursor to, and as a separate mental faculty from, the development of wisdom and insight. She distinguished the therapeutic mechanisms of MBSR, such as “decentering” and summary deautomatization of mental events, from the higher stages of the meta-awareness of mind that are developed during the fourth foundation of mindfulness as practiced within Theravada Buddhist tradition. Essays Change. In this latter stage of advanced mindfulness training, well after the attention has been stabilized and refined ( samadhi ), there is often a pronounced dissolution of the subtle sense of the crucible act 1 “I, me or mine” and a deep insight into nature of the codependent origination (Dorjee 2010 ; Olendzki 2010 . Similarly, such advanced levels of mind-training can be found in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, which culminates in the arising of wisdom and pristine awareness ( rigpa ) (Wallace 2012 ). This dimension of the mind is radiant, luminous and clear, and transcends the six modes of consciousness (the five physical senses and the ordinary mental consciousness). It is famous, known in act 1, Theravadin commentaries as the pure “ground of becoming” ( bhavanga ), and also manifests during dreamless sleep and at the moment of death (Wallace 2012 ). In the Tibetan tradition, this experience of non-dual awareness is no longer even viewed as “mindfulness.” When words and ethical at workplace phrases such as “insight,” “wisdom,” “witnessing,” “ dukkha ” “seeing things as they are,” and the crucible act 1 summary “direct perception” are lifted out of a Buddhist context and reused in Western therapeutic mindfulness discourse, their meanings change significantly. Perhaps the staples black men and space, most conflated term and overused phrase in the crucible summary, usage in a therapeutic mindfulness context is “insight” and ratio decidendi “seeing things as they really are.” Dorjee ( 2010 ) pointed out that within the the crucible, therapeutic mindfulness context, “insight” is more descriptive of the decentered perspective on our thoughts and feelings, or what Wallace and Shapiro ( 2006 ) referred to as “reperceiving.” This signifies taking a more detached stance in relation to christian philosophers one’s thoughts and feelings. The Crucible Act 1. This is a very different level of insight as compared with how the term is used within the Theravada tradition, which, as alluded to earlier, is more descriptive of a penetrating insight into the three characteristics of impermanence ( annica ), not-self ( anatta ), and all conditioned phenomena as suffering ( dukkha ), accompanied by “a complete dissolution of an ethical independent self” (Dorjee 2010 ). Both Dorjee ( 2010 ) and the crucible act 1 summary Rosch ( 2007 ) also called attention to how the decentered perspective that is developed in MBSR (an eight week program) is often conflated and dragonwings laurence confused with some of the most advanced meditative states in the Buddhist traditions, including Dzogchen. This can be seen in summary, the discourse among numerous Western mindfulness authors such as Bishop et al. ( 2004 ), Brown et al. ( 2007 ), Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 ), and Teasdale et al. ( 2002 ) who are fond of the phrase “seeing things as they really are.” However, in a Buddhist context, this refers to the penetrating insight into dragonwings laurence the three characteristics and a complete dissolution of the “observer-observed” dichotomy.

In a clinical and contemporary mindfulness context it is spoken of in a more generalized and therapeutic sense, describing a basic recognition and ability to detach from the act 1 summary, contents of mental events. Rosch ( 2007 , p. 263) characterized these distinctions in terminology as being descriptive of relative sanity in a therapeutic context versus the Buddhist wisdom-insight developed through prolonged periods of advanced meditative practices. This trend towards linguistic conflation extends to the meditative practice domain, in which case, traditional Buddhist practices are refashioned, modified or completely changed to such an extent that they bear little similarity to their original function and purpose. Essay And Responsibilities In Healthcare. What remains is a reductionistic form of Crypto-Buddhism. For example, MBSR utilizes the “body scan” which is proclaimed to be based on the first foundation of mindfulness practice, as found in the Satipa ?? hana sutta ( Discourse on the Foundation of Mindfulness ). Cullen ( 2011 ) made the the crucible act 1 summary, claims “Perhaps it is important to on Patients' Rights and Responsibilities reiterate here that MBSR is informed by and grounded in the application of the four foundations of the crucible summary mindfulness and the view that mindfulness, as taught in this program, has elements of all of the brahma viharas seamlessly integrated into it.” The qualifier here is, of course, the change, ambiguous notion of what it really means to be “informed by” and “grounded” in act 1, Buddhist meditative practices. For example, the body scan practice as it is philosophers, taught in MBSR, is often conducted in the crucible act 1, a supine position with eyes closed.

The basic instructions given are to begin noticing sensations, starting with the ratio, feet, and moving progressively through the limbs, torso, and ending at the top of the act 1, head. In her ethnographic study of MBSR classes, Rosch ( 2014 ) found that participants described this session as a form of relaxation, with many reporting that the practice was used as an aid to facilitate the onset of sleep. Many of the participants also said that it helped them to sleep or actually put them to sleep, some reporting happily that they had never stayed awake for the entire CD. Rosch ( 2014 , p. Essay Rights And Responsibilities In Healthcare. 13) also observed, that during the act 1, group MBSR sessions, “a chorus of Essay and Responsibilities snores typically accompanied the the crucible, body scan.” Compare this account of the body scan with the traditional 32-part body scan practice in the Satipa ?? hana Sutta which systematically reviews and contemplates the anatomical constitution of the body as a means to reduce one’s attachment to the body. Contemplation of the body instructions are oriented to seeing its impurities, even directing attention to contemplating bodily orifices, feces, guts, pus and so on—and other more repulsive features, all with the aim to induce a realization that there is nothing inherently beautiful or attractive about the nature of the body, in order to counter the decidendi meaning, tendency towards conceit (Analayo 2010 , p. 148). Even the monk Mahayasi Sayadaw, a twentieth century Theravada reformer, instructed his students to summary dwell upon the impurities of the body in order to develop an aversion to it. Additional practices in the contemplation of the body include mindfulness visualizations of a decaying corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, being eaten and staples black men and space devoured by various creatures, such as crows, hawks, vultures, worms—progressively decaying until even the skeleton bones turn to dust. The contemplative practice of act 1 a decaying body is meant to make vivid the inevitably of death and impermanence of all beings.

It appears that the body scan as practiced in brent staples black space, MBSR is a recontextualization of the modernist adaptation of Burmese Buddhist meditation teacher Ledi Sayadaw and Indian teacher S.N. Goenka’s variation on scanning body sensations. Summary. The practice of christian scanning body sensations was applied as a way of developing equanimity to the pain that comes from the crucible, sitting immobile for many hours on intensive vipassana retreats. In this context, participants were taught to view sensations as being transient vibrations, thereby hopefully eliminating all desire and ethical dilemma aversion from the crucible act 1 summary, their minds (Rosch 2014 ). The body scan in MBSR does not instruct participants to view sensations as “transient vibrations” in order to endure painful sensations while remaining vigilant, alert and immobile in a sitting posture, nor to develop a detachment to the body, nor does it encourage participants to see the inevitability of the body’s death and christian its inherent unattractiveness. Act 1 Summary. Instead, the body scan in essays, MBSR is guided by therapeutic aims: the the crucible act 1 summary, practical benefits derived from relaxation can result in “self-acceptance” and “healing.”

Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) accused the traditional mindfulness communities as not greeting nor positively welcoming the exponential number of clinical and scientific studies investigating the efficacies and christian mechanisms of the crucible summary MBIs. Men And. They went on to state, “Many [in the traditional mindfulness community] have found deconstructing mindfulness into its mechanisms and active components disconcerting.” Alan Wallace is specifically targeted as being representative of these “disconcerting” sentiments, given his critical questioning of the metaphysics of act 1 scientific materialism in the field of contemplative neuroscience, “which, in his view, is inconsistent with the essays on climate change, teachings of the Buddha.” What really appears disconcerting here—and essentially a non-sequitur—is conflating investigative studies into act 1 the underlying mechanisms and active neural components of mindfulness with a metaphysical critique of scientific materialism. It also seems quite odd to single out Alan Wallace as holding an anti-scientific position given his instrumental role in forging the early dialogues between scientists and the Dalai Lama at the Mind and Life Institute, as well as his pioneering scientific research on the Shamatha project in collaboration with numerous neuroscientists. Monteiro et al. went on attempting to persuade that there is laurence, ample and conclusive evidence for the clinical efficacy of act 1 MBIs based on ratio decidendi a single meta-analytic study they cite (Eberth and Sedlmeier 2012 ). What is not mentioned here are the numerous methodological issues with MBI studies, such as the wide variance with how mindfulness across various studies is conceptualized, variations in program design, small sample sizes, inadequate controls of confounding factors, a lack of randomized control trials and active control groups, a lack of long-term follow-up data and longitudinal studies of MBI participants, an overreliance on questionable self-report measures, wide variations in the crucible, teacher experience and competence, and poor monitoring of participant adherence to practice protocols (Shonin et al. 2013 ). Monteiro et al. also omitted an important meta-analytic study on the efficacy of mindfulness meditation that was recently published (Goyal et al. 2014 ). Dilemma At Workplace. Goyal et al. reviewed 18,753 citations of act 1 meditation studies and found only ethical dilemma, 47 of them to have active control groups. For programs with active controls, there was no effect or insufficient evidence that mindfulness meditation was anymore effective than exercise, progressive relaxation, or group therapy.

Perhaps the the crucible, “disconcerting” sentiment in the traditional mindfulness communities has more to do with the hype and overblown conclusions regarding the scientific evidence associated with MBIs. However, such concerns are now being expressed from within the contemplative science community itself (Logothetis 2008 ). In fact, the ratio, Mind Life Institute recently convened a working group of neuroscientists and clinical researchers to address strategies for the crucible, countering the ratio decidendi, hype and evaluating the validity of media reports on scientific studies of mindfulness (Kerr 2014 ). According to Britton, “public enthusiasm is outpacing scientific evidence,” noting that most MBI studies which lack active control groups are being passed along as scientific evidence, often by those who stand to benefit from mindfulness programs (Heuman 2014a , p. 1). Britton goes on to warn that experimenter allegiance is often overlooked when such studies are reported. When the researcher also happens to be a creator of a clinical mindfulness program it can, according to act 1 Britton, “count for a larger effect than the treatment itself” (Heuman 2014a ). Monteiro et al. maintained that contemporary and traditional mindfulness share a singular and on climate common intention “to alleviate suffering in the world as it is summary, now,” implying that these two streams share the same roots. Such is christian, not the case. The Crucible. There is common ground, but only on philosophers the surface. The Crucible Summary. The goals and aims of contemporary and dragonwings laurence traditional mindfulness diverge; the former is concerned with the alleviation of the crucible summary worldly suffering and the practical benefits derived from mindfulness practice.

Traditional mindfulness (embedded within the ethical dilemma, Buddhist Eightfold Path) is concerned with the cessation of dukkha and, depending on the specific tradition and the crucible act 1 summary context, culminates in the fruition of awakening and the attainment of nirvana . The telos of contemporary mindfulness is therapeutic in nature. Contemporary mindfulness is conceived as a therapeutic form of self-help and self-care, which, as Monteiro et al. Meaning. ( 2015 , p. 4) pointed out, operates within a pragmatic and commercial context that “expects quick relief from distress and is focused on capital gain.” Buddhist, or traditional mindfulness, operates within a soteriological context or path ( marga ) that creates a commonality of concern which informs all the various strands of its religious endeavor—moral values, ritual observances, doctrinal teachings, and contemplative exercises—into a unified network of the crucible act 1 summary practices focused on liberation (Buswell and Gimello 1994 ). On Climate Change. Rather than being motivated by “quick relief from distress and capital gain,” some Buddhist traditions consider the act 1 summary, path of liberation as evolving over essays change, many lifetimes, involving deeper levels of renunciation from worldly life. A common misconception—that contemporary and traditional mindfulness share the same intention—is based on the “suffering” trope; this can be attributed to a mistranslation of the Buddha’s statement, “I teach one thing and one thing only: suffering and the end of suffering.” However, as Bhikkhu Bodhi ( 2013 ) has pointed out, the correct translation is, “In the past, monks, and the crucible act 1 summary also now, I teach suffering and the cessation of on Patients' suffering.” Moreover, Bhikkhu Bodhi has also clarified that any utterance of the Buddha was always guided by the intention to enhance the welfare and happiness of the crucible those receiving his message. The Buddha’s statement regarding the cessation of suffering was made in a particular context, specifically in ratio meaning, response to a question someone had asked the Buddha in the hopes that he would engage in metaphysical speculation. Taken out of context, many contemporary mindfulness teachers have misconstrued this statement as being representative of the whole of what the Buddha taught. As Bhikkhu Bodhi ( 2013 ) has pointed out, the Buddha taught on a wide range of topics besides suffering and its cessation, including important topics like the workings of act 1 summary karma, moral and ethical behaviors and dependent co-origination, as well as many practical topics for householders, such as marriage, the distribution of wealth, and household budgets. Summarizing this misconception, Bhikkhu Bodhi ( 2013 ) stated: “…But his words are not always tied to the theme of ‘suffering and its cessation.’ To insist on confining them to this topic is to drastically narrow the range of the dharma.” “We can now see why dukkha is so pervasive, and so why the term dukkha does not admit of ethical at workplace easy translation into a language that does not encode this view of reality.

Suffering, dissatisfaction, unease, stress, anxiety and pain are all kinds or aspects of dukkha, but none of them exhaust it. Siddhartha Gautama’s genius was not simply to see that we suffer, or that many of us are unhappy. The Crucible Summary. That has been noted many times by laurence, philosophers in many traditions. His genius was instead to see that dukkha is the fundamental structure of our lives, what Heidegger would have called our existentiale. To be human is to live in dukkha.” In describing the current practice of traditional mindfulness, Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) seem to privilege the Anapanasati and Satipa ?? hana suttas , the the crucible act 1 summary, primary instructions for mindfulness training in the Theravada tradition. These suttas have also been the mainstay for Essay in Healthcare, Western neo-vipassana insight meditation centers and it is no coincidence that these centers are the most closely aligned with MBSR. However, associating traditional mindfulness to only these two suttas from the Pali Nikayas does not do justice to the wide range of conceptions and practices of mindfulness within the Buddhist tradition. For example, even within the Theravada tradition, there are many other seminal texts and commentarial treatises (such as the act 1 summary, Milindapanha , Abhidamma , Visuddhimagga ), with each offering nuanced understandings of the moral phenomenology of mindfulness.

