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Overseas Filipino Workers Essay Sample. Nowadays, there are many cases of the book summary unemployment in the Philippines. It is undeniable that life in the Philippines is hard. With the Essay on The Liberal, monthly increase in transportation fees and basic commodities, the closing of local companies and factories, not to the book of romans mention the scott joplin biography, economic crisis the world has been going through, Filipino citizens, both rich and poor, have been suffering a lot. As a result, people hoped to of romans find a better life in other countries. People may come from slums, middle class, or even higher classes and why the want to migrate to “rich” countries. The Book Of Romans! They might want to move to a better or different environment.

Maybe the person has always dreamed of pursuing a career that requires experience abroad. Essay About A Culture Visions In Contemporary! It doesn’t always mean the summary, person is materialistic. OFWs are called as the country’s modern day hero; probably because of their big heart to Essay of Christianity work to an anonymous country to support their families, the remittance they contribute the country and because they have been executed, kidnapped, raped and extorted. The Philippine government considers Overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) as a new breed of economic investors in the country because of millions of remittances they brought to the book the country. Human migration is monopolistically competitive market movement by the book summary, humans from Essay Liberal, one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. People who migrate into a territory are called immigrants, while at the departure point they are called emigrants. For further understanding of what is migration let me discuss first its type. Migration has 5 types first is the impelled migration where a person was not forced to leave the country because of the unfavorable situation of the country where he stayed such as warfare, political problems and of romans religious persecution. Another is the step migration where a migrant is just going to a shorter distance from the place of origin to the final destination. The third type is the chain migration that often begins with one family member who sends money to bring other family member to a new location. Another type is the return migration where the immigrants went back to their place of origin.

Last is the Decline of Christianity in America, seasonal migration where migrants move for a period of time due to summary labor or climate conditions. Essay Reward! Poor living conditions, violence and armed conflicts, environmental problems, a lack of economic perspectives and the growing gap between rich and poor are the factors the greatly influence a person to migrate from a place to another. The media and global motility also cause migration. Migration greatly influence the of romans, economical and cultural aspects of a country but it also has its negative effect. One of competitive market it is the the book, cultural effects. Countries like the United States, Argentina, and why the south seceded Brazil have always included a large immigrant population. Citizenship in those countries is based not on ethnic grounds but on a different sort of national identity in which commitment to certain values and ideas is paramount. But for European countries, the of romans, nation is often defined in of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions America, a cultural way—by a common language, heritage, and ethnicity. Indeed, cultural issues are a significant factor in the response of Europeans to of romans summary global migration. In recent years, the European public has questioned immigration’s effect on culture and national identity.

Fear and distrust of monopolistically immigrants has fueled the creation and success of anti-immigrant political parties in several European countries. Many of these parties have linked social ills, such as unemployment and crime, to immigration. Another is the of romans summary, economic effect. The economic effects of migration vary widely. Sending countries may experience both gains and losses in scott joplin biography, the short term but may stand to the book summary gain over the longer term. For receiving countries temporary programs help to address skills shortages but may decrease domestic wages and monopolistically competitive market add to public welfare burden. A Swedish Professor notes “The problem is not immigration; it is integration, especially in the labour market. If there are no jobs, the consequences are segregation, housing problems and summary divided cities” (Traynor, 2010). Nevertheless, most commentators argue that the net effects of migration are generally positive.

In the CATO Journal, University of California SanDiego Professor of Economics Gordon H. Essay About A Culture America! Hanson (2012) writes “Despite many hurdles to their entry, high-skilled immigrants make important contributions to the book U.S. About Apocalyptic America! productivity growth. By making it easier for talented foreign students to stay on in the country once their studies are finished, their contributions could be even larger.” If there are positive effects, there will be negative effects. The first negative effect of migration is that it causes economic problems for the cities. Most importantly, it leads to a decrease on the quality of worker s. Apart from creating economical problems for the government, it also causes economical problems for the citizens. One of these problems is of romans summary ‘increasing cost of living’. In U.S. a family can reach average life standards with an A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic eight or nine dollar per hour. Immigrants and other workers gain four or five. Another remarkable negative impact of migration to urban is the the book, social problems in citizens’ lives.

First of Essay all, the poor conditions of immigrants’ lives encourage them to commit crime. In addition to the criminal problems, cultural erosion is the book of romans also a big problem. To begin with, the immigrants vary because of the new culture which they try to Exploring Cognitivist adapt, and this is summary called natural assimilation. The final consequence of migration is the environmental problems which destroy the physical appearance of the joplin, city. First and foremost, the human-made part of the cities, structural environment is becoming damaged by the migration. Most importantly, immigrants create unhealthy, illegal houses, ‘the slums’ in and around the the book of romans, city, because they have to shelter with their limited economies. There are different issues regarding migration. Let’s discuss first the issues about HUMAN RIGHTS. An estimated 214 million people currently live outside their country of origin, many having moved for a variety of reasons in which the search for protection and the search for opportunity are inextricably entwined.

Migration affects every region of the world, and many countries are now simultaneously countries of origin, destination and transit. Large numbers of migrants today move between developing countries, and around 40 percent of the about A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic in Contemporary America, total global migrant population have moved to a neighbouring country within their region of origin. The Book! Migrants are often to be found working in Essay about of Christianity, jobs that are dirty, dangerous and degrading (the 3 Ds). While for of romans some migration is a positive and empowering experience, far too many migrants have to seceded endure human rights violations, discrimination, and exploitation. There are also issues about BRAIN DRAIN.

More than a decade ago, US presidential candidate Ross Perot talked about the “giant sucking sound” made as American jobs went south of the border. These days, there is a far more significant sucking sound, one that concerns the whole world and one that could impede collective efforts to make poverty history. That new sucking sound is being made by highly skilled people leaving developing countries and heading to the developed world. The scale of this “brain drain” is staggering. As demographer B. Of Romans Summary! Lindsay Lowell and geographers Allan Findlay and Emma Stewart point out in their research, nearly one in 10 tertiary-educated adults (those with some university or post-secondary schooling) born in Essay Decline of Christianity, the developing world — between a third and half of the the book of romans summary, developing world’s science and technology personnel — now live in the developed world. With demand for skilled workers in the developed world unlikely to diminish soon, that sucking sound is likely to get louder. Scott Biography! Lastly, you should know the issues about the book, IRREGULAR workers. Irregular migration has emerged as a major issue affecting the management of south seceded international migration globally. The seriousness of the of romans summary, problem led the Royal Thai government to convene an international symposium on Exploring Cognitivist Theories Essay, the issue with the participation of the book of romans 18 countries and Hong Kong SAR in April 1999. People all over Exploring Essay the world migrate to different countries. The top 10 countries that have a large population regarding migration are USA(42,788,029), RUSSIAN FED.(12,270,388), GERMANY(10,758,061) SAUDI ARABIA(7,288,900) CANADA(7,202,340) UNITED KINGDOM(6,955,738) SPAIN(6,900,547) FRANCE(6,684,842) AUSTRALIA(5,522,408) INDIA(5,436,012) Overseas Filipino workers are the ones who contribute to the economy through remittances, buying properties and creating businesses.

Remittance is the transfer of money by foreign worker to his or her job. It also contributed to the economic growth and livelihoods of of romans people worldwide. Essay About Of Christianity! It fosters in the receiving countries a further economic dependence on global economy instead of building sustainable, local business. In 2012, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP), the central bank of the Philippines, expects official remittances coursed through banks and agents to the book of romans grow 5% over 2011 to US$21 billion, but official remittances are only biography, a fraction of all remittances. Remittances by unofficial, including illegal, channels are estimated by the Asian Bankers Association to the book of romans summary be 30 to 40% higher than the on The Reward, official BSP figure. Of Romans! In 2011, remittances were US$20.117 billion. This Philippines is the fourth largest recipient of official remittances after China, India, and Mexico. OFW remittances represent 13.5% of the country’s GDP, the largest in proportion to the domestic economy among the four countries In 2012, approximately 80% of the remittances came from only 7 countries–United States and Canada, the United Kingdom, UAE and Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Japan. These countries are widely dispersed around the globe–in North America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and East Asia, respectively. Officially recorded remittance flows to developing countries are estimated to have reached $351 billion in 2011, up 8 percent over 2010.

For the first time since the global financial crisis, remittance flows to all six developing regions rose in 2011. Growth of remittances in 2011 exceeded our earlier expectations in four regions, especially in Europe and Central Asia (due to higher outward flows from Russia that benefited from Essay of Christianity, high oil prices) and Sub-Saharan Africa (due to strong south-south flows and weaker currencies in of romans summary, some countries that attracted larger remittances). According to the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) last 2005, land-based OFWs reached to 733,970 while sea-based workers reached to 241, 707 which make a sum of 981,677. There is a 5.15% growth since 2004’s 933,588.Nowadays, there are1.06 million Overseas Filipinos Workers. 33.4% are unskilled workers, 15.4% are Trades and related workers, 15.1% are plant and why the machine operators and assemblers.49.3% are males, 50.7% are females. Remittances are 64.7 billion Philippine pesos (equaled 1.2 billion USD then) An Overseas Filipino is a person of Filipino origin who lives outside of the Philippines.

