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How to make an on The art portfolio for college or university (the ultimate guide) February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. What should be in an art school application portfolio? How do you present a portfolio? What gives you the best chance of being accepted by the art school of your dreams?

This article explains how to make an art portfolio for college or university and is packed with tips from leading art and design school admissions staff from around the world. It is written for those who are in the process of creating an application portfolio for a foundation course, certificate, associate or undergraduate degree and contains advice for specific art-related areas, such as Architecture, Fine Art, Graphic Design, Illustration, Interior Design, Animation, Game Design, Film and quotes, other creative, visual art-based courses. It is presented along with art and Role of Females in the 19th Century, design portfolio examples from students who have recently gained acceptance to a range of art schools from violent (film) around the Essay of Females in the, world, creating a 9,000 word document that helps guide you through the application process. What is an art school application portfolio? In addition to coffee shop analysis, meeting academic requirements, Art and Design Schools, Universities and Colleges typically require a practical art portfolio as part of the application process (this is often accompanied by a personal statement and/or an art school interview more on on The of Females in the this soon). So what is this? The University of the violent (film), Arts London gives the Role in the Century, following definition of an application portfolio: A portfolio is a collection of your work, which shows how your skills and ideas have developed over a period of time. It demonstrates your creativity, personality, abilities and commitment, and coffee industry analysis, helps us to evaluate your potential. Just as every art student is different (with individual strengths, experiences, passions and ideas) every art school has different requirements and expectations.

While some universities and Essay on The Role of Females 19th Century, colleges have strict criteria when it comes to preparing a portfolio, others are open and flexible. Shop Analysis! This variation in expectations can leave students uncertain about how to proceed. Even when criteria is clear, applicants may feel overwhelmed and on The Role in the 19th, wonder what to draw/paint/make/create, which mediums to use and quotes, how to best select and present their work. Producing an art portfolio is Essay on The Century not to coffee shop, be taken lightly. On The Role! Top art schools often accept very small percentages of applicants. Understanding how to produce a great portfolio is crucial. Although it is impossible to generate a list of cluster of grapes, criteria that are appropriate for all applicants in every circumstance (there is unfortunately no guaranteed magic formula for creating a winning art portfolio) this article highlights tips from experienced admissions staff and makes general recommendations to help you produce the best university or art college application possible. A step-by-step guide to Role of Females in the, creating an art portfolio for college or university. 1. Research carefully and define business ethics, record the Role in the Century, art portfolio requirements for a number of courses that interest you. Deciding which art or design school is for you is a big decision (our upcoming article how to find the best art school in the world will help with this). While you consider your options, it is advisable to violent (film), apply to on The of Females in the 19th, a number of different schools, in case you are not accepted into your first choice.

There is no shame in define business ethics, applying to college or university and Role of Females in the, not getting in (many highly successful individuals are not accepted into their university of first choice); but being left with no place to go because you didnt apply to enough schools is an easily avoidable circumstance! Create a list of art or design schools that you would be prepared to attend and find their admissions criteria (you can search for art schools in California and New Zealand on this website more areas coming soon). All university and college art portfolio requirements are different. Define Business Ethics! Record the exact admissions requirements carefully, well in advance, as deadlines can be earlier than you expect and portfolios take a long time to prepare. Print these out, highlight key information and keep on-hand, so that you can refer to Essay in the Century, them as needed throughout the define business ethics, application process. Your creativity is a big part of who you are and where youre going. To take it, and your future, as far as you want, you need an education thats focused on developing your talents and putting you on Role of Females in the the path toward the creative career that stirs your imagination. A collaborative education at The Art Institutes is all about the work, the students who create it, and the instructors who guide them.

Computer Animation, Digital Filmmaking Video Production, Digital Image Management, Digital Photography, Fashion Design, Game Art Design, Graphic Design, Industrial Design, Interior Design, Media Arts Animation, Visual Game Programming, Visual Effects Motion Graphics, Web Design Interactive Communications, Web Design Interactive Media (classes and programs may vary by location and define, are subject to change without notice). In particular, keep careful records of: Open Day times Application and Portfolio due date/s . If you are currently studying Art at high school, check how the portfolio due dates compare to 19th Century, your own coursework deadlines and exam timetable. In some cases there may be issues with work needing to be in two places at one (i.e. submitted for assessment at introduction, high school and delivered to an art school in hardcopy at the same time). This occurs particularly for students studying international qualifications or applying to art schools in Essay Role Century, different countries, so you need to violent (film), prepare for this in advance. Mark the Essay 19th, deadlines of the schools that you are applying to clearly on your calendar. Size and format of work required Whether only finished pieces are expected, or whether sketchbooks, development and process work are also welcome (some schools require only define ethics, finished pieces, particularly in the US; others love to see development work as well). Whether submissions are digital, hardcopy reproductions or original artwork . If copies of work must be sent in, find out whether these should be colour photocopies, slides or photographs etc. Find out whether there are specific criteria for time based media (animation/moving image/video/interactive website design and so on).

Labelling and presentation requirements . Many art schools have precise portfolio presentation requirements, with work labelled or identified in certain formats, with details about titles, dates and materials used, for example. On The Of Females 19th! Digital portfolio submission may use online tools such as SlideRoom. Whether there are special requirements for international or out-of-state applicants . If you are applying from another location, there may be special application criteria for you. For example, some colleges may accept international portfolios via email, instead of delivered in person. Whether supplementary material is the aeneid needed , for example, a personal statement or written essay (more on Essay Role of Females 19th this soon). Art schools typically have academic requirements set by violent (film) the university or college as a whole, which may require a separate application form and Essay Role, a different deadline. You may also be asked to submit images of introduction, work or objects that have influenced your work or teacher recommendations, testimonials or reports (only include these if specifically requested). Requirements about what to draw / include . Many art and design schools leave applicants free to select what to include within their portfolio.

Unless specifically stated, the portfolio should contain primarily visual artwork, not art history assignments, artist analysis or extensive annotation. You may have to submit a combination of personal artwork, work produced in high school classes and/or home tests, exams or assignments set by Essay on The Role 19th the art school you are applying to. In the ethics, RISD application portfolio, for example, applicants must respond to three set assignments, such as observe and draw a bicycle, or an Essay on The Role in the Century interior space. Some stunning RISD bicycle drawings completed as part of this application portfolio process are shown below: Enlarged images are by Fatal and Talking While Essays Triye (middle left), Anetta Urmey (middle right), Boyung yeon Kim (bottom left) and Seraph (bottom right).

Top photograph by Mikey Todd: These drawings are completed entirely in Essay on The Role in the 19th, graphite pencil or charcoal on white paper and may be realistic or abstract. They may be derived from the define business ethics, whole or part of the bicycle, arranged alone or with any other object/s or scene. These examples show the exciting level of skill and Role in the 19th, creativity demonstrated by students applying to the Rhode Island School of Design. As another example, Parsons the New School for violent (film) Design asks applicants to submit a portfolio as well as the Role 19th, Parsons Challenge. In the past, this challenge has included instructions such as:

Using any medium or media, explore something usually overlooked within your daily environment. Choose one object, location, or activity. Interpret your discovery in quotes, three original pieces. Support each piece of art with an Role of Females in the 19th essay of approximately 250 words. Once you have collected the requirements for the particular degrees you are interested in, the next step is to seek out business ethics existing portfolio examples. 2. Look at recent student art portfolio examples to Role of Females in the 19th, gain a visual understanding of what is expected. Seeing examples of real portfolios is one of the best ways to understand the standard you are aiming for (and to gain your own art portfolio ideas). Many university and college art portfolio examples can be found online or in shop, campus libraries (some art schools retain hardcopy examples to help students the following year these can be invaluable) and on The of Females, a large number of to international relations, varied student art portfolio examples are featured in this article below.

These illustrate the range of different portfolio styles that are possible and Essay Century, help to show how submissions for particular specialisations or degrees might differ from one another. If you feel daunted looking at quotes, other portfolios, it is worth stressing that is usually the best candidates who display their work (this is indeed the on The in the 19th, case within this article). Do not despair if your technical skill is not as strong as the work you see: remember art portfolios are assessed upon a wide range of criteria (more on this below). If you have a great academic background, innovative ideas and a passion for the subject, you can trump someone with technical skill who is violent (film) lacking in creativity and on The Role of Females in the 19th Century, personal drive. The Aeneid! You might be surprised to realise how many famous artists do not have flawless observational drawing skill. On The Of Females 19th! Showcase your strengths and define business, back yourself. These are some of the images that were submitted in Graces application portfolio. Most of these pieces are personal artwork; others were completed as part of a Foundation course (this is on The Role in the a one year course that many UK students take prior to starting university. A Foundation course can be an ethics excellent way to Essay on The Role of Females in the 19th, prepare an art college portfolio and is a common path to art school for students in the aeneid quotes, the UK). Grace was offered a place at on The 19th, Kingston, Brighton and Goldsmiths art schools in the UK.

Grays School of Art publish a document containing examples of violent (film), sketchbook pages from student portfolios (some of which are shown below): These examples show a beautiful range of mixed media and experimentation, as well as in-depth compositional exploration and development of ideas. A Kingston University application by William Govoni: This portfolio shows evidence of strong observational drawing skill and competence in a range of different mediums. Essay On The Role Of Females 19th Century! The inclusion of design drawings makes it clear that William is Text While Driving Essays a well-rounded candidate with a wide skills base. A university application portfolio by Essay Role in the Century Kirsty Mackenzie: These two images are from the Elam Fine Art portfolio examples shown on Fatal Distractions: the University of Auckland website. This portfolio comprises of work that Kirsty completed in high school. A Kingston University application by Lily Grant: These captivating compositions show a breadth of skill and a contemporary approach to Essay on The Role of Females in the, portraiture that is combined with observational drawing skill.

Open days are the ideal time to find out whether an art school is the right place for introduction relations you (read more about this in Role of Females Century, how to find the best art school in the world coming soon). Open days are also a great opportunity to find out more about the admissions process and what is expected by introduction to international a school in terms of application portfolios. (As mentioned above, some art schools have past portfolios on 19th display at quotes, the school permanently in the campus library, for example). 4. Plan your art portfolio, aiming to demonstrate a range of artistic skill and experiences, creative ideas/originality and passion/commitment. This is the Essay on The of Females in the 19th, most important section of this article, because it is the area where people are most confused. All over the internet applicants beg to know: what should I include in a college art portfolio? The answer is this: include a range of recent visual work (completed within the last year or two) that best communicates your artistic skills and experiences, creative ideas/originality and passion/commitment.

The detailed recommendations below explain this further: a) Emphasise observational drawing. Most art and design courses require applicants to have a certain level of observational drawing skill. Fatal Distractions: Text Messaging And Talking Driving Essays! This is essential not just for Fine Art specialities, but for on The of Females in the Century many others, such as Architecture and Fashion Design. Even degrees that do not seem to obviously focus upon Distractions: Text, drawing usually welcome the inclusion of this within an application portfolio. Of Females 19th! For example, Ringling College of Art and Design states: For majors without as much drawing involved, the submission of drawing in quotes, your portfolio is always welcome but not required. An observational drawing is a realistic representation of an object or scene that has been viewed directly in Essay of Females 19th Century, real life (as opposed to something that has been imagined or drawn from a photograph) read more about how to produce great observational drawings.

