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Hidden Costs of of the grail, Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use (2010) Looking for other ways to read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Overall Conclusions and Recommendations. In response to a charge from Congress, the committee defined and evaluated key external costs and benefits associated with the herbert symbolic interactionism production, distribution, and grail consumption of energy from various selected sources. We were asked to focus on health, environmental, security, and infrastructure effects that are notor may not befully incorporated into gourmet coffee, the market price of knights of the grail, energy or into easyjet expenses, government policies related to energy production, distribution, or consumption. The external effects of energy are mostly negative, but the overall benefits of U.S. energy systems to society are enormous. However, the estimation of those benefits, which are mostly reflected in energy prices and grail markets, was not in the committee’s charge. The results of this study are intended to inform public policy choices, such as selecting among fuel types, or to help identify situations in which additional regulation may be warranted for reducing external costs produced by an energy-related activity.

When sources with large aggregate damages are indentified, analysis of the costs and benefits of The Great Scott Fitzgerald, reducing the burdens resulting from those damages is knights holy, warranted. This chapter presents an overview of the results of the committee’s analyses. It provides factors to keep in mind when interpreting the results of the evaluations, overall conclusions, and recommendations for research to inform future consideration of various issues. Our study examined external effects over the life cycle of gourmet coffee kitchen, electricity generation, transportation, and production of heat for the residential, com- mercial, and industrial sectors. We estimated damages that remained in 2005 after regulatory actions had taken place as well as damages expected to knights of the holy, remain in 2030 in light of possible future regulations. Our boundaries for analysis were not identical in all sectors, but we sought to use existing data and methods for personal well-recognized externalities. We did not attempt to develop wholly new methods for estimating impacts and damages, but we did identify areas where additional research would be particularly valuable.

For electricity generation and production of heat, we focused on monetizing downstream effects related to of the, air pollution from coal-fired and gas-fired processes. Upstream effects and other downstream effects have been quantified but not monetized or have been discussed in qualitative terms. We did not assess effects associated with power-plant construction, and we did not assess effects from methane emissions from transporting natural gas by pipeline for introduction heat. For transportation, we monetized effects related to of the, air pollution for essentially the full life cycle, including vehicle manufacture. We considered climate-change effects associated with energy production and gourmet coffee use, and we reviewed various attempts that have been made in the literature to quantify and monetize the damages associated with the effects of climate change. Knights Of The Holy! We also considered the essay introduction literature on a variety of damages that are associated with the nation’s energy infrastructure: disruption in the electricity transmission grid, vulnerability of energy facilities to accidents and knights of the possible attack, external costs of oil consumption, supply security considerations, and national security externalities.

The committee focused its attention on externalities as generally defined by The Great Gatsby by F Scott Essay economists. As discussed in knights holy, Chapter 1, there are many other distortions that occur in markets related to by F Scott, energy production and consumption that may create opportunities for improvement of social welfare but that are not externalities. There are also equity or “fairness” consequences of market activities. Although other distortions and equity concerns may be appropriate for policy formulation, they are beyond the scope of this study and were not considered. Estimating most of the impacts and damages involves a several-step process based on holy grail, many assumptions; this process is true for even relatively well-understood impacts. In summarizing our results, we attempt to convey the uncertainty surrounding our estimates. The results of the committee’s study should be considered in light of important caveats. Coffee! Although our analysis was able to consider and quantify a wide range of burdens and damages (for example, premature mortality resulting from exposure to air pollution), there are many potential damages that we did not quantify.

Therefore our results should not be interpreted as a full accounting. As discussed in Chapter 1, studying selected sources was necessary because it. would have been infeasible to evaluate the entire energy system with the time and resources available to the committee. Even within the sources selected by the committee, we were unable to monetize all externalities over a life cycle. Our analysis required use of a wide set of assumptions and decisions about analytical techniques that can introduce uncertainty into the results. Although we did not attempt to of the holy grail, conduct a formal uncertainty analysis, we have been cautious throughout our discussion of resultsand urge the reader to be cautiousthat is, not to over-interpret small differences in herbert blumer symbolic, results among the wide range of energy sources and of the technologies assessed. There is uncertainty in the analyses with respect to the quality of the data available, the completeness of the analyses (factors that may have been left out or have been unintentionally given inappropriate weight), and the degree to live, which computation models correctly include the most important variables. Knights Of The! Uncertainty also involves unknowns.

For example, some climate effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are poorly understood and might continue to be for some time. In some cases in which effects werre unknown, the committee was able to conclude that the effects were probably small compared with the known effects. In other cases, the committee was not able to herbert blumer interactionism, provide even qualitative estimates of unknown effects; in such cases, we had to accept that we did not know. The summaries that follow point out some of the uncertainties and their sources, but for more detail, consult the discussions in previous chapters. Chapter 2 examines burdens, effects, and damages associated with electricity generation from coal, natural gas, nuclear power, wind, solar energy, and biomass. In the cases of fossil fuels (coal and natural gas) and nuclear power, the analysis includes externalities associated with upstream activities, exploration, fuel extraction and processing, and holy the transportation of fuel to generating facilities, as well as damages associated with downstream activities of electricity generation and distribution. Some effects are discussed in qualitative terms and others are quantified and, if possible, monetized. Although this section presents estimates of GHG emissions due to electricity generation, it does not present damages associated with effects related to climate change. Those damages are discussed in separate sections in this chapter.

For electricity generation from coal, the committee monetized effects on human health, visibility of outdoor vistas, agriculture, forestry, and damages to building materials associated with emissions of airborne particulate. matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) from 406 coal-fired power plants in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii. More than 90% of by F Scott Fitzgerald Essay, monetized damages are associated with premature human mortality, and approximately 85% of damages come from SO 2 emissions, which are transformed into airborne PM. Aggregate damages (unrelated to climate change) in 2005 were approximately $62 billion (2007 U.S. dollars [USD]), or 3.2 cents per holy grail, kilowatt hour (kWh) (weighting each plant by the electricity it produces); however, damages per by F Scott Essay, plant varied widely. Knights Holy! The distribution of damages across plants is easyjet, highly skewed (see Figure 7-1). The 50% of knights holy grail, plants with lowest damages per expenses, plant accounted for 25% of net electricity generation and produced 12% of damages. The 10% of plants with the highest damages per plant also accounted for 25% of net generation, but they produced 43% of the damages. Although damages are. FIGURE 7-1 Distribution of aggregate damages from coal-fired power plants by decile (2007 U.S. dollars).

In computing this chart, plants were sorted from smallest to largest based on aggregate damages. The lowest decile represents the 40 plants with the knights of the holy smallest aggregate damages per plant. The figure on the top of each bar is the average across all plants of damages associated with SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 (particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 microns, respectively). Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. FIGURE 7-2 Air-pollution damages from coal-fired electricity generation for 406 plants in 2005. Where Did Robert Louis Stevenson! Damage estimates are reported in 2007 U.S. dollars. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. larger for plants that produce more electricity, less than half of the variation in damages across plants is of the holy, explained by differences in net generation. Expenses! The map in Figure 7-2 shows the knights of the size of herbert interactionism, damages created by each of the 406 plants by knights of the grail plant location. Plants with large damages are concentrated to the east of the Mississippi River, along the Ohio River Valley, in the Middle Atlantic, and in easyjet expenses, the South.

Damages per kWh also varied widely across plants (Figure 7-3)from over holy grail, 12 cents per kWh (95th percentile) to less than a cent (5th percentile) (2007 USD). 1 Most of the variation in damages per essay introduction, kWh can be explained by variation in emissions intensity (emissions per kWh) across plants. Knights Of The Holy! In the Fitzgerald case of SO 2 emissions, over 80% of the variation in SO 2 damages per kWh is explained by variation in pounds of SO 2 emitted per kWh. Damages per grail, ton of SO 2 , which vary by plant, are less important in explaining variation in SO 2 damages per kWh. (Damages per ton are capable of explaining only 24% of the variation in damages per kWh.) These estimates are not weighted by electricity generation.

FIGURE 7-3 Distribution of air-pollution damages per kilowatt-hour for 406 coal-fired power plants in 2005 (in 2007 U.S. dollars). All plants are weighted equally. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. For 2030, despite increases in damages per The Great Gatsby by F Scott Fitzgerald Essay, ton of pollutant due to population growth and income growth, average damages per kWh (weighted by electricity generation) at coal plants are estimated to knights of the holy grail, be 1.7 cents per kWh, compared with 3.2 cents per kWh in 2005 (2007 USD). The fall in damages per kWh is explained by the assumption that pounds of SO 2 per personal essay introduction, megawatt hour (MWh) will fall by 64% and of the holy grail that NO x and herbert interactionism PM emissions per MWh will fall by approximately 50% (see Chapter 2). The emissions of CO 2 from coal-fired electricity-generating facilities are the largest single source of GHG emissions in the United States. Because the heat rate (energy from coal needed to generate 1 kWh of electricity) varies widely among coal-fired plants, the CO 2 emissions vary as well. The 5th-95th percentile range is 0.95-1.5 tons (the average being about 1 ton of CO 2 per knights of the grail, MWh of power generated). Personal Introduction! The main factors behind the differences in the CO 2 emitted are the holy grail technology used to generate the power and the age of the plant.

For estimating nonclimate-change-related damages for 498 facilities that generate electricity from natural gas in the United States, we used a similar approach as in gourmet coffee, the coal analysis. The gas facilities, which include electric utilities, independent power producers, and combined heat and power facilities, each generated at least 80% of their electricity from of the, gas and had installed capacity of at least 5 MW. The aggregate damages associated with emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and blumer symbolic PM from knights of the grail, these facilities, which generated 71% of electricity from natural gas, were approximately $0.74 billion (2007 USD), or 0.16 cents per kWh. Thus, on average, nonclimate-change damages associated with electricity generation from natural gas are an order of magnitude lower than damages from blumer symbolic, coal-fired electricity generation. The distribution of of the holy grail, damages across plants is, however, highly skewed (see Figure 7-4). The 10% of plants with highest damages per plant.

FIGURE 7-4 Distribution of aggregate damages from easyjet expenses, natural-gas-fired power plants by decile (in 2007 U.S. dollars). Plants were sorted from smallest to knights of the grail, largest based on aggregate damages to compute this chart. The lowest decile represents the 50 plants with the smallest aggregate damages per plant. The number on the top of each bar is the introduction average across all plants of damages associated with SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 (particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 microns, respectively). Damages related to grail, climate-change effects are not included. accounted for 65% of the air-pollution damages produced by gourmet coffee kitchen all 498 plants.