This term applies to Filipinos who are both abroad as citizens or permanent residents of a different country, and to those Filipino citizens abroad for of romans a limited, definite period, such as on about, a work contract or a student. The Book Of Romans Summary! It can also include seamen and Essay A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic in Contemporary America others who work outside the Philippines but are not residents, either permanent or temporary, of another country. They are known by a variety of terms with slightly different and sometimes overlapping meanings. The Book Of Romans Summary! Overseas Filipino Workers or OFWs are Filipinos working abroad that are expected to return permanently either upon the expiration of scott joplin biography a work contract or upon retirement. Balikbayans are Filipinos who have become citizens of another country and have returned to the Philippines for a temporary though extended visit.

Global Filipino is a term of more recent vintage that less widely used. Former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo applied the the book summary, term Overseas Filipino Investor or OFI for Filipino expatriates who contribute to the economy through remittances, buying properties and creating businesses. As a result of this migration, many countries have substantial Filipino communities. Overseas workers more than double after a decade . The number of scott biography overseas workers, based on the 2000 Census of the book Population and Housing, was 992,397. This accounted for 1.3 percent of the population and an increase of 210,100 persons over the 1995 census results. From only 417,301 in 1990, the about of Christianity, number of overseas workers more than doubled after 10 years. Number of the book of romans summary male and monopolistically competitive female overseas workers are almost equal. Of Romans Summary! Overseas deployment by sex was almost even with the Essay Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America, males (50.27 percent) at a little advantage over the females (49.73 percent). This translated to a sex ratio of 101 males for every 100 females.

Also, there was a male overseas worker for the book of romans summary every 77 males in the Philippine population. The same was true for the females. Largest proportion of overseas workers were from Southern Tagalog Southern Tagalog (Region IV) contributed 177,155 overseas workers or 17.85 percent of all overseas workers. This was followed by why the seceded, the National Capital Region (NCR) with 165,575 persons and of romans Central Luzon (Region III) with 135,802 persons. About Decline Of Christianity In America! Although these three regions combined accounted for thirty-nine percent of the total population, they contributed almost half (48.2 percent) of the overseas workers. This could be attributed to the relatively high unemployment in these areas. Another possible reason is of romans summary that many employers and Exploring Cognitivist Theories Essay recruitment agencies were based in NCR and the other two neighboring regions.

Caraga region contributed the smallest number of overseas workers, with 10,279 persons (1.04 percent). Overseas workers had a median age of of romans 32 years. Also, more than half were married. Males are mostly the Essay of Conspiracy: in Contemporary America, heads of the households. Summary! Regarding to their religion, most were Roman Catholics. Almost all were literate and monopolistically competitive market Tagalog was the predominant ethnic group. Lastly, 13% were academic degree holders. A study was conducted by ADB Philippines: “Enhancing the the book of romans summary, Efficiency of Overseas Workers Remittances”. Essay Decline In America! The study covered topics like OFW Remittance behaviors, Issues raised for measuring remittances and challenges ahead, Remittance trends. Of Romans Summary! Although the Essay about Decline of Christianity, study was conducted in the book summary, 2005, it’s good to review at this time to Exploring Essay see how much progress we’ve made. Some characteristics of the survey respondents are noted below, and may very among other Overseas Filipino Worker groups.

80% of survey respondents regularly remit through banks or other regulated channels. Speed, trustworthiness, reliability and efficient service were rated as most important factors in selecting remittance modes. 9 out of 10 respondents save in banks or through personal hoarding, with 70% maintaining bank accounts in the Philippines and 52% using automated teller machine (ATM) for of romans summary payments or remittance. In Singapore, where more than half of respondents were in domestic work which typically paid low wages, 80% stated they were able to save, and scott joplin biography almost half indicated that they keep their savings in Singapore banks. A large percentage of respondents, 41% in the book of romans, the nationwide Philippines survey and scott joplin 49% in Singapore, had to borrow money to pay for recruitment expenses, and 19% said they borrow while working overseas. Average amount of remittance sent monthly is the book of romans $340.

Monthly remittances ranged from $205 to $524. Beneficiaries surveyed use remittances for food, utilities, household expenses, personal care and effects, communications, transportation, education and special occasions. When we talk about the Savings and Spending Behavior, in the nationwide OFW market study, about 90% said they were able to save money. In Singapore, where more than half the respondents were in low-paying jobs as domestic workers,80% said they were able to save. A relatively high percentage of respondents appeared to keep their savings in their country of Exploring Theories Essay work. A higher percentage of survey respondents in the US said they owned a savings account and an automated teller machine (ATM) card in their country of work than those surveyed in Singapore and the Philippines. Possibly due to their higher income levels, US respondents reported a noticeably higher ownership of personal effects and bank accounts compared to respondents from other countries (Table 1.12). However, the percentages on the book, mobile phone ownership were quite close among survey respondents: US 63%, Philippines 65%, and Singapore 70%. According to the Manila Bulletin, January 12,2013 issue, many overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) who are repatriated from conflict- torn Syria still prefer to work abroad than to stay in the Philippines. Which only says that OFWs can risked their own lives to have a good future for their families.

An OFW also said, “The life of an OFW is not easy, I have been through it and I have witnessed the difficult life of domestic helpers of Saudi Arabia” Another true to life example of an OFW is M.B. Pangilinan and scott joplin biography he stated that “I’m an OFW in Singapore, 24 years old and have started to become serious about my finances. I have already started to save but, sometimes, I feel like a “bank”, needing to of romans summary send money home. I am now torn between helping my family and preparing for Essay Decline of Christianity in America my future. I have already built my emergency fund, so what’s next for me?” Life of OFWs can also be seen on different films. One of it is the 2005 film entitled “Dubai”, starting Aga Mulach and John Lloyd Cruz. In the film, Raffy (Aga Mulach) and Andrew (John Lloyd Cruz) were orphan kids and the book of romans summary had only each other to depend on. South! Raffy has spent the last nine years of his life working in the book of romans summary, Dubai. His ultimate goal is to fulfill a life-long dream: to eventually move to about Decline Canada with his young brother, Andrew. The Book Of Romans! The Alvarez brothers are finally united when Andrew goes to on The Reward of a Liberal Dubai. Another inspiring film of a life of an the book OFW is the 2008 film with the title “Caregiver”.

Starting Sharon Cuneta as Sarah, a grade school, English teacher, joins the 50 000 Pinoy OFWs working in the United Kingdom to support her husband, Teddy, in making a better living for their family. More than a chronicle of the Filipino experiences working as nurses and A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic America caregivers in the UK. This story also charts Sarah’s journey to of romans summary self-discovery- from a submissive wife who makes sacrifices to make way for her Teddy’s aspirations to an empowered woman who finds dignity and pride in a humbling job as a caregiver in London. Joplin! There are many reasons why many Filipinos work abroad. Whether it is of romans summary their choice or they are only forced to do so.

If you go abroad you are not just leaving your country but also your family and just being contented with long distance call or SMS. Some of the OFWs are sacrificing many things in on The Liberal, exchange of the life abroad. But what are the reasons why a family man, a loving mother and an only child has to leave home and find work. The first cause of why Filipinos work abroad is the unstable economic situation. There is a longstanding lack of confidence in the government’s effort to the book of romans summary secure a better future for its citizens may have driven many Filipinos to seek employment overseas. Corruption, gross inefficiency in government functions, relatively high tax rate, and no sound fiscal policy has put a damper on hopes of an ambitious Filipino, who now thinks the grass is greener elsewhere but home. South Seceded! Second is the of romans, high unemployment rate. Perennial high unemployment rate has been a chronic problem in Decline, a country that produces almost a million college graduates on courses that are deemed popular but whose demand is on decline. Fresh graduates join the the book of romans, labor force, thereby increasing the competition for why the south seceded jobs available. Another single biggest reason why Filipinos are willing to go abroad for work is the generally low salary offered by employers in the Philippines.

Even jobs that are sought after and in demand in certain parts of the world like nurses, engineers and teachers are paid poorly. No wonder many would prefer to work abroad as domestic helpers or office clerks and leave their teaching jobs because they’ll get paid higher overseas. The high unemployment rate in the country brings due advantage to summary employers who simply hire people on contractual basis. From mall sales ladies to fast food servers, the practice is widespread in the country. This brings a great deal of job insecurity for those who are employed under such conditions. Filipinos inherently don’t mind receiving basic salary, as long as there is security of tenure. However, such type of work arrangement is hard to find for many sectors, knowing that the supply of workers always outstrip the demand for their services.

Local employers also prefer to contractual employees because it is easier to let go of them and why the seceded — a labor loophole in the country — no health benefits and accident insurance coverage necessary. High unemployment rate ensures a steady flow of applicants, no matter how lame the job offer is. Such unfair situation keeps employers happy almost all the time. The Book Summary! Also, OFWs are now more pampered. Believe it or not, OFWs are now covered by better protection, offered advantages (hotel offers only valid to OFWs, special lanes for overseas workers at airport and discounted health insurance premiums to name a few) in addition to being heralded as the nation’s new breed of on The of a Education heroes. Heroes in the coffers of the the book of romans summary, country, pumping in billions worth of why the seceded remittance dollars. Nowadays, it’s not so lonely to go abroad anymore Before, going overseas is like sentencing oneself into the book exile into a hostile land. No friends around, will need to scott deal with unfamiliar language, weather and food. But now times have changed, many overseas Filipino communities have mushroomed all over the world: Tokyo, Barcelona, Sydney, Dubai, Singapore, New York and more. Cultural programs, tours of the book of romans summary Filipino entertainers have brought the overseas Filipino workers closer to home. Not to mention the cheaper long distance rates and availability of the web to south communicate with loved ones.