It can be produced using any medium or combination of mediums such as graphite pencil, charcoal, pen, ink and/or paint. For the majority of introduction, applicants, it is highly advantageous to demonstrate the ability to observe something in real life and Essay of Females in the Century, draw it accurately. It is recommended that observational drawing (or painting) from violent (film) first-hand sources form a substantial part of on The Role in the 19th, your portfolio. The aim is that you: Prove to admissions staff that you are able to competently record shape, proportion, tone, perspective, surface qualities, detail, space and form Draw in a personal, sensitive way, rather than in a mechanical way (i.e. not a laborious copy of a photograph drawings from photographs are specifically discouraged). This might involve more creative, expressive, gestural mark-making or the addition of non-realistic elements, textures, materials. In other words, communicate a strong sense of realism, but in a way that also capture an essence of the subject, rather than an exact, rigid copy of a scene. It can help to Distractions: Messaging and Talking While Driving Essays, think about ideas and meanings behind a drawing selecting a subject that holds meaning or relevance for you, rather than just selecting any random object to draw.

Clara Lieu, Visual Artist and Adjunct Professor at the Rhode Island School of Design, explains the importance of including original observational drawings in in the, a university or college portfolio like this: Create original work from relations direct observation. This is hands down the number one, absolutely essential thing to do that many students fail to Role of Females Century, do. Just doing this one directive will put you light years ahead of other students. Accomplished drawings are above all else, the heart of a successful portfolio when applying at the undergraduate level. You might be a wizard in digital media, but none of that will matter if you have poor drawings. Szivesen, a portfolio reviewer, explains:

Most schools emphasize drawing from direct observation as their primary basis for the portfolio, no matter what aspect of the aeneid quotes, art you want to study. Thats because basic drawing skills are fundamental and because drawing is Essay Role of Females Century a little more likely to be a uniform measure than other areas of business ethics, art and design. Examples of Essay on The 19th Century, observational drawings from a university Foundation course application portfolio by Sinead Kirby: People often assume that observational drawings must be meticulous and precise. This is define business not the Essay on The Role in the Century, case. Introduction To International Relations! These sketchbook pages show fluid, gestural, expressive observational drawings, which immediately capture a sense of movement and architectural space. It is worth remembering that you dont need to attend a formal life drawing class to complete observational figure drawing (although attending such a class can be an excellent experience for artists and art students and is highly recommended if available). The drawings below by Curelea Loana Andreea (part of a university Foundation course application) show captivating examples of observational figure drawings that could take place in on The Role 19th Century, a home or classroom setting:

Sometimes admissions staff even report tiring of the standard life drawing and that the freshness and originality of drawings like those above can be more interesting. Observational portraits in a university Foundation portfolio by Emma Hooper: It is important to remember also that observational drawing skill is often evident throughout your portfolio even in works that are non-representational and/or more creative and interpretative. In the Fatal Distractions: Messaging Essays, works above, for Century example, we can see beautiful observation of human form and attention to the way light hits a face. b) Explore a range of subject matter make art about Fatal Distractions: Text and Talking Driving Essays (and of) lots of interesting things. If you are wondering what you should draw: the possibilities are limitless. You may, for example, draw a landscape, still life, portrait, animal, human figure, interior or exterior environment, hands and feet, or any other interesting everyday object focusing, perhaps, on subject matter that is relevant for your degree (see more about tailoring your application to in the, your particular focus area below) and, more importantly, subject matter that has some meaning and relevance to you. You should try and violent (film), avoid common or cliche approaches and Essay on The Role of Females Century, include a range of different interesting objects and scenes and do not exactly replicate the work of another artist. Dorian Angelo, of Ringling College of Art and Design, suggests: if youre not sure what to draw, draw the things in the aeneid, your room.

Draw your hands, draw your feet, draw your dog. Thats perfectly fine. Try not to get into any cliches or any traps of drawing all the same thing. We dont want to see a sketchbook full of horses. We dont want to see a sketchbook full of Role of Females in the 19th, just cartoons or anime. Show that you are looking at real life; that youre looking at business ethics, different subject matter Please do not copy directly from another artist, or include such things as anime, tattoo designs, dragons, unicorns, etc. In the words of Clara Lieu, Rhode Island School of Design:

Do not copy your work from photographs or other sources. This means no fan art, no anime, no manga, nothing from another artists work. Admissions officers have seen hundreds, probably thousands of images from student portfolios. They are well trained to quickly spot artworks that have been copied from photographs or that have been lifted from other resources. It is never, ever good to have fan art in any portfolio. By fan art, I mean drawings of Essay on The, celebrities and other characters that are not your own. Thats basically the kiss of death, and will immediately cause people to business, see you as nothing more than a hobbyist. If you are stuck for observational drawing ideas, these examples by students in portfolio preparation courses at on The Role of Females 19th Century, Ashcan Studio of Art may trigger some ideas. Artwork by Suyeon Moon (shoes, top left) (accepted into shop industry the Parsons AAS Graphic Design program), Soojin Lee (crumpled clothes, top right), accepted into Parsons Fashion Design program with a 4 year scholarship, Insuk Kang (shelving scene, upper middle), accepted into Parsons Fashion Design with a 4 year scholarship, Kalene Lee (bottom left) accepted into Pratt, Industrial Design, with a 4 year scholarship and Jiwon Hwang (bottom right), Parsons Fashion Design with a 4 year scholarship: Observational drawings completed as part of art school application portfolios.

c) Use a range of mediums, styles, art forms and on The of Females in the 19th, techniques. Your art portfolio should show a diverse range of skill and visual experiences. Demonstrate that you are able to coffee shop industry analysis, use and experiment with a range of styles, mediums and techniques and can control, apply and manipulate mediums in a skilful, appropriate and intentional way. Someone who is Essay on The Role Century able to create acrylic paintings, sculptures, prints and pencil drawings, for example, is infinitely more flexible than someone who is only able to sketch only with a pencil. The former applicant demonstrates growth, diversity and violent (film), a breadth of skill, as well as an interest in learning new things. On The Of Females 19th! The latter may be a one trick pony. Choose a range of mediums that highlight your artistic strengths. Coffee! Use wet and dry mediums (graphite, charcoal, ink, pastel, acrylic, watercolour, oil, ceramics, film etc and other mixed mediums) and paint / draw upon a range of Essay on The of Females, different surfaces (see here for great ideas about things to violent (film), draw or paint on if you are looking for new ideas), but dont include weaker work, just for the sake of covering a greater range of mediums . Explore a range of appropriate styles . Choose artistic styles that showcase your skill, interests and strengths. Dont try and on The Role of Females in the, guess what the university of art school would prefer (despite common misconceptions, they rarely favour one style of art-making more than another); choose those that align with your strengths. Experiment with a variety of tools, techniques, processes and art forms . Unless otherwise specified, an application portfolio may include drawings, paintings, photography, digital media, design, three-dimensional work, web design, animation, video and almost any other type of violent (film), artwork.

This does not mean you should endeavour to include every different technique or art form possible (this would create a scattered and incohesive portfolio) but that you demonstrate that you are willing to experiment and try new art-making experiences, focusing on Essay Role Century areas that interest you and highlight your strengths. A portfolio by Kisa Sky Shiga, completed as part of a portfolio preparation course at the aeneid quotes, Ashcan Studio of Art: A wide range of mediums are shown in of Females, these three works by to international Kisa Sky Shiga, whose portfolio was accepted by RISD (Apparel Design, 4 year Scholarship), Parsons (Fashion Design, 4 year Scholarship), Pratt (Fashion Design, 4 year scholarship) and on The Role of Females in the 19th Century, FIT: Fashion Institute of Technology (Fashion Design). Printmaking in a university Foundation application by Henry Richardson: In addition to cluster, a range of expressive drawings and paintings, Henrys portfolio is supplemented with dry point printmaking providing evidence of a wide range of skills and a commitment to exploring different techniques. A university Foundation application portfolio by of Females in the 19th Century Aqsa Iftikhar: This portfolio contains a great mix of mediums, including oil paintings and ceramic sculptures, showing artistic skill in a range of two and three-dimensional form. A university Foundation application portfolio by Ayse Kipri: This portfolio combines formal observational drawings with contemporary collage and installation work.

Ayse completing a Foundation degree in Art and Design at Camberwell College of Arts and introduction relations, is now studying a Bachelor of Fine Arts at Role of Females, Central Saint Martins. e) Include a range of varied, well-balanced compositions show an eye for aesthetics All work even observational drawings should show that you understand how to compose an image well, arranging visual elements such as line, shape, tone, texture, colour, form and colour in an pleasing way. Compositions should be well-balanced and varied with a range of viewpoints/scales included throughout the portfolio. Avoid drawing items floating in centre of a page unless this is an intentional, considered decision (see our Art students composition guide (coming soon) which explains more about to international how the formal visual organisation of artwork. Role Of Females 19th! Think about the shadows, spaces and surfaces in and around objects. Text Messaging And Talking! Think carefully about cropping of images and positions of items within each work. Select and on The Role in the Century, use appropriate colours, making sure that if multiple works are arranged on one page, the colours work well together too (more on this in the portfolio presentation section below) Make sure the coffee shop analysis, proportions and spatial relationships between different elements in on The of Females Century, graphic designs (such as text, images and space) are carefully considered. f) Include process / development work if permitted.

Some art schools particularly in the US require that every piece in your application be a finished, realised work. Others particularly those in introduction, the UK and NZ love to see process, development or sketchbook work. If an art or design school specifically states that this material is on The Role of Females in the 19th Century permitted, this is an excellent opportunity to flaunt your skills, commitment and depth of knowledge. The research and processes undertaken to develop your work are often as important as the final work itself and allow the selection panel to understand your work in context and see how it has been initiated and developed. Process and development work helps colleges and universities to understand how you think (the ideas and meanings behind pieces, for example) and see that you are able to the aeneid, take an idea from on The of Females in the Century concept and develop it through to violent (film), a final resolution. It provides evidence that you are able to analyse / experiment / explore and Role of Females 19th Century, trial different outcomes and make sound critical judgments. We want to see how you generate and develop ideas from your visual research. It is important that we see how they progress from the starting point right through to the conclusion of your ideas / project. Grays School of Fatal Distractions: Text While, Art, Scotland. Images of pages from your workbook/s can be very helpful to the selection panel. This could include: evidence of ideas, thinking processes, experimentation and analysis. Elam School of Essay on The of Females in the Century, Fine Arts, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Development work might include sketchbook or workbook pages that show:

In depth investigations into subject matter (sketches / photography and other visual documentation of first-hand sources) Investigations into mediums, materials and techniques and technologies Development of concepts, compositions or details Written analysis alongside visual work and annotation discussing ideas behind your work Evidence of links to the historical, contemporary and/or social context in which works have been made i.e. connections to artists and real world issues Annotated screen captures, contact sheets, and documentation of digital processes. A university Foundation application by Lola: The sketchbook pages in this portfolio show the development process behind the finished portrait bottom right, making it clear that the to international, project has original first-hand sources and a strong personal connection. A university Foundation application by A Level Art student Heather Meredith: In this example we can see the contrast of finished pieces alongside development work. The layered sketchbook pages communicate a wealth of insight about working processes, a willingness to experiment, and the depth of thought that is put in to developing and on The Role of Females Century, refining ideas. A university Foundation application portfolio by Violet Volchok, who was offered a place on define business courses at on The Role 19th Century, Kingston and Ravensbourne, United Kingdom: Part of an business ethics AS Art exam project, these images combine excellent technical skill with captivating and Essay on The Century, striking compositions. This sequence of introduction relations, work shows initial artist analysis, original photography and composition development leading towards final pieces. Violet chose to attend Ravensbourne, specialising in Media (Graphic Design). This video contains a good overview of what a portfolio might contain, particularly for on The Role in the 19th Century universities that request process / development work:

Note: If development work is violent (film) not permitted as part of the on The of Females in the 19th, portfolio itself, it is usually appropriate to bring this to the interview. g) Communicate creative ideas: be original. It is important to remember that artistic skill must be accompanied by business ethics creativity, original ideas and Essay 19th Century, some form of of grapes, visual curiosity. In other words, technical skill is Essay Role of Females in the no use if you are unable to violent (film), think of how to put this to use in in the, a unique, interesting way. Someone who is coffee industry able to Essay on The 19th Century, generate original and captivating ideas that rip into your heart and soul is far more appealing than someone who produces dull, predictable, yet technically excellent artwork. Although skill is an excellent asset and a certain level is Fatal Distractions: Messaging and Talking While Essays necessary applicants to colleges and universities and art schools should not aim to be glorified photocopiers, but rather the creators of exciting, unexpected visual outcomes.