The 50% of grail, plants with lowest damages per plant accounted for only 4% of the aggregate damages. Story: Ender Dragon Essay! (Each group of plants, respectively, accounted for approximately one-quarter of the of the holy electricity generation.) Although damages were larger for plants that produced more electricity, less than 40% of the variation in bar and, damages across plants is explained by differences in net generation. The largest damages are produced by gas plants located in the Northeast (along the Eastern seaboard), and in Texas, California, and Florida (see Figure 7-5). Damages per kWh also vary widely across plants: from more than 1.5 cents per knights of the, kWh (95th percentile) to less than 0.05 cents (5th percentile) (2007 USD). 2 Most of the variation in NO x damages per kWh can be explained by variation in emission intensity across plants; however, for PM 2.5 , which accounted for more than half of the coffee monetized air-pollution damages, variation in damages per ton of PM 2.5 (that is, variation related to the location of the plant relative to population distribution and prevailing winds) are as important in explaining variation in knights holy grail, PM 2.5 damages per kWh as differences in gourmet coffee bar and, PM 2.5 emissions intensity. Damages per kWh at knights of the grail the 498 facilities are predicted to be 30% lower in 2030 than in 2005; they are predicted to fall from 0.16 cents to 0.11 cents per The Great Gatsby by F Scott Essay, kWh on average (2007 USD) (weighting each plant by electricity generation). The reduction is grail, due to a predicted 19% fall in NO x emissions per kWh hour and easyjet expenses a 32% fall in PM 2.5 emissions per kWh (see Chapter 2). Natural gas plants on average emitted approximately half as much CO 2 at the generation stage as did coal-fired power plants in 2005about half a ton of CO 2 per MWh. As the knights of the holy heat rate (energy from gas needed to generate 1 kWh of electricity) varied among gas-fired plants, so did CO 2 emissions, the gourmet coffee bar and 5th-95th percentile ranged from 0.3 to 1.1 tons per MWh. As discussed later in knights, this chapter, nonclimate-change damages from Story: Dragon, natural-gas-fired electricity generation are likely to be much smaller than its damages related to climate change.

The committee did not quantify damages associated with nuclear power; however, we reviewed studies conducted by others and knights grail consider. These estimates are not weighted by electricity generation. FIGURE 7-5 Air-pollution damages from natural-gas-fired electricity generation for 498 plants in 2005. Damages are expressed in 2007 U.S. Gourmet Bar And! dollars. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. their conclusions relevant. 3 Overall, other studies have found that damages associated with the knights of the holy normal operation of nuclear power plants (excluding the possibility of herbert blumer symbolic interactionism, damages in the remote future from the disposal of spent fuel) are low compared with those from fossil-fuel-based power plants.

For surface-mine workers, exposure to radon is generally less important than direct irradiation or dust inhalation, but radon exposure can be important for underground miners. However, if radiologic exposure is taken into account in miners’ wages, it is not considered an externality. For members of the knights holy grail public, the most significant pathways from an operating uranium mine are radon transport and by F Scott Essay radionuclide ingestion following surface-water transport. From a rehabilitated mine, the of the grail more significant pathways over the long term are likely to Short Story:, be groundwater as well as surface-water transport and bioaccumulation in animals and plants located at the mine. The committee did not quantify damages associated with nuclear power because the analysis would have involved power plant risk modeling and spent-fuel transportation modeling that would have taken far greater resources and time than were available for this study. site or on associated water bodies. Little uranium is currently mined in the United States; most of the uranium supplied to U.S. nuclear power plants comes from Canada and Russia. Downstream impacts are largely confined to the release of heated water used for cooling and knights grail the production of low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) and gourmet high-level radioactive wastes (HLRW) from spent fuel.

Release of highly radioactive materials has not occurred on a large scale in the United States (but obviously has occurred elsewhere). LLRW is stored for decay to background levels and then disposed of as nonradioactive waste (a practice possible with slightly contaminated materials), or it is disposed of in nearsurface landfills designed for radioactive wastes. Knights Of The Holy Grail! For spent nuclear fuel that is easyjet expenses, not reprocessed and recycled, HLRW is usually stored at the plant site. No agreement has been reached on a geologic repository for HLRW in the United States, and, therefore, little HLRW is transported for long distances. The issue of knights of the grail, having a permanent repository is perhaps the where did robert stevenson live most contentious nuclear-energy issue, and considerably more study on the externalities of such a repository is warranted. The committee relied on information in the scientific literature for its assessment of knights of the holy, wind power for producing electricity; it focused on The Great by F Scott Essay, land-based wind turbines, because no offshore turbines have been permitted yet in the United States.

Because wind energy does not use fuel, no gases or other contaminants are released during the operation of a wind turbine. Emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and PM and GHGs over the life cycle are much smaller per kWh than for knights holy grail coal or natural gas. Upstream effects are related to the mining, processing, fabrication, and transportation of gourmet, raw materials and parts; those parts are normally transported to the wind-energy plant’s site for final assembly. Effects related to downstream activities include visual and noise impacts, impacts on bird and knights of the bat species, and land-use effects that accompany the construction of any electricity-generating plant and transmission of electricity. Although few life-cycle impacts associated with wind energy have been quantified, potential damages are likely to be less than those for coal and natural gas. For example, aggregate land-use damages over the entire life cycle are also likely to be smaller for electricity generation from wind than for coal and natural gas. However, better information is needed, especially in light of the probable increase in the number and introduction density of wind turbines. Even if the expansion of wind energy is taken into account, the estimated number of knights of the holy, birds killed by wind turbines is dwarfed by the number killed by transmission lines. Essay Introduction! On the other hand, bat deaths appear to holy grail, be largely, if not uniquely, associated with wind generation, but good estimates of the. numbers of bats killed are not available.

In addition, the lack of understanding of the demography and ecology of bats makes it difficult to assess the importance of bat deaths. Societal damages associated with the killing of bats by wind turbines are currently small by comparison with the aggregate damages associated with electricity generation by coal, natural gas, and the sum of all other sources. Much of the United States receives enough solar energy to produce about essay, 1 kWh per square meter of panel area per day, with considerable local variability from north to south and regionally as a result of sun angles and weather patterns. Knights Of The! At present, most solar panels are installed on did robert louis stevenson live, building roofs or immediately adjacent to buildings to provide electricity on site. Of The Holy! When a site’s electricity use exceeds solar energy availability, electricity is essay introduction, supplied from the grid (or from batteries, if electricity demand is low).

In this case, solar panels reduce grid-based electricity demand at the end use, thus becoming similar to an energy efficiency improvement. Some solar panel installations also can feed excess electricity back into the grid during periods of of the holy, peak solar or low local on-site demand periods. Concentrating solar power (CSP) 4 and where live photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation by the electricity sector combined to supply 500 gigawatt hours (GWh) in 2006 and 600 GWh in 2007, which constitute about 0.01% of the total U.S. electricity generation. Energy Information Administration (EIA) data indicate that the compounded annual growth rate in net U.S. generation from solar was 1.5% from 1997 to 2007 (NAS/NAE/NRC 2009b). Of The Holy Grail! However, this estimate does not account for the growth in residential and other small PV installations, which are applications that have displayed the largest growth rate for solar electricity. Although solar PV and CSP are still developing technologies, they will be an increasing, but still small, part of electricity generation through 2020. Like wind power, solar power emits no gaseous pollutants during operations to produce electricity. Gatsby By F Scott! Upstream life-cycle activities include mining of materials for solar panels and the balance-of-system components used to convert the electricity to alternating current. Downstream life-cycle activities include electricity generation, storage, and disposal or recycling of worn-out panels. Worn-out panels have the potential to produce a large. CSP installations use arrays of mirrors to focus direct beam incident sunlight to heat a working fluid and generate electricity through a thermal power cycle.

Desert locations with low humidity and high insolation could allow large-scale CSP electricity generation at lower costs than PV installations. Co-siting a CSP plant with a natural gas power plant can allow continuous production of holy grail, electricity. amount of waste, and improper disposal may lead to the possibility of leaching of toxic chemicals. If solar energy for electricity were to easyjet expenses, become an important part of the of the U.S. energy mix, more attention would need to be paid to damages resulting from the manufacture, recycling, and disposal of equipment, as well as potential land-use impacts. No attempt has been made to estimate damages associated with generating electricity using biomass feedstock derived from forestry practices, agricultural activities, and municipal solid waste because the amount of electricity generated from personal essay, biomass feedstock is relatively small (total installed capacity is less than 1,600 MW) and is likely to knights holy, remain so. Bar And Kitchen! 5 Many of the issues facing biomass combustors are similar to issues faced by large-scale fossil-fuel generation. Emissions from the combustion of of the, biomass can include polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, although the focus of recent analysis has been primarily on enclosed systems. Where Louis! Nonclimate-change-related damages from biomass-generated electricity on a per-kWh basis might equal or even exceed those from knights of the, coal in some cases. Where Did Robert Louis Live! The committee has not provided detailed analyses because this technology probably will have only limited market penetration in 2030. Transmission and Distribution of Electricity. Transmission lines have raised concerns about health risks (for example, risks associated with exposure to holy, extremely low-frequency [ELF] electromagnetic radiation), visual disamenities, and loss of property values.

The latter concern is not an externality per se, although it may reflect externalities. Potential health risks from ELF exposure are externalities, although adverse health effects of transmission lines have not been conclusively established. Visual disamenities are also externalities and may become an increasing concern in association with renewable energy sources. Large-scale wind and solar facilities often need to be sited far from end users, thus requiring more new transmission lines than some other sources would need. We considered a wide range of potential emissions and damages related to air pollution from the use of easyjet, energy in transportation. Our discussion.

Source: National Electric Energy Data System (NEEDS) for the Integrated Planning Model (EPA 2004b). and analysis focused on the components of transportation energy usefor light-duty and heavy-duty on-road vehiclesthat account for more than 75%, i.e. the great majority, of annual U.S. transportation energy use. Other transportation energy uses (for example, for nonroad vehicles, aircraft, locomotives, and ships) are not inconsequential, but they account for a smaller portion of transportation energy use and so were not considered. For each fuel and vehicle combination, the committee analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emissions, and then used those emissions data in a nationwide analysis of exposures and health effects as well as other nonclimate effects, and then developed estimates of monetized damages (described in Chapter 3). This section also presents estimates of GHG emissions due to transportation, but it does not present estimates of climate-change-related damages associated with those emissions. Those damages are discussed in a separate section of this chapter.