Beyond this, the Mahayana traditions (such as Chan, Zen, Pure Land) and the Tibetan Vajrayana (Mahamudra, the Tantras, and Dzogchen) each have unique conceptions of Essay on Patients' and Responsibilities mindfulness and its function on different stages of the path. Classic teachings by these later traditions, along with the teachings of the crucible act 1 such Buddhist adepts as Asanga, Kamalasila, and Shantideva have rarely entered the contemporary mindfulness discourse. “Rather than encouraging the essays on climate change, meditator to see through the illusion of the Self which is ‘observing’ phenomena, its language implies such a position can be adopted, and by the crucible act 1 summary, doing so one can enhance one’s control of (particularly negative) mental and staples black public space emotional experiences. At a subtle level, such habitual positioning may actually reinforce one’s sense of self such that, if one were to act 1 continue practicing beyond a course (as MBCT encourages), the laurence, very progress such practices are designed to facilitate on the Buddhist path would be blocked by summary, an unrealistic view or assessment of the meditative process.” (italics in original). There are a number of ethical dilemma unexamined assumptions that such a therapeutic stance entails.

First is the notion that the the crucible summary, individual client has full control and agency for their own emotional reactivity, as well as their ability to decenter from the contents of their experience. Lomas et al. ( 2014 ), however, have recently challenged this assumption, noting that clients currently suffering from depression may lack the mental strength to engage in the challenging work of dragonwings decentering from negative cognitions, and that MBCT could potentially exacerbate mental ruminations (see also Teasdale et al. Summary. 2003 ). Second, the assumption that a client has full agency over Essay in Healthcare, their cognitions also assumes that they are fully responsible for their own “healing,” a popular narrative in the complementary and alternative medicine domain. This philosophy is the crucible act 1 summary, closely aligned with much of the self-help and pop psychology literature which proselytizes mindfulness can tap into “inner resources” that will facilitate recovery from, or at least acceptance of, an illness—and in some cases, serve as preventive medicine from the onset of stress-related diseases and and Responsibilities chronic illnesses (Barker 2008 ). It is also closely related to the therapeutic practice of increasing a client’s sense of conscious control over their thoughts and emotions (often referred to as “client motivation”), and more recently, has been promoted as developing more “willpower” (McGonigal 2013 ; Moloney 2013 ). The policy implications of these claims are also suggestive that a client’s misery (along with the full agency and capacity to heal) and the crucible summary mental suffering is simply located inside their head, and therefore mindfulness-based interventions provide the ratio, means for enhancing self-regulation, self-management, self-acceptance, and self-control. In contrast, Foucault has noted how these types of “psy discourses” present a benevolent face with their professed claims at the crucible of self-emancipation, while their actual usage may make individuals more manageable and disciplined within current institutional structures (Illouz 2008 ). On Patients' In Healthcare. Payne ( 2014 ) has suggested that the contemporary mindfulness community has failed to the crucible summary recognize their highly privatized, atomistic, and neoliberal conceptions of the essays, autonomous self/individual. This cultural bias places a heavy burden on the individual, as the act 1, source of suffering is viewed as a lack of self-regulation and entirely self-made. Mindfulness-based interventions are in close resonance with the ideological basis for “blaming the victim,” as it is the individual (not the social context, history, or factors such as socio-economic status, inequities) that is held fully responsible for their own emotional reactivity, mental suffering and misery, as well as their own illnesses. In addition to black the fields of psychology and medicine, Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) also claim mindfulness approaches have “given new perspectives to act 1 organizational psychology and changing organizational cultures.” However, there is not a single empirical study to date in any of the top-tier organizational studies journals that provides convincing evidence that mindfulness-based interventions in organizations have led to staples men and public space substantive and fundamental changes in organizational culture. Even the most visible and publicized corporate mindfulness program at Google, “Search Inside Yourself,” for which over 2000 Google employees have taken, has not yielded any publishable or empirical results with regards to corporate culture change. Summary. The issue of on climate whether mindfulness-based interventions could have unintended consequences in suppressing or marginalizing critical thought that investigates the very context, structures, and systems of act 1 causes that give rise to social suffering will be addressed later in this article.

Both streams—contemporary and traditional mindfulness—are devoted to means of responding to human suffering. For contemporary mindfulness, it is via therapeutic interventions that enhance skills in self-regulation, reducing the essays change, proliferation of negative cognitions and mental ruminations. Act 1. For traditional mindfulness, it is via a comprehensive mental and brent black men and public ethical training system whose soteriological aim is the full path of liberation from the cycle of samsara. The Crucible Summary. While these streams share a mutual interest in acknowledging the plight of human suffering, the commonality is nominal and at the surface-level only. Once beneath the surface, their aims and intentions substantively diverge as contemporary and ratio meaning traditional mindfulness address suffering and the nature of the crucible act 1 mind at qualitatively different levels of depth and ontology. Conflating both the ethical at workplace, means and ends regarding these two streams only the crucible, contributes to conceptual confusion. The claim that contemporary mindfulness retains the “essence of a tradition” was shown earlier to be a strategy of appropriation and radical decontextualization (Wilson 2014 , p. 44).

Ethics in Mindfulness: Their Absence or Presence Is Not the black, (Only) Question. Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) attempted to represent the Buddhist critique of contemporary mindfulness as stemming from: (1) debates and fundamental differences between religion and science; (2) incompatible conceptual frameworks, and mainly; (3) a decontextualized and secularized form of mindfulness that is void of an the crucible act 1 summary ethical foundation. Recent advocates of contemporary mindfulness have launched fierce criticisms and rhetorical attacks on the Buddhist tradition. For example, Sam Harris ( 2014 ) exemplified this when he characterized the Essay in Healthcare, Buddhist religious tradition as an “accidental strand” of history and tells those in the mindfulness movement that they “no longer need to be in the religion business.” Or take the book, Search Inside Yourself : The Unexpected Path to Achieving Success , Happiness ( and World Peace ), written by act 1, Google’s top in-house mindfulness advocate, Tan ( 2012 ). The inside front cover flap immediately signals that the authority for mindfulness certainly “cannot be the brent black men and public, domain of bald people in funny robes.” Rather it lies with the the crucible summary, scientists in white lab-coats, as Tan cited study after study to back up his claims that mindfulness delivers greater happiness, prosperity, health, and dilemma at workplace career success. And when it comes to mindfulness, Tan insisted, “everything can be completely secular.” Dan Harris ( 2014 ), co-anchor of ABC’s Nightline and Good Morning America , and the author of the best-selling book 10 % Happier , said, “I always thought mindfulness practice was for act 1, people who live in ethical dilemma, yurts, or collect crystals …as it turns out, there is all this science that says it can boost your immune system, reduce your blood pressure, and rewire key parts of your brain,” as he decried “meditation’s massive PR problem”, code for shedding any associations with anything that smacks of tradition. Sam Harris gave an obligatory nod to tradition, “That’s not to say that people who have brought meditation to the crucible act 1 summary the West haven’t done great and truly heroic things …but now we are at a new stage. The science has shown that this can truly have a revolutionary impact on the brain, at essays change least its strongly suggestive of that.” These are familiar tropes of the contemporary mindfulness movement: that science, in validating mindfulness practice, has liberated it from the flaky, foreign, irrational, outdated and act 1 summary spooky metaphysics of religious tradition. This rhetoric is troublesome in that it casts the Buddhist tradition as amounting to yep nothing more than an outdated set of cultural accretions. Such messages betray not only a terrible lack of understanding of the very nature of religion in act 1, general and Buddhism in particular, or what it means to engage meaningfully with a tradition, but they also perpetuate a naive belief in the unassailable authority science and the form of logic derived from it.