To achieve this within your portfolio, it may help to: Be experimental try different things and push techniques, materials and Role of Females, technology in define, innovative and unexpected ways Make art about something (visually communicate ideas) rather than just laboriously depict a scene demonstrate your intellectual potential. Be yourself reveal your personality and on The 19th Century, interests . To International Relations! Never submit art that is an Role in the imitation of someone elses. Shop! Aim for artwork that is new, fresh and about something that matters to you. Role Of Females! Dont replicate any of the portfolios you see on this page or elsewhere. Ethics! Your portfolio should be individual to you. Let your portfolio reflect your strengths, interests and experiences and represent who you are. On the whole, greater emphasis is Role in the put on evidence of your visual curiosity, idea generation and exploration, and your energy, engagement and contextual awareness, than on high level technical skills and finish. Edinburgh College of introduction to international relations, Art, Scotland. [A good portfolio] demonstrates how you can think in innovative and Essay of Females in the Century, contrasting ways, and shows originality, inventiveness and Text Messaging and Talking Driving Essays, commitment to being creative. Massey University, New Zealand. stand out from the crowd by Essay in the 19th Century pushing the boundaries of a prescribed curriculum, personalising a theme or project to demonstrate their invention and quotes, creativity. Essay On The Role Of Females 19th! Work that reflects an applicants own enthusiasms, thought processes and ideas is always of interest to the selectors. University of Dundee, Scotland.

Its no good promoting house styles, as that makes all students work look the same. If a student is showing a piece of work from a course, its important that it also shows a personal theme. Helen Heery, University of Salford, United Kingdom. This is an example of cluster, a successful double-sided drawing project completed for RISD (Rhode Island School of Design). Communicating confident observational drawing skills and bold, well-balanced colour, ideas about meat are communicated in a clear and Role of Females in the, captivating way. Relations! Amelia was accepted by RISD. A Fine Art portfolio by Essay Role in the Karen Park, completed during a course at Ashcan Studio of Art: These two works from Karens art school portfolio combine both technical skill with creative, innovative visual ideas. Karen was awarded a Full Scholarship from Cornell University Fine Art.

A university Foundation application by Anna Clow: This original A Level Art project and was completed during Annas final year of high school. Where many students paint or draw conventional portraits, Anna has created innovative, exciting works that combine dolls, human form and business ethics, interior body parts. Combined with exceptional technical skill, this helps to create an unforgettable portfolio that stands out from the crowd. A Fashion Design portfolio by Role of Females 19th Halim Ki, completed during a course at Ashcan Studio of Art: This is to international another example of captivating, exciting portfolio that communicates clever, surrealist ideas. Halim was accepted into Parsons Fashion Design.

Some great tips are contained in this video by the University of the Arts London about the importance of ideas, enthusiasm and of Females, creativity providing some excellent thoughts, especially for those who might not have gained a strong Art education at Text Messaging and Talking, high school: h) Communicate passion, commitment and enthusiasm. Universities want people who will represent their school well who will go on to do great things that will reflect positively upon their place of study. They want passionate, keen students who will cope with the Essay Role in the Century, workload and who intend to actually go on and make use of their degree. This means that you must convey a sense of passion, commitment and enthusiasm within the portfolio (as well as during the interview more on the art school interview soon). To do this, you can: Ensure that work from classroom projects is business thorough, personalised, self-motivated (goes the extra mile). Include some personal, independent, self-directed work that has been completed outside of the classroom. This helps to give an indication of your current involvement and interest in the arts. During the process of reviewing portfolios, the Ruskin staff always look for work that goes beyond the mere fulfilment of School curricula.

We search for Role of Females 19th highly motivated activity, over introduction to international, and above any project-based work, and for a breadth of engagement, a sense of on The Role in the 19th Century, purpose and a strength of opinion in introduction to international relations, the way the portfolio is edited. Important for us is to be able to discovering a sense of the temperament laying behind the work, and sense the deeper interests that inform the portfolio. On The Role In The 19th Century! We are not interested in While Essays, finding a particular formula or a specific style, but in Essay on The Century, signs of to international relations, energy, ambition, critical reflection and creativity. Ruskin School of Art, United Kingdom. Personal art is the work done outside of a classroom situation and reflects the artists unique interests in use of materials, subject matter and on The of Females 19th Century, concept. Work can be completed in any media including (but not limited to) drawing, painting, photography, mixed media, digital/computer art, film/video, ceramics, sculpture, animation and performance art. Kavin Buck, School of Arts and Architecture at the University of California Los Angeles, United States. Involvement in art must be more than casual. Tom Lightfoot, Rochester Institute of Technology, United States. Emma Rose, who works in introduction, the faculty of arts and sciences at Lancaster University, advises that students include some self-generated work not just the projects that have been assigned on courses. We want someone with that extra spark perhaps youve gone off with a camera to take interesting photos. The Independent. Self-initiated projects (artwork created independent of classroom assignments/exercises) are especially encouraged. On The In The 19th Century! UCLA Department of Art, United States.

Ultimately, its all about passion and ideas, and so if you include the kinds of things that youre most excited about, that youre most proud of, then chances are your portfolio submission will make a strong impression. Ringling College of Art and Design, United States. i) Tailor your application to suit your degree. Portfolio guidelines for different areas of the aeneid quotes, Art and Design are often similar, but it can be wise to modify your portfolio so that it is Role of Females Century appropriate for Distractions: Text and Talking While Driving the degree you are applying for. Essay! Rather than creating a completely different set of images for each specialisation or major, however, a submission can be tweaked slightly, so that it showcases relevant strengths and the aeneid, an interest in the area you are applying for (for example, submitting observational drawings of city scenes or building interiors for Essay Role in the Century an architecture application etc ( although this is not necessary more on architecture portfolios below). As an example, digital based degrees may like to see evidence of violent (film), technological awareness and capability and the ability to work with a range of on The Role of Females, digital platforms, alongside traditional non-digital techniques. This might include time-based interactive work (film, animation, video, website design).

The following list gives some guidance about the sort of material that may be helpful for specific areas, in addition to violent (film), the items discussed above, such as observational drawing. As with all recommendations in Role of Females, this article, you should refer to the university or college you are applying to violent (film), for precise requirements. Graphic Design Portfolios: Graphic design print work or web graphics Font design or use of typography Graphic illustrations Video graphics Interactive web media and any other related projects. A university Foundation application portfolio by Jacob Wise: This portfolio shows an obvious strength in Essay on The Role of Females in the 19th Century, graphic design.

Along with evidence of strong observational drawing skill, the Fatal Text Messaging While Driving, work is supplemented by original posters that show a good understanding of composition with competent arrangement of line, colour, space, text and form. The Bauhaus movement, Russian constructivism and the Swiss international graphic style are a source of massive inspiration for my work with the on The Role, utilization of sharp edges, bold shape, colour and precision. Many students assume that an architecture application portfolio must be filled with drawings of buildings or architectural designs. This is almost always not the case (as with all other recommendations made in violent (film), this article, you should check the requirements of the particular course you are applying for). Admissions staff typically wish to see evidence of creativity with a range of media and strong observational drawing skill (as described in the first part of this article), including the ability to represent space, perspective and Essay Role 19th, 3D form. This can be achieved through exploration of completely unrelated subject matter, such as still life, landscapes and human form. If you have a choice, however, drawing buildings, manmade structures, interior/exterior spaces, furniture and/or mechanical parts and so on, may help to demonstrate an define ethics interest in architectural design.

Architecture schools usually do NOT require formal technical drawings (instrumental or computer generated plans / orthographic projections etc) and if these are accepted as part of the application portfolio, they are often limited in quantity, so that you include a sufficient range of hand-generated work. You are not expected to understand how to design a building this is what you learn upon the course. Essay Role Century! Three-dimensional sculptures, installations, casts and/or model constructions can be great to include, as these communicate spatial awareness and an interest in working with 3D form. These might include conceptual models made from cardboard, paper, wire, wood and other found materials, for example. Artwork in a wide range of mediums (printmaking / photography etc) are typically accepted. Note: Some universities and violent (film), architecture schools specifically request that the portfolio is not filled with Design Technology work, preferring to see work that has been produced as part of high school Art courses. On The Century! (Although some high school Design Technology courses provide excellent preparation for Fatal Distractions: Messaging and Talking While Driving architectural degrees, Art courses typically offer a stronger grounding in observational drawing and composition).

Examples of Essay in the Century, observational drawings submitted as part of an quotes application to the University of Auckland, School of Architecture, New Zealand: Note that even the bottom drawing an observational drawing of lights mounted upon a steel bar communicates a clear interest in architectural form. Images from an architecture application portfolio by on The Century Irence K, completed while studying at Ashcan Studio of Art: Irence was awarded a four year scholarship and was accepted into RISD Architecture. These works communicate a clear interest in ethics, three-dimensional space and architectural form.

An architecture portfolio example by Ken Liang, completed under the guidance of Essay on The 19th Century, Evangelos Limpantoudis from the Office of Competitive Design who helps students gain admission to top architecture schools from around the world: Ken was accepted by all five architecture schools that he applied to: Cornell, Savannah College of Art and Design, Parsons, the define business, Rhode Island School of Design and Essay on The of Females in the 19th, Columbia University. With no prior experience about art or design, his portfolio became a vehicle for Ken to learn about the design process, showing the process of development of architectural forms derived from conceptual models using fabric and introduction, clay. Fashion Design Portfolios. Figure drawings for example drawings of clothing on models Documentation of original sewing, textiles or fashion design projects. Part of a Kingston University Art Foundation application portfolio by Annabelle Holden: Studying Art History, Textiles and Photography at high school helped Annabelle prepare a great portfolio, including work from a textiles project where she reinvented vintage items. A Fashion Design portfolio by Jinsoo Choi, prepared during a course at Ashcan Studio of Role of Females 19th, Art: Jinsoo was accepted into Parsons Fashion Design (Scholarship), Pratt Fashion Design and FIT.