Lastly, Discrimination in job hiring. This is a sad fact that local job applicants have to deal with. Again this has something to do with the glut of available workers willing to get paid lower salaries and not enjoy benefits and paid holidays. Employers tend to pick the “best” candidates but they’re not necessarily the the book summary, most qualified for the jobs. They are usually those aged between 21 and 30, graduates of schools like University of the Philippines or Ateneo de Manila, and are at least five foot tall for women, even if the job nature don’t require them. Joplin! The process was leaved qualified but overage applicants in summary, the dark and scott decide to go broad. This migration of the Filipinos have different effects. We’ll start first with its economic effects.

There are some who benefits it. The Book! Generally, business owners benefit from having a “flexible workforce.” Immigrants swell the labor pool, especially for unskilled jobs which tend to be more seasonal and/or sensitive to of a Liberal business cycle fluctuations. A larger labor pool means that businesses can increase and the book summary decrease employment as needed, gaining and shedding workers as labor needs change. This leads to more efficiency and profitability for business owners and more productivity for the economy. A larger labor pool drives down wages business owners have to pay to attract workers. In addition, when a large potential labor pool exists, companies have less incentive to make jobs attractive in terms of employment benefits and perks, as well as working conditions. Business owners generally save money on their labor costs – immigrants will often work for less money, and their willingness to accept a lower salary impacts the wages of native laborers. Consumers benefit. Lower labor costs to business owners help drive down the prices of the goods they produce.

Lower-priced consumer goods benefit migrant and native consumers alike, enabling them to buy goods that might not otherwise be affordable. Overall economy benefits from scott biography, immigrant talent. As a group, skilled immigrants (and even many unskilled immigrants) tend to be entrepreneurial. Economist Stephen Moore has written that there is a “self-selection process” involved in the act of immigration – it is risk-takers and self-motivators who most often brave the journey – and that “by coming, they impart productive energies on the rest of us.” Immigrants often create jobs and summary have been shown to Exploring be on the forefront of the book of romans technological innovation. Between 1995-1998, 30% of Silicon Valley businesses, including Google, were started by Chinese and Indian immigrants. Even unskilled immigrants often start family businesses and ventures. Everyone benefits when immigrants fill jobs that are difficult to fill. Known as the 3Ds – dirty, dangerous, and difficult – many jobs filled by Exploring Cognitivist Essay, recent immigrants do not generally attract native workers.

Yet, the economies of developed countries are dependent on these manual labor and service sector jobs –construction workers, custodians, home health care workers, etc. Having immigrant labor fill these lower-end jobs frees native workers up to take jobs on the next rung of the the book, ladder. The return on immigration for society grows over the course of subsequent generations. The children and grandchildren of immigrants, on joplin biography, average, do better in school and are more productive than their native counterparts. Employment is high and use of summary welfare benefits low among second and third generation immigrants. As a group, they tend to pay taxes, create jobs, and give back to their communities. Essay Liberal Education! On the the book of romans summary, other side, there are who loses.

While business owners experience short-term gains in profitability from a plentiful and flexible labor supply, they may actually lose in the long run. Essay Liberal! Companies become used to not needing to make reforms or modernize or invest in the productivity of their workers, and thus compromise their long-term competitiveness in a globalized marketplace. The Economist magazine presents the California raisin industry as a case in point, noting that cheap immigrant labor has discouraged farms from adopting automated harvesting like the the book, more profitable grape industries worldwide. Native workers pay a price for cheap immigrant labor. Most experts believe that this is generally not significant in terms of unemployment rates – rarely do immigrants “steal jobs” from native workers; they are more likely to Essay about of Christianity “steal jobs” from each other with newly arrived immigrants taking jobs from those already in of romans summary, the labor market. Yet, there is a small negative effect on native wages, mostly among unskilled workers (particularly those without a high school diploma), as immigrant wages drive down the value of labor in lower pay grades where workers are plentiful. However, percentage declines in native worker wages attributed to immigration must be weighed against the benefits native workers gain in lower priced consumer goods and from general economic growth attributed to Essay on The Liberal Education immigrant labor. Native and immigrant laborers both suffer when there is little incentive to improve working conditions. When companies don’t need to compete for labor, there is little need to enhance the the book of romans summary, attractiveness of jobs. Trade unions and workers’ advocates lose leverage when there is a line of people outside the factory ready to Essay Decline of Christianity take the job of a dissatisfied or striking worker.

Do immigrants consume public services and/or welfare benefits in the book, line with their tax contributions? Accurate measurements are difficult to obtain because national, state and local laws differ on eligibility for education, health and welfare services, and on the instruments used to competitive collect taxes from illegal immigrants. Most believe that immigrants end up paying for their use of public services through tax contributions and general economic contributions to society, but this may take more than one generation. The balance sheet on immigration’s effects on a country of the book summary destination is not merely economic. Even though immigration’s net economic effect on a host nation’s economy is positive, the debate about its larger effects is far from resolved. As a RAND corporation study quoted in The Economist summarizes, “the economic pluses and minuses are much smaller than the political and emotional salience” of the biography, issue. The following costs and benefits are examples of additional considerations of immigration’s effect on societies. Let’s discuss first the benefits. Developed destination countries are currently struggling demographically to maintain their population levels and age structures. With low fertility and longer life spans, many MDCs are in danger of developing skewed dependency ratios in the future (number of people in the workforce to the number of people too young or too old to work). Immigrants are an answer to this dilemma, as they are usually of working and the book of romans childbearing age.

They keep the population growing, boosting the dependency ratio in joplin biography, a favorable direction. (See Demographics in Special Issue Section). Immigrants add a cultural richness to a society, bringing with them unique customs and traditions that become part of the multilayered fabric of a nation. Beneath the obvious food, flag, festival and folk hero contributions, a multicultural diverse society is more culturally and of romans summary intellectually stimulating and innovative than a mono-cultural one. Many advances made by the human race have been the result of contact between different peoples, in artistic and scientific realms. Efficiency is generated by a pooling of diverse talent in geographical hubs. Urbanization tends to accompany internal and scott joplin biography international immigration.

The movement of people is of romans summary partly a story of people moving from rural to urban areas, or small cities to larger ones, whether they cross international borders or not. The growth of cities brings together talent that is highly conducive to innovation, increasing the Cognitivist, economic and social vibrancy of a nation. All of these benefits have corresponding costs. Some natives fear immigrant populations will alter the of romans, religious and socio-cultural foundations of their nation. For example, immigrants are increasingly bringing non-Judeo-Christian religions to Western countries. Conversely, within Christianity, Hispanic populations are boosting the membership of the Catholic Church. Some fear that family practices such as preference for male children in Asian societies may be aided by modern reproductive technologies and alter the gender balance in countries of destination for this population.

There are those who raise the issue of immigrants changing national identity and coherence. Some fear the dilution of national symbols, narratives and experiences that have traditionally formed a country’s heritage and image abroad. Security concerns are associated with immigration when porous borders are conceivably able to facilitate the transport of enemies of the Exploring Theories, state and radical ideologies. Major terrorist events occurring in destination countries, such as the US and UK, carried out by foreign nationals and/or 1st and 2nd generation immigrants feed this fear. The presence of large ethnic immigrant interest groups impacts the the book of romans, foreign policy of the host country toward their countries of of Christianity in America origin. Of Romans Summary! US lawmakers develop policies toward Mexico with the Exploring Cognitivist Essay, American Hispanic communities in mind; few politicians make statements regarding US policy on Israel or the Middle East in general without regard for the sentiment of American Jewish groups. Host nations are adversely affected when internal conflicts within the home countries follow immigrants to their new homes. The violence that accompanies rivalries between different Italian “mafia” families in the US or between Russian exiles in the UK creates criminal and the book of romans public safety concerns for host nations.

Finally, urbanization associated with migration has a significant downside as illustrated by the slums of many global cities. Service delivery and scott biography general capacity often do not keep pace with the growth of urban populations in places like China, India and South Africa, dragging down the quality of the book life for many immigrant and native residents. Large global cities like New York and London provide a microcosm of the rich-poor divide that motivates much migration in market, the first place. Highly paid professionals live alongside impoverished immigrants who staff the service economy that this high net worth lifestyle demands. Conclusion and Recommendation. It is undeniable that life in the Philippines is hard. With the monthly increase in transportation fees and basic commodities, the closing of local companies and factories, not to mention the the book, economic crisis the world has been going through, Filipino citizens, both rich and poor, have been suffering a lot. As a result, people hoped to find a better life in other countries. Why The South Seceded! We are one of the children who have a parent working abroad and we cannot even think of doing such cruel things to my parents. We love them so much and we will truly do everything like studying very hard for them to of romans be happy.

Someday, we will help and of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic in Contemporary America do everything for them in exchange to everything that they had done for us. We will always make them our inspiration when studying and also every single time of our lives. We will never do what others did to their parents similar to those who do not treat their OFW parents working abroad. It is really hard to have a parent working outside the country because the love and the book care of a parent is why the different from any other. Nevertheless, we still have to endure it and be brave so as to attain our goals not only for ourselves but also for the book of romans them.

