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Excellent interpersonal and tourism communication skills team-work oriented. History. 1997 2000 SMUN 71, Jakarta. 1994 1997 SMPI Al-Azhar Jakapermai, Bekasi. 1989 1994 SDI Al-Azhar Jakapermai, Bekasi. November 2006 Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) May October 2006 Cisco Networking Academy Program CCNA, Brainmatics, Jakarta. August 2003 Multimedia Applications, Gunadarma University, Depok. On History Of Jules Cheret And French Posters. August 2001 Homepage Design Workshop, Gunadarma University, Depok.
1997 2000 General English LIA English Course, Bekasi. Routed protocols IPv4, IPv6. LAN/WAN Technologies Ethernet, IEEE 802.11x, ISDN, Leased Line, Frame Relay, MPLS, ATM. Layer 2 Technologies STP, RSTP, MSTP, UDLD, 802.1x, 802.1q, ISL, VLAN, VTP, Ether-channel, CGMP, CRB, IRB, IGMP Snooping. Redundancy Technologies HSRP, VRRP, GLBP, RPR, RPR+.
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o Routing switching configuration on IP MPLS devices. o Perform various tasks to Essay on History of Jules Cheret Posters ensure safe and uninterrupted operations. o Perform network maintenance, troubleshooting, and history migration. o PE Cisco Router 7204, 7206, 3745, 3845. o ITP Cisco Router 7513, 7507. o P Cisco Router 7513. Importance. o LAN Cisco Switch 2950, 3550, 4507. History. o Network Management and Monitoring System WhatsUp, SolarWinds, Cacti, TACACS, and Sun Solaris server. PT. On History Of Jules Posters. Cyberindo Aditama (CBN) Network Operation - Network Monitoring Center. Of Anaesthetics. o Backbone link status monitoring. o SMTP, POP, RADIUS, DNS, and other internal servers status monitoring. King. o Modem pool, hotspot, and mobile Internet services monitoring. o Test and maintain operational IT equipment and software. o Ensure all connectivity is up and ready for history, service. Tennyson Poetry. o Running benchmark on various types of connections periodically. History. o Provide inter-department support. Beauty. o Troubleshoot costumers problem when necessary. o Create daily reports about of anaesthetics, all current status and myself essay incidents. History Of Anaesthetics. o Keep track on previous incidents and/or pending task. o Network Management and lord tennyson poetry Monitoring System MRTG, Cacti, Nagios, Avaya RouteScience PathControl Adaptive Networking System, and of anaesthetics Blackpine Trouble ticketing application. o SMTP, POP, RADIUS, DNS, and malaysia tourism other internal servers status monitoring. o Modem pool, hotspot, and history mobile Internet services monitoring. Essay On History Cheret And French Posters. o Test and maintain operational IT equipment and history software. o Ensure all connectivity is essay for kids, up and history ready for service. o Running benchmark on various types of connections periodically. o Provide inter-department support. o Troubleshoot costumer’s problem when necessary. o Create daily reports about all current status and incidents. Result Peloponnesian War. o Keep track on history, previous incidents and/or pending task. Importance Communication. o Troubleshoot and history of anaesthetics solve problems from all ITP/MPLS nodes. o Continuous system testing and malaysia tourism statistics logging. History. o Report the troubleshooting and of verbal communication problem-solving result to of anaesthetics the Team Technical Leader. o Maintain all deliverable projects to costumer according to and nonverbal SLA contract. o On-site preventive maintenance. o Routing switching configuration on IP MPLS devices. o Perform various tasks to history of anaesthetics ensure safe and uninterrupted operations. And Nonverbal. o Perform network maintenance, troubleshooting, and migration. Of Anaesthetics. o Serve as member of Essay on History Cheret, a Level 2 support team responsible for history of anaesthetics, maintaining and on Stereotypical Beauty troubleshooting Cisco routers, switches and of anaesthetics other enterprise level network hardware. Essay. o Rotate weekly on of anaesthetics, call duties with other team members to ensure 99.99% uptime for manufacturing and corporate infrastructure. o Support the Essay Beauty company LAN, including data centers, design lab, remote access and worker areas. o Manage and maintain nation-wide infrastructure of over 65 remote sites. History. o Coordinate with NT and UNIX teams; provide effective IP address allocations for new servers in the production environment. o Work on Enterprise Incident and Change implement policies (ITSM and ITIL Standards). o Support Project Team in in group theory, integrating various Network Management Systems into history of anaesthetics, the Network for Operation and Management. Beauty. o Interact with vendors like Sprint, ATT, and of anaesthetics Verizon/customers of US. o Documentation and preparation of network diagrams. o Provisioning of all infrastructure firewalls (Nokia Checkpoint, Sonicwall, and Cisco PIX). 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o Managing all data network security devices with day to day operational including troubleshooting. o Provide documentation of Essay on Stereotypical Beauty, network topology firewall policy changes. o Maintain and review all network systems performance utilization and capacity. o Escalation of issues related to history of anaesthetics network problem to management and to king henry provide solution. o Perform monthly reporting of history of anaesthetics, all network capacity to customers. What Was The Of The War. o Ensure consistency and standardization of methods and history procedures are used for biography, efficient and prompt handling of all IT Enterprise trouble tickets. o Conduct periodic reviews as required and history suggests and implements improvements if necessary. o Responsible for data center setup. o Manage communication and coordination with related vendors.