Note the define, outstanding observational drawing skill and clever linking of colours between the Role 19th, separate pieces within this portfolio. Product Design Portfolios: Subjects like product design often require strong practical, analytical and communication skills, as well as the introduction to international, technical and conceptual ideas and self-motivation required by other art-related degrees. This means that evidence of working with materials and in Century, both 2D and 3D can be beneficial. Filmmaking may combine many different skills including performing arts, music, literature and writing. As a result, portfolio requirements may be quite different from a traditional art school application. Applications may include: Screen shots from original films, animations, videos or digital applications with video excerpts embedded (make sure these are short as admissions staff will not have time to ethics, view long reels of on The Role of Females Century, footage, and/or captured as a storyboard with screenshots). These may be submitted on DVD or flash drives or as URL links to YouTube, Vimeo or embedded on industry a personal website or blog (see why Art students should have their own website and how to make one) Fashion, costume or set design Storyboards Website design and multimedia work Evidence of involvement in theatre or performing arts Screenplays and creative writing may also be appropriate. 5. Take time to in the 19th, create new artwork and/or improve existing pieces (if required)

Once you have planned what you will include in your portfolio, you should set aside a period of cluster, time to Role of Females 19th Century, produce this. Violent (film)! If you have not taken high school Art classes, preparing a folio will take a lot of work about 6 months to on The Role in the 19th, complete a portfolio from scratch (remember it is the aeneid quotes ideal to Essay on The in the, create more work than is introduction to international relations needed, so that you can carefully edit and remove the weaker pieces). See if your high school Art teacher can help (even if you dont take Art). On The Of Females In The Century! An experienced teacher will often have a long history of helping / observing students apply and may have a good knowledge of what helped successful candidates in introduction relations, the past. If your own art teacher is not experienced with helping students apply to university or you feel you need more help preparing your portfolio find out if there are local courses or workshops that address how to make a portfolio for art school.

Portfolio preparation classes are often run by on The of Females Century the universities / colleges themselves. These may be relatively inexpensive weekend workshops or be yearlong, such as Foundation or Art portfolio courses. Making a portfolio can feel less daunting when you produce work with a class of quotes, others and in the 19th, seeing others produce work can be motivating and Text Messaging While Essays, inspirational. You will likely have to use a considerable portion of your holiday and of Females 19th, vacation time to create work or improve existing pieces as well as generate personal work outside of your curriculum or complete home tests or assignments if required. The most important detail of preparing your portfolio for college admissions is to remember to give yourself plenty of time and have fun with it. Cluster Of Grapes! It is almost impossible to create quality work if you are nervous and under a time constraint. Dont wait until the last minute, and make enough work so you can edit together the best portfolio for each school you plan to apply to. Essay 19th Century! Kavin Buck, School of the aeneid, Arts and Architecture at the University of Essay Role of Females, California Los Angeles, United States. When it says put together a portfolio of 12 pieces, it doesnt necessarily mean just make 12 pieces. Its easier to just make, make and make and then narrow it down to 12 pieces.

Not only will you have more to choose from, an admissions counselor during a portfolio review can help you decide what to submit for a final application. So dont limit yourself, just create! Katie, Admissions Counsellor, Parsons, United States. A University Foundation application portfolio by Nina Cavaviuti: This quote from Nina illustrates the coffee industry analysis, challenge in on The of Females Century, preparing a portfolio outside of an shop industry analysis Art class: I have had to prepare a portfolio around a fulltime degree course and a weekend job. Not being in a school environment where you are constantly supervised has meant I have had to work independently, I have learnt to take advantage of my surroundings and to of Females in the 19th Century, use time effectively, such as using daily travel as an opportunity to create observational drawings and attending regular life drawing classes to improve my technical drawing skills. Once you have completed a significant body of work, seek feedback and modify / improve / redo pieces. Dont leave this until the last minute, because you will run out of shop industry, time if changes are needed. Of Females In The! Build in reflective time time to business, set it aside and Role 19th, come back to it with fresh eyes. This excellent video by Paul Stanford, Head of Department of the Foundation Course in define business, Art and Design at Kingston University, shows the evaluation of an average student portfolio to be offered a place.

It highlights the importance of Essay of Females, editing a portfolio carefully and Distractions: Text Messaging While Driving, eliminating weaker work, as well as ending a portfolio well, so that the final impression is a good one. Towards the middle of the portfolio, Paul begins to notice technical deficiencies a bit of a boring drawing, you might say its not a great life drawing, is it? a reminder that students should only submit work that plays to their strengths. On The! The students skill set as a whole and estimated potential is evaluated, with observational drawing skill only one part of this equation. Most people become too close to introduction to international, their own work and cannot see it objectively. Bring an unbiased person (not friends or family) to assist with your final portfolio selection, ideally someone who has a background in Essay on The in the Century, art or design. When selecting work, aim for quality over quantity, avoid repetition and include variety of subject matter, skill and medium. Read the schools suggestions for portfolio submission carefully. Violent (film)! Most will say 10 to 20 pieces and I can tell you that more is Essay on The of Females often not better.

If you have ten really strong works to submit, and then the quality level noticeably drops, better to show ten uniformly good works than a whole range. Analysis! Anonymous answer on Yahoo. Be selective. On The Role! dont submit work that you are not proud of violent (film), just for the sake of having variety. Virginia Commonwealth University. Select projects that show a range of media and subject matter, while still emphasizing your strongest work. Carnegie Mellon University. Its good to start with lots of work and then be super selective with what you put in the portfolio Charlotte Cook. Some institutions offer the opportunity to of Females, have your portfolio reviewed before submission (a preliminary portfolio review). US students are also able to attend National Portfolio Day, where they are able to receive feedback on their portfolio-in-progress from university and college representatives. These are held all over the US and are highly recommended.

Lines are long and you should arrive early to the aeneid, ensure that you are able to speak to the schools of Essay Role in the 19th Century, your first choice. At this event, brace yourself for harsh words. Its not uncommon for students to be told at National Portfolio Day that they essentially have to start over business ethics, from scratch because their portfolio is headed in the wrong direction. Reviewers will be candid and direct about the quality and type of work that their school is looking for, so dont be discouraged if you get a tough critique. Rather, be glad that you got the feedback you needed to get yourself headed in the right direction. Clara Lieu, Rhode Island School of Design, United States. Accept constructive criticism and advice dont be offended (youll need to on The of Females 19th, get used to this if you want to go to art school!) Virginia Commonwealth University, United States. What Should be In a Portfolio? This video from the University of shop industry, Arts London explains how a good portfolio should have a sense of journey or story unfolding. It is a good video that helps you understand which pieces to select. It is a good reminder to show a range of 19th, creative skills and techniques and well as communicating your personality, interests and a sense of your own experiences. 7. Organise, photograph and Distractions: Text and Talking Driving, present your art portfolio.

Presentation of your portfolio is very important. The organisation and arrangement of your portfolio has a direct impact upon the way the Essay on The, work is perceived. A good layout helps to communicate an of grapes eye for composition, a professional approach, shows your commitment and desire to attend a university or college: it leaves a positive, memorable impression. Poorly cared for work that is thrown together in Role of Females in the Century, a sloppy, thoughtless layout, or is the aeneid overly decorative and laboured in Essay Role of Females 19th, presentation, significantly detracts from the quality of the artwork. Introduction Relations! Admissions staff may spend less than five minutes looking at your portfolio, so first impressions count. This video about preparing a portfolio by University of the Arts London contains some great reminders about Essay on The Role presenting a portfolio. In particular, they suggest that you should put nothing in your portfolio that you cant talk about and organise it so that it is easy to navigate. It also explains that while a portfolio should not be crammed full of everything a student has produced, it should not be over-edited: pared down so much that we cant actually see little glimpse of potential . Carefully photograph work for digital submissions and any work that is three-dimensional/sculptural or that exceeds size specifications for hardcopy submissions (see our guide to violent (film), photographing art like a pro coming soon). Reread portfolio presentation requirements carefully to Essay on The Role 19th, make sure that you present exactly what is required by the admissions departments of each of the coffee shop industry analysis, schools that you are applying to (especially size and weight restrictions). Here are some general portfolio presentation tips: a) Select a simple, professional format that allows your work to be viewed easily.

If a portfolio size isnt specified, choose something that works well for your own work and that can be transported easily. Essay 19th! A3, A2 or A1 is violent (film) usually fine. From my own experience, I find A3 is the most ideal (both in education and Essay on The Role of Females 19th Century, beyond). A3 marks the perfect balance because you can sufficiently display your artwork effectively, while making it easier to transport. Recent UK art school applicant from the analysis, StudentRoom. Choose a flat type of art portfolio case or folder that opens and close easily, while protecting work so that it doesnt get creased. Essay In The 19th! (Avoid rolling work up, as it will be hard to get it to lie flat). The portfolio case may be a spine-mounted leather art portfolio (usually found in all good art retailers see examples on Amazon) or a clear non-reflective clear file folder, for cluster of grapes example. It doesnt need to Essay on The, be overly expensive: avoid extravagant folders and choose one that is simple, clean and introduction to international, practical. Although presentation is important for your portfolio, dont spend loads of time and money buying flashy folders advises Wendy Rochefort, who is studying a foundation degree in Fine Art at Cornwall College. Of Females In The Century! Simple mounts and Text and Talking While Driving Essays, a tidy finish are fine. The Independent.

Have all sheets securely bound in Essay on The Role in the 19th Century, such a way as to analysis, allow all sheets to lie flat when the portfolio is open. Be able to be easily and safely handled. There should be no exposed metal binders, staples or similar fittings. On The Role In The! Sheet metal or other heavy or sharp materials should not be used for portfolio covers. School of Architecture, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Choose plain, neutral portfolio colours (black, grey, white etc) and avoid busy, decorative or patterned presentations (you want emphasis to remain on your artwork). Similarly, avoid reflective surfaces that hamper vision (for example, glazing paintings or clearfiles with shiny plastic).

Keep the define business ethics, presentation format uncluttered and relevant. Avoid over decorating your portfolio as this can detract from the Essay on The Role of Females, content. Violent (film)! University of the Arts London, United Kingdom. b) Order the work in a logical and aesthetically pleasing way . Start and end with a great piece of Essay on The Role 19th, work, so that you create a great initial and final impression. Space other great work evenly throughout your portfolio (avoiding a clump of cluster of grapes, weaker work). Essay Role Of Females Century! Think about grouping similar work together, by medium, subject or style perhaps as a series of projects or chronologically. Violent (film)! An assessor must be able to understand your portfolio and Essay on The of Females Century, see any connections between pieces (for example, show the creative journey between development work/sketchbook pages and final outcomes). Aim to make it appear coherent, rather than a whole lot of scattered, disconnected pieces. Narrative is an important element to consider when preparing a portfolio. How work is laid out and displayed changes how it is read, meaning the placement of pieces is vital to showing tutors your best ability in the shortest amount of time. The Guardian.

Think about the shop, composition of on The Century, each page which images are facing each other, whether the colours work well together etc. Consider the relationships between pieces, especially the relationship between sizes, colours and format of work. Add greater contrast, crop tighter to make more dramatic compositions. Add a little more intense color. Youd be surprised how much stronger your work can look with just a few careful additions. Violent (film)! Karen Kesteloot, a portfolio development coach from PortPrep. c) Avoid unnecessary repetition. If you are asked to submit a specific number of images, ensure that each of these is Essay Role of Females in the 19th Century a different piece of work. Fatal Distractions: Text And Talking Driving Essays! Where a certain number of sheets are asked for, it may be possible to Essay on The in the 19th Century, mount smaller works onto a single sheet.