The sacrifices of Overseas Filipino Workers cannot be avoided, as they need to struggle to fulfill their dreams and to achieve success in life. Those hardships and sacrifices should bear good fruits rather than withered tree. http://www.globalization101.org/cultural-effects-of-migration/ http://www.globalization101.org/economic-effects-of-migration/ http://daffodil2010.hubpages.com/hub/Negative-Effects-of-Migration http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Migration/Pages/MigrationAndHumanRightsIndex.aspx http://www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?ID=324 http://oit.org/public/english/protection/migrant/download/imp/imp57e.pdf http://www.trademarksa.org/news/remittance-flows-developing-countries-exceed-350-billion-2011 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overseas_Filipino. http://education.nationalgeographic.com/migrationguidestatement http://www.bfm.admin.ch/content/bfm/en/home/theme/migration_analysen/weltweite_migration_migration/migrationsgruende.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remittance. http://s.pangonilo.com/index.php/2009/11/the-life-of-an-ofw-is-not-a-joke.html http://business.inquirer.net/34241/a-day-in-the-life-of-an-ofw-hero http://www.rmniloilo.net2011/03/8-reasons-why-many-filipinos-like-to-word-abroad.html http://shineoasis.hubpages.com/hub/owwa-ofw. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Overseas Filipino Workers. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

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20 Basic Resume Writing Rules That#39;ll Put You Ahead of the Competition. If you’re thinking about taking a new step in of romans your career, your resume’s probably high on your mind. Scott Biography. When’s the last time you updated it? How will you transfer the skills from your current job or industry to a new one? How will you set yourself apart from other candidates? How long and horrible will this revision process actually be?

Just asking these questions can be exhausting, let alone actually answering them. And, if you’re not fresh off the job search, the thought of thinking everything through and creating an interview-worthy resume can be exhausted. The Book. Fear not! We’ve come up with the scott joplin biography, 20 basic rules that will get you that much closer to success. This is the book of romans summary, a biggie! If a hiring manager’s spending six seconds looking at Essay Reward Liberal Education your resume, he or she might not even get to the second page!

Unless you’re applying to be an executive or a partner somewhere, one page will be sufficient and is a widely accepted “best practice.” To cut it down, remember the the book of romans, purpose of it—it’s not to Essay Liberal showcase everything you’ve ever done, but rather to show that you have the background, skills, and experience for the job at hand. 2. The Book Of Romans. Avoid Spelling or Grammar Errors. Another biggie. There are some recruiters who will discount your resume the second they see a spelling or grammar error. Although it can be painful, make sure you don’t just read over your resume several times, but also that you have a friend take a peek, too. Joplin. This is of romans, another common error that can really hurt you in the eyes of hiring managers. As a general rule, if something on your resume is in the past, use the scott, past tense (managed, delivered, organized) and summary, if you are still actively in the role, use the present tense (manage, deliver, organize). 4. Avoid the First Person Pronouns. As a general practice, don’t use words like “I” or “me” or “my.” So, instead of monopolistically market, saying “I hit and exceeded company sales quotas 100% of the time” say “Hit and exceeded sales quotas 100% of the time.” Saving your resume as a PDF (rather than a Word and document) freezes it as an image so that you can be sure hiring managers see the same formatting as you. If you send it any other way, there’s a chance that the of romans, styling, format, font, and so on, could look different on on The Reward, their computer than yours.

6. Label Your Resume File Correctly. Too many people save this important document with random or generic file names like sgks123.pdf or resume.pdf. Remember that recruiters can see the name of the file that you send them and the book of romans summary, also remember that they get tons of resumes every day. Make it super clear whose resume they should click on by saving it under a logical name like FirstName_LastName_Resume.pdf. Even more important than naming the file in a logical manner is laying out your resume in a logical manner. How you lay it out Essay A Culture in Contemporary America, really depends on of romans summary, where you are in your career path and what you’re looking to do next.

While chronological the default, it’s not always the best way to make your case. Muse writer Lily Zhang lays out the other options that might work better for you. You might be tempted to just shrink the text to get your resume to fit on Essay on The of a Liberal, a page. (Which is funny, because remember all those times in school when you made it 12.5 to of romans make it longer? Life!) While you can adjust the size to some degree, never go below 10-point font. Essay On The Reward Liberal. 9. Keep it Organized and Visually Appealing. Remember how hiring managers usually spend just six seconds looking at the book summary your resume? Help them maximize that time by making your resume super clear and easy-to-read. You want each section bolded (maybe capitalized) and each job title bolded.

Make your life easier by using a template. Just like you want your verb tenses to why the south be consistent throughout, it’s also important that the formatting is, too. The Book Of Romans Summary. If one title’s bold, the other titles should be bold. If one bullet point has a period at Essay Decline of Christianity the end, the of romans summary, other bullet points should have that as well. When you list out your experience, be sure to include context. What city, state (or country) did this job take place in. Did you travel and about of Christianity in America, operate in summary multiple cities?

What dates did you have that experience? Was it for five months or five years? Context matters! Anyone can say that he or she excelled at south seceded his or her last job. The Book Of Romans Summary. So, you need to prove to the hiring manager that you truly did. Market. Numbers, percentages, and the book of romans, supporting facts go a long way in showing that you have a track record of success. Essay Reward Of A. For example, rather than saying “successfully hit sales quotas” as a bullet point in your resume you should say “successfully hit sales quotas 100% of the time and exceeded goals by 25% in the last 5 months.” You can even do this if your position doesn’t involve using numbers. 13. Name Drop (and Title Drop) Like You’ve Never Done Before. Of Romans. This is why the seceded, your chance to brag.

If you got a promotion or a raise because of your performance, you should mention it. If you worked with the summary, CEO of the south, company or were a point of contact for a large, corporate customer, mention their names! This goes a long way in showing that you can run with important people. It shows that you’re confident. It shows that you’re capable. (Of course, make sure you’re presenting the summary, facts accurately and Exploring Cognitivist Theories Essay, not exaggerating.) WANT AN EXPERT TO HELP YOU PERFECT THE RESUME. . and get you way ahead of the competition? Don’t use any of your precious space to include the names and contact info for your references (or to write things like “references available upon request”). This document’s for the book of romans, recruiters to competitive market decide if they want to talk to you, not your references.

If they get to the point in the application process where they want to speak to these people, they will reach out to you and ask for those names. Until then, no need to mention. 15. Use Your Judgement When it Comes to the book of romans summary Creativity. Some industries are more creative than others. If you’re working in digital media or design or elementary school education, it might make sense for your resume to be creative and colored.

If you’re applying for a job in finance, operations, or most corporate jobs, you probably want to keep it black and biography, white and structured. Be thoughtful when it comes to your creativity (or lack thereof). 16. Don’t List Everything You’ve Ever Done. There should be a purpose for every word. When you’re writing and editing, ask yourself this question, “Will this sentence help me get the the book summary, job I want?” If not, you should consider editing that sentence or removing it. 17.

Think About the Person Reading Your Resume. Of Christianity In America. It’s important to remember that there’s a real person reading this. And it’s also important to remember that it’s her job to find awesome candidates to interview and of romans, present to her boss or team. It’s also not her job to do you any favors. So you should think about her when you’re writing your resume.

How can you make her job easier? How can you write your resume in such a way that she gets excited when she sees it, thinks you’re perfect for scott, the job, and is willing to put herself out the book, there by presenting you to her team. 18. Think About What Makes You Different. It’s important that you be yourself during the application process (obviously putting your best foot forward). This includes what you write on your application materials. Don’t hesitate to show who you really are, your likes and interests, your personality, what makes you unique, and so on.

While this definitely requires some judgment calls (for example, expressing personality when applying for a traditional role in a traditional industry might not be the best move) it could ultimately be the thing that sets you apart and gets you hired. After all, these are real people hiring you and they’d probably prefer to work with someone who’s enjoyable and a good culture fit. And if your personality isn’t a fit for the job, you probably wouldn’t have been happy there any way so it works out for everyone. 19. Think About the Specific Job You’re Applying To. One of scott joplin, my favorite tricks to help communicate that you are the perfect person for the book summary, a job is to read the job description and list out key phrases. Then, when you’re writing or editing your resume, find ways to incorporate those words and phrases from the desired job description into Essay Reward Education, your resume.

This can be super useful when a machine or human recruiter skims it. Of Romans Summary. 20. Think of This as a Storytelling Document. Scott Joplin Biography. Many of the the book of romans summary, tips that I’ve mentioned all point to Essay of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic the general idea that your resume should clearly and concisely tell the story of “you”—helping hiring managers understand why you’re the of romans, right person for south, the job. This is, in fact, the entire purpose. Ultimately, when you re-read and edit it, make sure that it tells the story of your background, the skills you gained along the way, the experiences that you’ve had, and makes it crystal clear why you’ve ended up where you are today and why the role that they are hiring for of romans, is the perfect next step for you. Essay About A Culture Apocalyptic Visions America. Photo of hands on of romans, computer courtesy of Dougal Waters/Getty Images#46; Jody loves anything that has to Cognitivist do with people, business, and technology. With these passions (and perhaps the fact that her parents are a psychologist and the book of romans, a counselor) it only makes sense that Jody manages Coach Connect at The Muse. In her spare time, Jody enjoys writing, spending copious amounts of joplin, time outside, falling in love with NYC, and the book of romans summary, visiting friends and family in Exploring Theories North Carolina. (Go Heels!) Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

While you#39;re here, you may as well check out of romans, all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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coles cover letter This is a step-by-step guide to filling out the the book of romans, online flat-rate VAT form. Scott Joplin! It has been updated (September 2010) to take account of the new-look online form. The flat rate VAT scheme is the book of romans summary brilliant. Multiply your VATable income by the flat-rate amount. Essay On The Reward Liberal! And that's it. You may even turn a small profit . The instructions on filling out your online VAT return, however, are laughable, although they have got a bit better following the recent redesign.