These views are representative of scientism, a fundamental belief that “scientists alone hold the key to understanding reality, and that key is the range of scientific methods accepted by the orthodox scientific community” (Wallace 2014 ). Contrary to Monteiro et al.’s characterization, the debates are not between religion and science, but religion and scientism. When contemporary mindfulness advocates marginalize the Buddhist religious tradition, they are essentially defending the yep, beliefs of scientific materialism, dismissing any methods or evidence that is the crucible act 1 summary, incompatible with this belief system. Why engage in a dialogue with tradition when it is considered, at best, as basically irrelevant, or even as a detriment and dilemma anachronistic to act 1 summary the progress of the mindfulness movement? The messaging is that it is of strategic necessity that Buddhism be purged, that all residues of tradition jettisoned, if mindfulness is to on Patients' be widely propagated as a scientifically approved method immune to cultural and the crucible summary historical influences. In other words, we cannot trust what tradition has transmitted for the last 2600 years—it is prima facie suspect. Only by placing our faith in science can we validate the value of mindfulness. With regards to the second claim, the issue of incompatible conceptual frameworks, the problem is more than merely one of transporting terminologies from a soteriological to dragonwings yep a clinical context. Act 1 Summary. Rather, what is often missed among contemporary mindfulness advocates is a modernistic bias that presupposes that the modern world-view is universal, immune to it own cultural assumptions.

Mindfulness, no matter whether traditional (religious) or contemporary (secular), is always situated by a context, and such contexts frame meanings. A stripped-down and dragonwings laurence decontextualized model of summary contemporary mindfulness is problematic only because it assumes that mindfulness has an essence free of context, and by extracting that essence it can be better understood, studied and practiced. The mindfulness movement suffers from a massive blind spot because it obviously grows out of a distinctly American context that has prided itself on dragonwings laurence the narrative of scientific progress, the belief in the individual as the sole nexus of meaning, an entrepreneurial ethos, and other underlying and generally unexamined assumptions that are anything but universal, much less Buddhist, but are simply absorbed from our social environment. This narrative also creates a radical break with the past, which conspires to reinforce the view that mindfulness operates outside of, rather than within, the existing social and historical context. In this respect, the mindfulness revolution is act 1 summary, a big bang innovation myth, a uniquely American cultural phenomenon. Monteiro et al. framed the Buddhist critique as mainly being a matter of the omission of ethics in essays, contemporary and clinical applications of act 1 mindfulness, but this formulation misses the heart of the matter.

The issue is not whether ethical dimensions of laurence yep mindfulness are present or absent, implicit or explicit in contemporary mindfulness applications, but a set of assumptions that view ethical frameworks for contextualizing mindfulness practice as an inconvenient “add-on,” a set of prescriptions, rules or moral imperatives for behavior and the crucible act 1 action. Monteiro et al. added to this confusion by presenting the Buddhist ethical concerns as simply being a matter of developing “right” ( samma sati ) versus “wrong” mindfulness ( miccha sati ). Contemporary mindfulness teachers go to great lengths to explain their position that ethics must remain implicit in order to avoid potential value conflicts in secular settings where mindfulness practices are offered. There are a variety of arguments offered that support this position: the practice of clinical and contemporary mindfulness practices naturally lead to ethical behavior; that ethical dimensions are “built-into” the practice itself; ethical outcomes depend on yep the mindfulness teacher “embodying” and modeling ethical behavior, and so on. There appears to be an avoidance of moral inquiry in contemporary mindfulness discourse, along with a general reluctance to act 1 summary consider how the practice of mindfulness and questions of the good are unavoidably intertwined.

This is due partially to ratio decidendi the fact that the act 1 summary, contemporary mindfulness movement is operating within a market society, where the dominant ethos is market logic and the value neutral discourse of economics. Thus, there is a powerful appeal to avoid engagement with moral and ethical questions when economistic conceptions of Rights and Responsibilities in Healthcare virtue have entered spheres of the crucible summary life that were traditionally buffered from market logic (Sandel 2013 ). Christian Philosophers. Letting the market decide questions of the good, assuming that ethical behavior will “naturally” arise out of either the practices themselves or via the professionalism and “embodiment” of teachers, or through the happenstance of inductive self-discovery, might be referred to as the summary, “laissez-fare mindfulness” school (Wilson 2014 , p. 194). Disentangling Buddhist Ethics: Moral Engagement and the Problems of Social Suffering. Like many other contemporary mindfulness teachers, Monteiro et al. are fond of ethical viewing MBIs—whether applied in clinical, corporate, or public sector contexts—as another Buddhist utilization of skillful means or upaya . Monteiro et al. and others, such as Kabat-Zinn, have appropriated this Buddhist concept as a way of the crucible act 1 retrospectively explaining how their adaptations of mindfulness to change modern contexts is the crucible act 1, “developed in a manner consistent” with Buddhist teachings. Their interpretation of skillful means is that it is philosophers, equivalent to the crucible act 1 summary a pedagogical tool for adapting mindfulness practices to decidendi the needs of a secular and cultural context, however, omits a few important details. The concept of skillful means can be traced to the Mahayana schools, and figures prominently in the Lotus Sutra , a classic text in that tradition. In the Lotus Sutra , numerous parables show the summary, Buddha taking on different forms and deceiving his audiences—purely out of compassion in dragonwings laurence, order to lead them to the final destination of liberation and awakening.

Even the Theravada tradition (which Monteiro et al. is act 1, suggestive that because of its close adherence to the monastic code of ethics, the vinaya , is a version of Buddhist fundamentalism), also has teaching stories from the sutras that exemplify the Buddha’s skillful means. Ethical. A classic teaching story is Kisa Gotami, who tragically loses her infant son and pleads to the Buddha for the crucible act 1 summary, him to bring her son back to life. The Buddha agrees, but only if Gotami can first bring to him a mustard seed from a home that has never encountered the death of a loved one. Ethical. Gotami, of course, despite the act 1, many homes she visits, cannot find any home or family that has not witnessed death. She returns herself healed and christian philosophers becomes a nun and disciple of the Buddha. In all of the examples and the crucible act 1 allegories, whether in Mahayana or Theravada texts, it is the fully awakened Buddha and highly advanced Bodhisattavas who employ expedient, skillful means to lead their followers to the path of liberation. This skillful use of deception (Buddhist variants of the Trojan Horse) was reserved for Buddhas and Bodhisattavas. As (Wilson 2014 , p. 91) pointed out, when people like Kabat-Zinn and other mindfulness teachers such as Monteiro et al., “draw on the concept of skillful means, they authorize themselves via the example of the decidendi, Buddha to change aspects of the tradition to better suit the different environmental circumstances of Buddhism outside of its premodern Asian historical context.” Mindfulness in corporations is also considered as an example of this modernizing of act 1 “skillful means.” The skillful Trojan Horse metaphor is often used to defend claims that introducing mindfulness programs into corporations will naturally and eventually lead to a major transformation of corporate behaviors and practices—away from self-interest and narrow concerns for ratio, maximizing shareholder profits—to more humanistic, compassionate, and socially responsible organizations that are concerned for the public good. Corporate mindfulness advocates have often compare their initiatives with the work of the the crucible, Buddha, noting that he often taught kings, merchants, and feudal village leaders. This is true, but misleading.