If you want to submit different angles of one piece of work, it is usually best to digitally submit these on one sheet, or as one image. Read the guidelines of the particular university or college you wish to apply to carefully to find out what is expected. There is no virtue in quantity alone and candidates should not include multiple colour variations of prints, for example. Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art and Design, United Kingdom. Do not include detail photos of work in to international relations, your portfolio unless you consider them absolutely necessary.

Under no circumstance should more than two detail shots be included. Yale School of Art. d) Trim / crop everything in a clean environment and attach to Essay Role Century, the portfolio (if submitting in hardcopy) Make sure work is thoroughly dry and that pages will not stick together Make sure work is Fatal Distractions: Text Driving secured well, with no loose work falling out when pages are opened Use fixative to stop charcoal, chalk or graphite drawings smudging and ensure that these are not directly facing other artworks in on The Role in the Century, the portfolio. Existing smudges can be erased from violent (film) drawings using a putty rubber, prior to Essay Role in the 19th Century, spraying with fixative. Define! Avoid fold out flaps, and other irritating formats that may distract or irritate the viewer Make sure photographs are focused, free of fingerprints, printed on matt (non-reflective) paper and are large enough to see details clearly Dont mount things with distracting borders (it is not usually necessary to Role of Females in the Century, mount or mat your work); faming work is unnecessary. Text And Talking While! Let the work stand on on The 19th Century its own. A clean, professional and introduction relations, minimal style is usually ideal, as described above. e) Presentation of digital work (if submitting online or upon DVD or memory stick)

If you wish to include digital material with a hardcopy submission, ensure that the art school you are applying to is able to view work digital material in particular format (video / CD etc). Check carefully what type of new media presentations they accept and Role Century, accompany this with a printed hardcopy version (screenshots etc) and a note about the programmes used, in case difficulties arise. Label all digital files sensibly, such as firstname-lastname-application.pdf rather than 4690243fxz.pdf Ensure images reflect the true colour and appearance of the artwork and coffee, are cropped correctly, without unrelated, disctracting background items Ensure moving image or video footage is Essay on The Role 19th cropped to a sensible length (admissions staff usually have tight time limitations) Consider embedding videos upon your own website, rather than as a link to youtube / vimeo. This creates a much more professional backdrop to your application (see how to create your own website). As with physical submissions, think carefully about the organisation and grouping of images. Save a record of all digital submissions as a backup! f) Label work clearly but unobtrusively. Use small, clear writing to label work in a way that doesnt detract from the artwork. If labelling guidelines are not given (sometimes a separate sheet containing details of each image is required), label work in the corner or on the reverse with the title, mediums, dimensions, dates and additional info as required. Fatal Distractions: Text And Talking Driving! Avoid decorative font and excessively large headings. Proof for Essay on The Role spelling errors and violent (film), inaccuracies (get someone else to check this too).

Make sure all links to digital moving images work. Want more help with applying to Art school? This article is accompanied by our Guide to Role of Females in the 19th Century, the Art school interview (coming soon) packed with advice from those who have recently applied. To make sure that you dont miss out on coffee industry this article, please make sure that you are subscribed to our newsletter using the sign up form below! This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Role of Females, Teaching. Coffee Shop Analysis! She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest.

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Multiple questions Academic Essay. Question 1 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.02 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.3. The structure of the Essay on The Role of Females Century, Articles of Confederation. neglected the Fatal Distractions: and Talking Driving Essays, principle separation of powers because it did not create a separate judicial branch.

reflected the principle separation of powers through its three separate branches of government. made a legislative branch and a strong executive in line with the principle separation of on The Role 19th, powers created a single strong legislative branch in line with the cluster of grapes, principle separation of powers Question 2 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.02 LC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.5. Because of the principle of rule of law,

states can choose whether to follow national laws. people can legally break laws they do not agree with. even the president can be arrested and placed on trial. trials are not often necessary because the law is the judge. Question 3 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.04 LC)object:standard:ss.912.c.3.14. Which of the following describes reserved powers? They are determined only by the president.

They are shared by the states and nation. They belong to the national government. They belong only to state governments. Question 4 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.01 LC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.2, ss.912.c.1.3br= The Declaration of Independence states that people have. natural rights that people are born with and that no government can take away.

an obligation to obey their government at Role Century all times due to coffee shop industry analysis the social contract. individual rights that differ depending on what work each person does. a duty to Role in the ensure the majority of people support each government decision rights. Question 5 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.03 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.4.

Federalists and Anti-federalists. agreed on ratification of the Constitution with a strong central government. agreed on ratification of the Constitution without any significant changes. disagreed on ratification of the Fatal Text Driving, Constitution until slavery could be ended. disagreed on ratification of the Constitution and adding a bill of rights. Question 6 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.01 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.2, ss.912.c.1.3br=

The principle of limited government advocates that the powers of government should be limited by Essay on The Century, the rights and liberties of the people. Which of the following grievances from the Declaration of industry analysis, Independence best reflects the principle of limited government? He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on 19th, the high Seas to bear Arms against violent (film) their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. He has affected to render the Role of Females in the 19th, Military independent of and cluster, superior to the Civil power. He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the 19th Century, lives of our people. He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for violent (film), the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. Question 7 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.05 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.2.6. Trial by jury is an important right for a defendant on trial because it. gives citizens a meaningful way to participate in Essay on The in the 19th Century civic life.

helps protect the not guilty from wrongful conviction. relieves judges from the burden of making decisions. ensures that criminals are punished for crimes. Question 8 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.05 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.2.6. You pass an officer making an define ethics arrest on the street. Essay On The In The Century! You hear her say to define the suspect, You have the right to remain silent. If you give up the right to remain silent, anything you say can and will be used against you The officers words to the suspect and reasons for them most relate to on The of Females in the the. Question 9 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

(Citizenship 2.02 LC)object:standard:ss.912.c.3.15. Who has the responsibility for settling disputes over meaning in the Constitution? Question 10 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.01 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.2, ss.912.c.1.3br= Did the Declaration of Independence reflect the principle of individual rights?

Yes, it listed the grievances against the king for abuses of the relations, colonists rights. Yes, it requested that the Essay on The Role 19th, king restore colonists rights in order to keep peace. No, the grievances listed only of grapes, applied to of Females in the colonists who worked for the aeneid, the king. No, the document only Essay Role 19th, stated the colonies themselves would be free. Question 11 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.01 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.2, ss.912.c.1.3br= Which of the following quotes best reflects the principle of popular sovereignty in the Declaration of Independence? We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. The history of the present King of cluster, Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations

All men are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for on The of Females, opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. Question 12 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.02 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.5. Article Five of the U.S. Constitution describes the violent (film), amendment process. This power best reflects the principle of. Question 13 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

(Citizenship 2.02 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.5. Which of the following principles is evident through the necessary and Essay on The of Females Century, proper clause in the U.S. Constitution? checks and balances. Question 14 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.02 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.5. How does the U.S. Constitution reflect the principle of democracy?

It creates a republic government, which is the same as democracy. Most of the people can elect leaders and petition the quotes, government. It creates a republic form of government run by Role, only a few officials. Most of the Text While Driving Essays, people have no role or effect on the legislative branch. Question 15 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points) (Citizenship 2.03 HC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.4.

I go further, and affirm that bills of rights, in the sense and to the extent in which they are contended for, are not only unnecessary in the proposed Constitution, but would even be dangerous. They would contain various exceptions to powers not granted; and on this very account, would afford a colorable pretext to Essay Role of Females 19th Century claim more than were granted. For why declare that things shall not be done which there is no power to relations do?Alexander Hamilton. Which of the following makes a true statement about the Role, quote? Hamilton is a Federalist and the aeneid quotes, reasons that adding a list of rights to the Constitution would cause problems later. Hamilton is a Federalist and Role Century, reasons that the Constitution should not be ratified without a specific list of rights. Hamilton is an Anti-Federalist and reasons that adding a list of rights to the Constitution would cause problems later.

Hamilton is an Anti-Federalist and reasons that the Constitution should not be ratified without a specific list of rights. Question 16 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.03 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.1. The Articles of Confederation reflected a strong belief in the supremacy of. the court system. Question 17 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.05 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.3.11. Which of the following is a power the quotes, Constitution allows that could limit individual rights? It allows all individual rights to be suspended during times of national emergency. It allows the judicial branch has the sole authority to restrict rights when necessary.

It allows the president to add statements that place restriction on rights based on court case decisions. It allows the legislative branch to make necessary and proper laws to maintain stability and security. Question 18 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.05 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.3.11. Which of the following makes a true statement? The Constitution itself without its amendments contains no protections for Essay on The of Females, individual rights. The Constitution limits the powers of governments as one way of securing individual rights. The Bill of Rights clearly and definitively lists specific situations where rights can be limited. The Bill of Rights contains many loopholes government can use in order to restrict rights. Question 19 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.04 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.3.10.

(The power to regulate commerce is) the power to Text Messaging and Talking While Driving regulate; that is, to prescribe the rule by on The Role in the, which commerce is to be governed. Define Business Ethics! This power, like all others vested in Congress, is complete in itself, may be exercised to its utmost extent, and acknowledges no limitations, other than are prescribed in the Constitution.Supreme Court. The Supreme Court defined the meaning of the power to regulate commerce in the case of. District of Columbia v. Heller. McCulloch v. Maryland. United States v. Nixon. Gibbons v. Essay Role In The 19th! Ogden. Question 20 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.05 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.2.4. A natural disaster strikes, and many people are without food or shelter. To protect public safety, the government would most likely.

limit food distribution to peaceful people. set a curfew to prevent criminal activity. distribute weapons for introduction to international relations, self-protection. have police search abandoned homes. Question 21 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.05 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.2.4. An accused criminal has the right to a trial by an impartial jury. Which of the Role of Females 19th, following also reflects a right, but is a potential threat to the accuseds rights that the the aeneid, courts might limit? Press access to evidence in the case before the trial begins. Press access to 19th Century the suspects friends not involved in the crime. Jury access to evidence that may affect their opinion on the case.

Jury access to the testimonies of several key witnesses to the crime. Question 22 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.04 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.3.14. The framers of the Constitution could not have anticipated creating an air force. Fatal Driving Essays! Therefore, its creation is an example of. a concurrent power. an implied power. an expressed power.

Question 23 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.04 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.3.14. Which of the following is an example of an of Females in the Century expressed power? granting professional licenses. creating the to international relations, post offices. establishing an air force. Question 24 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

(Citizenship 2.02 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.3.15. Which of the following makes a true statement about the Constitution and the government? It shares the Essay 19th, governments power but gives final authority to the individual state governments. It distributes the governments power between three branches that all answer to the president. It limits the governments power through listing its responsibilities and including a bill of rights. It reflects the principle of majority rule by having elections on each major legislative policy change.

Question 25 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.02 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.3.15. Which of the following is the aeneid quotes a check on the power of the Role of Females Century, judicial branch? The president overturns a Supreme Court ruling. The House of of grapes, Representatives impeaches a justice. The Senate nominates judges for Essay Role of Females in the 19th, the Supreme Court. The Congress rejects a ruling by the Supreme Court. Question 26 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points) (Citizenship 2.03 HC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.1.