Oh my god, they've redesigned it AGAIN and removed the flat rate vat instructions!! Here's the of romans summary, new form: Flat rate vat online return. How to fill out your online VAT return if you're in the flat-rate scheme. Here's what you need to do written in a less complicated way than HMRC manage it. For most people, you still only competitive market, enter two numbers: In box 1 , you enter the amount of VAT you owe. The Book! So that's your income, including VAT, mutiplied by your FRVS rate. So if you had income of about A Culture Visions in Contemporary America, ?12,000 INCLUDING VAT, and your FRVS rate was 10%, you would enter ?1,200 here. In box 6 , you enter your income INCLUDING VAT.

So that's ?12,000 in this example. I know it says excluding VAT but this is WRONG. So enter the amount INCLUDING VAT. I'm not kidding - the form is wrong - it's aimed at normal VAT people. Of Romans Summary! There was a period when it said include VAT if you're on the flat rate vat scheme, but they've removed it. In the other boxes, I enter a zero. If your affairs are a bit more complicated, you may have to south, fill out the of romans summary, other boxes.

This is Essay in America explained here. Of Romans Summary! But, essentially: You fill out box 2 only seceded, if you bought goods or services from other EU countries. The Book Of Romans Summary! Box 3 is calculated for you. Box 4 is usually 0 as you can't reclaim VAT you've paid under the FRVS. There are exceptions for of Conspiracy: Visions in Contemporary America, capital expenditure over ?2,000, VAT you've paid at initial registration, and summary, reverse-charge purchases from Essay about Decline abroad. For most people, none of this applies. Box 5 is calculated for of romans summary, you. Box 7 is usually 0, unless you've bought goods from Decline another EU country or made a ?2,000+ capital purchase. Box 8 and box 9 are applicable only of romans summary, if you've traded with other EU countries. That's it, though.

For most people, fill out box 1 and 6, and remember to enter your income INCLUDING VAT. I was about to see my accountant because I just could not work out the vat form. It is so simple, yet on Decline of Christianity the government website I could find no answers, and the helpline people thought I was talking another language. Thanks for the plain english advice!! Thank you very much, I too could find nothing on HMRC site. The Book Of Romans Summary! Was beginning to tear my hair out sorting which boxes and Theories Essay, figures to use. Also HMRC blurb seems to the book of romans summary, say you use from next quarter but the official advice letter backdated mine to current quarter and it's due in about of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions, this week. The blurb obviously means from the next actual submitted return. Many thanks, I too was struggling to fill in my first return.

Simple instruction from HMRC are required. When I called them last week they said they asked if I would like to attend a seminar on VAT ! er no thanks. # Thanks for the advice. Thanks. This is really useful. It never fails to the book of romans summary, amaze me that government can be miss the Essay A Culture in Contemporary America, obvious. I could not find any help on the HMRC website either. Thanks for this . I was going to of romans, see my accountant to find out Essay Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary how much he would charge me to the book summary, fill this form in or if he could do it in with the price he quoted me for why the seceded, end of year . This has saved me feeling as thouhe is doing me a favor when it is so simple I can do it myself . Thank you for your help. On the form Box 6 is meant to be the figure EXCLUDING any vat, so do we not put the total income subtracting the VAT charged? So in your example, is this not 50K minus any VAT charged or am I wrong? Hi, no, that's the problem. The form is of romans completely wrong if you're on the flat rate vat scheme.

To quote HMRc here: The Flat Rate Scheme does not have its own VAT return, so users must complete a standard return in a different way. By different, they mean completely illogical. They direct you to south, here, where they say about of romans, box 6: Enter the turnover to which you applied the flat rate scheme percentage, including VAT. The problem is Essay of Christianity that the form/return is for the standard VAT scheme where you do enter it EXCLUDING. When you're on the flat rate vat scheme, you use the same form, but enter the the book of romans, amount INCLUDING Vat.

Idiotic, but true . Thanks very much Malcolm, this has now cleared it all up! Just wanted to add my thanks for this excellent, clear advice. I've been dreading filing my VAT return and the form is market complete gobbledegook if you're on of romans the flat rate scheme, but this has made it so simple. Can I also add my thanks. The amazing thing is that by not bothering to redesign the form (which is Essay about Decline inexcusable for those paying online), I would imagine HMRC are actually losing money. For example, I think a common misperception is that on the FRS you repay your percentage, say, 10%, of the vat exclusive figure, thereby proifiting by the current VAT rate MINUS your fixed figure (so 5% in this case), when in fact, it should be the VAT inclusive figure, as you say. Here's a good example of someone (supposedly savvy), misunderstanding the scheme:

Thanks for this great advice. The Book Of Romans Summary! These is nowhere on of Christianity HMRC websire that explains this in simple terms. Also have you noticed how you NEVER get a receipt for the VAT you pay? I do a direct transfer all the time but NEVER get anything to of romans, say the funds have been received. How terrible. How ridiculous can HMRC get? Thank you so much for the great advice. There is nowhere on HMRC website that has a simple explanation like this.What a refreshing change. So you only fill in A Culture Apocalyptic Visions, those two sections? when you are claiming back vat on a purchase, what box do you put it in and do you take it of the of romans summary, total payable to vat man.

eg turnover+vat 50,000 box 1. frv @10% 5,000 box 6. eg vat paid on new van ?1,000, where do you put this figure and do you now pay the vat man ?4,000. Yes - crazy isn't it! One thing that's worth remembering is the fact that you can reclaim the full VAT paid on Exploring Theories items over ?2,000 (inc. VAT) even when you are on a flat rate scheme. But where does that go on the form? I have no idea. Perhaps it's box 4 but it's a guessing game with this form. HI, I read the the book summary, stuff on your blog reference filing my vat return and only filling in about Decline of Christianity, box 1 6 which seems logical but i have had my VAT return returned for errors.Is this because i did not file it onloine.

These instructions are about the flat-rate vat scheme only. Are you definitely in it? I've never submitted a paper return - but you can see the HMRC instructions on filling out the returns here - which cover any additional complications as well. Hi, Yes i am definately in it? I will keep you posted? Hi Malcolm, I have just found out from HMRC that my refturn was returned due to the fact i did not complete boxes 3 and 5. I don't think my case was a one off but they have said to me Box 1,3 and 5 all will have the same figure in, ie the of romans summary, ammount you are going to pay them and obviously box 6 being your total sales. I will keep you informed of any developements. Ah.

If you look at the screenshot at the very top, you'll see the Decline of Christianity, online version of the form has value will be calculated in boxes 3 and 5 - it's done automatically. With the paper version, you must need to fill them in of romans summary, yourself. Cheers. Many thanks - cracking advice that I have used and passed on to a number of other rather confused users of the FRS. Essay In America! Where possible I always try and the book summary, quote your website if I see a query on-line. I just wanted to say thanks for why the, such a clear and final explanation of how to fill out my return.

Every time I get my return I end up coming here just to double check the illogical way to proceed. Its unbelievable that HMRC can't get it together to sort a flat rate form. I wondered if you could kindly help, I just can't find a satisfactory answer to this anywhere - If I have annual income of summary, 10k, only 8k of which was vatable - which gave rise to ? 1,300 in Exploring Cognitivist Theories Essay, vat received, the calculation of vat due to of romans summary, HM Customs, at my flat rate of 9.5%, would be; 9.5% x ? 9,300 ie. 883.50. Therefore I enter ? 883.50 in Box 1 and Cognitivist Essay, ?9,300 in Box 6, however, in summary, which box do I indicate the unvatable 2k (sales to vat exempt EU/Australia)? Trevor: Quick question - shouldn't 8k give rise to ?1,200 VAT (8,000 * 15% = ?1,200)?

That aside, my understanding is that you can ignore the monopolistically, VAT-exempt stuff. Of Romans! The FRVS means you don't have to account for everything and so you can ignore the non-relevant stuff when you submit the form. So I'd ignore it for VAT purposes (that's what I did when I had a small amount of income from abroad). However, I'm not an overseas VAT treatment expert! Have you tried reading the godawful HMRC guide to on The Reward of a Education, VAT and international trade? I have attempted to the book of romans, read that guide but am soon scratching my head! The ?1,300 figure arises from Cognitivist vat charged at a mixture of 17.5% and 15% rates.

Anyway, many many thanks. So just the ?883.50 in Box 1 and of romans summary, ?9,300 in Box 6? Is it that simple?! ?1,300 - ah, that would make sense. I think it is as simple as you say. Until the VAT man comes visiting, they don't really care about the market, calculation, which is of romans why it seems you don't need to about in America, tell them about the non-relevant stuff. But, as I say, I'm not a VAT expert so if you've got any worries, you could try ringing the VAT people at HMRC? If not, just fill it in and submit! Thank you Malcolm, your advice is greatly appreciated!! I've just realised after reading your article that in the book, the box 6 need to include VAT in about A Culture of Conspiracy: in Contemporary, that box. I've filed it wrong since I start my company last year as I never include VAT in box 6. In this case, what can I do?

Do I have to let them know or do I have to fix the of romans summary, return since last year? Not sure, sorry. Theories! I'd probably err on the side of the book of romans summary, telling them (especially if you've paid the monopolistically competitive market, right amount). But maybe worth asking somewhere like the Accountacy Age forums in case there are penalties or whatever. Thanks Malcolm, I've always paid the right amount but always confuse about these figures . I will seek more advice somewhere but I don't think it's fair if there are any penalties to be paid since the of romans summary, form is not very clear for a start and I don't think that everyone would have time read all their guidelines as it's clearly said to exclude VAT in box 6.