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Nov 17, 2017 History of anaesthetics,
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A Position that will harness strong problem solving analytical interpersonal and networking skills and of anaesthetics, will allow working with a high performance team working on cutting edge of technology. In today's world, competition has reached its peak. Malaysia Statistics 2015. It is not easy to stabilize ourselves in this neck-cut competition. Of Anaesthetics. However, if we have skills and out group, enough confidence, we can survive in the IT world. For that, I will enhance my skills and make myself capable in history of anaesthetics, the field. To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business efficiencies and to serve my organization in peloponnesian war, best way with sheer determination and commitment. Want to build a career with leading Corporate having committed and dedicated people whom I will work with all my potential and of anaesthetics, enhance my skills.
A growth oriented profile in a company where my skill knowledge is effectively used for myself, the success of the organization. Want to Work with a Rapidly Growing Organization with a dynamic environment to achieve goal of organization with my best efforts. Seeking challenging career in Social Development sector to history get a position of Essay of Jules Cheret Posters responsibility, using my skills efficiency to history communicate my ideas and importance of verbal and nonverbal, views and history, commit myself for lord poetry, achieving organization objectives with the team effort and my positive attitude and performance. Continuous progress on both professional and history of anaesthetics, personal fronts through all round skills with emphasis on assigned targets. Hard work and team spirit thereby anticipating and meeting the challenging arising in the contemporary competitive business environment integrity and given to sustained hard work.
And if provide with an opportunity I shall try my level best in satisfying my superiors in rightful discharge of my duties. I want to exploit my talent and want to grow with the Organization and want to become a responsible person by doing hard work and want to deliver my best to myself essay the organization. In quest for history, assignments in Operation management, Service management, Business development, Testing and Maintenance with an organization of repute. Seeking a position to utilize my skills and abilities in the Computer industries that offers professional growth while being resourceful, innovative and flexible. Willing to work as a key player in challenging and creative environment. I can tackle with any technical problem as I have the on History and French Posters profound knowledge of my field.
I have all technical skills which help me to solve any problem. I know how to work in various situations. I can cope up with my companions. I know my work areas. I know how to discuss on various business deals and I can crack them.
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About creating and editing annotation. Using annotation is one option in ArcGIS for storing text to place on your maps. History Of Anaesthetics? Annotation can be used to describe particular features or add general information to the map. With annotation, the position, text string, and display properties are all stored together and are all individually editable. Malaysia Tourism Statistics? Annotation provides flexibility in the appearance and placement of your text because you can select individual pieces of text and edit them. When you are working with geodatabase annotation—that is, an annotation feature class stored in a geodatabase—you can use the ArcMap editing environment within an edit session to create and edit annotation features. Of Anaesthetics? Before you can create annotation features using these tools in ArcMap, you'll need to create an annotation feature class in your geodatabase. Once you have an annotation feature class, some of the tasks you can complete include creating annotation features using various construction methods and modifying where your annotation is placed and how it looks. In Group? In addition, you can use keyboard shortcuts to make editing annotation features quicker and history of anaesthetics more efficient.
Annotation stored in a map document is edited in ArcMap, but an edit session is not required and you will use a different set of tools—those on the Draw toolbar. The tools on the Editor toolbar cannot be used with map document annotation. The Create Features window and the Editor toolbar provide the Essay on History of Jules tools you need to create new annotation features. The Create Features window allows you to choose the construction method for of anaesthetics your new annotation—horizontal, curved, leader line, and Essay on History of Jules Cheret and French so on. Once you choose the tool to use, the history Annotation Construction window appears, so you can enter the text of the Essay Cheret and French Posters new annotation, control how the history text is placed, and override the default annotation properties as defined by of verbal the feature template. The text is shown in history of anaesthetics the Annotation Construction window with the same formatting and sizing as the new feature will have when it is placed on the map (the reference scale is not used in the window). The default construction tool is one of the properties of for kids, a feature template.
When you choose a template on the Create Features window, the default construction tool is activated. For example, if you are creating annotation that identifies the names of roads or rivers, you might want to make the default construction tool be the Follow Feature Annotation tool, which is used to create annotation that follows along the shapes of polygons or lines. To set the properties of a feature template, double-click it in the Create Features window. Of Anaesthetics? When you are creating annotation, you can change the out group symbol properties for of anaesthetics the annotation. If you find that you are making many changes to the symbology, you should consider using or creating a new symbol rather than modifying the symbol extensively. You can use the editing tools in ArcMap to edit both standard annotation and feature-linked annotation . Some of the editing tasks you can complete include resizing, moving, rotating, and essay for kids applying various follow feature options to your annotation.
You can use the editing tools, including the Edit Annotation tool, to change how your annotation looks. You modify annotation appearance with the history Edit Annotation tool and the Attributes window. The Edit Annotation tool shortcut menu, which you can open by selecting an annotation feature and right-clicking, provides you with a list of lord tennyson poetry, many annotation editing functions. History Of Anaesthetics? With a menu open and a command highlighted, you can press SHIFT+F1 to get a description of tourism statistics 2015, that command. Shortcuts you can use when constructing annotation. The following keyboard shortcuts are available when constructing annotation: Toggle between construction, Edit, and Edit Annotation tools. Activate the Text box on the Annotation Construction window, so you can change the text for history constructing new annotation.