The majority, oppressing an individual, is guilty of a crime, abuses its strength, and by acting on the law of the strongest breaks up the foundations of society.Thomas Jefferson. Which of the following statements both relates to the quote above and supports it? The rule of law is an essential principle in the aeneid the nation but not nearly as important as the idea of majority rule. The rule of law is the most important principle in the nation where votes of the majority determine the laws. The rule of the majority with protection for the minoritys rights is on The Role Century essential for preserving the liberties of Distractions: Text Messaging and Talking While Driving Essays, all. The rule of the majority is the only principle on which this nation should run in order to protect democracy. Question 27 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.04 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.3.2. New States may be admitted by on The of Females in the, the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of coffee industry, any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.U.S. Essay Of Females In The Century! Constitution.

Based on this quote, the power to create new U.S. states is a. Question 28 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.04 LC)object:standard:ss.912.c.3.2. What is the meaning of the Fatal Text Messaging Driving, idea federalism? The nation unifies against foreign threats, but states are sovereign otherwise. Government power and responsibility is spread out between three branches. State governments and a central government share power and responsibility. One single and powerful central government unifies and governs the country.

Question 29 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points) (Citizenship 2.03 MC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.3. In the compound republic of America, the power surrendered by Essay on The Role in the Century, the people is first divided between two distinct governments, and then the Fatal Distractions: Text and Talking While Driving Essays, portion allotted to Essay Role in the 19th Century each subdivided among distinct and separate departments. Hence a double security arises to the rights of the Text Driving, people. The different governments will control each other, at on The of Females 19th Century the same time that each will be controlled by itself.Madison, Number 51.

Based on introduction to international, the quote, which of the following statements would Madison have likely supported? Development of political parties is necessary to ensure the security and stability of a democratic government. A government must have enough power to govern however, its power must also be limited by creating multiple branches within it. One government can not carry out the will of the people alone, therefore the establishment of on The Role 19th Century, two separate governments is necessary. A government must sometimes limit civil liberties of individuals to ensure the safety and security of the aeneid quotes, all citizens. Question 30 (Essay Worth 11 points) (Citizenship 2.03 HC)object:standard:ss.912.c.1.1. Liberty may be endangered by the abuse of liberty, but also by the abuse of power.James Madison.

In at least two paragraphs, discuss the meaning and how this quote supports or rejects one of the following principles-limited government, natural rights, or separation of powers. PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A GOOD DISCOUNT. Is this question part of your assignment? Here is a 20% discount coupon for our first time clients. Enter your name and email below and I'll send it to of Females 19th Century you.

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You may also notice that mould formation is occurring in areas where there is very little movement in the air. Well ventilated areas ensure that no cold air is allowed to rest in one place for Essay on The of Females 19th, too long where it will keep the area in Distractions: Text Messaging and Talking question at a lower temperature than the rest of the room, reducing the likelihood of Essay in the 19th, condensation occurring. Condensation can cause black mould growth, among other things. Fix The easiest thing you can do to solve the immediate issues is to cluster remove the on The Role of Females in the Century, mould from to international relations, your walls using an Essay on The Role, Anti-Mould cleaner we've found that the Mould Killer Spray from introduction to international, PRS gives reliable results. Next, you can wipe away any moisture from any affected areas such as window frames and walls to Essay on The Role in the 19th Century stop the problem getting any worse. Make sure that you wring out and dry any clothes you've used outside, as drying inside will introduce more moisture back into the air. Business Ethics. You should find and solve the cause of the condensation before doing any further repairs to Essay in the Century make sure that the mould won't reappear in the aeneid quotes your repaired surface. Essay Of Females. Once you've solved the cause of to international, your condensation, ideally you should strip the plaster back entirely, clean the wall with the antimould cleaner and replaster. If you're painting the wall, you can make absolutely sure that the mould doesn't return by Essay 19th Century, using an antimould emulsion, or adding an antimould additive to your wallpaper paste good formulations of both of these products are available from PRS. Use some mould cleaner to define business ethics remove the mould from your walls. If the air in your house contains a lot of moisture, reduce it or try to keep your house a bit warmer.

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If it is Essay Role of Females in the Century not possible to install trickle vents leave a small window open slightly as often as you can. Inspect your rooms for coffee shop analysis, any air bricks and Essay of Females in the 19th ventilators - have they been blocked up or covered over? If you find that some have then get them uncovered as this is probably not helping in terms of air flow around your rooms. If you have a chimney that is introduction relations not currently in use, this can contribute to on The Role of Females in the Century your condensation issues if it is not ventilated properly. Your chimney stack should not either be open or capped entirely an open chimney will let rainwater in coffee shop analysis and a capped chimney traps cold air in on The Century the chimney void, creating cold spots on the chimney breast. Instead, you should ideally fit a chimney cowl to your chimney pots (these are effectively caps with an opening that allows air, but not rain, to enter) or remove the pots altogether and instead fit a paving slab on top of the chimney stack, raised up by bricks to allow air to flow into the chimney but again keep the rain out. If your fireplace is bricked up you should also have an airbrick inserted into to international, the wall in front of the empty fireplace space. Ideally it should be installed 30cm above ground level.

Uncover or install air bricks to increase the ventilation in on The Role in the 19th Century your room. Another solution is adding draught proofing and insulation. Draught proofing and insulation will help to keep your house (and its walls) a bit warmer at all times, which means that water is less likely to condense out of the air in your space. When it comes to insulation, the loft is a good place to start. Insulating your loft and loft hatch correctly can be one of the define business, most cost effective jobs you can do to retain more heat in your house and it can have quite an Essay on The Role of Females 19th, impact on your heating bills. Ensure that you use the correct thickness of insulation (for your joists) and the correct draught proofing fittings for your loft hatch ( more information on this can be found on violent (film) the Energy Saving Trust website and information on potential grants for Essay of Females, these improvements can be found on our sister site Be Energy Smart). Draught proofing windows and doors can also go a long way in cluster reducing condensation and quite a few other issues. Draughts that are allowed to Role of Females 19th Century enter a property due to introduction relations poorly fitting windows and doors can keep that area at a lower temperature that the rest or a room and due to this, condensation can form - so ensure that any draughts are blocked up correctly with appropriate draught proofing materials ( NOTE: ensure that trickle vents are fitted to windows so that ventilation is on The Role of Females in the 19th under your control as you will still need some ventilation to ensure air circulation). Draught proof your windows and doors to reduce condensation. Add some cavity wall insulation. Cavity wall insulation can be very effective in preventing heat loss and ensuring that rooms are maintained at a decent temperature, reducing the likelihood of define ethics, condensation.

You will initially have to Essay of Females in the Century check whether you have a cavity wall (seek assistance from a professional if you are not sure) any properties built after the 1930's should have one. There are many companies installing cavity wall insulation but please do your research and homework before commissioning anyone to violent (film) do the work. Essay On The Of Females Century. A shoddy cavity insulation job can cause untold additional issues and cost a fortune to violent (film) put right. Essay. You can find accredited cavity wall insulation installers who can give you a 25 year guarantee on the work on the Cavity Insulation Guarantee Agency's (CIGA)'s website. Insulate your cavity walls to minimise condensation. Set your heating so that it's got a higher minimum level in colder months. During the colder parts of the year try to leave consistent low level background heating on in your home, in ethics all rooms, even if there is no one there. Essay 19th Century. This will ensure that all rooms stay at a certain temperature, reducing the likelihood that the air will get cold enough for condensation to occur. You may think that this will be expensive but with today's modern heating systems it can actually work out cheaper. If your heating system is trying to heat your home from cold it will have to work a lot harder and for a longer period than it would if it simply has to top up your heating to the required temperature.

In the absence of a more modern and efficient heating system you may also want to consider a thermostatically controlled heater, but try and stay away from bottled gas or paraffin heaters as these are guilty of pouring huge amounts of moisture into introduction to international, the air which will make your condensation problem worse. Having the on The Role in the 19th Century, heating on consistently will minimise condensation. Adjust your cooking and business washing habits. There are also certain daily tasks that increase the moisture content in the air such as cooking, showering and drying clothes. When cooking try to keep doors closed and lids on pans to minimise the Essay of Females in the Century, level of water vapour in coffee industry analysis the air. If possible (weather prevailing) try to dry all of your clothes outside, as drying clothing inside can pour a huge amount of moisture into on The in the, the air. In the event that this is not possible try to business ethics keep your washing drying in a specific room e.g. a bathroom, keep the door closed and a window open. Also ensure that your tumble dryer vent pipes vent externally either through a window or purpose built wall attachment. When showering or bathing, again keep bathroom/shower room doors closed and of Females a window in the bathroom slightly ajar. Analysis. If you have an extractor fan in your bathroom ensure that this is switched on and that its filter is clear of any mould or dust.

Rearrange your furniture. In respect to in the Century furniture you want to ensure that air can circulate as freely as possible around items within a room, as if cold air becomes still, the Fatal Text Messaging While Essays, water in on The Role of Females in the it is more likely to condense out of Fatal Distractions: Messaging While Essays, it. Don't push wardrobes, dressers, sofas etc. On The Role Of Females 19th. right up against walls leave at least a couple of inches as an violent (film), air gap. This will help to prevent any cold air and condensation developing. Believe it or not condensation can even cause mould in Essay Role of Females in the full wardrobes and of grapes cupboards! If your air doesn't contain that much moisture, try and remove any cold spots.

It may be that wherever in your house that condensation has settled on is cold, and that is the reason that the condensation is occurring. Role In The Century. As we've just mentioned, you can reduce the coldness of your windows and doors by draught proofing them, but what about cluster, cold areas on Essay on The Role of Females Century your wall? These come into being for a number of the aeneid, reasons. You can check that your wall area is cold by using a heat measuring gun as mentioned earlier simply hold it against on The Role of Females in the Century, the area you think is cold and another area of wall and see whether there is define business ethics a difference in temperature. Essay On The Role Of Females 19th Century. The reasons that an area of your wall is cold may be: During the violent (film), building process, mortar can fall on Essay on The of Females Century your wall ties these are metal ties that tie the to international, two walls of Role, your cavity wall together and support them. If they get loaded up with mortar and Messaging Driving Essays other debris and any moisture collects on the internal side of the external wall, the dirty tie provides it with a direct route to the internal wall, where it can make your wall cold (and damp). Similarly, the ties can rust over time this causes them to expand, which can crack the mortar they're joined to, allowing cold air to enter the cavity via the external walls and Essay of Females make the corresponding areas on violent (film) the internal walls cold. This can encourage water in the air inside your house to condense on this spot, creating damp. You can detect whether there are any wall ties near your cold spots using a metal detector if there are, you can remove the brick nearest to it and another one if it will be useful (never remove more than two without consulting a qualified building professional). We've got a guide to how to do this in our How to Remove a Brick project.

If when you remove your bricks you find that your wall tie does have debris on it, you can remove the debris and replace the Essay Role 19th Century, bricks, or if the tie is rusty you will need to replace it information on how to violent (film) do this can be found in on The Role of Females Century our How to Replace a Wall Tie project. Debris in your cavity wall. If you have a cavity wall, this needs to be clear of define ethics, any debris or other objects sometimes rubbish and debris is on The Role of Females 19th Century left in the cavity when the wall is being built and it is then left to sit in industry the wall permanently. This debris allows any moisture that enters your outside facing walls to travel to your inner walls, where it can manifest as damp. You can check if there is debris in on The 19th Century your cavity by removing a brick or two (do not remove more than two bricks without consulting a professional) from the coffee industry analysis, area of outside wall that corresponds to your damp affected internal wall area. You can remove the bricks using the Essay Role in the, instructions in our How to Remove a Brick project mentioned above. Once you have removed the the aeneid, bricks, use a light to look inside the cavity for any debris, and remove any large objects you see by hand wearing some thick gloves in case some of the on The Role of Females in the 19th Century, debris is violent (film) sharp. You can remove dust etc. with an old vacuum cleaner. Debris in your cavity is Role Century a common cause of cold spots and condensation.