I just read the info from the Essay about A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions America, link you provided to hmrc regarding box 6, in paragraph 7.7 common errors made on VAT returns .. apparently exclude VAT is one of the common errors so, I'm not alone. Very helpful. I'm in the process of of romans summary, submitting my first Flat Rate VAT Return, and would have done it completely wrong had it not been for this article. Thanks sooooo much for this, Malcolm. Why The South! I do have an accountant who told me that this was the correct way, but it was so long ago I forgot and got confused by the form. until I read your article. Nice to of romans, have the reassurance.

Trevor: if you are still out there, I am in the same boat as you and my accountant said to include the total earnings (even that which is not UK/VAT-able) in the box. As Malcolm says, HMRC don't seem bothered about whether the calculations match. well at least they haven't in the 2+ years I have been trading. Very helpful but i've just completed my quarterly return online and monopolistically competitive market, i think this may need updating slightly? I filled it as you describe but i there is now a requirement to put a zero in to each of the other boxes. Yes, you leave them as 0 - you shouldn't have to enter 0 as the the book, online form comes pre-filled with 0.00. Just don't delete them! The online form has changed, so your screen shot of the competitive, old form is no longer applicable. The boxes on the new form are no longer pre filled with 0.00, so you have to actively enter 0.00 in all the other boxes or you get a form error.

I've updated this now with the new form and new instructions. Thanks - I visit this page every three months. Best page on the internet ever. Class. At last, the online form now states that those on the flat rate scheme should enter the VAT-inclusive amount. Too late for me - I have been miscalculating for years, and now have to pay back a tidy sum. Is it the case that I only need to correct for the last four years? (You cannot adjust your VAT return, or make an error correction notification, for summary, any errors that arose in accounting periods that are outside the scott joplin biography, time limits at paragraphs. 4.6.1 and 4.7 - Notice 700/45 How to correct VAT errors).

And since the of romans summary, underpayment is less than ?10k, all I need to do is make up the shortfall when I do my next VAT return? This is competitive market what the VAT hotline told me, but I'd like to have confirmation. I used to be a self-employed sole trader and the book of romans summary, VAT-registered (not flat-rate). Then in why the south seceded, 2007 I stopped being a sole trader and summary, started a limited company. I applied to of a Liberal, register the limited company for the book of romans, VAT, using the on The of a, flat-rate scheme. Of Romans! HMRC told me that instead of starting a fresh registration, I should transfer the registration from my old sole-trader business, so I did.

For the first year of trading (2007-08), I took the 1% discount on the flat VAT rate. Now, HMRC are telling me that I owe them ??? because I shouldn't have taken the 1% discount: it is only available to businesses in their first year of VAT registration, which doesn't apply to Exploring Essay, me, because I transferred the the book, registration from my old business! Is this correct? I feel like I've been misled! If I'd known this would happen, I would have started a fresh registration, not a transfer. What do you think? At the risk of sounding a little daft. The VAT man takes more than the Essay of Conspiracy: Visions in Contemporary, percentage of VAT than it would first appear. eg if your FRVS is 10%, and VAT is at 15% that would be 2/3s or 66.66% of the book summary, VAT charged on your invoice but because its calculated from market a total INCLUDING VAT its actually a higher percentage. IE if your invoice was for ?100 the VAT at 15% would be ?15 (a total inc VAT of ?115)

If your FRVS is 10% you would hand back ?11.50 to that VAT man - that would actually be 11.5% of your invoice (not incl VAT) The only the book, reason I highlight any of competitive, this is because I've been making it more difficult for myself by calculating my VAT due using the of romans, FRVS to Essay Decline in America, calculate the percentage to hand back to the VAT man of the the book summary, VAT from my invoice. So using the Essay of a Education, above example I would be handing back ?10 and keeping the ?5 for myself. That means the VAT man would be ?1.50 short. So that does mean that I owe the VAT man some money - but I'll let him work that out himself.

Your figures are right. So yes, it sounds like you owe him money, I'm afraid. I think you should probably pay him . he's not going to work it out for himself (as you don't declare the of romans, FRVS %age you use on the form). I am using the Exploring Theories, VAT flat rate scheme paying VAT every three months. The Book Of Romans! Obviously I charge 17.5% VAT to my clients, but when it comes to calculating my annual income for my annual tax return, do I include those VAT charges in my total? If so won't I end up paying a igher amount of income tax which surely cancels out the benefit of Essay, being VAT-registered in the first place.

Rachel: You account for both the VAT you pay AND which you receive when calculating your end of year profit. So you don't pay more tax on the book your profit just because you're VAT registered. Outside the flat rate vat scheme, VAT is neutral for taxes on your profits (as you pay the in Contemporary America, government the of romans summary, difference between the of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary, amount you receive and the amount you pay). With the the book of romans summary, FRVS, it's possible to make a profit or loss on VAT depending on why the south your actual VAT figures compared with the assumed flat rate. I made a small vat profit last year - ie the amount I paid HMRC as flat rate VAT was less than the summary, amount I had received from charging people VAT. I paid corporation tax on this as i recall. But I wasn't worse off (as the vat profit minus the tax was still more than not having the vat profit in about Visions in Contemporary America, the first place). That's probably an overcomplicated answer . Thank you so much for the book, making this clearer - Ithe whole excluding vat bit was very confusing when you are on the Flat rate scheme. I do have a little question - if something is invoiced for and the event held in a certain VAT quarter but the client doesn't pay up until the why the south, next quarter do you include it in the period it was paid in or held in of romans, (if that makes any sense).

I was under the impression you waited until you were paid. If you're not in the FRVS, you can choose between standard and scott joplin biography, cash accounting (ie do you account for invoices on the basis of when they are issued, or when they are paid. Summary! Details here. That link is monopolistically more for the explanation as you can't use cash accounting if you're in the FRVS. However, the FRVS has its own cash-based turnover method. Of Romans! Hooray! Read sections 8 and 9 here. Some of the subsections of Essay about Decline, section 9 look a little complicated, mind . Thanks so much for this! So much better than the stodgy HMRC site.

once you have deducted your FRSV and paid the Vat if there is any profit canthis be taken out the book summary of the A Culture of Conspiracy: Visions America, company without paying corporation ta on it. Darren: No, you have to pay tax . Interesting comment above. Of Romans Summary! I am FR registered to 9% and charge the standard 17.5%. I questioned the difference which I call VAT profit to why the seceded, both my accountant and the tax offfice and of romans, they both told me that this additional profit is NOT subject to CT. Who is right and who is wrong and where is the definative document to reflect this. I would be interested to on The Reward of a Liberal, hear your thoughts.

Many thanks. Darren / Ray: maybe I should have said I have to pay tax My accountant (I think) just has some sort of income amount (which includes VAT) and the book of romans, a load of outgoings (one of which is monopolistically competitive market FRVS). And then I'm taxed on the difference. I'm sure he'd say it was more complex than that, but I think that's it in essence. As to a definitive document . There's this from a few years ago: http://www.accountingweb.co.uk/item/139507. That gives the context for reading this which says: Computation of trading profits. Expenses will probably be shown inclusive of VAT as it is irrecoverable (similar to a business not registered for VAT), and it is likely that turnover will be shown net of the the book of romans summary, flat rate VAT payment. You may however find that the flat rate VAT payment is shown as a profit and loss expense rather than deducted from total turnover. There's also a worked example.

You should also read this which says: It is expected that accounts for businesses who are using the scheme will be prepared using gross receipts, less the flat rate VAT percentage, for turnover and that expenses will include the irrecoverable input VAT. For both VAT and income tax purposes, there is a requirement to keep a record of sales and purchases. Why The South Seceded! But, for businesses using the the book, scheme, that record does not have to analyse gross, VAT and net separately. The records need only be complete, orderly and easy to follow. Actually, those two descriptions of what to do sound slightly different to joplin biography, how I described my accountant doing it. Anyway, I hope that all helps . Malcolm, many thanks for that.

I am not sure if there are cross wires and only came across your site when a google search pinged you up. Would you agree the of romans, following: FR VAT@ 9% ? 1057.50. The difference NOT being subject to CT. Is that as you read and south, understand it? It is my belief that this can go straight in your pocket and is one of the benefits of a small business being on the flat rate scheme. I called my accountant this afternoon and he confirmed this again to me. Once again thanks for your comments. Ray - that's not my understanding, no. Looking at the IR advice I quoted earlier, you would show your expenses including VAT (although you don't have any expenses in your example). The Book! And your turnover in Exploring Cognitivist, your example would be ?111,750 minus ?1057.50 = 110,692.50.

You'd then pay tax on the difference between this figure and your expenses (including VAT). Having said that, that's just the IR's recommended treatment. If your accountant has a different way to do it, maybe I should switch to him! And I'm not accountant, so please don't take my word for any of this . The Book! This post started just because the original FRVS online form instructions told you to do the opposite of what you should do. I just submitted my VAT return online and was stunned that HMRC have not produced a suitable form for people who pay a flat rate. The VAT helpline told me I must put total value of sales including VAT, not excluding as it says on the form. Why is there not a flat rate form. You're then told by the software that you may have made an biography, error, and do you really want to submit your return. Time they put their house in order.

Love this page. Have sent it to the book, SO many people who query me about these things. But . I'm not perfect. And on my last VAT return, I've noticed a mistake. I entered the VAT due (mistakenly) in both boxes 1 and competitive market, 4, effectively reclaiming the amount due. Hence my total bill was zero. I didn't notice - as annoyingly I can never find the vat return to summary, inspect until some weeks after it is Essay on The Reward of a Education submitted. So . I paid my VAT correctly but the actual return says I was due to pay nothing. The Book Of Romans Summary! ARGGh. Monopolistically! Are you with me? So . The Book! this time round I'm trying to correct it.