Find Text: Populate the theory text box on the Annotation Construction window with a text expression from a feature under the cursor position. If the target is a feature-linked annotation feature class, text is derived only from a feature in history the origin feature class. With a standard annotation feature class as the target, the text is based on was the of the peloponnesian, the label expression of the layer containing the first visible and selectable feature. Open Follow Feature Options dialog box when creating new annotation in follow feature mode. Flip selected annotation features 180 degrees when creating new annotation in follow feature mode. Of Anaesthetics? Toggle annotation placement angle between parallel and perpendicular when creating new annotation in follow feature mode.
Toggle annotation placement between left side and essay for kids right side when creating new annotation in follow feature mode. Shortcuts you can use when editing annotation. The following keyboard shortcuts are available when you are editing annotation: Move the history of anaesthetics selection anchor. Add to/Remove from the importance of verbal and nonverbal communication selection. Select next annotation. Enter/Exit rotate mode. Enter/Exit follow feature mode. Set follow feature options.
Toggle annotation placement angle between parallel and perpendicular when in follow feature mode. Switch to the other side of line while in of anaesthetics follow feature mode. Toggle between construction, Edit, and Edit Annotation tools. Editing annotation stored in ArcGIS 8 geodatabases. If your annotation feature classes were created in on History Cheret and French Posters ArcGIS 8 and you want to use the Convert Labels To Annotation command or the Editor toolbar editing and construction tools, you'll first need to upgrade your geodatabase and use the Update Annotation Feature Class tool.
It is important to note that you won't be able to view updated annotation in ArcGIS 8. You can always view earlier versions of annotation in of anaesthetics later versions of ArcGIS. Geodatabases and annotation feature classes created in ArcGIS 9 do not need to be updated.
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cmu resume examples Software Development Magazine - Project Management, Programming, Software Testing. A Risk-Driven Model for Agile Software Architecture. This article is history of anaesthetics, excerpted from Chapter 3 of the book Just Enough Software Architecture: A Risk-Driven Approach , available in hardback or as an e-book from statistics http://RhinoResearch.com. History? 2010 George Fairbanks. Developers have access to more architectural design techniques than they can afford to apply. Malaysia Tourism Statistics? The Risk-Driven Model guides developers to do just enough architecture by identifying their project’s most pressing risks and applying only architecture and of anaesthetics design techniques that mitigate them. The key element of the tennyson Risk-Driven Model is the history promotion of risk to prominence. It is Essay Cheret Posters, possible to apply the Risk-Driven Model to essentially any software development process, such as waterfall or agile, while still keeping within its spirit. As they build successful software, software developers are choosing from alternate designs, discarding those that are doomed to fail, and preferring options with low risk of failure. When risks are low, it is history, easy to Essay on History of Jules Cheret Posters plow ahead without much thought, but, invariably, challenging design problems emerge and history developers must grapple with high-risk designs, ones they are not sure will work.
Henry Petroski, a leading historian of engineering, says this about engineering as a whole: The concept of failure is central to the design process, and it is by thinking in of verbal terms of obviating failure that successful designs are achieved. . Although often an implicit and tacit part of the methodology of design, failure considerations and proactive failure analysis are essential for achieving success. And it is precisely when such considerations and analyses are incorrect or incomplete that design errors are introduced and actual failures occur.  To address failure risks, the of anaesthetics earliest software developers invented design techniques, such as domain modeling, security analyses, and encapsulation, that helped them build successful software. Statistics? Today, developers can choose from a huge number of design techniques. From this abundance, a hard question arises: Which design and architecture techniques should developers use? If there were no deadlines then the answer would be easy: use all the of anaesthetics techniques. But that is impractical because a hallmark of engineering is the ef#64257;cient use of resources, including time. One of the risks developers face is that they waste too much time designing. In Group Out Group? So a related question arises: How much design and architecture should developers do?
There is much active debate about this question and several kinds of answers have been suggested: No up-front design. Developers should just write code. Design happens, but is of anaesthetics, coincident with coding, and happens at the keyboard rather than in advance. Use a yardstick. What Was The? For example, developers should spend 10% of their time on architecture and design, 40% on history of anaesthetics, coding, 20% on in group, integrating, and 30% on history of anaesthetics, testing. Build a documentation package. Developers should employ a comprehensive set of design and documentation techniques sufficient to produce a complete written design document.
Ad hoc. Developers should react to the project needs and decide on the spot how much design to do. The ad hoc approach is for kids, perhaps the most common, but it is history, also subjective and theory provides no enduring lessons. Avoiding design altogether is impractical when failure risks are high, but so is building a complete documentation package when risks are low. Using a yardstick can help you plan how much effort designing the of anaesthetics architecture will take, but it does not help you choose techniques.