Health Effects and Other Damages Not Related to knights of the holy grail, Climate Change. Despite limitations, our analysis provides some useful insight into the relative levels of damages from different fuel and technology mixes. Kitchen! Overall, we estimate that the knights aggregate national damages in essay introduction, 2005 to health and of the holy other nonclimate-change-related effects were approximately $36 billion per year (2007 USD) for the light duty vehicle fleet; the addition of medium-duty and heavy-duty trucks and buses raises the aggregate estimate to approximately $56 billion (2007 USD). These estimates are probably conservative, as they include but do not fully account for the contribution of light-duty trucks to the aggregate damages, and should be viewed with caution, given the significant uncertainties in any such analysis. Health and Other Nonclimate-Change-Related Damages on a per-Vehicle-Mile-Traveled Basis. Although the uncertainties in the analysis preclude precise ranking of different technologies, Table 7-1 illustrates that, on a cents per-vehicle-mile-traveled (VMT) basis, there are some important differences in the levels of damages attributable to gourmet coffee bar and kitchen, different fuel and technology combinations in 2005 and 2030. Among the fuel and technology choices, there are some differences in damages, although overall, especially in 2030, the knights of the different fuel and technology combinations have remarkably similar damage estimates. Some fuels (E85 from herbaceous and essay introduction corn stover feedstock) and compressed natural gas (CNG) have relatively lower damages than all other options in both 2005 and 2030. TABLE 7-1 Relative Categories of Health and Other Nonclimate-Change Damages 2005 and 2030 for Major Categories of Light-Duty Vehicle Fuels and Technologies (Damage Estimates Based on 2007 U.S. Dollars)

Category of Aggregate Damage Estimates (Cents/VMT) Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel. E85 corn stover. E85 corn stover. Conventional gasoline and RFG. Conventional gasoline and RFG.

Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel. ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline. Diesel, which has relatively high damages in 2005, has one of the lowest levels of damage in 2030. This result is knights of the, due to the substantial reductions in both PM and NO x emissions that a diesel vehicle has been required to attain after the 2006 introduction of introduction, low-sulfur fuel. Corn-based ethanol, especially E85, has relatively higher damages than most other fuels; in large measure, the higher damages are due to higher emissions from the energy required to produce the feedstock and the fuel. Grid-dependent HEVs and electric vehicles have somewhat higher damages in both 2005 and 2030. As noted in Chapter 3, these vehicles have important advantages over all other fuel and technology combinations when only damages from operations are considered. However, the damages associated with the present and projected mixes of electricity generation (the latter still being dominated by coal and natural gas in 2030, albeit at significantly lower rates of emissions) add substantially to the life-cycle damages.

In addition, the increased energy associated with battery manu- facture adds approximately 20% to the damages from vehicle manufacture. However, further legislative and of the economic initiatives to reduce emissions from the electricity grid could be expected to improve the relative damages from gourmet coffee kitchen, electric vehicles substantially. Although the underlying level of aggregate damages in the United States could be expected to rise between 2005 and 2030 because of projected increases in population and increases in the value of a statistical life, the results in our analysis of most fuel and technology examples in 2030 are very similar to those in knights grail, 2005, in large measure because of the expected improvement in many technology and fuel combinations (including conventional gasoline) as a result of enhanced fuel efficiency (35.5 mpg) expected by 2030 from the recently announced new national standards for light-duty vehicles. (It is possible, however, that these improvements are somewhat overstated, as there is evidence that improved fuel efficiency, by reducing the cost of driving, could also result in increased travel and consequently result in higher aggregate damages than would otherwise be seen.) As shown in Figure 7-6, these damages per VMT are not spread equally among the different life-cycle components. For example, in most cases the bar and actual operation of the vehicle is grail, one-quarter to one-third of the blumer damages per knights of the grail, VMT, and the emissions incurred in creating the feedstock, refining the fuel, and making the vehicle are responsible for easyjet expenses the larger part of of the grail, damages. Health and Other Nonclimate Damages on a Per-Gallon Basis. The committee also attempted to estimate the health and non-GHG damages on a per-gallon basis. This attempt was made somewhat more complicated by the fact that simply multiplying expected miles per gallon for each fuel and vehicle type by the damages per mile tend to make the Gatsby by F Fitzgerald Essay most fuel-efficient vehicles, which travel the of the holy most miles on a gallon, appear to have higher damages per gallon than a less-fuel-efficient vehicle. With that caveat in mind, the committee analysis estimated that in 2005, the mean damages per gallon for most fuels ranged from gourmet coffee, 23 cents/gallon to 38 cents/gallon, the damages for conventional gasoline engines being in approximately the middle of that range at approximately 29 cents per gallon. Limitations in knights holy, the Health and Other Nonclimate Damages Analysis. When interpreting these results, it is important to consider two major limitations in the analysis: the emissions and damages that were not quantifiable and essay the uncertainty in the analytical results that were obtained.

FIGURE 7-6 Health effects and other nonclimate damages are presented by lifecycle component for knights grail different combinations of fuels and light-duty automobiles in 2005 ( a ) and 2030 ( b ). Damages are expressed in cents per VMT (2007 U.S. Where Did Robert Stevenson! dollars). Going from bottom to top of each bar, damages are shown for life-cycle stages as follows: vehicle operation, feedstock production, fuel refining or conversion, and vehicle manufacturing. Damages related to climate change are not included. ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle mile traveled; CG SI, conventional gasoline spark ignition; CNG, compressed natural gas; E85, 85% ethanol fuel; E10, 10% ethanol fuel; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle. Although our analysis was able to knights holy, consider and expenses quantify a wide range of emissions and damages throughout the life cycle and included what arguably could be considered the most significant contributors to estimates of such damages (for example, premature mortality resulting from exposure to air pollution), many potential damages could not be quantified at this time.

These damages include the following: Overall: Estimates of the impacts of hazardous air pollutants, estimates of damages to ecosystems (for example, from deposition), and estimates covering the full range of agricultural crops. For biofuels: Impacts on water use and water contamination, as well as any formal consideration of potential indirect land-use effects (see, however, the discussion of the latter in Chapter 3). For battery electric vehicles: Potential exposures to toxic contaminants as a result of battery manufacture, battery disposal, and accidents. Any such analysis includes a wide set of of the, assumptions and decisions about analytical techniques that can introduce uncertainty in blumer interactionism, the results. Knights Holy Grail! Although we did not attempt to conduct a formal uncertainty analysis, we engaged in limited sensitivity analyses to check the effects of key assumptions on gourmet, the results. We urge the reader to be cautious when interpreting small differences in results among the knights of the holy wide range of fuels and technologies we assessed.

Similar to The Great Gatsby by F Essay, the damage estimates presented above, the GHG emission estimates for each fuel and of the holy grail technology combination can provide relative estimates of GHG performance in 2005 and 2030. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting these results and comparing fuel and easyjet expenses technology combinations, some instructive observations from holy grail, Table 7-2 are possible. Overall, the substantial improvements in fuel efficiency in 2030 (to a minimum of 35.5 mpg for did robert louis stevenson light-duty vehicles) result in knights holy grail, most technologies becoming much closer to by F Fitzgerald, each other on a per-VMT basis for life-cycle GHG emissions. There are, however, some differences: As with damages above, the herbaceous and corn stover E85 have relatively low GHG emissions over the life cycle; in knights of the holy grail, terms of aggregate grams per VMT of CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 -eq) 6 emissions, E85 from corn also has relatively low GHG emissions.

CO 2 -eq expresses the global warming potential of a GHG, such as methane, in terms of CO 2 quantities. TABLE 7-2 Relative Categories of GHG Emissions in 2005 and 2030 for Major Categories of Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuels and Technologies. Category of gourmet, Aggregate CO 2 -eq Emission Estimates (g/VMT) E85 corn stover. E85 corn stover. Diesel with biodiesel. Diesel with biodiesel. SI conventional gasoline, RFG. E10 herbaceous, corn stover.

SIDI conventional gasoline. Conventional gasoline and knights RFG. ABBREVIATIONS: CO 2 -eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, com pressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline; SI, spark ignition; SIDI, spark ignition direct injection. The tar-sands-based fuels have the highest GHG emissions of any of the fuels that the committee considered. As shown in Figure 7-7, and in introduction, contrast to the damages analysis above, the operation of the vehicle is in most cases a substantial relative contributor to total life-cycle GHG emissions. That is not the case, however, with either the grid-dependent technologies (for example, electric or grid-dependent hybrid) or the hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. In the latter vehicle technologies, the dominant contributor to life-cycle GHG emissions is electricity generation and the production of hydrogen rather than vehicle operation. The committee also undertook a more limited analysis of the nonclimate-change-related damages and GHG emissions associated with heavy-duty vehicles. Although this analysis included operation, feedstock, and holy grail fuel com- FIGURE 7-7 Greenhouse gas emissions (grams CO 2 -eq)/VMT by life-cycle component for different combinations of fuels and essay light-duty automobiles in 2005 ( a ) and 2030 ( b ). Going from bottom to top of each bar, damages are shown for life-cycle stages as follows: vehicle operation, feedstock production, fuel refining or conversion, and vehicle manufacturing.

One exception is ethanol fuels for which feedstock production exhibits negative values because of CO 2 uptake. The amount of CO 2 consumed should be subtracted from the positive value to arrive at a net value. ABBREVIATIONS: g CO 2 -eq, grams CO 2 -equivalent; VMT, vehicle mile traveled; CG SI, conventional gasoline spark ignition; CNG, compressed natural gas; E85, 85% ethanol fuel; E10. Knights Of The Holy Grail! 10% ethanol fuel; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle. ponents of the life cycle, it could notbecause of the wide range of essay introduction, vehicle types and configurationsinclude a vehicle-manufacturing component.

In sum, there are several conclusions that can be drawn: The nonclimate-change-related damages per VMT in 2005 are significantly higher than those for grail light-duty vehicles, as shown above, although they of course pertain to a much higher weight of cargo or number of passengers being carried per VMT. Damages not related to climate-change effects drop significantly in 2030 as a result of the gourmet kitchen full implementation of the 2007-2010 Highway Diesel Rule, which requires substantial reductions in knights grail, PM and NO x emissions. Amounts of GHG emissions are driven primarily in these analyses by the operations component of the life cycle, and they do not change substantially between 2005 and 2030 (except for a modest improvement in fuel economy). EPA and others are currently investigating possible future enhanced requirements for fuel economy in heavy-duty vehicles. The committee conducted an where did robert louis stevenson live assessment focused on air-pollution impacts associated with the present and future (2030) use of natural gas for grail heat in residential and commercial building sectors.

The industrial sector was considered more qualitatively, as published statistics do not differentiate clearly between fuel used for heating and for process feedstocks. We focused our assessment on natural gas because it is the major energy source for heat in buildings, although buildings also consumed about 5% of the 39.7 quadrillion British thermal units (quads) of petroleum used in 2008. Only about 12% of U.S. households use a space-heating fuel other than gas, electricity, or petroleum-based fuels. This section summarizes the above assessment, as well as estimates of GHG emissions due to heat generation. Climate-change-related damages are discussed later in easyjet expenses, this chapter. Heat for Residential and Commercial Buildings. We estimated damages attributable to SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , VOC, and NH 3 emissions from on-site combustion across 3,100 U.S. counties. Data and modeling limitations prevented estimation of damages from upstream emissions.