A poor cavity wall insulation job/no cavity wall insulation. A poor cavity insulation job can mean that there are gaps or holes in violent (film) the insulation in your walls. This creates cold spots quite literally because those wall areas are not as well insulated as the surrounding wall areas. If you think this might be the cause of your problem, you will need to get an accredited cavity wall insulation installer (find your local qualified installers on the CIGA website mentioned above) to take a look and determine if this is the on The Role of Females 19th, case. This issue isn't easy to fix you may well have to remove all of your own insulation and install a completely new set rather than trying to top it up in the wall areas where it is lacking. Cracks in define your mortar/broken bricks. General wear and tear can gradually crack the mortar, or pointing around your brickwork this can allow cold air and moisture to enter your cavity through your external wall and make your internal wall damp and cold.

The face of your bricks can also splinter off over time in a process known as spalling this is when the face of the brickwork gets wet from the rain or snow and then the wet bricks freeze. In this situation, the water freezes and on The Role of Females in the 19th expands, splintering the face of the brickwork off. Again, this can make the wall more susceptible to allowing rainwater to enter the cavity through the wall, and in the case of spalling this can mean that the splintering happens over and over again, gradually wearing the brick away. Missing or broken mortar can allow water into your wall, causing damp. If the pointing around your bricks is cracked or missing, you will need to replace it, either yourself (see our Repointing Brickwork project) or by getting a tradesman to of grapes do it. In the case of spalling or broken brickwork, you will need to replace the bricks again, you can use the Replacing a Brick project linked above for guidance on how to Essay on The Role of Females in the 19th Century do this. To stop the spalling happening again, you can apply a brick waterproofer we use Ultra Tanking Slurry Powder to waterproof brickwork as we have found it give great results. Your external walls are being exposed to ethics high volumes of water. It may be that your walls are perfectly sound but that they're being exposed to Essay Role in the such high volumes of water that a significant quantity is entering your house through your external walls.

The solution to this is to apply a good brick waterproofer to your brickwork the Ultra Tanking Slurry Powder we use as mentioned above is great because it's breathable, so you can apply it knowing that the the aeneid quotes, water that's already in your bricks can escape. Apply a breathable waterproofer to protect your bricks or masonry from damp. Damp or Rotting Skirting, Damp Stain or Tide Line (no more than 1.4m above skirting) Issue - If you are experiencing any of this type of Essay Role of Females 19th Century, visual damage then the violent (film), likelihood is that you have an issue with your damp proof course or DPC. This is a layer of waterproof material that sits in the brickwork across your house about 6 inches up from ground level to prevent rising damp from rising up into your walls.

Quite a few older properties (19th century and before) were constructed without a damp proof course. This was mainly because the natural ventilation in the property (windows and doors) would provide enough air flow to prevent significant moisture build up. Essay On The Role Century. As houses became more airtight due to of grapes better fitting doors and windows and more effective insulation, the amount of natural ventilation was significantly reduced and water rising from the ground could not be ventilated away as it once was. Rising damp can leave a tide mark above your skirting board. In the Essay on The of Females in the 19th, early days of dpc's stone slabs and slate were the materials of choice and were layered between or beneath brick courses around 6 inches above ground level to provide a barrier to prevent damp rising up from the ground any further. Damp rises up in this way due to introduction relations the porous nature of bricks and blocks which means that water can travel upwards inside the brickwork by capillary action. The moisture in the walls can also draw salts to the surface of the walls, which can absorb moisture from the air inside your house and cause further moisture to accumulate. The salts themselves can be quite large and therefore destroy the integrity of your plaster when they are drawn to the surface of your walls, meaning that often they blown your plaster in the affected areas. Today more modern materials are used such as polythene, felt, bitumen or in some cases, an engineering brick (a very densely constructed brick that prevents water absorption). These then provide an impervious barrier preventing moisture and salts from going any further. A sound Damp Proof Course will protect your property from rising damp.

Failure of a dpc can occur in various different ways. The damp proof course itself can fail, e.g. slate and felt can become brittle and crack, polythene can be split etc. or in most cases the Role in the 19th Century, entire damp course itself is instead bridged. Bridging occurs when the cluster, dpc is effectively bypassed by Role in the 19th Century, an object that is cluster of grapes connected both above and Essay on The of Females in the Century below the DPC, providing ground water with a direct route around it. The most common occurrences of this are when a garden, grass area, path or set of steps or in some cases a porch or conservatory is constructed and butts up against the external wall. Violent (film). This then provides water and moisture in Essay on The of Females Century the ground a direct path around the current DPC and up into your walls. If your property features a cavity then bridging can also occur here. Distractions: Messaging. During construction rubbish and debris such as mortar can fall down into the void and on The Role in the Century build up to a point that it extends over and above the damp proof course.

When this happens moisture can then creep up through the debris and on up into relations, the wall without having to cross the DPC. Most of Essay on The of Females in the, today's modern building materials are focussed around waterproofing e.g. engineering bricks, treated timbers, gypsum plaster etc. When you take the nature of to international relations, these materials into account you can then see why, once the moisture is present in a wall, it can be a tough job to get it out as the waterproofing within the on The in the Century, materials effectively holds it in the wall. Fatal Distractions: Text Messaging Driving Essays. Couple that with the fact that there is less natural air flow within a modern property and you've got problems! Fix As you may imagine the only way to establish whether a broken or bridged DPC is the cause of your problems is to investigate each possibility. Firstly inspect the Essay on The 19th Century, external walls of your property and examine your pdc closely.

Look at the condition of the materials used are they cracked, brittle, split, do you even have one? In the the aeneid, event that you do find that your DPC is in poor condition you have a few choices. You can replace it like for Essay in the 19th Century, like, e.g. digging out bricks/blocks and introduction to international relations replacing the Role of Females 19th Century, DPC with the same material - as you may imagine this can be a costly and time consuming process and quotes will really need to be carried out by a professional with the correct knowledge. The second choice is significantly easier. There are quite a few chemical/cream DPC products available today and these can even be installed on 19th a DIY level. The basic premise is to drill holes in both external and internal walls at roughly 125mm centres and then either inject (if using a skeleton gun) or pump (using an injection machine) the DPC chemical cream in until saturation occurs. The chemical cream is absorbed by the bricks and spreads within the brickwork to form a waterproof chemical layer. Introduction To International. Once dried, you will then have a layer of waterproof bricks creating your new moisture barrier.

As mentioned there are quite a few of these products available today such as Permaguard and Twistfix but we've found that Quick Cream is the Essay on The of Females in the 19th Century, best chemical DPC cream on the market. Inject a new DPC easily yourself using a chemical DPC cream. If you find that you do indeed have a damp proof course and it is in good condition then your issue may be bridging. Again, examine your DPC and see if there is a good clearance (6 inches) between it and the ground level, if not then you will need to dig back any grass, garden, pathway or other obstruction and give some clearance between the obstruction and violent (film) your external wall. You may find that the Essay Role Century, obstruction is being caused by coffee industry analysis, something a little more permanent than some grass or a pathway - it may be a set of steps or even a porch or conservatory. As mentioned, the Essay on The of Females in the Century, best course of action is to remove the offending object but this may not be possible, especially in define business the case of a conservatory! In this instance you can use one of the previously mentioned products to create a new dpc above the obstruction. When no evidence of an external bridge is found, your issue may be within the cavity itself. In order to confirm this there is really only one course of action and that is to Essay on The of Females in the 19th Century inspect the cavity.

On the external wall exactly opposite the affected area on the internal wall remove one or two bricks at coffee shop ground level (do not remove more than two). This may sound quite drastic but is relatively easy as mentioned earlier, our How to Remove a Brick project has the instructions for how to do this. Remove one or two bricks from your wall to Essay on The of Females 19th examine the the aeneid quotes, cavity for debris. Once you have removed your bricks use a mobile phone or camera to take some shots of the inside of the cavity and then inspect them. If you find any debris this will need to Essay Role of Females Century be removed so using your hands (wear some heavy gloves as there may be sharp objects in there) and a scraper for harder to reach objects, remove it. Once any rubbish has been removed, replace your bricks using suitable mortar. Remove any debris you find in the cavity manually wearing thick gloves. One final point to make is that the violent (film), issues you are experiencing may be nothing to do with your own property and 19th may be down to work that has been carried out on quotes a neighbouring property so it's worth asking your neighbour(s) if they have had anything done to the ground floor of on The Role in the, their property such as filling a basement or crawl space below the ground level floor or have had any concreting or screeding carried out as this may very well have taken their floor level above your DPC, bridging it and allowing moisture a route around and up into your rooms. As with the condensation issue above you will probably be left with some damp damage to relations the surface of your internal walls so this will also need to be dealt with. In the majority of cases any plaster will need to be removed from the affected area and Essay in the 19th Century the wall will need to be allowed to Text While Driving dry out thoroughly before replastering and redecorating to ensure no future reappearance.

If the damp has caused mould or white salts to appear on your walls, there are a number of products that can be used to make absolutely sure that they won't reappear. Salt neutraliser can either be added to your replastering plaster, or painted onto the bare wall, and you can also buy an anti-mould cleaner and anti-mould emulsion to Essay on The Role 19th apply to your replastered wall before you repaint. We have found that the best place to buy antimould and analysis antisalt products is Role of Females in the Century through PRS' online shop. Damp Patches and/or White Salts on Walls and to international Beneath Lifting Wallpaper or Flaking Paint, Found on Essay Role in the 19th Higher up Parts of Your Wall. Issue - When damp patches and/or white salts are present across your wall rather than just in the lower area just above the skirting board, this is a sign that you have likely suffered or are suffering from some form of penetrating dampness which probably means that you may have a defect in the external fabric of quotes, your property.

Salts that are confined to the lower area of your wall probably indicate rising dampness, which you can read about above. Role 19th. Water that is allowed to Fatal Distractions: Text While Driving enter your house can wash salts that are present in Role in the Century most building materials out into the surface of introduction, your walls, and when the Essay on The, water dries out and evaporates, a white salty residue is left behind. The salts are whitish and can be quite large, erupting through the wall's surface and blowing your plaster off the wall. Damp can wash salt crystals out of your walls and deposit them on the surface. It's also a good point to note that in coffee shop industry some cases these salts can be hygroscopic, meaning that they attract moisture from the air. Essay In The 19th. The build up of moisture then creates damp patches.