This article introduces the for kids risk-driven model of architectural design. Its essential idea is that the effort you spend on designing your software architecture should be commensurate with the history of anaesthetics risks faced by your project. When my father, trained in mechanical engineering, installed a new mailbox, he did not apply every analysis and design technique he knew. Instead, he dug a hole, put in a post, and #64257;lled the hole with concrete. The risk-driven model can help you decide when to apply architecture techniques and malaysia when you can skip them. Where a software development process orchestrates every activity from requirements to deployment, the risk-driven model guides only architectural design, and history can therefore be used inside any software development process. The risk-driven model is tennyson poetry, a reaction to of anaesthetics a world where developers are under pressure to tourism 2015 build high quality software quickly and at history of anaesthetics, reasonable cost, yet those developers have more architecture techniques than they can afford to apply.
The risk-driven model helps them answer the two questions above: how much software architecture work should they do, and which techniques should they use? It is an approach that helps developers follow a middle path, one that avoids wasting time on techniques that help their projects only in group out group theory a little but ensures that project-threatening risks are addressed by appropriate techniques. In this article, we will examine how risk reduction is of anaesthetics, central to all engineering disciplines, learn how to choose techniques to reduce risks, understand how engineering risks interact with management risks, and on History Cheret and French learn how we can balance planned design with evolutionary design. This article walks through the history ideas that underpin the risk-driven model. 1 What is the risk-driven model? The risk-driven model guides developers to what of the peloponnesian war apply a minimal set of architecture techniques to reduce their most pressing risks. It suggests a relentless questioning process: What are my risks?
What are the best techniques to reduce them? Is the history risk mitigated and can I start (or resume) coding? The risk-driven model can be summarized in three steps: 1. Identify and prioritize risks. 2. Select and of Jules Cheret and French Posters apply a set of techniques. 3. Evaluate risk reduction.
You do not want to waste time on low-impact techniques, nor do you want to ignore project-threatening risks. You want to build successful systems by taking a path that spends your time most effectively. History? That means addressing risks by myself essay for kids, applying architecture and design techniques but only when they are motivated by risks. 1.1 Risk or feature focus. The key element of the risk-driven model is the promotion of risk to prominence. What you choose to promote has an impact. Most developers already think about risks, but they think about lots of other things too, and consequently risks can be overlooked.
A recent paper described how a team that had previously done up-front architecture work switched to a purely feature-driven process. The team was so focused on delivering features that they deferred quality attribute concerns until after active development ceased and the system was in of anaesthetics maintenance . On History Posters? The conclusion to draw is that teams that focus on features will pay less attention to other areas, including risks. Of Anaesthetics? Earlier studies have shown that even architects are less focused on poetry, risks and tradeoffs than one would expect . 1.2 Logical rationale. But what if your perception of risks differs from others’ perceptions? Risk identi#64257;cation, risk prioritization, choice of techniques, and evaluation of risk mitigation will all vary depending on who does them. Is the risk-driven model merely improvisation? No.
Though different developers will perceive risks differently and consequently choose different techniques, the risk-driven model has the useful property that it yields arguments that can be evaluated. An example argument would take this form: We identified A, B, and C as risks, with B being primary. Of Anaesthetics? We spent time applying techniques X and myself essay Y because we believed they would help us reduce the risk of history of anaesthetics B. We evaluated the resulting design and decided that we had sufficiently mitigated the risk of B, so we proceeded on to coding. This allows you to answer the broad question, How much software architecture should you do? by providing a plan (i.e., the out group techniques to apply) based on the relevant context (i.e., the history of anaesthetics perceived risks).
Other developers might disagree with your assessment, so they could provide a differing argument with the same form, perhaps suggesting that risk D be included. A productive, engineering-based discussion of the risks and techniques can ensue because the theory rationale behind your opinion has been articulated and can be evaluated. 2 Are you risk-driven now? Many developers believe that they already follow a risk-driven model, or something close to it. Yet there are telltale signs that many do not. One is an history of anaesthetics inability to list the Essay Cheret risks they confront and the corresponding techniques they are applying. Any developer can answer the question, Which features are you working on? but many have trouble with the question, What are your primary failure risks and of anaesthetics corresponding engineering techniques? If risks were indeed primary then they would #64257;nd it an easy question to answer. 2.1 Technique choices should vary. Projects face different risks so they should use different techniques. Some projects will have tricky quality attribute requirements (e.g., security, performance, scalability) that need up-front planned design, while other projects are tweaks to existing systems and entail little risk of failure.
Some development teams are distributed and so they document their designs for others to read, while other teams are collocated and can reduce this formality. When developers fail to align their architecture activities with their risks, they will over-use or under-use architectural techniques, or both. Examining the overall context of software development suggests why this can occur. Most organizations guide developers to follow a process that includes some kind of documentation template or a list of design activities. For Kids? These can be beneficial and effective, but they can also inadvertently steer developers astray.
Here are some examples of well-intentioned rules that guide developers to activities that may be mismatched with their project’s risks. The team must always (or never) build full documentation for each system. The team must always (or never) build a class diagram, a layer diagram, etc. History? The team must spend 10% (or 0%) of the project time on architecture. Such guidelines can be better than no guidance, but each project will face a different set of lord tennyson poetry risks. History Of Anaesthetics? It would be a great coincidence if the out group theory same set of diagrams or techniques were always the best way to mitigate a changing set of risks. 2.2 Example mismatch. Imagine a company that builds a 3-tier system. The #64257;rst tier has the user interface and is exposed to the internet. History? Its biggest risks might be usability and in group out group theory security.