The median estimated damages (in 2007 USD) attributable to natural gas combustion for knights of the holy grail heat in residential buildings are approximately $0.11 per thousand cubic feet (MCF), or 1% of the 2007 residential price of The Great by F, natural gas. Grail! Aggregate damages (unrelated to coffee kitchen, climate change) were approximately $500 million (2007 USD). The median regional estimated damages from natural gas combustion for knights of the holy grail heat in residential buildings ranged. from $0.06 to 0.14/MCF, the upper tail of the distribution was as much as 5% of the current residential price of natural gas when evaluating the 90th percentile value in the South region of the The Great Gatsby United States. We estimate that damages from combusting natural gas for direct heat are much lower than the damages related to heat produced from electricity, based on average values of the U.S. electricity grid. Estimated damages from natural gas for heat in knights of the holy, commercial buildings are very similar to the estimates for residential buildings. The median estimated externality of natural gas combustion for heat in the commercial building sector is approximately $0.11/MCF, and aggregate damages are about $300 million (excluding damages related to climate change) (2007 USD). The variation across U.S. regions is similar to the median range presented for the residential sector.

In 2007, the combined residential and commercial building sectors emitted an expenses estimated 618 million tons of knights of the holy grail, CO 2 . Damages associated with energy for easyjet expenses heat in 2030 are likely to be approximately the same as those that exist today, contingent upon the development of additional sources to meet demand. Knights Of The Holy! Reduction would probably result from changes in herbert symbolic interactionism, the electricity sector, as emissions from natural gas are relatively small and already well-controlled. Increases are possible if new domestic development has higher emissions or if additional imports of liquefied natural gas are needed. Natural gas use for knights of the heating in the industrial sector (6 quads), excluding use for feedstock, is less than natural gas use in herbert interactionism, the residential and commercial building sectors (8 quads) for 2007; thus, health and environmental damages associated with industrial natural gas use are probably the same order of magnitude or less than the knights damages associated with natural gas use for heat in residential and commercial buildings. Therefore, a very rough order of magnitude estimate of average externalities associated with the industrial sector use of natural gas is $0.10/MCF, excluding GHG damages. For 2007, about 1,084 million tons of CO 2 were emitted from the industrial sector as a result of natural gas combustion for heat.

That amount is greater than the combined amount of 617 million tons of CO 2 from the residential and commercial sectors. As discussed below, nonclimate-change damages from natural gas combustion for direct heat are likely to be much smaller than natural gas combustion damages related to climate change. Aggregate damages from combustion of natural gas for direct heat are estimated to herbert interactionism, be about knights of the holy grail, $1.4 billion per year (2007 USD), assuming the. magnitude of effects resulting from herbert blumer, heat production in industrial activities is comparable to grail, those of residential and commercial sectors. Estimates of did robert live, damages per MCF did not vary much regionally, although some counties have much higher damage estimates than others. Of The! The largest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in introduction, greater attention to knights of the holy, improving the efficiency of energy use.

Damages associated with energy for live heat in 2030 are likely to be about the same as those that exist today, assuming that the knights holy grail effects of additional sources to meet demand are offset by lower-emitting sources. Coffee Bar And Kitchen! Reduction in knights of the holy, damages would only result from more significant changeslargely in by F, the electricity-generating sector, as emissions from natural gas are relatively small and well-controlled. Knights Of The Holy! The greatest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in greater attention to easyjet, improving efficiency. Increased damages would also be possible, however, if new domestic energy development resulted in higher emissions or if additional imports of liquefied natural gas, which would increase emissions from the production and international transport of the fuel, were needed. Combustion of natural gas results in relatively lower GHG and criteria-pollutant-forming emissions, as compared with similar emissions from of the holy, coal (the main energy source for electricity generation) and petroleum combustion.

Energy production and Essay use is a major source of knights holy grail, GHG emissions, principally CO 2 and methane. Externalities are created as increased atmospheric GHG concentrations affect climate, and subsequently, weather, water quality and availability, sea-level rise, and essay biodiversity. Knights Grail! Changes in these physical and biological systems in Short Story: Essay, turn affect a variety of aspects of human life, including water resources, ecosystem services, food production, and health, among other impacts. Quantifying and valuing climate-change impacts to knights, calculate the marginal damage of by F Scott Fitzgerald Essay, a ton of carbon, often referred to as the “the social cost of carbon,” is an of the holy intricate process that involves detailed modeling and analysis. Coffee! Integrated assessment models (IAMs), which produce such estimates, must make assumptions about the knights grail relationship between emissions and temperature change and temperature and economic impacts in Short Essay, multiple sectors. The magnitude of knights of the, these impacts depends to a large extent on changes in climate and on gourmet coffee kitchen, human adaptation to climate change in the distant future. The discount rate used to determine present-day values of future impacts is thus of key importance, as is the extent to which various climatic changes are expected to be extreme and irreversible.

Given the complexity in evaluating the externalities of energy-induced climate change, the committee focused its efforts on of the holy grail, a review of existing IAMs (specifically, the Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate and the Economy [DICE], the Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation, and Distribution [FUND] model, and the Policy Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect [PAGE] model) and the associated climate-change literature. The committee came to the following conclusions, as discussed in Chapter 5: The two features of IAMs that drive estimates of the marginal damage associated with emitting an additional ton of carbon are the choice of coffee bar and, discount rate and the relationship between mean temperature change and the percentage change in world gross domestic product (GDP) (that is, the aggregate damage function). Holding the discount rate constant, the choice of damage function can alter estimates of marginal damages by an order of magnitude; for example, at a 3% discount rate, the marginal social cost of carbon is holy, approximately $2 per ton of CO 2 -eq using the gourmet kitchen FUND model and $22 per ton of CO 2 -eq using the PAGE model. The differences between these two well-reviewed and respected IAMs illustrate the scientific uncertainties inherent in predicting the magnitude of climate-change damage functions. Holding the grail damage function constant, changing the discount rate from 4.5% to 1.5% will cause the marginal social cost of carbon to rise by personal introduction an order of magnitude: in the PAGE model; for example, the marginal social cost of of the holy grail, carbon is approximately $100 per ton of CO 2 at a 1.5% discount rate and herbert symbolic $10 at 4.5% discount rate. In all IAMs, marginal damage estimates for 2030 GHG emissions are 50% to 80% larger than estimates of knights holy, damages from emissions occurring within the past few years. The impacts of climate change are likely to vary greatly across countries.

The estimates of the marginal damage of a ton of CO 2 -eq, as cited in this report, sum damages across countries using relative GDP as weight, which gives less weight to the damages borne by low-income countries. There is great uncertainty about the impact of GHG emissions on future climate and about the impacts of changes in Ender, climate on the world economy. This uncertainty is knights of the holy grail, usually handled in IAMs using Monte Carlo simulation. Personal! The model is knights of the holy, run many times, drawing key parameters from their probability distributions that reflect the uncertainty about the values. The mean marginal damage from those results is usually what is emphasized. This approach does not adequately capture the small probability of Story: Ender, catastrophic climate changes and impacts.

These caveats should be kept in mind when reviewing marginal damage estimates. COMPARING CLIMATE AND NONCLIMATE DAMAGE ESTIMATES. Table 7-3 summarizes the results of the committee’s quantitative analyses of damages related to the production and holy use of energy. The table presents the monetized health damages and other monetized damages not related to climate change that were presented in this report. In addition, for illustrative purposes, the table presents three different estimates of external global damages on a per-unit basis from Essay, effects related to climate change. The different estimates were obtained by selecting three alternative marginal GHG damage values ($10, $30, and $100 per ton CO 2 -eq) and multiplying each of them by GHG emission rates for electricity generation (coal-fired and natural-gas-fired), for a range of transportation fuels and vehicle technologies, and for of the grail the production of heat by easyjet expenses combusting natural gas. It is important to note that the damage estimates at of the holy the higher end of the range of marginal GHG damage values are associated only with emission paths without significant GHG controls. The estimated damages related to climate change on Gatsby by F, a per-unit-of-fuel basis differ across various primary fuels and energy end uses. These estimates are summarized in Table 7-3.

How the monetized value of damages related to climate change compares with the value of damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions depends on the value chosen for the social cost of carbon. If the social cost of knights of the holy grail, carbon were $30 per ton of CO 2 -eq, climate-change-related damages would be approximately 3 cents per kWh at coal-fired power plants and 1.5 cents per kWh at natural gas plants, equaling or exceeding in where did robert stevenson live, value the damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM. For transportation, the value of of the, climate-change damages begins to approach the value of nonclimate damages at $30 per ton of CO 2 -eq. For direct heat, each estimate of climate-related damages substantially exceeds the damage estimate from nonclimate damages. Thus, in herbert symbolic, Table 7-3, damages related to climate change are dominant for electricity generated from natural gas and for heat production at all levels of the social cost of carbon. Climate damages for electricity generation from coal and for transportation can be larger than nonclimate damages if a high value is chosen for the social cost of carbon. Estimates of damages presented in this report do not by themselves provide a guide to policy. Economic theory suggests that the damages associated with pollution emissions should be compared with the costs of reducing emissions: If distributional equity issues are put aside, the theory suggests that damages should not be reduced to knights grail, zero, but only to the point where the marginal cost of reducing another ton of emissions or other type of burden equals the marginal damages avoided. Whether emissions should be reduced from the viewpoint of economic efficiency depends on the current level of emissions and the cost of reducing them; it cannot be.

TABLE 7-3 Monetized Damages Per Unit of Energy-Related Activity a. Energy-Related Activity (Fuel Type) Electricity generation (coal) Electricity generation (natural gas) 1.2 to 1.7 cents/VMT. 0.15 to .65 cent/VMT. 0.45 to 2 cents/VMT. 1.5 to 6 cents/VMT. Heat production (natural gas) a Based on where did robert louis live, emission estimates for 2005. Damages are expressed in 2007 U.S. Of The Holy! dollars.

Damages that have not been quantified and monetized are not included. b Transportation fuels include E85 herbaceous, E85 corn stover, hydrogen gaseous, E85 corn, diesel with biodiesel, grid-independent HEV, grid-dependent HEV, electric vehicle, CNG, conventional gasoline and RFG, E10, low-sulfur diesel, tar sands. (See Table 7-1 for Ender Dragon Essay relative categories of nonclimate damages and knights of the grail Table 7-2 for relative categories of GHG emissions.) c Often called the “social cost of carbon.” ABBREVIATIONS: CO 2 -eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; MCF, thousand cubic feet; E85, ethanol 85% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline. determined from the size of herbert symbolic interactionism, damages alone. We emphasize, however, that economic efficiency is only one of several potentially valid policy goals that need to be considered in managing pollutant emissions and other damages. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS. Our analysis of the damages associated with energy for electricity focused on air-pollution damagesboth local and globalassociated with electricity generation. These estimates can be used to inform the choice of knights holy, type of fuel used to generate electricity and to guide policies regarding the regulation of air emissions from electricity generation. Regarding Comparisons Among Fuels for interactionism Electricity Generation. In 2005 damages per kWh from SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions were an order of magnitude higher for coal than for knights of the grail natural gas plants: on average, approximately 3.2 cents per kWh for coal and 0.16 cents per kWh for natural gas (2007 USD).

SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions per personal, kWh were virtually nil for electricity generation from nuclear, wind, and solar plants and not calculated for plants using biomass for fuel. Average figures mask large variations among plants in knights of the, air-pollution damages per kWh, which primarily reflect differences in pollution control equipment. For coal plants, the 5th percentile of the distribution of damages was only 0.5 cents per kWh (2007 USD). Newer plants emit significantly less SO 2 and NO x per kWh than older plants. Regarding the Regulation of Air-Pollutant Emissions from Electricity Generation.

Estimates of aggregate air-pollution damages (damages per kWh times kWh generated) can help to introduction, identify situations where additional pollution controls might pass the benefit-cost test. We note that the damages from SO 2 , NO x , and grail PM at symbolic all coal plants, conservatively calculated, were approximately $62 billion in holy, 2005 (2007 USD). (This figure represents the kitchen damages from emissions in 2005 relative to zero emissions.) When considering regulations, these damages provide important information to holy grail, be compared with the costs of expenses, controlling emissions related to holy, criteria air pollutantsin particular, comparing the marginal damages per kWh or ton of pollutant with the gourmet marginal costs of reducing the emissions. The distribution of damages associated with emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and of the holy PM is highly skewed for both coal-fired power plants and. natural-gas-fired plants. Stevenson Live! The 10% of coal plants with the lowest damages produced 43% of air-pollution damages from all coal plants, while the 50% of the coal plants with the lowest damages produced less than 12% of the aggregate damages. Knights Of The! (Each group of plants produced the same amount of electricityabout 25% of net generation from coal.) The 10% of natural gas plants with the highest damages per plant in our study produced 24% of the electricity but 65% of the damages. For policy purposes, it is useful to know the personal damages associated with emitting an additional ton of a pollutant because the most economically efficient pollution-control policies are those that target emissions directly. These damages vary significantly depending on knights of the holy, the pollutant (NO x vs. Personal Essay! PM) and on where it is emitted. The damage associated with a ton of SO 2 varies from $1,800 to $10,700 (5th and 95th percentile) at coal plants and from $1,800 to $44,000 at natural gas plants (2007 USD).

The differences reflect the fact that most coal-fired power plants are located farther away from population centers than natural gas plants are located from population centers. The highest damages per ton are associated with directly emitted PM. These damages vary from $2,600 to $160,000 (5th and 95th percentile) at natural gas plants and from $2,600 to $26,000 at coal-fired power plants (2007 USD). Perhaps the most important conclusion to be taken from the transportation analyses is that, when viewed from a full life-cycle perspective, the results are remarkably similar across fuel and technology combinations. One key factor contributing to the similarity is the relatively high contribution to health and other non-GHG damages from emissions in life-cycle phases other than the operation of the vehicle. (These phases are the development of the feedstock, the processing of the knights of the holy fuel, and the manufacturing of the vehicle.) There are some differences, however, and some conclusions can be drawn from them: The gasoline-driven technologies had somewhat higher damages related to air pollution (excluding climate change) and The Great Gatsby by F Essay GHG emissions in 2005 than a number of other fuel and technology combinations. Knights! The grid-dependent electric vehicle options had somewhat higher damages than many other technologies, even in our 2030 analysis, in large measure because of continued conventional emissions and Short Essay GHG emissions from the existing grid and the likely future grid. The choice of feedstock for biofuels can significantly affect the relative level of life-cycle damages, and knights of the holy herbaceous and corn stover feedstock have some advantage in by F Essay, our analysis.

Additional regulatory actions can significantly affect levels of damages and GHG emissions: This is illustrated in knights of the holy, the health and nonclimate damage analysis by herbert blumer symbolic interactionism the substantial reduction in diesel damages from 2005 to 2030. Major regulatory initiatives to reduce electricity-generation emissions or legislation to regulate carbon emissions would be expected to significantly reduce the relative damages and emissions from the grid-dependent electric-vehicle options. Similarly, a significant shift to lower-emitting grid technologies, such as natural gas, renewable sources, and nuclear, would also reduce these damages. In 2030, with the implementation of enhanced 35.5 mpg requirements now being put in place for light-duty vehicles under CAFE and EPA GHG emission rules, the differences among technologies tend to converge somewhat, although the fact that operation of the vehicle is generally less than a third of of the grail, overall life-cycle emissions and Short Dragon Essay damages tends to dampen the magnitude of that improvement. Further enhancements in fuel efficiency, such as the likely push for an extension beyond 2016 to further improvements, would further improve the GHG emission estimates for all liquid-fuel-driven technologies. Overall, there are somewhat modest differences among different types of vehicle technologies and knights fuels, even under the likely 2030 scenarios, although some technologies (for example, grid-dependent electric vehicles) had higher life-cycle emissions.

It appears, therefore, that some breakthrough technologies, such as cost-efficient conversion of advanced biofuels, cost-efficient carbon capture and storage, and easyjet expenses a shift to a mix of lower-emitting sources of electricity (such as natural gas, renewable sources, and nuclear) will be needed to dramatically reduce transportation-related externalities. The damages associated with criteria-pollutant-related emissions from the use of energy (primarily natural gas) for heating in the residential, commercial buildings, and industrial sectors are low relative to damages from energy use in the electricity-generation and the transportation sectors. This result is largely because natural gas has low rates of those emissions compared with emissions typically resulting from the electricity-generation and transportation sectors. The climate-change-related damages from the use of energy (primarily natural gas) for heating in the buildings and industrial sectors are low relative to climate-change-related damages associated with transpor- tation and electricity production because natural gas carbon intensity is lower than that of coal and gasoline. Regarding energy use for knights heating, the climate-related damages are in general significantly higher than the nonclimate damages. The largest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in greater attention to improving the efficiency.

The report America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation suggests that the potential for improving efficiency in the buildings and industrial sectors is Essay, 25% or morewith the likelihood that emissions damages in these sectors could be held constant in spite of sectoral growth between now and 2030 (NAS/NAE/NRC 2009a). Given the knights of the holy grail complexity of evaluating the externalities of energy-induced climate change, the committee focused its efforts on a review of existing IAMs and the associated climate-change literature. The committee came to the following conclusions, as discussed in Chapter 5: The two features of IAMs that drive estimates of the marginal damage associated with emitting an additional ton of carbon (the marginal social cost of carbon) are the choice of discount rate and the relationship between mean temperature change and the percentage change in world GDP (that is, the aggregate damage function). Holding the discount rate constant, the damage function used in current IAMs can alter estimates of marginal damages by Dragon Essay an order of magnitude.

Holding the damage function constant, changing the discount rate from 4.5% to 1.5% in an IAM will cause the marginal social cost of carbon to change by an order of magnitude. In all IAMs, marginal damage estimates for of the 2030 GHG emissions are 50-80% larger than estimates of damages from emissions occurring within the herbert blumer symbolic past few years. There is great uncertainty about the impact of knights of the holy grail, GHG emissions on gourmet coffee bar and kitchen, future climate and about the impacts of knights of the grail, changes in climate on the world economy. Mean values of marginal damage estimates are usually reported from integrated planning model simulations. This approach does not adequately capture the blumer interactionism small probability of catastrophic climate changes. In Chapter 6, the committee considered damages related to disruptions in the electricity-transmission grid, the vulnerability of knights of the holy, energy facilities to. accidents and possible attack, the Short Ender Dragon external costs of oil consumption, supply security considerations, and national security externalities. The committee strove to clarify approaches for considering security externalities and disentangle externalities from other motivations for energy policy. The committee concludes as follows:

The nation’s electricity-transmission grid is vulnerable to of the grail, outages and to power quality degradation events because of transmission congestion and the lack of adequate reserve capacity. Electricity consumption generates an externality, as individual consumers do not take into account the impact their consumption has on aggregate load. Gatsby By F Fitzgerald! Damages from this could be significant, and it underscores the knights of the holy importance of careful analysis concerning the costs and benefits of investing in easyjet expenses, a modernized grid that takes advantage of new smart technology and that is better able to handle intermittent renewable power sources. Externalities from accidents at facilities are largely internalized andin the knights holy grail case of the personal U.S. Knights! oil and gas transmission networkof negligible magnitude per barrel of oil or thousand cubic feet of gas trans-shipped. The monopsony component of the oil consumption premium is not an externality. Government policy may be desirable as a countervailing force to monopoly or cartel producer power; however, this is a separate issue from the focus of this report. We find that macroeconomic disruptions from oil supply shocks are not an blumer symbolic externality.

We also find that sharp and unexpected increases in knights of the grail, oil prices adversely affect the gourmet coffee U.S. Holy! economy. Estimates in the literature of the macroeconomic costs of disruption and adjustment ranged from $2 to $8 per barrel in symbolic, 2007 dollars. Dependence on imported oil has implications for foreign policy, and we find that some of the effects should be viewed as externalities. We find, however, that it is impossible to quantify these externalities. The role of the military in holy, safeguarding foreign supplies of oil is often identified as a potential externality. We find it difficult if not impossible to disentangle nonenergy-related reasons for essay introduction a military presence in certain regions of the world from energy-related reasons. Moreover, much of the military cost is likely to be fixed in nature. A 20% reduction in knights holy, oil consumption, for example, would probably have little impact on the strategic positioning of military forces in the world. Nuclear waste and easyjet security raises important issues and poses difficult policy challenges. Holy Grail! The extent to which externalities exist is difficult to measure.

Moreover, it is very difficult to quantify them. Thus, we do not report values in this report but recognize the importance of studying this issue further. The committee’s results include two major caveats: A significant number of potential damages cannot be quantified at this time, and substantial uncertainties are associated with the damages that have been quantified. The Great Fitzgerald! Developers of the committee’s statement of task anticipated such circumstances, stating that when it is not feasible to assess specific externalities comprehensively, the committee should recommend assessment approaches and identify key information needs to inform future assessments. In response, the committee has developed a number of research recommendations specific to key topics in this reportelectricity, transportation, heat generation, and climate changeas well as one overarching recommendation. The overarching recommendation is as follows: Federal agencies should provide sufficient resources to support new research on the external costs and benefits of energy.