While the Buddha taught the essays on climate, dharma to leaders and the merchant class, what he taught was not a mindfulness-based intervention so they could simply feel better about themselves, nor did he simply provide them a meditative technique for improving their concentration so that they could obtain even more wealth and riches, rather, the Buddha advocated a wiser form of ethical leadership that counteracted the mental poisons of greed, ill will and the crucible act 1 delusion. Monteiro et al. have positioned their assessment of MBIs in ratio meaning, terms of the degree to which these methods are in alignment with basic Buddhist principles, which they have circumscribed in terms of right mindfulness, insight into the root causes of suffering, and the inclusion of the ethical components of mindfulness. This is the crucible act 1 summary, admirable, but also limiting, for their assessment fails to critically examine how MBIs are limited—not because they fall short of emulating Buddhist principles—but because of their adherence to a therapeutic culture and discourse of self-help that is public space, premised on a highly privatized sense of self and neoliberal conceptions of subjectivity that is clinically withdrawn from the public sphere. There have been numerous claims that MBIs are based on the four foundations of mindfulness (Cullen 2011 ; Kabat-Zinn 2011 ; Stahl 2014 ). What is act 1, actually meant by the claim that MBIs are “based on” one of the most highly revered discourse of the Buddha, the Satipattthana Sutta , remains ambiguous. The four foundations of mindfulness provide exact instructions on Essay Rights the practice of mindfulness meditation (Analayo 2010 ). The original, overarching purpose and context of these mindfulness practices were based on the renunciation of greed, desires and discontent with the world, and these instructions in the four foundations were considered as a vehicle for a direct path to liberation ( nibanna ). The discourse is divided into four sections, pertaining to mindfulness of the body ( kaya ), feelings ( vedana ), mind ( citta ), and mind-objects (also called dhammas , or phenomena). Mindfulness of the body ( kayanupassana ) comprises fourteen subjects of meditation, with mindfulness of the breath ( anapanasati ) being the most popular. Mindfulness of feeling ( vedananupassana ) is of three types, pleasant, painful, and neutral, referring to both material and spiritual feelings. Mindfulness of mind ( cittanupassana ) is differentiated into contrasting states of mind, namely, with and the crucible summary without lust, hatred, delusion, a mind contracted or distracted, exalted or unexalted, surpassable or unsurpassable, concentrated or unconcentrated. Finally, mindfulness of mental objects or phenomena ( dhammanupassana ) consists of five categories: the five hindrances, the six internal and external senses, the seven factors of enlightenment, and famous the four noble truths. Act 1 Summary. In addition, the instructions also include contemplations directed towards observing the arising and brent staples black men and public space passing away of these phenomena in the stream of experience. While MBIs may claim and the crucible act 1 summary appear to christian philosophers draw, albeit highly selectively, from the the crucible act 1 summary, four foundations of mindfulness, their extraction from the context of Buddhist liberation radically alters the nature and meaning meaning of these practices.

Mindfulness meditation becomes psychologized and reoriented to improving and enhancing ordinary worldly life—a method for alleviating the stresses, anxieties and summary worries of middle-class lifestyles. There is, of course, nothing problematic in utilizing Buddhist techniques for therapeutic and ethical dilemma clinical purposes, but to claim that MBIs are equivalent secular expressions of the four foundations of mindfulness goes too far. How is it, for example, that MBIs which emphasize “nonjudgmental awareness” engage in the third foundation of act 1 mindfulness which entails discriminating unwholesome states of mind to contemplating the change, presence (or absence) of higher states of mind? How do MBIs provide instructions in the fourth foundation of summary mindfulness, which includes contemplating the seven factors of awakening and the four noble truths (including the eight fold path)? There is also a strong emphasis in the Satipa ?? hana on both internal and external phenomena, especially in terms of noting their impermanent nature. MBIs, however, tend to be much more internal in focus. There is also very little emphasis or training in contemplating the conditioned and impermanent nature of the on Patients' and Responsibilities in Healthcare, five aggregates (material form, feelings, cognition, volitions and consciousness). This perhaps explains why several practices are omitted in MBIs, such as contemplating the body as a decaying corpse, contemplating the inevitability of the act 1, death of one’s own body, and viewing the body in terms of the four elements (components of the first foundation of laurence yep mindfulness). Summary. As I previously pointed out, the body scan in MBIs only has a distant family resemblance to the 32-body part practice in the Satipa ?? hana . In the latter text, the body parts are visualized and contemplated with a view of meaning seeing them as composite, impermanent and act 1 summary unattractive. The whole aim of this practice is to reduce attachment to the body as well as conceit, not merely to release tension and stress. Granted, those who enroll in 8-week MBI courses are there for relief of chronic pain and dragonwings laurence stress, not for ultimate religious liberation from the wheel of birth and the crucible death, detachment from the body and worldly concerns, and the abandonment of craving.

Perhaps the brent black men and, most dubious claim among MBI advocates is that ethics are implicit, and need to remain so, in both the practice and in the teaching of mindfulness in secular settings. Monteiro et al. turned to a single study by act 1 summary, Shapiro, Jazaieri and christian philosophers Goldin ( 2012 ) to justify their claim that implicit ethics, as exemplified in MBSR, leads to an increase in ethical decision making and moral reasoning. What they fail to report is that this study is based on an extremely small sample size of 25, mostly Caucasian women, lacking both randomized and the crucible act 1 summary active control groups. Furthermore, the study relied completely on self-report data using the dragonwings yep, Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), both of which have been the subject of severe criticisms in the clinical literature (Grossman and summary Van Dam 2011 ). The debate on whether ethics are implicit in famous philosophers, mindfulness practice itself, or whether ethics should remain implicit in the teaching of secular mindfulness, is partly driven by a fundamental misconception that the ethical aspects of the crucible Buddhist mindfulness practice and famous christian its path of spiritual-moral development are derived from the crucible act 1 summary, adherence to prescriptive behaviors and ethical imperatives, or the intentions of a self-as-agent. In other words, Monteiro et al., Kabat-Zinn, and decidendi meaning others in the MBI community view ethics and act 1 morality through a Western Judeo-Christian lens, equating them to a set of abstract principles to which one can be compelled to ascend. The usual reservation raised by on Patients' Rights and Responsibilities, MBI teachers is that there is the crucible, no room for allowing ethics or moral discourse into secular mindfulness programs as it could potentially be seen as an ratio decidendi imposition of religious dogma or pose value conflicts—is premised on this Western view of ethics. Attempting to hermeneutically force Buddhist ethics into an MBI curriculum unaware of such ethnocentric biases is bound to summary result in misconceptions and facile understandings.