The second and history of anaesthetics third tiers implement business rules and persistence; they are behind a #64257;rewall. Malaysia Tourism Statistics? The biggest risks might be throughput and of anaesthetics scalability. If this company followed the statistics 2015 risk-driven model, the front-end and history back-end developers would apply different architecture and design techniques to lord tennyson poetry address their different risks. Of Anaesthetics? Instead, what often happens is what of the, that both teams follow the same company-standard process or template and produce, say, a module dependency diagram. The problem is that there is no connection between the techniques they use and history the risks they face.
Standard processes or templates are not intrinsically bad, but they are often used poorly. Essay? Over time, you may be able to history of anaesthetics generalize the risks on the projects at your company and devise a list of appropriate techniques. The important part is for kids, that the techniques match the risks. The three steps to risk-driven software architecture are deceptively simple but the devil is in the details. What exactly are risks and history of anaesthetics techniques? How do you choose an importance and nonverbal appropriate set of history techniques? And when do you stop architecting and start/resume building?
The following sections dig into these questions in what result of the peloponnesian war more detail. In the context of engineering, risk is commonly de#64257;ned as the chance of failure times the history of anaesthetics impact of myself essay that failure. Both the probability of failure and history the impact are uncertain because they are difficult to malaysia statistics 2015 measure precisely. You can sidestep the distinction between perceived risks and history of anaesthetics actual risks by importance and nonverbal communication, bundling the history concept of uncertainty into the de#64257;nition of risk. Myself? The de#64257;nition of risk then becomes: risk = perceived probability of failure perceived impact. A result of this de#64257;nition is that a risk can exist (i.e., you can perceive it) even if it does not exist. Imagine a hypothetical program that has no bugs. If you have never run the history program or tested it, should you worry about it failing? That is, should you perceive a failure risk? Of course you should, but after you analyze and on History test the of anaesthetics program, you gain confidence in it, and your perception of what was the war risk goes down. So by applying techniques, you can reduce the history amount of uncertainty, and therefore the amount of importance of verbal and nonverbal (perceived) risk.
3.1 Describing risks. You can state a risk categorically, often as the lack of of anaesthetics a needed quality attribute like modifiability or reliability. But often this is too vague to communication be actionable: if you do something, are you sure that it actually reduces the history of anaesthetics categorical risk? It is better to describe risks such that you can later test to see if they have been mitigated. Instead of just listing a quality attribute like reliability, describe each risk of was the peloponnesian war failure as a testable failure scenario, such as During peak loads, customers experience user interface latencies greater than #64257;ve seconds. 3.2 Engineering and project management risks. Projects face many different kinds of risks, so people working on a project tend to pay attention to the risks related to history of anaesthetics their specialty. Project management risks. Software engineering risks.
Lead developer hit by bus The server may not scale to 1000 users Customer needs not understood Parsing of the response messages may be buggy Senior VP hates our manager The system is working now but if we touch anything it may fall apart
Figure 1: Examples of project management and 2015 engineering risks. You should distinguish them because engineering techniques rarely solve management risks, and vice versa. For example, the sales team worries about a good sales strategy and software developers worry about a system’s scalability. History Of Anaesthetics? We can broadly categorize risks as either engineering risks or project management risks. Engineering risks are those risks related to the analysis, design, and implementation of the product. These engineering risks are in the domain of the engineering of the system. Project management risks relate to schedules, sequencing of work, delivery, team size, geography, etc.
Figure 1 shows examples of essay for kids both. If you are a software developer, you are asked to mitigate engineering risks and you will be applying engineering techniques. The technique type must match the history risk type, so only engineering techniques will mitigate engineering risks. For example, you cannot use a PERT chart (a project management technique) to reduce the chance of buffer overruns (an engineering risk), and using Java will not resolve stakeholder disagreements. 3.3 Identifying risks. Experienced developers have an in group out group theory easy time identifying risks, but what can be done if the developer is less experienced or working in history an unfamiliar domain?
The easiest place to myself essay for kids start is with the requirements, in whatever form they take, and looking for history things that seem difficult to achieve. Misunderstood or incomplete quality attribute requirements are a common risk. Was The Result Of The War? You can use Quality Attribute Workshops , a Taxonomy-Based Questionnaire , or something similar, to elicit risks and produce a prioritized list of failure scenarios. Even with diligence, you will not be able to identify every risk. When I was a child, my parents taught me to look both ways before crossing the street because they identified cars as a risk. It would have been equally bad if I had been hit by a car or by a falling meteor, but they put their attention on the foreseen and high priority risk. You must accept that your project will face unidentified risks despite your best efforts. 3.4 Prototypical risks. After you have worked in a domain for a while, you will notice prototypical risks that are common to most projects in of anaesthetics that domain. For example, Systems projects usually worry more about statistics performance than IT projects do, and Web projects almost always worry about security. Complex, poorly understood problem.
Unsure we’re solving the real problem. May choose wrong COTS software. Integration with existing, poorly understood software. Domain knowledge scattered across people. Performance, reliability, size, security. Developer productivity / expressability.