In assembling its repository of literature, models, and data needed to carry out an assessment of externalities, the committee became aware that there is limited research funding available to address the topic of externality assessment. In particular, extramural funding from knights of the holy grail, federal agencies provides little support or incentive to pursue this line of research. For example, the APEEP model used in our analysis was funded by a foundation. The GREET model, which we used to estimate transportation-related emissions, is federally supported, but does not explicitly address damages, so it must be coupled with a damage assessment model. EPA has had strong interest and personal essay ongoing programs in knights grail, damage and benefit assessment of air pollution but offers limited resources for gourmet coffee research to improve and evaluate its approaches or to develop and assess approaches for other environmental concerns. Because of the growing importance of knights holy grail, impact assessment and impact valuation for herbert blumer symbolic interactionism policy decision making at all levels of government and to avoid a situation in which key uncertainties are addressed only as an adjunct to other research programs, the committee encourages federal agencies, such as the Department of Energy, the of the Department of Transportation, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and EPA, to support new research specific to externalities with financial resources that are sufficient to address the easyjet expenses recommendations for the key topics below in a timely manner. Although life-cycle activities pre- and post-generation generally appear to be responsible for a smaller portion of the life-cycle externalities than electricity generation itself, it is desirable to have a systematic estima- tion and compilation of the externalities from these other activities that are comparable in completeness to of the holy grail, the externality estimates for the generation part of the life cycle. In this compilation, it will be particularly important to take into account activities (for example, the storage and disposal of coal combustion by-products and symbolic the in situ leaching techniques for uranium mining) that may have locally or regionally significant impacts. The use of “reduced-form” modeling of pollutant dispersion and transformation is a key aspect in estimating externalities from airborne emissions on a source-by-source basis; these models should continue to be improved and evaluated. The health effects associated with toxic air pollutants, including specific components of PM, from electricity generation should be quantified and monetized.

Given the importance of the “value of a statistical life” in determining the knights of the holy grail size of air-pollution damages, further exploration is The Great Scott Fitzgerald, needed to determine how willingness to pay varies with mortality-risk changes and with population characteristics, such as age and knights of the holy health status. Because current data on electricity-generation facilities are available mainly as national averages, improved data and methods are needed to Gatsby Essay, characterize the mix of knights, electricity-generation technologies (and their associated range of emissions per kWh) at easyjet city, state, and regional levels. The current disaggregation of national-level information to regional or state levels that are available from the Department of Energy and EPA are often not sufficiently detailed for impact or damage assessments within specific areas of the United States. Continued improvement is necessary in the development of methods to quantify and monetize ecological impacts of all stages of the life cycle of electricity generation, especially of knights of the holy, fuel extraction, emission of pollutants, and land-use changes. Similar needs exist for other types of where did robert, energy production and use. For fossil fuel options, more research is needed to quantify and monetize the knights holy ecological and socioeconomic impacts of fuel extraction, for example, of mountaintop mining and valley fill. For nuclear power, significant challenges in estimating potential damages include estimating and valuing risks when the probabilities of accidents and of radionuclide migration (for example, at a high-level waste repository) are very low but the consequences potentially extreme. Where Live! It is important to assess how such risks would change based on advances in the technology and regulations and to knights of the grail, determine whether the costs to utilities of meeting their regulatory requirements fully reflect these potential damages. The analysis of risks associated with nuclear power in the ORNL/RFF (1992-1998) reports should be updated to reflect advances in technology and science. For wind technologies, the major issues lie in quantifying bird and bat deaths; in quantifying or otherwise systematically assessing disturbances to local landscapes, ecosystems, and human populations; and in valuing them in gourmet coffee, terms comparable to of the, economic damages.

For solar technologies, one of the greatest needs is an analysis of the upstream activities that quantifies the The Great by F Scott Fitzgerald possible releases of toxic materials and their damages; other needs are a better understanding of the externalities that would accompany disposal or recycling of worn-out panels and knights dedicating tracts of land to solar power equipment. For the transmission lines needed in a transition to a national grid system, better estimates are needed of both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of The Great Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald Essay, negative and positive externalities that would accompany this transition. It is imperative to better understand potential negative externalities at the earliest possible stage in the research and development process for new fuels and technologies to avoid those externalities as the knights fuels and technologies are being developed. Improved understanding is needed of the currently unquantifiable effects and potential damages related to transportation, especially as they relate to biofuels (for example, effects on coffee bar and kitchen, water resources and of the grail ecosystems) and battery technology (for example, effects throughout the personal battery life cycle of extraction through disposal). More accurate emissions factors are needed for each stage of the knights holy grail fuel and vehicle life cycle. Did Robert Louis Stevenson! In particular, measurements should be made to confirm or refute the assumption that all vehicles will only meet but not exceed emissions standards.

In actual practice, there can be significant differences between on-road performance and emissions requirements, and some alternative-fuel vehicles may do better or worse than expected. Because a significant fraction of life-cycle health impacts comes from vehicle manufacture and of the fuel production, it is important to improve and expand the information and databases used to construct emissions factors for those life stages. In particular, there is a need to understand whether and how energy-efficiency improvements in these industrial components might change the overall estimates of life-cycle health damages. The issue of interactionism, indirect land-use change is central to current debates about the knights of the grail merit of biofuels. Regardless of whether this impact is easyjet expenses, regarded as an externality associated with U.S. Of The Holy! or foreign biofuels production, it is important to obtain more empirical evidence about its magnitude and causes, as well as to improve the current suite of land-use change models. As better data become available, future studies should take a range. of transportation modes into accountnot only those that are alternatives to automobiles and Short Dragon light trucks (for example, public transit), but also air, rail, and marine, which are alternatives for long-distance travel and freight. Assessment of energy use and its impacts in the industrial sector in particular (but in all sectors to some extent) could be improved by knights of the holy grail development of more extensive databases that contain details about specific forms of energy use and associated waste streams. Such databases should be designed so that life-cycle analysis of alternatives can be made without inadvertent double counting.

A more quantitative assessment of industrial sector externalities, done collaboratively between the government and industry, would be valuable in informing priorities for future initiatives to reduce the externalities associated with industrial operations. Such an assessment was not possible in this study largely because of data limitations. More research on climate damages is needed to estimate the impacts of climate change, especially impacts that can be expressed in economic terms, as current valuation literature relies heavily on climate-change impact data from the year 2000 and earlier. Marginal damages of GHG emissions may be highly sensitive to the possibility of catastrophic events. More research is coffee kitchen, needed on their impacts, the magnitude of the of the damages in economic terms, and the probabilities associated with various types of catastrophic events and impacts. Estimates of the Short Story: Essay marginal damage of a ton of CO 2 -eq include aggregate damages across countries according to GDP, thereby giving less weight to grail, the damages borne by low-income countries.

This aggregate estimate should be supplemented by distributional measures that describe how the burden of Story: Ender Essay, climate change varies among countries. In aggregate, the damage estimates presented in holy grail, this report for various external effects are substantial. Just the damages from external effects that the committee was able to herbert blumer symbolic interactionism, quantify add up to knights of the grail, more than $120 billion for. the year 2005. 7 Although large uncertainties are associated with the committee’s estimates, there is little doubt that the aggregate total substantially underestimates the damages because it does not include many other kinds of The Great Gatsby by F Essay, damages, such as those related to some pollutants, climate change, ecosystems, infrastructure, and security, that could not be quantified for reasons explained in the report.

In many cases, we have identified the omissions in grail, this report, with the hope that they will be evaluated in future studies. Even if complete, our damage estimates would not automatically offer a guide to policy. Live! From the perspective of economic efficiency, theory suggests that damages should not be reduced to zero but only to knights holy grail, the point where the Story: Dragon Essay cost of reducing another ton of emissions (or other type of burden) equals the marginal damages avoidedthat is, the degree to which a burden should be reduced depends on knights of the holy, its current level and gourmet coffee bar and the cost of lowering it. The solution cannot be determined from the amount of damage alone. Economic efficiency, however, is only one of several potentially valid policy goals that need to be considered in managing pollutant emissions and other burdens.

For example, even within the same location, there is compelling evidence that some members of the population are more vulnerable than others to a particular external effect. Although our analysis is not a comprehensive guide to policy, it does indicate that regulatory actions can significantly affect energy-related damages. For example, the full implementation of the of the grail federal diesel-emissions rules would result in a sizeable decrease in nonclimate damages from diesel vehicles between 2005 and 2030. Similarly, major initiatives to further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to easyjet expenses, a cleaner electricity-generating mix (for example, renewable sources, natural gas, and nuclear) could substantially reduce the damages of external effects, including those from grid-dependent hybrid and knights of the grail electric vehicles. It is thus our hope that this information will be useful to government policy makers, even in personal, the earliest stages of research and development on of the holy, energy technologies, as an understanding of their external effects and damages could help to where did robert louis stevenson live, minimize the technologies’ adverse consequences. These are damages related principally to emissions of NO x , SO 2 , and PM relative to a baseline of zero emissions from knights holy grail, energy-related sources for personal the effects considered in this study. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Despite the knights of the grail many benefits of energy, most of which are reflected in energy market prices, the production, distribution, and use of energy causes negative effects.

Many of Short Ender Dragon, these negative effects are not reflected in energy market prices. Knights Holy! When market failures like this occur, there may be a case for government interventions in the form of regulations, taxes, fees, tradable permits, or other instruments that will motivate recognition of these external or hidden costs. The Hidden Costs of herbert symbolic interactionism, Energy defines and evaluates key external costs and benefits that are associated with the production, distribution, and use of energy, but are not reflected in market prices. The damage estimates presented are substantial and reflect damages from air pollution associated with electricity generation, motor vehicle transportation, and heat generation. The book also considers other effects not quantified in dollar amounts, such as damages from of the grail, climate change, effects of stevenson live, some air pollutants such as mercury, and risks to national security. While not a comprehensive guide to policy, this analysis indicates that major initiatives to further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity generating mix could substantially reduce the damages of external effects. A first step in minimizing the adverse consequences of new energy technologies is to better understand these external effects and damages. The Hidden Costs of Energy will therefore be a vital informational tool for government policy makers, scientists, and economists in even the earliest stages of research and development on holy, energy technologies. Front Matter ixxxii Summary 121 1 Introduction 2263 2 Energy for Electricity 64153 3 Energy for introduction Transportation 154221 4 Energy for Heat 222247 5 Climate Change 248308 6 Infrastructure and Security 309336 7 Overall Conclusions and Recommendations 337371 References 372399 Abbreviations 400404 Common Units and Conversions 405408 Appendixes 409410 Appendix A: Biographic Information on the Committee on Health, Environmental, and Other External Costs and grail Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption 411419 Appendix B: A Simple Diagrammatic Example of an Externality 420422 Appendix C: Description of the Air Pollution Emission Experiments and Policy (APEEP) Model and blumer interactionism Its Application 423431 Appendix D: Description of GREET and Mobile6 Models and grail Their Applications 432469 Appendix E: Supplemental Information on herbert blumer interactionism, Land-Use Externalities from Biofuels: A Case Study of the Boone River Watershed 470474.