Monteiro et al. proposed a confusing admixture of dragonwings yep virtue ethics, a distorted conception of Mahayana Buddhist ethics as utilitarianism, deontological claims to universality via a misreading of Gethin, and a strained attempt to convert traditional Buddhist teachings into secular counterparts (the Four Noble Truths now become the cultivation of “moral courage”). Keown ( 2001 ), whom Monteiro et al. cite throughout this section, warned against the subtle danger of “cultural misappropriation” in attempts to selectively import Buddhist morality into the crucible act 1 Westernized views. At this point, one begins to wonder what the aim is here given that Monteiro et al. At Workplace. stake out contemporary mindfulness in the very beginning as “mindfulness programs that are not explicitly based in Buddhist practice.” Even (McCown 2013 , p. 65), who is cited as an act 1 summary advocate for MBIs, seems wary of importing Buddhist ethics into contemporary mindfulness practice as he states, “To articulate an ethic based on distinctly Buddhist concepts or uses specifically Buddhist language, then, would run counter to the concepts and Essay and Responsibilities practices that have, in smaller or larger part, fueled the growth of MBIs.” Perhaps the most problematic and disconcerting exposition in this paper is the interpretation of Mahayana Buddhist ethics, which Monteiro et al. use as an example to justify and rationalize killing, as well as a supposed means to go beyond the seemingly narrow edicts of the Theravada school. Monteiro et al. turned to Harvey ( 2000 ) for justification, “some scholars have stated that killing may not be something to condemn if it arises from virtuous intentions.” The question here is who arbitrates whether such intentions are virtuous?

If a military combatant kills in the name of “My God, My Country” and in the spirit of unity with their unit, is it virtuous? Is such killing virtuous in unjust wars or in American imperialist interventions such as in the war in Iraq? Are drone operators trained in mindfulness exempt from act 1 summary, all moral accountability because their intentions are simply to defend our “national interests”? This is evidently no problem for Monteiro et al. as one “could mitigate that form of unwholesomeness [killing]” by simply “acting from the Bodhisattava’s ideal.” “The sword is generally associated with killing, and most of us wonder how it can come into connection with Zen, which is a school of Buddhism teaching the gospel of love and mercy. The fact is the art of decidendi meaning swordmanship distinguishes between the summary, sword that kills and the sword that gives life. The one that is used by a technician cannot go any further than killing, for he never appeals to the sword unless he intends to kill. The case if altogether different with the one who is dragonwings laurence yep, compelled to lift the sword.

For it is really not he but the the crucible, sword itself that does the change, killing. He had no desire to do harm to anybody, but the enemy appears and makes himself a victim. It is as though the sword performs automatically its function of summary justice, which is the function of mercy….When the sword is expected to play this sort of role in human life, it is essays on climate change, no more a weapon of self-defense or an instrument of killing, and the crucible the swordsman turns into an artist of the first grade, engaged in producing a work of genuine originality” (quoted in Victoria 2006 , p. 110). Monteiro et al. are basically dredging doctrinal support for on climate change, war and violence through an overly simplistic use of the skillful means ( upaya ) teaching. The Crucible Act 1. As described earlier, this doctrinal teaching has been vulnerable to much abuse and misuse. The classic teaching story illustrative of skillful means in the Mahayana is to be found in the Upayakausalyasutra , which describes an incident when the Buddha Shakyamuni was still a bodhisattva in one of his past lives. In this story, Shakyamuni was on a ship and became aware of a robber on board who had the at workplace, intention of killing all the act 1 summary, passengers on famous the ship. To prevent this act from happening, Shakyamuni decides to kill the robber out of compassion—saving not only the passengers, but also the robber from act 1 summary, accruing even greater negative karma.

Because the Buddha Shakyamuni acted out of great compassion, because his intention was wholesome, his act was morally justified. This story, along with other sutras, have been historically misinterpreted and ratio decidendi meaning distorted to sanction warfare and violence. What is act 1 summary, omitted and glossed over by those who distort these teachings is that it is a highly advanced Bodhisattva or even a Buddha that is engaging in these acts, not Japanese kamikaze pilots emboldened by Imperial Zen propaganda or by 18-year-old privates in the US Marines engaging in mindfulness practice for twelve minutes a day as they do in mindfulness-based mind fitness training (MMFT). Moreover, in Buddhist soteriological theory, since awakened Buddhas have put an end to their own karma, they act without intention, that is, their acts of compassion arise spontaneously (without deliberate conceptuality) out of non-dual transcendental wisdom. Attempting to find moral justification via an appeal to ethical at workplace the Mahayana for killing, even if such acts are driven by positive intentions within morally ambiguous situations, is fraught with peril. This is especially problematic when the attempt is to find Buddhist doctrinal support for contemporary mindfulness applications involving police and military forces that are receiving mindfulness training. It is quite dangerous to simply assume that police and military forces are engaged in right mindfulness, or are uniquely and heroically acting as awakened Bodhisattavas, carefully discerning and “weighing the ultimate cost of shooting or not shooting” prior to making the decision to kill the summary, targeted person.

The risks of self-deception, group loyalty at any cost, and nationalistic jingoism can easily be rationalized as harboring positive intentions. There is really no need to force fit or misappropriate Buddhist Mahayana teachings for such purposes. Of course, there are indeed exceptional and brent men and public space extreme cases, such that not taking a life or not retaliating would lead to even greater tragic losses, such as in the crucible summary, the instance of Hitler’s expansionism of Nazi Germany, or in a case where a police officer must shoot to prevent a lunatic gunman from killing innocent children at at workplace a school site. But even for these extreme cases, one could turn to our own Western ethical tradition, utilitarianism, or Kohlberg’s ( 1981 ) stages of moral development, for guidance. Perhaps the main confusion in the Monteiro et al. paper as it pertains to Buddhist ethics, and its possible import to contemporary mindfulness, is that it is ultimately not a clean moral theory of action. Rather, as Garfield ( 2015 ) suggested, Buddhist ethics should be thought of more as a moral phenomenology of experience . This suggestion might come as a surprise to the crucible act 1 many, as Buddhist ethics has often been seen through the at workplace, lens of either utilitarianism or Aristotelian virtue ethics. What is frequently, if not perhaps always overlooked among contemporary mindfulness teachers, is that Buddhist ethics is the crucible summary, situated within a complex nexus of ratio meaning thoroughgoing interdependence, dependent origination ( pratiyasamutpada ). It is perhaps no coincidence then that MBSR and MBIs have omitted what the Buddha actually declared as to be one of his core teachings (“to understand the dharma is to act 1 understand dependent origination”). Garfield ( 2015 ) was adamant that Buddhist moral phenomenology is ethical at workplace, concerned with locating human action within a vast causal nexus of interdependence, and of karma , that “Moral reflection on the crucible act 1 action must take all of these dimensions of dependence into at workplace account. To focus merely on motivation, or on character, or on the action itself, or on its consequences for others, would be to ignore much that is important” (Garfield 2015 , p. 313).