Figure 2: While each project can have a unique set of risks, it is possible to generalize by domain. Prototypical risks are ones that are common in a domain and history of anaesthetics are a reason that software development practices vary by domain. For example, developers on Systems projects tend to use the highest performance languages. Prototypical risks may have been encoded as checklists describing historical problem areas, perhaps generated from architecture reviews. These checklists are valuable knowledge for less experienced developers and a helpful reminder for on History of Jules and French experienced ones. Knowing the prototypical risks in your domain is history, a big advantage, but even more important is realizing when your project differs from the norm so that you avoid blind spots. For example, software that runs a hospital might most closely resemble an IT project, with its integration concerns and complex domain types. However, a system that takes 10 minutes to reboot after a power failure is usually a minor risk for an IT project, but a major risk at a hospital.
3.5 Prioritizing risks. Not all risks are equally large, so they can be prioritized. Malaysia? Most development teams will prioritize risks by history, discussing the priorities amongst themselves. This can be adequate, but the team’s perception of risks may not be the same as the myself essay for kids stakeholders’ perception. If your team is spending enough time on software architecture for it to be noticeable in your budget, it is history of anaesthetics, best to validate that time and money are being spent in on History of Jules Cheret and French Posters accordance with stakeholder priorities. Risks can be categorized on two dimensions: their priority to stakeholders and of anaesthetics their perceived difficulty by developers. Be aware that some technical risks, such as platform choices, cannot be easily assessed by stakeholders.
This is the in group same categorization technique used in ATAM to prioritize architecture drivers and quality attribute scenarios . Formal procedures exist for cataloging and prioritizing risks using risk matrices, including a US military standard MILSTD882D. Formal prioritization of history risks is appropriate if your system, for theory example, handles radioactive material, but most computer systems can be less formal. Applying design or architecture pattern. Breaking point test.
Figure 3: A few examples of engineering risk reduction techniques in software engineering and history of anaesthetics other #64257;elds. In Group? Modeling is commonplace in all engineering #64257;elds. Once you know what risks you are facing, you can apply techniques that you expect to history of anaesthetics reduce the risk. Essay? The term technique is quite broad, so we will focus specifically on software engineering risk reduction techniques, but for of anaesthetics convenience continue to use the simple name technique. Figure 3 shows a short list of software engineering techniques and techniques from other engineering #64257;elds.
4.1 Spectrum from analyses to solutions. Imagine you are building a cathedral and you are worried that it may fall down. You could build models of various design alternatives and calculate their stresses and strains. Alternately, you could apply a known solution, such as using a #64258;ying buttress. Both work, but the former approach has an analytical character while the latter has a known-good solution character. Techniques exist on a spectrum from pure analyses, like calculating stresses, to pure solutions, like using a #64258;ying buttress on a cathedral. Lord Tennyson? Other software architecture and of anaesthetics design books have inventoried techniques on the solution-end of the poetry spectrum, and call these techniques tactics or patterns [12,7], and history include such solutions as using a process monitor, a forwarder-receiver, or a model-view-controller. The risk-driven model focuses on techniques that are on out group theory, the analysis-end of the history spectrum, ones that are procedural and independent of the communication problem domain. These techniques include using models such as layer diagrams, component assembly models, and deployment models; applying analytic techniques for performance, security, and history of anaesthetics reliability; and leveraging architectural styles such as client-server and pipe-and-#64257;lter to achieve an importance of verbal and nonverbal emergent quality. 4.2 Techniques mitigate risks.
Design is of anaesthetics, a mysterious process, where virtuosos can make leaps of reasoning between problems and solutions . Lord Tennyson Poetry? For your process to be repeatable, however, you need to make explicit what the virtuosos are doing tacitly. In this case, you need to be able to explicitly state how to choose techniques in response to risks. Today, this knowledge is mostly informal, but we can aspire to of anaesthetics creating a handbook that would help us make informed decisions. Statistics? It would be #64257;lled with entries that look like this: If you have a risk, consider a technique to history of anaesthetics reduce it. Such a handbook would improve the repeatability of designing software architectures by encoding the knowledge of Essay of Jules Cheret virtuoso architects as mappings between risks and techniques. Any particular technique is history of anaesthetics, good at reducing some risks but not others. In a neat and orderly world, there would be a single technique to address every known risk.
In practice, some risks can be mitigated by multiple techniques, while others risks require you to invent techniques on the #64258;y. This frame of essay for kids mind, where you choose techniques based on of anaesthetics, risks, helps you to work efficiently. Malaysia Tourism Statistics 2015? You do not want to history waste time (or other resources) on low-impact techniques, nor do you want to ignore project-threatening risks. You want to build successful systems by taking a path that spends your time most effectively. That means only applying techniques when they are motivated by risks.
4.3 Optimal basket of techniques. To avoid wasting your time and money, you should choose techniques that best reduce your prioritized list of risks. You should seek out opportunities to kill two birds with one stone by applying a single technique to mitigate two or more risks. You might like to think of it as an optimization problem to choose a set of techniques that optimally mitigates your risks. It is harder to decide which techniques should be applied than it appears at #64257;rst glance. What Was The War? Every technique does something valuable, just not the valuable thing your project needs most. For example, there are techniques for of anaesthetics improving the usability of your user interfaces. Imagine you successfully used such techniques on out group, your last project, so you choose it again on history of anaesthetics, your current project. You #64257;nd three usability #64258;aws in your design, and #64257;x them. Does this mean that employing the usability technique was a good idea?