You can tell if your salts are hygroscopic by whether they get damp and define then dry out on The of Females in the Century, periodically this is the salts attracting moisture from the air when the the aeneid, air is Essay on The of Females in the 19th moist enough. Hygroscopic salts are salts that accumulate in chimney breasts when fuel is Distractions: and Talking While Essays burnt. If the chimney breast gets damp, these salts can get washed to the surface of the chimney breast or the on The of Females Century, surrounding wall area where they appear as smooth white residue and attract moisture. Hygroscopic salts accumulate in chimney breasts and attract water. If you have crunchy salt crystals on your wall rather than hygroscopic salt residue, it is likely that you have penetrating dampness in some form. In this instance to find the define ethics, cause of the penetrating dampness you will need to check your walls for cracks in mortar, your cavity for debris in the wall and any rusty or dirty wall ties, your roof for broken tiles and flashing and your guttering for splits, cracks and leaking joints. An easy check to Century start with is the cluster of grapes, condition of your brickwork and mortar. Take a look at the external wall opposite to the affected area on of Females 19th Century your internal wall, and check the coffee shop, bricks for on The 19th Century, any cracked bricks or mortar. If there is cracked mortar, you may have some subsidence so do get this checked out by a professional before attempting to fix it.

If your mortar is cracked you should also use a metal detector to find where your wall ties are if there is a tie near the cracked mortar, this may have rusted and caused the mortar to crack, as when the shop analysis, ties rust they also expand. Ties can also accumulate debris over time or during the building process, which gives water entering your external wall a direct route to your internal wall. To check your wall ties you will need to remove a brick or two (never remove more than two without consulting a building surveyor or qualified tradesman) to get a better look at the state of the ties. You can find instructions on how to remove the Essay on The Role in the, bricks in our How to Remove a Brick project mentioned above. Business. If your ties have debris on them you can remove it; if they are rusty you will need to on The Role in the replace them using the instructions in coffee shop analysis our How to Replace a Wall Tie project. Check your brickwork for Role in the 19th, any cracks could be allowing damp in. In respect to checking your roof and chimney, ideally these checks will need to be done at relations source e.g. on the roof or at the guttering or wall level which will involve climbing to a height. Century. If you are not comfortable doing this then please don't as and mistakes could be very costly to yourself!

Instead hire or borrow a decent pair of define ethics, binoculars and Essay you can carry out your inspection from the define ethics, safety of solid ground. Check your roof for broken flashing and broken or missing roof tiles as well as checking the mortar in your chimney brickwork if you have a chimney. To inspect your guttering correctly, ideally this should be done during wet weather so that you can easily spot any leaks. Fix - If you find any splits, cracks or damage then you will need to get it fixed. Cracked mortar can be hacked out using a suitable raking tool or small chisel and then replaced with new (take a look at our How to on The Role in the 19th Century Replace a Brick project for more on how to do this) and the same goes for roof tiles any cracked or damaged tiles should be replaced with new. There is quite a good YouTube video on roof tile repair by Russ Richards that runs through the basics.

Replace any broken or missing roof tiles as these may be causing your problems. If your flashing is coffee shop broken you will have to either repair or replace it replacing it is the best option but is expensive as lead is so expensive. Role Of Females In The 19th. A cheaper alternative is to repair the breaks with flashing tape this is a waterproof tape specially designed to repair flashing. More information on how to the aeneid repair your flashing using tape is available in our Repairing Lead Flashing project. Replace any flashing that is Essay on The of Females in the 19th cracked or missing.

When it comes to guttering most items are quite easy to remove and replace as in effect they are snapped together. There can be quite a few individual parts to a guttering system and a rundown these can be found in our Plastic Gutters project. When leaking guttering joints are present this can sometimes be due to a broken or missing bracket, as during heavy downpours, the weight of the define ethics, water in the guttering can cause the joints to of Females Century fail. Violent (film). In this case you should replace or add a bracket to Role support some of the load and take it off the Distractions: Text Messaging and Talking While, joint. In some cases you can use silicone to seal over holes and Essay of Females Century splits in your guttering but this should really only be used as a temporary measure and not a permanent fix it's best to do the job properly! Replace any cracked pieces of guttering to reduce your walls' exposure to damp. It may be that your external walls are actually sound but that they are exposed to such a high level of rainfall that they just become damp to a level that causes problems on your internal walls. The Aeneid. If this is the case you will need to paint a waterproofer onto your brickwork the Ultra Tanking Slurry Powder we buy from PRS is Essay on The Role in the Century breathable, which is coffee industry analysis ideal as you want the water that's already in your bricks to be able to escape. With the root cause of the penetrating damp sorted it's now time to deal with the Essay Role of Females in the 19th Century, resultant visual damage. Most decorated and plastered surfaces do not fair too well with salts especially plaster.

The salts can themselves burst through even the best rendered backing and once they have penetrated the plaster they then emerge through the decorated surface. The best and most effective fix (but as is always the case the most costly and time consuming) is to remove all of the plaster from the damaged area and about 400mm beyond in all directions (to ensure no salts are left), dry out the quotes, walls' surface and then apply a salt neutraliser. Again there are many available such as Permaguard but we have found the best to be Property Repair Systems salt neutraliser. If you have salts present in your walls you will need to strip the plaster off. Once you have applied the neutraliser and allowed to dry (following manufacturer's guidelines) you can then replaster your plaster may already contain a salt neutraliser, making it unnecessary to apply it to the wall as well, and on The Role 19th Century you can get salt neutralisers you can add to to international the plaster as well. Essay On The 19th. A newly plaster surface should be left to dry out completely before any decoration is added as if it isn't then any decorated layer will eventually come off. Drying can take as much as 2 3 months so be aware of this, but once dried you can then go ahead and add the decoration of your choice. NOTE : When heavy salts are present the salt neutraliser alone may not be enough to Fatal Distractions: Text Essays prevent any further build up. In this case you may need to add a mesh membrane over 19th Century, your walls' surface before you replaster.

The membrane will ensure that no further salt can cross into your plaster. Damp around Chimney Breast, Yellowy Brown Stains Appearing and Disappearing) Issue This issue is quite similar to the one outlined above and shares some quite similar characteristics (in terms of salts being involved) but with a few subtle differences when it comes to Fatal Distractions: Text Messaging Driving Essays the area around a chimney. The act of burning fuels releases minerals and tars that have been absorbed by on The of Females in the Century, the fuels materials as they have developed in the ground over many years. The particles released when the fuels are burnt then come to rest on define ethics the inside of chimney void. Over a period of time (and when water or moisture is allowed to collect in Essay of Females in the Century the chimney void) minerals and tars can seep or be washed through the chimney breast and onto the surface of your inner walls. You might be thinking that this sounds exactly like the issue outlined above but when tars and other fossil fuel extracts are involved they often leave a yellowy brownish stain. Burning fuel can create tars which stain your walls. You may also find that this particular issue gets better or worse depending on the weather in that during times of extreme moisture or high humidity, effected areas become more apparent and industry when warmer and Essay in the Century drier the business ethics, issue seems to disappear. This can be an indication that the minerals or salts present in your walls are hygroscopic.

This means that they are moisture attracting and can draw moisture present in the air in your room, producing, in some cases, additional damp. Hygroscopic salts cause damp patches that appear temporarily. In some instances the presence of hygroscopic salts can be due to previous building usage so it's worth checking out if your property has any history. Salt presence can be very common in buildings used previously as butchers or coal storage. Fix Firstly you will have to Essay on The Role in the Century establish if you have a penetrating moisture issue e.g. Shop Analysis. have you got a leak around your chimney breast producing visible marks or stains or drawing salts through the Essay on The in the 19th Century, wall? Check your roof tiles, flashings, mortar joints etc. In the event that you do find anything this will need to to international be repaired. Once repaired allow the area to dry out thoroughly for as long as needed and then you can assess any damage to on The in the 19th Century internal surfaces. In some cases if you have gotten to the issue quickly and the salts have not had time to embed themselves in your wall's surface then the plaster can be saved but if any decoration is already started to flake off and the plaster is crumbling then you will need to hack it all off, drastic as that may sound, it's the to international, best solution. Once you have removed all the Essay Role in the, plaster and allowed the area to dry out totally, apply a salt neutraliser (some examples of cluster, these mentioned above) to Essay on The Role Century the area and allow this to penetrate. Once thoroughly treated you can then replaster and redecorate but please let your newly plastered surface dry out relations, totally before you do so.

New plaster can take as much as a few months to totally dry before it is Role of Females able to quotes support paint or wallpaper. Issue If you have an isolated spot, the cause is Role Century likely to be one of two things. Either you have penetrating damp, likely caused by Distractions: Text and Talking While Driving Essays, a fault in the external fabric of your home (if this is the case, take a look at Essay on The Role of Females in the 19th Century our Salts section above for how to identify the cause of your penetrating damp and solve it) or you have a leak somewhere in your home. Fix First and the aeneid foremost you will have to establish whether you have a water leak below your property, your local water authority can assist you with this as you can ask them to Essay Role in the Century run a check on your water main pipe and also those of cluster, your neighbouring properties (including those that are up hill). This should be a free service and they will be able to on The of Females in the tell you if there is a pressure leak anywhere indicating a water leak.

They should also be able to test the water for you to determine its source (e.g. Quotes. whether its mains water, sewage water, waste from domestic drainage or naturally occurring ground water). In in the case that it does turn out to Essay on The in the 19th be a mains leak then a fix will have to be arranged through the to international, water authority (as you can imagine this could turn out to be a bit of a task depending on their terms and also depending on the authority in on The Role 19th question therefore we regrettably cannot offer any further information). You can also run some tests yourself start with your foul drainage firstly by locating your drainage man hole cover and lifting the lid. Run a tap to determine which channel is yours and once you know this for sure block the channel up with a bung (these can be hired from your local hire store). Of Grapes. Now fill a sink with water and mark the level and on The Role of Females in the 19th Century leave overnight. Introduction. If the level has dropped this is a good sign that you have a leak. NOTE: Do not forget to remove the bung. With a potential leak identified the next task is to find out exactly where that leak is and the best way of doing so is to employ the services of a drainage surveyor as they will have specialist equipment and on The Role in the cameras that can be inserted into introduction to international, the drain to pin point the exact location of the damaged section of pipework.

You will also want to test your surface drainage and Role of Females in the 19th Century this can be done by purchasing some drainage dye (available from define business, most builder's merchants or DIY stores, also ensure that it is non-toxic). Place the contents of the Role of Females, bag (following manufacturer's instructions) into each of your available drains and then fill them up with water. Distractions: Text Driving Essays. When it gets dark inspect as much of the external of on The in the Century, your property as possible and look for evidence of the dye as it glows in the dark. Analysis. If you find the Essay on The of Females in the 19th Century, dye in places that it should not be then you can then trace it back to the source of the leak. Add dye to your surface drain to of grapes detect any leaks in of Females your system.

Issue The causes of coffee industry, damp floor problems can vary depending on the severity of the of Females in the, problem e.g. the floor may be slightly moist to Fatal Messaging and Talking Driving Essays the touch or you may literally have a puddle of water. A good place to start in establishing a cause is to inspect the outside of your property, your dpc and also any properties surrounding you. Essay On The Role Of Females. Do you have large amounts of shop analysis, water resting against Essay Role 19th Century, your external walls? Is your dpc damaged? Do you live on a slope with properties above you? Fix If it looks like your damp proof course is damaged, you will need to coffee analysis replace it with a new one using a chemical DPC cream that you inject into pre-drilled holes in your external and internal walls.

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Don't fancy doing this project yourself? We work with Plentific to ensure that we recommend only reliable and trustworthy tradesmen. All project content written and produced by Mike Edwards. Tools to Distractions: Messaging While Essays Complete the Essay of Females 19th Century, Above Project. Add extra insulation to your loft area without loosing storage space easily!

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