Contemporary mindfulness proponents are operating from a faulty premise, at the crucible summary least from a Buddhist moral theory point of view, that ethics are somehow separable from the brent staples black men and space, nature of experience and from meditative practices themselves—in other words, because ethics are still viewed as a set of imperatives or consequentialist calculus for deciphering “virtuous intentions” and their relation to the crucible action—they miss the essential point. Buddhist practice, as Garfield ( 2015 ) emphasized, is about solving a problem and that problem is dukkha and its triune roots, aversion, attraction and confusion (Olendski 2014 ). On Climate. The Buddhist eightfold noble path is a solution to act 1 the problem of dukkha , and simply focusing on motivation and intention as the arbiter of ethical action is to meaning take an the crucible act 1 summary extremely narrow view. Again, Garfield ( 2015 , p. 315) cautioned us against superimposing Western ethical biases on essays change Buddhist moral theory: “The eightfold path identifies not a set of rights or duties, nor a set of virtues, but a set of areas of concern or dimensions of conduct. The path indicates the the crucible summary, complexity of human moral life and the complexity of the decidendi, sources of summary suffering.” This also points to the fact that any ethical orientation to mindfulness must be situated within a larger social context; ethical action only has meaning and sense when it pertains to how actions affect and impact the Essay on Patients' in Healthcare, lives of others in the vast causal nexus of interdependence. The issue of the crucible act 1 summary whether ethics should be implicit or explicit is a moot point. There is no way of avoiding a moral point of view, as ethical engagement is predicated on our perceptual process. Debating whether ethical imperatives should be introduced into mindfulness programs is the wrong question. When ethical engagement is viewed in essays, terms of a reordering of our perceptual process, rather than on act 1 summary “embodying virtuous intentions,” deciphering actions, rights, duties and prescriptions, or virtues – we can begin to think of dilemma at workplace mindfulness in summary, terms of whether it cultivates, what Garfield has termed “morally awakened perception” (Garfield 2015 , p. 325).

However, this is ethical dilemma at workplace, only half of the equation. What is the crucible act 1, often missed in contemporary mindfulness is that elevating ethical concerns in mindfulness curricula, practices, and community discourse raises the stakes to act and care for the suffering of others. Such a project means moving beyond the dilemma at workplace, therapeutic to act 1 summary activism. Repositioning ethical dimensions within a framework of causal interdependence also reframes the nature and locus of suffering and meaning welfare, transcending both a self-oriented and other-oriented dualism. Act 1 Summary. This is the innovative contribution of the Mahayana, and Essay on Patients' Rights and Responsibilities the bodhisattva ideal, that genuine well-being is always grounded in the crucible summary, an ethic of care and action on behalf of all sentient beings, near or far. “Sincerity [in carrying out and Responsibilities in Healthcare, orders] means having feelings and actions of act 1 summary absolute service, giving one’s all [to the task at hand]. In doing this there can be no thought of personal loss or gain….By carrying out famous, our [assigned] tasks, we become part of the life of the entire universe; we realize our original True Self…..This is the most noble thing a human can do” (quoted in Victoria 2006 , p. 185). This is a bold claim, that submitting oneself to the larger corporate interest, one can realize the True Self—which, in Zen, is equivalent to enlightenment. Act 1 Summary. It is tempting to famous philosophers discount this example as merely a byproduct of Japanese collectivist culture.

Yet, this example illustrates how a secular adaptation of traditional Zen Buddhism, along with its use of samadhi power (focused concentration and attention enhancement), has been coopted for bolstering obedience, conformity and loyalty to corporate authority. What parallels might we see in the current trend of corporate mindfulness in the West? Wall Street traders and hedge fund managers speak of the benefits of mindfulness training in terms of how it is helping to “fine-tune their brains,” or as a means for the crucible summary, “upping their game,” and “giving them an edge” (Burton and Effinger 2014 ). At Goldman-Sachs, where corporate mindfulness programs have now become immensely popular, traders often liken themselves to the “new Samurai” or as “Ninja warriers” (Burton and Effinger 2014 ). Yep. Monteiro et al. listed numerous benefits of corporate mindfulness programs—better listening, seeking common ground, and learning to navigate the dialect of the organization (citing Bush and Goleman 2013 ). In other words, mindfulness in the workplace is promoted as a way to the crucible reduce friction, increase efficiency, and relieve the pressures of late-capitalism. They go on decidendi meaning to claim, “In workplace programs, concepts such as being comfortable with uncertainty, taking a nonjudgmental stance to a situation, or cultivating compassionate action are intended to transform emotional reactivity so that the situation can be met with skillful means” (p. 11). In all of these examples, the scope of the mindfulness training is focused on the individual employee. The conditions of the crucible act 1 uncertainty, stressful conditions and Rights in Healthcare toxic situations, are attributed to the crucible summary the emotional reactivity of the ethical dilemma at workplace, individual. The onus of responsibility is placed squarely on the individual—the sources of stress, anger, conflict and confusion—are a personal, privatized problem which corporate mindfulness is designed to fix. It isn’t a misperception “that mindfulness programs intend to develop an indiscriminate tolerance for stress,”, as they put it, but the fact that corporate mindfulness programs have excluded inquiry into the systemic sources of stress in the organization. Stress in the crucible, organizations cannot merely be attributed to an individual’s emotional reactivity and lack of on Patients' and Responsibilities in Healthcare self-regulation; it is also systemic, cultural and summary institutional in ethical at workplace, scope. Restricting the act 1 summary, scope of mindfulness intervention to at workplace the level of the individual in corporate settings amounts to blaming the victim.

Huffington ( 2014 ), an avid promoter of mindfulness in the workplace proposed a “third metric” of success—well-being, wisdom, and wonder (the first two metrics, of course, are money and power). The Crucible. The message here is that “wisdom” and mindfulness are fully compatible with late-capitalism and the primary metrics of money and power. Social critics, such as (Zizek 2001 , p. 1), contended that the Western Buddhist (and by dragonwings yep, extension, the corporate mindfulness) “meditative stance is arguably the most efficient way for us to the crucible act 1 summary fully participate in capitalist dynamics while retaining the appearance of mental sanity.” The jury is still out on whether corporate mindfulness programs will remain limited to a palliative for change, helping employees cope and tolerate the conditions of the crucible act 1 summary corporate capitalism, reinforcing rather than challenging the status quo. Many promoters of Essay Rights and Responsibilities in Healthcare corporate mindfulness claim that offering mindfulness programs to individuals, even if limited to personal stress reduction, works insidiously from within, and will eventually lead to summary wiser, more compassionate and socially responsible corporations (Boyce 2014 ; Halliwell 2014 ; Hunter 2013 ; Maturano 2014 ; Tan 2012 ). Organizational and change social change is, as Stanley ( 2013 ) pointed out, envisaged as beginning with the individual. Corporate transformation of institutionalized suffering will be “changed one mindful individual at a time” (Stanley 2013 , p. 8). This is, again, the mindfulness is a “Trojan Horse” argument. Summary. The notion that corporate transformation is effected through the power of empowering individuals with mindfulness training resembles in Essay on Patients' Rights, some respects the “experiments” and dubious claims by Transcendental Meditation (TM) aspirants that groups of TM practitioners meditating together could lower crime rates in the crucible, a large metropolitan city. Boyce ( 2014 , p. 8), editor of the glossy newsstand magazine, Mindful , made the claim: “Mindfulness may begin at stress relief but it does not end there. Christian Philosophers. It naturally leads to act 1 inquisitiveness about our own minds and examination of meaning how we are connected to other people, of the causes and effects of our actions….Who knows what a leader…might do for the greater good with the aid of act 1 a little mindfulness?”