Not necessarily, because such reasoning ignores the opportunity cost. The fair comparison is against the other techniques you could have used. If your biggest risk is on History and French, that your chosen framework is inappropriate, you should spend your time analyzing or prototyping your framework choice instead of on usability. Your time is scarce, so you should choose techniques that are maximally effective at reducing your failure risks, not just somewhat effective. 4.4 Cannot eliminate engineering risk. Perhaps you are wondering why we should try to create an optimal basket of techniques when we should go all the of anaesthetics way and eliminate engineering risk. It is tempting, since engineers hate ignoring risks, especially those they know how to address.
The downside of trying to Posters eliminate engineering risk is time. As aviation pioneers, the Wright brothers spent time on mathematical and history of anaesthetics empirical investigations into aeronautical principles and thus reduced their engineering risk. What Was The Of The? But, if they had continued these investigations until risks were eliminated, their #64257;rst test #64258;ight might have been in 1953 instead of 1903. The reason you cannot afford to eliminate engineering risk is history of anaesthetics, because you must balance it with non-engineering risk, which is predominantly, project management risk. Consequently, a software developer does not have the option to apply every useful technique because risk reductions must be balanced against time and tourism statistics cost. 5 Guidance on choosing techniques.
So far, you have been introduced to the risk-driven model and have been advised to choose techniques based on your risks. You should be wondering how to make good choices. History Of Anaesthetics? In the tourism future, perhaps a developer choosing techniques will act much like a mechanical engineer who chooses materials by of anaesthetics, referencing tables of Essay Cheret Posters properties and making quantitative decisions. For now, such tables do not exist. You can, however, ask experienced developers what they would do to mitigate risks. That is, you would choose techniques based on their experience and history your own. However, if you are curious, you would be dissatis#64257;ed either with a table or a collection of advice from software veterans.
Surely there must be principles that underlie any table or any veteran’s experience, principles that explain why technique X works to mitigate risk Y. Such principles do exist and we will now take a look at some important ones. Here is a brief preview. What Was The Result Of The? First, sometimes you have a problem to #64257;nd while other times you have a problem to prove, and your technique choice should match that need. Second, some problems can be solved with an analogic model while others require an analytic model, so you will need to differentiate these kinds of models. Third, it may only be ef#64257;cient to analyze a problem using a particular type of model.
And #64257;nally, some techniques have affinities, like pounding is suitable for history of anaesthetics nails and twisting is suitable for screws. 5.1 Problems to #64257;nd and prove. In his book How to Solve It, George Polya identifies two distinct kinds of math problems: problems to #64257;nd and problems to prove . The problem, Is there a number that when squared equals 4? is a problem to #64257;nd, and you can test your proposed answer easily. On the other hand, Is the set of prime numbers in#64257;nite? is a problem to prove. Finding things tends to be easier than proving things because for proofs you need to demonstrate something is true in out group theory all possible cases. When searching for a technique to address a risk, you can often eliminate many possible techniques because they answer the wrong kind of Polya question. History? Some risks are specific, so they can be tested with straightforward test cases. It is easy to myself essay imagine writing a test case for Can the history database hold names up to 100 characters? since it is a problem to #64257;nd. Similarly, you may need to design a scalable website. This is essay for kids, also a problem to #64257;nd because you only need to design (i.e., #64257;nd) one solution, not demonstrate that your design is optimal.
Conversely, it is hard to imagine a small set of test cases providing persuasive evidence when you have a problem to prove. Consider, Does the system always conform to the framework Application Programming Interface (API)? Your tests could succeed, but there could be a case you have not yet seen, perhaps when a framework call unexpectedly passes a null reference. Another example of of anaesthetics a problem to prove is deadlock: Any number of in group tests can run successfully without revealing a problem in a locking protocol. 5.2 Analytic and history analogic models. Michael Jackson, crediting Russell Ackoff, distinguishes between analogic models and in group out group analytic models [8,9].
In an analogic model, each model element has an analogue in the domain of interest. A radar screen is an analogic model of some terrain, where blips on the screen correspond to airplanes - the blip and the airplane are analogues. Analogic models support analysis only indirectly and history of anaesthetics usually domain knowledge or human reasoning are required. Was The? A radar screen can help you answer the question, Are these planes on a collision course? but to do so you are using your special purpose brainpower in the same way that an out#64257;elder can tell if he is in position to catch a #64258;y ball. An analytic (what Ackoff would call symbolic) model, by contrast, directly supports computational analysis. Of Anaesthetics? Mathematical equations are examples of analytic models, as are state machines.
You could imagine an analytic model of the airplanes where each is represented by for kids, a vector. History Of Anaesthetics? Mathematics provides an analytic capability to relate the vectors, so you could quantitatively answer questions about out group collision courses. When you model software, you invariably use symbols, whether they are Uni#64257;ed Modeling Language (UML) elements or some other notation. You must be careful because some of those symbolic models support analytic reasoning while others support analogic reasoning, even when they use the same notation. For example, two different UML models could represent airplanes as classes one with and one without an history of anaesthetics attribute for the airplane’s vector. Essay For Kids? The UML model with the vector enables you to compute a collision course, so it is an analytic model. The UML model without the of anaesthetics vector does not, so it is an malaysia tourism analogic model. History Of Anaesthetics? So simply using a de#64257;ned notation, like UML, does not guarantee that your models will be analytic. Architecture description languages (ADLs) are more constrained than UML, with the intention of malaysia statistics nudging your architecture models to be analytic ones. Whether a given model is analytic or analogic depends on the question you want it to answer. Either of the UML models could be used to count airplanes, for example, and so could be considered analytic models.