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4 Steps to knights holy, Writing a Job-Winning Resume. Writing your resume, or even updating your resume, can be a scary, daunting task. But with the right approach and know-how, you can create your own standout document in did robert live, no time. And the good news is were here to help. Weve broken down the resume-writing process into 4 simple steps to of the holy, make it easier for you to get started! Our Resume Writing Guide gives you an overview of each section of your resume, followed by some quick tips and actual resume examples that you can use as model for your own resume. Every great resume begins with a strong summary statement.

This is a short description of who you are professionally that includes a brief list of your top skills. Your summary statement is the Gatsby Fitzgerald Essay, first thing that recruiters will see. So think of it as your big chance to knights holy, catch someones attention. Personal! You also want to show hiring leaders that youre a great fit for the job. You can do this by using the skills and keywords that are in the job description in your summary statement just make sure you only use those that reflect your experience (no exaggerating or lying on of the holy grail, your resume!). Herbert Blumer Symbolic! Your statement can be written in either sentence form or bullet-point form and should be short, but effective no more than 3 sentences or bullet points; it should also contain the following information: Your professional title Top 2-3 skills Specific expertise, professional traits, accomplishments. Need help writing your own professional summary statement? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of expertly written summary statements and holy grail career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to personal introduction, your resume. Knights Holy! Registered nurse with 9 years of experience in where did robert louis live, medical centers and operating rooms ICU and ER experience in 40+ bed units Strong organizational and interpersonal skills.

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Highly results-oriented and energetic, with unsurpassed customer relations skills. The skills section often called the #8220;Qualifications#8221; or #8220;Areas of Expertise#8221; section of your resume is grail a list of your top skills. Gatsby By F Essay! This section of knights holy, your resume is your chance to Short, showcase your abilities to holy, employers in a quick and easy-to-read way. Although this section is typically short and concise (think two columns of 3 to gourmet coffee kitchen, 4 bullet points), it contains very important information about your ability to perform a particular type of job. Hiring managers should be able to scan your resume and find this list of skills easily. Here are a few helpful tips for writing a skills section that will get you noticed. Target your skills to the job : This is one of the best ways to customize your resume for the job you are applying to.

Read the job description and grail list all of the required and desired skills for Short Story:, the position. Of The Grail! Then, see if you have any skills that match up with those on your list; these are the Short Ender, abilities you should include in knights holy, your skills section. This way, when hiring managers skim your resume, they will see that you have the skills theyre looking for in a candidate. Include transferable skills : Transferable skills are skills that cross from one career field to another. These skills can be applied to a variety of positions. Some examples include communication skills, presentation or public speaking skills, any foreign language skills you have, social media skills, organizational and planning skills, and The Great Gatsby Scott management and leaderships skills.

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While all parts of knights holy, your resume are equally important, your work history section is where you will be discussing your direct experience and your accomplishments, and its critical to get this one right.Lets start with the herbert blumer symbolic interactionism, basics. Your work history section should include the following: Positions and/or titles you held Names of knights grail, organizations where you were employed City and state of each organization Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date Month/Date Brief descriptions of your experience in bullet format. This section will be a combination of your job responsibilities and duties along with your work achievements. Hiring managers will be looking for your achievements and successes, not just your responsibilities, so its important to include both. When listing your responsibilities and duties, be sure to use action verbs to increase the strength of gourmet bar and, your writing and make potential employers take notice. Of The Holy! Some action verbs to use include: Communicated Negotiated Joined Reported Customized Initiated Planned Budgeted Developed Prepared Contributed Ensured Provided Led.

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In the absence of a college degree, its extremely important to list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Then, make sure to emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to show employers that you are qualified for the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and essay introduction effectively outline your classroom achievements. Knights! More Articles about personal, How to Write Your First Resume. 3 Critical Mistakes to Avoid on Your First Ever Resume. Tips On Creating A Resume For A New Career. How to Write a Resume When You Have No Work Experience. Get Hired In 30 Seconds: Resume Summary Tips. Of The! Get Your Resume In Front of the Right People: Four Tips. Create a Resume That Stops Traffic.

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DR SUZANNE CHAZAN-GILLIG, anthropologue : A Maurice, les castes sont toujours un sujet tabou. Notre invitée de ce dimanche est le Dr Suzanne Chazan-Gillig, docteur en anthropologie à Paris V et ayant travaillé dans l’océan Indien. Knights Holy Grail! Après des travaux sur la société malgache, elle a passé six ans à Maurice pour des recherches sur le thème Migrations, échanges et industrialisation dans la mondialisation des marchés . Where Did Robert Louis Stevenson Live! Dans le cadre de son séjour à Maurice, elle a également coécrit avec le Dr Pavitranand Ramhota un livre sur L’hindouisme mauricien dans la mondialisation . Knights! Un livre paru en 2009 dont le MGI était un co-commanditaire, mais qui n’a jamais été distribué à Maurice. Gourmet Bar And Kitchen! Dans l’interview qu’elle nous a accordée, le Dr Chazan-Gillig nous résume le contenu du livre et les raisons qui, selon elle, expliquent le fait qu’il n’a pas été distribué à Maurice. J’étais une fonctionnaire de l’Etat français mise à la disposition de l’Etat mauricien et affectée au Mahatma Gandhi Institute sur la base d’une convention de recherche passée entre l’Institut de Recherche pour le Développement de Montpelier et le Mauritius Research Council. Knights Grail! Je devais faire la recherche par la recherche, pas de cours théorique, mais un travail sur le terrain. Personal Essay Introduction! C’est dans le cadre de mon affectation qu’avec une équipe nous avons fait des travaux de recherche pour le livre. Quelles sont les raisons de votre actuel séjour à Maurice ? Bien que j’aie 76 ans et que je ne suis pas en bonne santé, je suis revenue à l’île Maurice parce que j’ai une blessure professionnelle. Knights Grail! J’ai travaillé pendant six ans chez vous au MGI avec des chercheurs compétents. Louis Live! Nous avons, avec Pavitranand Ramhota, écrit un livre qui est reconnu par la profession et qui a même obtenu un prix.

Le livre a été écrit de 2006 et publié en 2009 et les 200 exemplaires destinés à Maurice et envoyés au MGI par l’éditeur n’ont jamais été rendus publics à Maurice. Of The Holy Grail! Ce livre qui concerne Maurice est distribué partout, mais pas à Maurice. Nous avons écrit ce livre en recueillant des témoignages de toutes les castes de la société hindoue en partant du bas vers le haut. Blumer Symbolic Interactionism! Ce livre qui parle des castes et de la réinvention de l’hindouisme à l’île Maurice, n’a aucune position particulière sur les castes. Knights Of The Holy Grail! Mais il révèle qu’il y a, à l’intérieur des castes, beaucoup plus de subdivisions qu’on ne le croie et utilise les termes employés par nos témoins. Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald Essay! Ce qui nous est reproché, c’est d’avoir tout simplement parlé des castes, un sujet éminemment tabou ici. Holy! Je suis avec ce livre la Burton Benedict des années 2000. C’était un célèbre anthropologue américain qui a étudié à Harvard et enseigné à Berkeley. Coffee Kitchen! Il a, entre autres, fait des recherches sur Maurice et les Seychelles dans les années 1960. Of The Holy Grail! Le livre qu’il a consacré à Maurice : Indians in personal essay introduction a Plural Society. Of The Holy! A report on symbolic Mauritius et publié en 1962 n’a pas été distribué ici.

Plus de cinquante ans après, le livre que j’ai coécrit avec Pavitranand Ramhota, qui parle de l’hindouisme et des castes, subit le même sort. Est-ce à dire que la société indo-mauricienne qui vit dans le respect, la perpétuation des traditions n’aimerait pas ou aurait peur que l’on étudie son fonctionnement au point de refuser de lire les ouvrages écrits sur ce sujet ? Je pense que si M. Knights Of The! Uttam Bissoondoyal était encore là, à la direction du MGI, les choses se seraient passées autrement pour ce livre, qu’il a soutenu. Personal Essay! Je crois que le livre n’a pas été distribué, pour ne pas dire censuré, par des administratifs du MGI, en 2009, qui n’avaient pas la qualité intellectuelle nécessaire pour juger de la valeur de ce travail anthropologique. Holy! Est-ce qu’il y aurait derrière cette mise à l’écart des groupes de pression socioculturels ? Je ne le sais pas, mais toujours est-il que les deux cents exemplaires envoyés par l’éditeur Karthala n’ont jamais été diffusés. Essay Introduction! A tel point que les étudiants qui veulent le lire dans le cadre de leurs études doivent le commander directement à l’éditeur ( Knights Of The Holy Grail! Et je vous rappelle que le MGI a investi une somme dans la publication de ce livre. Easyjet! Il faut savoir que ce livre fait partie d’un accord de coopération entre l’IRB et le MGI. Knights Of The! Au fil de nos recherches, nous avons été amenés à étudier, par rapport aux données recueillies sur le terrain, l’évolution et le fonctionnement des kalimaye qui ont une très grande importance dans la configuration sociopolitique dans les districts du pays. Herbert Blumer Interactionism! Pour mieux comprendre cette évolution et son importance, nous avons fait un dossier de l’histoire des élections depuis 1967 jusqu’à l’an 2000 et de l’appartenance castéistes des candidats des grands partis politiques. Autrement dit, vous avez établi une carte du castéisme politique dans ces élections ? En quelque sorte.

Le Bureau des Statistiques ne fait pas de statistiques sur les communautés. Knights Of The Grail! Nous l’avons fait d’autant plus que c’est la réalité de l’organisation sociale de la société hindoue. Dragon Essay! Nous nous sommes rendu compte que la symbolique des kalimaye s’articulait avec celle, politique, des districts et la stratégie électorale des grands partis nationaux. Nous savons tous à Maurice que la désignation des candidats aux élections repose sur le castéisme, comme la future lection partielle de Quatre-Bornes le démontre. Knights Of The Holy! Comment est-ce que le docteur en anthropologie que vous êtes explique-t-telle que dans un pays où l’organisation électorale est basée sur le communalisme, on easyjet expenses interdise un livre sur ce sujet et qu’on refuse d’en parler ouvertement ? Ma théorie, qui n’engage que moi, est la suivante : j’ai étudié le passage de la colonie française à l’anglaise à Maurice. Of The Grail! Le système français de l’Ancien monde était patrimonial, centraliste, hiérarchique et esclavagiste. Gatsby By F Fitzgerald Essay! Au moment de la colonisation anglaise de Maurice, l’élite a signé le serment d’allégeance à la reine d’Angleterre et on knights holy grail les a appelés creoles of where louis live Mauritius , au sens original du terme, mais dans les documents ils étaient qualifiés d’ Europeans . Grail! Plus tard apparaît le terme general population qui ne veut pas dire grand-chose, alors qu’émerge, en même temps, la catégorie indo-maurician . C’était pour faire la différence avec les indentured labourers qui ont continué à arriver jusqu’à la fin de l’émigration indienne, en 1910. The Great Gatsby By F Scott Fitzgerald! Cette appellation désignait les enfants des laboureurs indiens qui étaient nés dans l’île, par rapport à leurs parents nés en Inde. Knights! Certains étaient venus travailler plusieurs fois et on where stevenson live les désignait comme des old migrants . Of The Holy! Or ces old migrants se sont qualifiés comme appartenant à la haute caste des baboojee maraz . Revenons en arrière.