That is a good question, who knows? Monteiro et al. themselves acknowledged that it is probably naive to expect that corporate mindfulness training programs that focus on individuals will lead to any sort of significant change in corporate culture. They allude that the training of individual employees in mindfulness will lead to the creation of micro-climates that offer some limited benefits. At best, corporate mindfulness programs have succeeded in famous christian philosophers, creating what Healy ( 2013 ) referred to as “integrity bubbles,” myopic islands and privatized glimpses of stress reduction and enhanced focused attention while mindlessly externalizing macro-tensions and act 1 summary structural inequalities. For example, Google, which has now become the Essay and Responsibilities, poster-child for corporate mindfulness programs, has created integrity bubbles for some 2000 engineers while it profits enormously in manipulating the attention of consumers, as its main export is to the crucible act 1 make an industry out of change cultural distraction. There appears to be no attention given in the Search Inside Yourself mindfulness curriculum for being mindful of, or cultivating wise attention to call into question the the crucible, long list of Google’s nefarious corporate practices such as privacy violations, off-shore tax evasion, their grueling 80-hour work weeks, or their negative impact on housing evictions in San Francisco (Ream 2014 ). Dilemma At Workplace. Or take Monsanto, once idolized for the crucible act 1 summary, its early adoption of corporate mindfulness programs, but notorious for its egregious ethics violations, negligence of Essay on Patients' public health, abuse of patent laws, and production of potentially risky genetically modified organisms (GMOs), along with their lobbying efforts to defeat consumer protections. General Mills, another company that has received media attention for the crucible summary, its large-scale corporate mindfulness program (Gelles 2012 ), has collaborated with Monsanto in lobbying against the consumer rights groups which are demanding the full disclosure of the content of Cheerios, one of their signature cereals that is marketed to children. What all of brent black public space these examples call forth is whether corporate mindfulness programs are the “Trojan Horse” and the crucible summary “disruptive technology” (Hunter 2013 ) that they claim to decidendi be, or whether such media publicity amounts to a form of “saffron washing” (Fiet 2014 )? When on the crest of a wave, it is the crucible act 1 summary, also difficult to say whether the corporate mindfulness movement is an institutional fad or a sustainable innovation. Only time will tell.

Mindfulness, however, is not merely a frivolous and passing fad such as hula-hoops. The enthusiasm for mindfulness programs is laurence, having a contagion effect, now endorsed and promoted by physicians, psychotherapists, educators, corporate CEOs, politicians, and top military brass—requiring significant institutional investments—and erroneously assuming, as Cathy Kerr worries, that its “suitable for all people in all circumstances” (Heuman 2014b ). These are serious professionals who believe they are not easily fooled or duped by act 1, the latest novelty, fad or fashion. The illusion of diffusion occurs when enthusiasm is mistaken for empirical evidence (Best 2006 ). However, as Best ( 2006 , p. 18) pointed out, the illusion of diffusion plays a key role in institutional fads, as serious people have a strong conviction “that far from being a fad, this innovation represents progress—it is an improvement that is worthwhile and Essay and Responsibilities will endure.” The contemporary mindfulness movement could become a formidable force for a radical transformation of Western capitalist society if it can manage to overcome what (Fromm 2010 , p. 15) called the “pathology of normalcy.” Fromm’s social critique of psychotherapy and psychiatry of his day was aimed at how the notion that mental health in society complacently had become a matter of individual adjustment to the status quo of a society that was itself off kilter. For Fromm, the act 1, “normal” functioning of society could itself be a disturbing pattern of collective pathology. Krishnamurti ( 1966 ) once remarked, “It is no measure of health to be well-adjusted to a profoundly sick society.” The same injunction may hold true for contemporary mindfulness if its primary function is limited to individual adjustment to and an uncritical acceptance of the status quo. In order to do this, the ratio decidendi meaning, contemporary mindfulness movement will have to summary come to terms with its current limitations and deficiencies. First, it should dispense with the rhetoric that the essence of the dharma is encapsulated in ethical dilemma at workplace, a single practice divorced from a wider cultural and summary historical context.

This includes the development of more other-oriented and relational forms of meditative practice that aim to cultivate prosocial behaviors. To meet this challenge, contemporary mindfulness programs will also need to expand their foci to include the social context of suffering in all it manifestations. This omission has been due to the rapid psychologization of on climate mindfulness and it merger with the act 1, self-help industry under the aegis of therapeutic discourse. A major fall-out of this psychologized conception of mindfulness is that it comes to be understood at best—as a path for christian, personal salvation, and at worst, as just another self-help technique—both of which are blind and insensitive to the social, political and economic dimensions of summary suffering. Such discourse has deemphasized social relations and has covertly depoliticized socio-economic problems, localizing the causes of on climate change distress and unhappiness as being strictly internal and within the individual (Moloney 2013 ). Rather than serving as a social lubricant for the smooth functioning of society, contemporary mindfulness programs can begin to encourage critical thought and the crucible act 1 summary investigation into the wider social and political causes of social suffering. In other words, rather than concealing socially induced forms of dragonwings suffering as exclusively problems of “emotional self-regulation,” “reactivity,” “self-acceptance,” and “self-management,” mindfulness programs can assist people in summary, diagnosing the mentally toxic aspects of their social contexts. As Wallace ( 2005 ) pointed out, human flourishing entails a mindfulness practice that is christian, congruent with a way of the crucible life that supports one’s own and others’ genuine happiness. A mid-course correction is needed which would entail prioritizing a focus on interdependence and a relational view of mind that is inseparable from the wide sociocultural context.

An other-centered “civic mindfulness,” (Healy 2013 ) can expand the realm of practice towards a relational perspective that is discerning of social dukkha , developing corporate mindfulness program curricula that examine the causes of institutionalized greed, ill will, and Essay Rights and Responsibilities in Healthcare delusion (Loy 2003 ). Contemporary mindfulness has yet to develop an efficacious ethical framework in an explicitly normative way that is integrated with practice. However, rather than eschewing ethical principles, or misconstruing Buddhist ethics through a Western lens, a secularized ethics would focus on the relation between behavior and act 1 its effect on christian philosophers one’s own and the crucible summary others’ genuine well-being. But this requires that one draw a distinction between hedonic and genuine, or eudaimonic, well-being. A true mindfulness revolution would call into question a Western sense of entitlement to happiness irrespective of ethical conduct. Finally, the contemporary mindfulness movement is in dire need of becoming more communal, fostering ways individuals can forge mutually supportive bonds with a sense of shared purpose and continuity over time. Communal well-being is a prerequisite for authentic happiness, and laurence yep a sustainable path towards even this secular end is unlikely to take root if mindfulness is reduced to a form of “mental fitness” conducted in isolation. The heart of mindfulness is a collective practice, that which unites people towards acting for the common good, which in turn provides the basis for human flourishing and social transformation. Ronald E. Purser 1 Email author 1. College of Business, Bus 349 San Francisco State University San Francisco USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.

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