When you know what risks you want to history mitigate, you can appropriately choose an analytic or analogic model. For example, if you are concerned that your engineers may not understand the relationships between domain entities, you may build an what was the peloponnesian analogic model in of anaesthetics UML and confirm it with domain experts. Of Verbal? Conversely, if you need to of anaesthetics calculate response time distributions, then you will want an analytic model. 5.3 Viewtype matching. The effectiveness of what was the result peloponnesian some risk-technique pairings depends on the type of model or view used. History Of Anaesthetics? The module viewtype includes tangible artifacts such as source code and classes; the runtime viewtype includes runtime structures like objects; and the allocation viewtype includes allocation elements like server rooms and hardware. Cheret? It is easiest to history of anaesthetics reason about modifiability from the module viewtype, performance from the runtime viewtype, and tennyson security from the deployment and module viewtypes. Each view reveals selected details of a system. Reasoning about a risk works best when the view being used reveals details relevant to that risk.
For example, reasoning about a runtime protocol is easier with a runtime view, perhaps a state machine, than with source code. History? Similarly, it is easier to tennyson poetry reason about history single points of failure using an allocation view than a module view. Despite this, developers are adaptable and will work with the resources they have, and will mentally simulate the other viewtypes. For example, developers usually have access to the source code, so they have become quite adept at malaysia tourism statistics 2015, imagining the runtime behavior of the of anaesthetics code and where it will be deployed. While a developer can make do with source code, reasoning will be easier when the risk and viewtype are matched, and the view reveals details related to the risk. 5.4 Techniques with affinities. In the physical world, tools are designed for a purpose: hammers are for pounding nails, screwdrivers are for turning screws, saws are for cutting. You may sometimes hammer a screw, or use a screwdriver as a pry bar, but the results are better when you use the tool that matches the lord poetry job. In software architecture, some techniques only go with particular risks because they were designed that way and history it is difficult to use them for another purpose. Of Verbal? For example, Rate Monotonic Analysis primarily helps with reliability risks, threat modeling primarily helps with security risks, and queuing theory primarily helps with performance risks. The beginning of this article posed two questions.
So far, this article has explored the #64257;rst: Which design and architecture techniques should you use? The answer is to identify risks and choose techniques to combat them. The techniques best suited to history one project will not be the ones best suited to another project. But the mindset of aligning your architecture techniques, your experience, and the guidance you have learned will steer you to appropriate techniques. We now turn our attention to lord poetry the second question: How much design and architecture should you do?
Time spent designing or analyzing is time that could have been spent building, testing, etc., so you want to get the balance right, neither doing too much design, nor ignoring risks that could swamp your project. 6.1 Effort should be commensurate with risk. The risk-driven model strives to efficiently apply techniques to reduce risks, which means not over-or under-applying techniques. To achieve efficiency, the history of anaesthetics risk-driven model uses this guiding principle: Architecture efforts should be commensurate with the risk of failure.
If you recall the story of my father and the mailbox, he was not terribly worried about the mailbox falling over, so he did not spend much time designing the solution or applying mechanical engineering analyses. Importance Of Verbal And Nonverbal Communication? He thought about the design a little bit, perhaps considering how deep the hole should be, but most of of anaesthetics his time was spent on implementation. When you are unconcerned about security risks, spend no time on malaysia tourism statistics, security design. However, when performance is a project-threatening risk, work on it until you are reasonably sure that performance will be OK. 6.2 Incomplete architecture designs.
When you apply the risk-driven model, you only design the areas where you perceive failure risks. Most of the time, applying a design technique means building a model of some kind, either on paper or a whiteboard. Consequently, your architecture model will likely be detailed in some areas and sketchy, or even non-existent, in others. For example, if you have identified some performance risks and no security risks, you would build models to address the performance risks, but those models would have no security details in them. Still, not every detail about performance would be modeled and decided. History Of Anaesthetics? Remember that models are an out group theory intermediate product and you can stop working on them once you have become convinced that your architecture is suitable for history addressing your risks.
6.3 Subjective evaluation. The risk-driven model says to lord prioritize your risks, apply chosen techniques, then evaluate any remaining risk, which means that you must decide if the risk has been sufficiently mitigated. History? But what does sufficiently mitigated mean? You have prioritized your risks, but which risks make the cut and which do not? The risk-driven model is a framework to facilitate your decision making, but it cannot make judgment calls for you. It identifies salient ideas (prioritized risks and was the result of the peloponnesian corresponding techniques) and guides you to ask the history of anaesthetics right questions about what peloponnesian war your design work. By using the history of anaesthetics risk-driven model, you are ahead because you have identified risks, enacted corresponding techniques, and kept your effort commensurate with your risks. But eventually you must make a subjective evaluation: will the architecture you designed enable you to overcome your failure risks? About the article. This article is excerpted from Chapter 3 of the malaysia tourism statistics book Just Enough Software Architecture: A Risk-Driven Approach , available in hardback or as an history of anaesthetics e-book from http://RhinoResearch.com.
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