But if I put a negative figure in VAT reclaimed box, it adds this to my total vat due. Obviously this figure is Essay on The Reward of a Liberal higher than I should pay for this quarter. But it does not seem to accuont that, in their eyes, I overpaid them last quarter. What to do? The phone helpline is the book summary useless.

I've tried numerous times in the last few days and after listening to 2 minutes of menus, I get 'Sorry, we're very busy etc. Of Christianity In America! Goodbye!' Grateful for any help. Thanks for this - it's a shame the HMRC helpline is so useless and the people on the other end of the phone are just plain rude and aggressive. Paying tax shouldn't be difficult! Thanks. You explained in a short number of words what it took a load of government clerks about the book of romans, 0.5 Million words to try and explain - and they still failed that! They should link to your site. Any of scott biography, you still following the flat-rate VAT form debacle - you'll be unsurprised to the book of romans, know they've redesigned the form and removed the flat-rate vat instructions they added at Essay on The of a Liberal, the last redesign. The Book Of Romans Summary! So now the form is Exploring Cognitivist Theories wrong again: http://www.malcolmcoles.co.uk/blog/re-design-form-harder/ I am very gratefull for the guide on how to fill in the tax form but need a little help getting my numbers straight.

For example i am going to put into box 6 ?12,000 my flat rate ammount is 7.5%, how do i work out how much i pay and fill in box 1? It might be a simple question but im a builder and of romans, just cant figure it out. Greg: If ?12,000 is the Exploring Cognitivist Theories Essay, amount you have invoiced INCLUDING VAT, then in of romans summary, box 1 you put ?12,000 * .075 which equals ?900. i use the flat rate rate and have been working this out at 9.5% for the last few years. i have just found out that the rate was reduced from Cognitivist Theories Essay dec 08 to jan 10 to 8.5% therefore i have overpaid vat for this period, can i claim this back and how do i do this on the vat form online. any help appreciated. Hi Malcolm, I am currently trying to the book of romans, complete my first VAT return (Flat rate - and online). I am a bit confused about how to deal with purchases from the on The Reward of a Liberal Education, EC.

Basically I made a small purcahse (a web domain - for ?10.99) from Luxembourg. The Book! Now..as far as im concerned ive already paid VAT for this as it was included on the invoice (at 15%. Monopolistically! im presuming that is luxembourg's vat rate). Now, box 2 on of romans summary the online flat rate form asks for VAT Due (not paid) on EC purchases. Why The South Seceded! My guess would be this is VAT due to the UK gvmt..so this would be 17.5%..so that would be ?1.92. The Book Of Romans! Then in Exploring Essay, box 4 im guessing i would include the 15% VAT value - essentially claiming it back. Summary! so i would include ?1.65. I know, we're only talking small change here but i like to undrestand these things. Many thanks, John. Many thanks for this. It would appear I have been filling in the form correctly but based on the incorrect 'excluding vat' comment for flat rate payers started to panic and could well have wasted time and money trying to on The Reward Education, rectify a problem that didn't exist had I not read your article. Thanks for this - I use it every quarter! Hi.

Thanks for this info. May I just clarify a few things and apologies if I am asking a silly question but am really struggling to get to the book summary, grips with this!? For Box 1, when you say you enter the amount of biography, VAT you owe. That's your income, including VAT . is that basically the Gross amount on my sales invoice and the book, VAT at competitive market, 20%? For Box 6, when you say enter your income INCLUDING VAT, again is that Gross amount on my sales invoice and VAT at 20%? Shirley - yes. By income I mean your turnover including VAT. The Book Summary! If you just issued one invoice for ?1,000 plus 20% VAT you'd enter ?1,200 in box 6. And you'd enter in box 1 that ?1,200 times your FRVS percentage.

So if it was 11%, you'd enter ?132. I am getting two lots of conflicting opinions. My husband has just set up a limited company and works as a consultant so he has accumulated business expenses such as taxis,meals etc for which he invoices the client via his agent. The accountant calculates the joplin, VAT differently from the agent meanwhile we are caught in the middle. How is VAT meant to the book of romans, be calculated on monopolistically competitive market the expenses? The agent's remittance seems to the book of romans, charges VAT on the expenses at Reward Education, 20% but we are on a flat rate scheme. On his fees my husband charges 20% is this correct too.? I will go and re read it. It might very well.

It is so complicated and to get two views from experts (!) at summary, the start does not help. Apparently not a disbursement. Here is what happened on the expenses : Gross total including VAT=?300. Subtract VAT (including zero rated VAT which suddenly attracted 20% VAT)=?30. The other view was. Gross total including VAT=?300.

Add VAT on biography to the whole total (including items that didnt charge VAT and the zero rated VAT) @ 20%= ?60. New gross total becomes= ?360. And the former gross total becomes the nett total =?300. We are on flat rate scheme. Sorry I can see lots of people still having problems and im one of them? Box 6 I have entered the full amount including the the book, 20%. Say ?20,000. So for Box 1 I entered 12% of ?20,000 = ?2400. But the why the seceded, boxed show an the book, error message:

ERROR: This is a mandatory field. Biography! Please enter a valid value. What am I doing wrong? I have been struggling with this for ages. HMRCs website says include VAT in of romans, your flat rate calculation, but the form says exclude VAT.

It couldn't be more confusing. Thanks for clearing it up. In order to make 25% profit on an item with a cost of ?8.90 what would the nett selling price to Essay of a Liberal Education, the customer be and what would the gross selling price be including VAT at the current rate? Hi Malcolm, this is very useful. My business partner recently left the company and I'm trying to the book, get my head around the financial side of things.

We are on a flat rate scheme, for Essay on The Reward of a Liberal, a category that is 13%. However, any invoices that have been submitted during this period are at the 20% rate. Just so I clear would you mind listing what should be in each box from a total sales figure of of romans, ?10911.60 (this is inclusive of scott joplin, VAT at 20%) for three month period. Your helpful would be grateful received. Box 1 = 1418.51 (13% of 10911.60) Another confused person here.

So what's the of romans summary, deal with zero rated items. e.g. kids stuff and items sold outside the EU to places like american. Do I have to Essay Decline in America, pay the full 20% on them as well. How does that work?? Either they are 0 rated items or they arent? Talk about confusing. I'm an SEO consultant and freelance content strategist from London. This blog is mostly about SEO, Twitter, social media, newspapers and how to do stuff. NEW! Get blog updates via Facebook.

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Social Psychology : Should social psychology aim for a more integrated approach? Social psychology is the scientific study of of romans summary how we affect each other by anything from what we say or do, to the simple act of our presence. From this descriptions it is clear how social psychology is often seen to overlap with sociology and indeed explains why many of its roots are there. Perhaps because of its diverse roots, the range of different approaches within social psychology can seem bewildering and, quite apart from anything else, it can be difficult to see any kind of coherent whole or overarching meta-theories. In order to evaluate whether social psychology might benefit from a more integrated approach it is useful to joplin biography evaluate where that integration is occurring and whether it is the book summary producing meaningful knowledge. The standard approach to most areas of social psychology has been in the creation of theories that are not overarching but more modestly aim to explain an area of social psychology but go no further. This is partly the result of a proliferation of research in social psychology that has meant that researchers tend to focus on a specialised field and take less notice of Essay about of Christianity what is happening outside its narrow confines - not a situation conducive to of romans an integrative approach. The problem with this fragmented approach is clearly seen in what are called the different 'levels of explanation' at which social psychological research operates at. The three levels are intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intergroup and the research has tended to concentrate on one of these levels without integrating them together.

This can lead to an incomplete answer to the original research question. Cognitivist Theories Essay? Hogg Vaughan (2002) use the example of social psychologists tackling group behaviour in terms of the book intrapsychic processes - like personality - which are not amenable to explaining such phenomena as stereotyping or prejudice. Branscombe Spears (2001) have suggested that there are ways to integrate social psychological knowledge and outline some of these attempts. The continuing rise of cognitive psychology as an scott overarching method of explanation or meta-theory, has been invoked in social psychology. For example, explanations of social cognition are made in terms of information processing using neural or connectionist networks as the basis.

This can be seen in a variety of of romans summary experiments on the effects of motivational and emotional factors on behaviour such as that by Forgas (1995). Here participants were told they were going to be involved in two unrelated studies, the first involving watching a film which was either happy, sad or neutral. The second involved making a judgement about a person under a variety of different conditions. The experimenters wanted to see how the mood state would affect the social judgement of the participants. Scott Joplin Biography? They found different levels of 'affect infusion' depending on of romans, the particular circumstances of the study. The main criticism of this type of Exploring formulation of motivational and the book, emotional factors as somehow 'add-on' or extra factors that then modify 'normal behaviour' is that it rather isolates these factors rather than integrating them with the perception and evaluation of others. Evolutionary psychology has also had a great effect on many areas of psychology and lays claim to being another overarching theory - although this is more of a 'top-down' rather than 'bottom-up' theory. Evolutionary theorists such as Buss (1995) claim that parts of our behaviour can be explained in terms of adaptations to the environment, both social and physical. This had become a very popular explanation with analysis often focussing on interpersonal relationships, specifically in terms of sexual attraction and how it relates to differing levels of investment in offspring. South Seceded? Modern theorists are now, however, turning away from evolutionary theory as it tends to focus on how the distant past might affect people's behaviour today. While it is possible, perhaps probable, that evolutionary factors will be somewhat relevant, it can be difficult to see this as a complete overarching theory that can explain how people behave in modern technological societies.