Au début de la colonisation anglaise, l’élite locale blanche et de couleur il y en avait parmi ses membres était désignée sous l’appellation creoles of Short Dragon Mauritius , mais Europeans sur les documents. Knights Of The Holy Grail! Puis il y a les indentured labourers dont les enfants, nés à Maurice, sont qualifiés d’ indo mauritian . Easyjet! Comment qualifiait-on les autres natifs de l’île, ceux qui n’étaient ni blancs ni d’origine indienne ? Les créoles pauvres, non répertoriés dans une catégorie par les Anglais. Knights Of The! Ceux dont on herbert a dit par la suite qu’ils étaient les anciens esclaves émancipés par les lois d’abolition. Knights! Avec l’arrivée des Anglais et au moment de l’abolition, l’élite blanche avait perdu de sa puissance et de son éclat. Gourmet Coffee Bar And Kitchen! Mais comme elle maîtrisait totalement la culture de la canne et sa transformation en sucre, elle a reconstitué ses lettres de noblesse économique, tout en étant dominée par les Anglais. Of The! C’est à ce moment qu’elle s’est fait appeler communauté franco-mauricienne . Did Robert! Par ailleurs, les Indo-Mauriciens, soutenus par les lois britanniques, se sont développés et ont pris une importance grandissante dans le pays. Holy! Le terme créole a alors désigné ceux qui n’étaient pas libres de couleur le terme exact est mulâtre, mais on herbert blumer ne l’utilise jamais à Maurice et les descendants d’esclaves. Knights! Pour l’élite, puisque ces hommes qui étaient des esclaves n’ont pas été affranchis par eux, mais par la loi anglaise, elle les considérait toujours comme des esclaves et les traitait comme tels. Coffee Bar And Kitchen! Vous me demandiez pourquoi la communauté hindoue perpétue des traditions anciennes, tout simplement parce qu’on arrive difficilement à changer les mentalités à Maurice.

Les mentalités c’est, comme le terme l’indique, une structure mentale qui a besoin de beaucoup, beaucoup, beaucoup de bouleversements pour être éradiquée. Knights Of The Holy Grail! C’est pour cette raison qu’il y a encore aujourd’hui des pratiques encore raciales et castéistes qui empêchent Maurice d’avoir une intégration nationale. Je crois que ce ne sont pas seulement des hindous conservateurs qui n’aiment pas qu’on fouille dans leur Histoire qui ne doivent pas souhaiter la diffusion de votre livre Maurice ! Expliquez-moi pourquoi les hindous ont reconstruit à Maurice le systme castéiste, qui est défavorable à la majorité d’entre eux, puisqu’à Maurice les hautes castes sont minoritaires ? Pour comprendre la religion hindoue, il faut savoir une chose. Bar And Kitchen! D’abord cette religion n’est pas prosélyte et la deuxième chose elle a une capacité de réinvention extraordinaire. Knights Holy Grail! D’ailleurs, la réinvention sur le lieu de l’émigration montre sa capacité à intégrer les innovations venues de l’extérieur et à les naturaliser. The Great Gatsby By F Scott! C’est une société relativement fermée qui absorbe, digère, mais reste ce qu’elle est, ne change pas de structures.

Regardez l’Inde, cet énorme continent qui n’a pas d’intégration nationale, où chaque composante culturelle et religieuse veille jalousement à rester ce qu’elle est dans son état ou sa province. Knights Grail! Pour revenir à Maurice, il y a eu une réelle réinvention et avec les Blancs chrétiens, qui leur ont donné des bouts de terres, pour ériger leurs autels. Gourmet Coffee Bar And Kitchen! Les coolies ont reconstitué la religion hindoue. Je vous repose la question de départ : pourquoi a-t-on peur de ce qu’il y a dans le livre que vous avez coécrit avec Pavitranand Ramhota pour ne pas le diffuser à Maurice ? Je vous réponds par une question : pourquoi est-ce qu’une basse caste est aussi contente de son statut qu’une haute caste ? Je suis incapable de répondre à cette question. Je vais vous dire : tout simplement parce que dans chaque espace religieux et culturel de la société hindoue, il y a le même mode de fonctionnement, avec des divinités différentes. Knights Grail! C’est-à-dire qu’à l’intérieur de la caste se joue une mobilité sociale assez intéressante qui permet aux familles de ne pas avoir le sentiment de rester toujours en bas de la hiérarchie. Story:! Il y a, à l’intérieur des castes, des dominances. Of The Holy Grail! A l’intérieur, il y a des systèmes de valorisation interne, des jeux de stratégie familiaux qui sont suffisamment importants pour être acceptés. Louis! Je reviens à la question de départ : le livre n’a pas été accepté, à mon sens, pour deux raisons.

C’est tout d’abord une ou des personnes de l’administration du MGI qui n’aiment pas qu’on parle des castes, surtout des basses castes. Knights Of The Grail! Par ailleurs, certaines personnes auraient contesté le livre parce que nous parlons de divinités secondaires et principales. Herbert Symbolic! Mais toutes les informations du livre proviennent d’entretiens sur le terrain avec des personnes qui ont expliqué le fonctionnement des kalimaye, des temples et l’importance des divinités. Of The! Tout a été fait pour analyser le produit verbal, c’est-à-dire l’entretien, dans les meilleures conditions. Louis! Le compagnonnage intellectuel avec Pavitranand Ramhota nous a permis de travailler avec efficacité. Knights Of The Grail! Lui de l’intérieur, puisque Mauricien et hindou, et moi de l’extérieur puisque étrangère avec ce que cela suppose de recul. Gourmet! Ce livre n’existerait pas si Pavitranand Ramhota n’avait pas accepté les règles de la recherche en anthropologie et ne s’était pas totalement investi dans ce projet.

Est-ce que vous vous attendiez à ce que le livre soit rejeté ou interdit à Maurice ? Non. Holy Grail! J’ai fait lire le texte par des collègues, dont des anthropologues avant de le remettre à l’éditeur. Personal! Ils l’ont bien accueilli. Of The Holy Grail! Je pense que même un non-anthropologue qui ne connaît pas l’hindouisme peut comprendre le contenu du livre. Did Robert Stevenson Live! Nous ne nous attendions pas Pavitranand Ramhota et moi à ce que la polémique, pour ne pas dire le rejet du livre, viendrait de la question des castes. Of The Grail! Que ce serait le sujet qui fâche dès le départ.

Je suis quelque part ravie d’avoir le même traitement que Burton Benedict. Did Robert Stevenson Live! Mais j’ai travaillé six ans à Maurice loin de ma famille en France. Knights Of The Holy Grail! J’ai travaillé comme une bête avec les chercheurs sur le terrain nuit et jour. Herbert Blumer! Le jour nous faisons les entretiens le soir j’entrais les données sur l’ordinateur et consultions les ouvrages de référence. Of The Holy Grail! Nous avons fait un immense travail pour avoir, passez-moi le terme, un coup de pied là où vous savez ! C’est un mépris d’un travail scientifique incompréhensible intellectuellement. Expenses! Je suis aussi venue à Maurice pour dire cela. Vous êtes également venue Maurice pour participer au colloque de l’université de Maurice sur les 50 ans de Maurice. Knights Of The Holy Grail! Vous étiez invitée par qui ? Par personne ! J’ai entendu parler de ce colloque, j’ai écrit pour proposer ma candidature et un thème, Ethnicité et créolité , j’ai envoyé un résumé qui a été accepté. Introduction! Je suis venue en payant mon billet et mon hébergement et en apportant une trentaine d’exemplaires du livre, juste au cas où. Holy! Au colloque, ça s’est mal passé : j’avais seulement quatorze minutes pour développer mon thème, c’était totalement insuffisant. Easyjet Expenses! J’ai dû couper mon sujet en deux pour respecter l’horaire.

Quel était l’argument de votre communication au colloque de l’université ? Partager mon sentiment sur le terme créole à Maurice qui a plusieurs origines et interprétations. Knights Of The Holy! Que veut-on dire exactement quand on blumer symbolic utilise le terme créole à Maurice ? Mais faute de temps, je n’ai pas pu développer ma théorie. Vous revenez à Maurice après quatorze ans. Grail! Qu’est-ce qui vous frappe, qu’est-ce qui vous choque dans votre domaine de compétence ? Par rapport à ce que j’ai entendu au colloque, je crois pouvoir dire qu’il y a eu une diminution du niveau universitaire. Herbert! Les Bissoondoyal, les Reddi, les Chan Low ne sont plus là et on of the grail a le sentiment que les universitaires actuels soit non pas eu de bons profs, soit n’ont pas le niveau. J’entends monter de l’université la clameur suivante : Son livre n’a pas été distribué par le MGI et elle est venue se venger en critiquant les universitaires ! Mais je dis tout de suite que ce qui se passe à Maurice au niveau universitaire n’est pas unique. Did Robert Stevenson Live! Je ne suis pas surprise de la baisse de niveau puisque de manière générale, les sciences sociales ont été pratiquement éliminées des universités.

Je tiens à dire que je ne suis pas venue me venger et à mon âge je n’ai aucune illusion sur rien et je n’ai pas une attitude revancharde. Knights Of The Holy Grail! Je suis blessée pour moi et pour toute l’équipe qui a consacré des années de travail à ce livre qui n’a pas eu de présentation publique, de lancement, de séance de dédicace. Short Story: Ender Essay! C’est un livre qui n’a jamais été lancé, niant ainsi le travail de toute une équipe pendant six ans. Knights Grail! C’est ça ma blessure. Herbert Blumer! C’est un travail qui mérite sa place dans les bibliothèques du pays. Je termine en vous provoquant un peu : est-ce que Maurice peut vivre sans le système des castes, qui n’existe pas officiellement tout en étant rigoureusement pratiqué ? Je vois mal, pour le moment, la société hindoue ouvrir les portes à d’autres configurations sociales.

Pour ma part, je souhaite que l’île Maurice continue à vivre et à se construire en ouvrant toutes grandes ses portes.