Both the evolutionary theory and ideas from the book summary cognitive psychology, therefore, do not provide meta-theoretical explanations on which social psychology can build an why the south seceded integrated perspective. Where then can we turn? Currently one of the most hopeful areas for of romans an integrative approach as identified by both Hogg Vaughan (2002) and Branscombe Spears (2001) is in a particularly social psychological perspective. These authors suggest that one of the most successful attempts at about A Culture of Conspiracy: integrating analyses from a variety of different levels - intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup - is in social identity theory (Tajfel Turner, 1986). Social identity theory grew out of the the book of romans minimal group paradigm experiments in which it was found that people would strongly identify with even an extremely arbitrary and loosely formed grouping so as to prefer the in-group members over the out-group members. South Seceded? This would occur with only the smallest and the book of romans, most subtle provocation (described in Tajfel, 1978). This theory is based on monopolistically market, the idea that society is structured by social groupings with different levels of power and interests and that people gain their social identity from these groups. Attached to this social identity are particular ways of behaving to be adhered to. People are not limited to a single social identity though and can, and generally do, have multiple identities which can be switched between depending on the book, the situation. To counter the Essay Reward of a Liberal Education criticisms mentioned earlier about levels of explanation, social identity theory is careful to separate personal identity from social identity as it is precisely the the book of romans confounding of these two levels that has drawn the censure of why the critics.

Because of its concentration on the importance of groups, a number of of romans summary established social psychological processes are also brought into the theory automatically. These include, for south example, in-group favouritism and the book, intergroup differentiation. Scott Joplin Biography? Finally, social identity theory assumes that people have a need to gain a positive evaluation of themselves in relation to other people. The explanations provided by social identity theory so far cover interpersonal and intergroup effects, but what about intrapsychic processes? Branscombe Spears (2001) suggest that self-categorisation theory provides another important piece in providing an integrated meta-theory. Self-categorisation theory grew out of social identity theory and concentrates on how a person places themselves in particular social categories (Turner, 1987). It sees a person as choosing from a number of fuzzy categories about how to behave in the book summary, particular situations as compared to a kind of monopolistically competitive prototype. This analysis brings in the more cognitive ideas of having a representation of a group, and the prototype of that group, and then comparing individual behaviour to that. These kinds of distinctions between levels of understanding and categorisation or identity can be clearly understood in research like that carried out by Spears, Doosje, Ellemers (1997). In this study psychology students were encouraged to the book compare themselves to fine arts students and then physics students respectively. The results showed they tended to emphasise their intelligence when comparing themselves to fine arts students, and their creativity when comparing themselves to physics students.

This clearly shows how people have a need to compare themselves favourably to others but also effectively shows how people's image of why the themselves is affected by the exact nature of the summary social comparison that they are making. The combination of social identity theory and self-categorisation theory have been used to explain a number of social psychological phenomena. These have included social stereotyping, group formation and cohesion and the maintenance of self-esteem. One oft-analysed example that demonstrates the salient points is that of crowd behaviour. Crowd behaviour has traditionally been analysed as a function of joplin biography changes in individuation and in self-awareness in an individual person. The Book? Like many areas of social psychology this analysis has come under fire for ignoring or playing down the intergroup interactions. In an biography analysis of crowd behaviour based on social identity theory, these criticisms are lessened. Reicher, Spears Postmes (1995) posit that crowds come together as members of of romans a specific social group in order to perform a particular act or protest, the result of this is that there is often a high level of the sharing of social identity. Seceded? But in a crowd situation there are frequently few cues as to how to behave and so people tend to look for those members of the the book group that they identify with and on The of a Liberal, copy them. To look at the book it from another perspective, rather than becoming deindividuated by being in a crowd, people are actually raising their social identity in this situation above their personal identity. The simple result is that people tend to monopolistically competitive conform to the group norms to a greater extent.

Studies of riots cited by Hogg Vaughan (2002) provide some evidence for this point of view. Reicher (1984) studied the riots that occurred in 1980 in the St Paul's area of Bristol. It was found that, for example, people only targeted symbols of the state such as the police and banks, they were certainly not indiscriminate. There was a strong sense of positive social identity and of romans, the crowd remained within the confines of St Paul's rather than spreading to other areas. These kinds of south seceded findings tend to support ideas from social identity and self-categorisation theory. The fragmentation and the book summary, attempts at integration discussed so far are those that have occurred within what is known as mainstream social psychology . However, one of the monopolistically market most important major differences or splits in the book of romans summary, the practice of social psychology came with the so-called 'crisis in social psychology' in Exploring Cognitivist Theories Essay, the late 60s and summary, early 70s. This was lead by critics of traditional approaches to social psychology like Gergen (1973). What these critics were saying was that social psychology, in its mainstream incarnation, had become too obsessed with scientific methods that were not best suited to gaining social psychological knowledge: namely reductionism and positivism.

The effect of concentrating on reductionism in Essay, psychology, it was argued, meant that accounts of social psychological phenomena tended to concentrate on intrapersonal psychology at the expense of understanding the social nature of human relations. Critics of positivist approaches claimed that social psychologists tended to place too much emphasis on the explanatory power of traditional scientific methods. They contended that it was not possible to study a person or group of people in an 'objective' way for the simple reason that effectively people are studying themselves and it is impossible to be objective about yourself - by definition! While traditional experimental approaches to social psychology continued then, new methods began to grow from different traditions that challenged the way social psychology had been 'done' in the past. Lyons (1998) describes some of these new approaches that are often collected under the banner of 'social constructionism'. The Book Of Romans? This new plurality of competitive market approaches has at its centre the idea that reality is socially constructed. In essence this idea is the book of romans that there is no objective reality so that reality which we construct (mainly) through our language should form the primary focus for investigation. Discourse analysis (Potter Wetherell, 1987) is one method of analysing our interactions with each other that involves the qualitative analysis of written or verbal text. While these new approaches to social psychology have certainly fed back usefully into the mainstream in terms of the methodologies used, their philosophical bases are fundamentally opposed to monopolistically market the way that mainstream psychology is carried out. Still, their concentration on the social in social psychology can be seen to parallel the mainstream's increasing awareness in the same direction. Whether integration is desirable, or even possible, between these two approaches is the book summary certainly questionable.

The main problem for social psychologists is that knowledge naturally becomes highly specialised and eventually ghettoised, so that there is little communication between specialisms and little opportunity for the sharing and about Decline in America, integration of knowledge. As human beings represent extremely complicated integrated systems it seems unlikely that they can be fully understood as a number of discrete parts or modules. Unless bridges can be built between the sub-disciplines of social psychology, it seems likely that much knowledge about how these systems operate will be lost between the widening cracks. There is some evidence that some level of integration might be achieved through social identity and self-categorisation theory, although the gap between mainstream social psychology and social constructionist analyses look less likely to be bridged despite the boost to qualitative methodologies in the mainstream. Branscombe, N. The Book? R. Spears, R. (2001) Social Psychology : Past, Present, and Some Predictions for the Future. In J. S. Halonen S. F. Monopolistically Competitive? Davis (Eds.). The many faces of of romans summary psychological research in the 21st century (text-only version; chap. 7). Retrieved September 5, 2005 from http://teachpsych.lemoyne.edu/teachpsych/faces/text/Ch07.htm Buss, D. Essay Reward Of A Liberal? M. (1995). Psychological sex differences: Origins through sexual selection.

American Psychologist, 50, 164-168. Forgas, J. P. (1995). Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (AIM). The Book Of Romans Summary? Psychological Bulletin, 117, 39-66. Gergen, K. J. Scott Joplin? (1973). Social psychology as history. Journal of Personality and the book of romans summary, Social Psychology , 26, 309-320. Hogg, M. A. Vaughan, G. M. (2002) Social Psychology, Third Edition, London: Prentice Hall Lyons, E. (1998) Social Psychology 1, In Psychology: An Integrated Approach, Ed.

Eysenek, M. W., pp.324-355. Essex: Longman. Potter, J., Wetherell, M. (1987). Essay Apocalyptic Visions? Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behaviour. London: Sage. Reicher, S. (1984) St. Paul's a study of the limits of summary crowd behaviour. Monopolistically Competitive Market? In Murphy J et al (eds.) Dialogues and debates in social psychology.

Reicher, S. D., Spears, R., Postmes, T. Of Romans Summary? (1995). A social identity model of deindividuation phenomena. In Stroebe, W., Hewstone, M. (Eds.), European review of social psychology, Vol. Monopolistically Competitive? 6, pp. 161-198). Of Romans Summary? Chichester, UK: Wiley. Spears, R., Doosje, B., Ellemers, N. (1997). Self-stereotyping in Essay, the face of threats to group status and distinctiveness: The role of group identification. The Book? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 538-553. Tajfel, H. Scott? (1978).

Interindividual behaviour and summary, intergroup behaviour. In: Tajfel, H. (Ed.) Differentiation between social groups (pp. 27-60). New York: Academic Press. Tajfel, H., Turner, J.C. (1986). Seceded? The social identity theory of intergroup behavior.

In Worchel, S., Austin, W. G. (Eds.), The psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7-24). Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall. Turner, J.C. (1987). A self-categorization theory. In Turner, J.C. Hogg, M.A. Oakes, P.J. Reicher, S.D., Wetherell M.S. (Eds.), Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory (pp. 42-67). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

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