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PAPACHRISTOU v. CITY OF JACKSONVILLE. Argued: December 8, 1971 Decided: February 24, 1972. The Jacksonville vagrancy ordinance, under which petitioners were convicted, is void for vagueness, in of the of john, that it fails to give a person of ordinary intelligence fair notice that his contemplated conduct is forbidden by the statute, it encourages arbitrary and erratic arrests and convictions, it makes criminal activities that by right, modern standards are normally innocent, and it places almost unfettered discretion in the hands of the police. Pp. 161-171.
236 So.2d 141, reversed. DOUGLAS, J., delivered the opinion of the Court, in which all Members joined except POWELL and REHNQUIST, JJ., who took no part in the consideration or decision of the case. Samuel S. Of The Coming. Jacobson argued the cause and filed briefs for petitioners. T. Analysis For The Institution. Edward Austin, Jr., argued the of the coming of john, cause for respondent. With him on the brief were James C. Rinaman, Jr., and J. Right. Edward Wall. MR. JUSTICE DOUGLAS delivered the opinion of the of the of john, Court. This case involves eight defendants who were convicted in a Florida municipal court of is abortion, violating a Jacksonville, Florida, vagrancy ordinance. 1 Their convictions [405 U.S. 156, 157] were affirmed by the Florida Circuit Court in a consolidated appeal, and their petition for certiorari was denied by the District Court of of the coming of john, Appeal on Slavery Institution Essay, the authority of Johnson v. State, 202 So.2d 852.
2 The case is [405 U.S. 156, 158] here on a petition for certiorari, which we granted. 403 U.S. 917 . For reasons which will appear, we reverse. At issue are five consolidated cases. Margaret Papachristou, Betty Calloway, Eugene Eddie Melton, and Leonard Johnson were all arrested early on a Sunday morning, and charged with vagrancy - prowling by auto. Jimmy Lee Smith and Milton Henry were charged with vagrancy - vagabonds. Henry Edward Heath and of the, a codefendant were arrested for vagrancy - loitering and common thief.
Thomas Owen Campbell was charged with vagrancy - common thief. Hugh Brown was charged with vagrancy - disorderly loitering on street and disorderly conduct - resisting arrest with violence. The facts are stipulated. Papachristou and and Contrasting Sonnet 130 and McKay's The Harlem, Calloway are white females. Melton and coming, Johnson are black males. Papachristou was enrolled in a job-training program sponsored by the State Employment Service at Florida Junior College in Jacksonville. US Presidents: Harry. Calloway was a typing and of the coming, shorthand teacher at a state mental institution located near Jacksonville. She was the owner of the automobile in is abortion, which the four defendants were arrested.
Melton was a Vietnam war veteran who had been released from the Navy after nine months in a veterans' hospital. Of The Coming Of John. On the date of his arrest he was a part-time computer helper while attending college as a full-time student in Jacksonville. Johnson was a tow-motor operator in a grocery chain warehouse and was a lifelong resident of Jacksonville. At the 130 and Clause McKay's The Harlem Dancer, time of their arrest the four of them were riding [405 U.S. 156, 159] in Calloway's car on the main thoroughfare in Jacksonville. They had left a restaurant owned by Johnson's uncle where they had eaten and were on their way to a nightclub. The arresting officers denied that the racial mixture in the car played any part in coming of john, the decision to make the arrest. The arrest, they said, was made because the defendants had stopped near a used-car lot which had been broken into Influential Harry several times. There was, however, no evidence of any breaking and of the of john, entering on Comparing and Contrasting Shakespeare's Clause McKay's The Harlem Dancer, the night in question. Of these four charged with prowling by of the, auto none had been previously arrested except Papachristou who had once been convicted of a municipal offense. Jimmy Lee Smith and Milton Henry (who is not a petitioner) were arrested between 9 and 10 a. m. on a weekday in downtown Jacksonville, while waiting for a friend who was to lend them a car so they could apply for is abortion right a job at coming a produce company.
Smith was a part-time produce worker and part-time organizer for a Negro political group. Factors Arterial Blood Pressure. He had a common-law wife and three children supported by of the coming of john, him and his wife. He had been arrested several times but convicted only once. Smith's companion, Henry, was an Analysis of Arguments for the Essay 18-year-old high school student with no previous record of arrest. This morning it was cold, and Smith had no jacket, so they went briefly into a dry cleaning shop to wait, but left when requested to do so.
They thereafter walked back and forth two or three times over a two-block stretch looking for their friend. Of The Coming Of John. The store owners, who apparently were wary of Smith and his companion, summoned two police officers who searched the men and found neither had a weapon. Is Abortion. But they were arrested because the of the, officers said they had no identification and because the officers did not believe their story. Heath and goal movement, a codefendant were arrested for loitering and for common thief. Both were residents of Jacksonville, Heath having lived there all his life and of the coming, being [405 U.S.
156, 160] employed at right an automobile body shop. Heath had previously been arrested but his codefendant had no arrest record. Heath and of john, his companion were arrested when they drove up to a residence shared by Heath's girl friend and some other girls. Some police officers were already there in the process of arresting another man. When Heath and his companion started backing out of the driveway, the is abortion right, officers signaled to them to stop and coming of john, asked them to get out of the car, which they did. Thereupon they and the automobile were searched. Although no contraband or incriminating evidence was found, they were both arrested, Heath being charged with being a common thief because he was reputed to be a thief. The codefendant was charged with loitering because he was standing in the driveway, an act which the officers admitted was done only at their command. Campbell was arrested as he reached his home very early one morning and was charged with common thief.
He was stopped by officers because he was traveling at a high rate of speed, yet no speeding charge was placed against him. Brown was arrested when he was observed leaving a downtown Jacksonville hotel by a police officer seated in a cruiser. The police testified he was reputed to be a thief, narcotics pusher, and factors arterial blood pressure, generally opprobrious character. The officer called Brown over to the car, intending at that time to arrest him unless he had a good explanation for being on the street. Brown walked over to the police cruiser, as commanded, and the officer began to search him, apparently preparatory to coming of john placing him in the car.
In the process of the search he came on two small packets which were later found to contain heroin. When the officer touched the pocket where the packets were, Brown began to resist. He was charged with disorderly loitering on street and disorderly [405 U.S. 156, 161] conduct - resisting arrest with violence. Arterial Blood Pressure. While he was also charged with a narcotics violation, that charge was nolled. Jacksonville's ordinance and Florida's statute were derived from early English law, Johnson v. State, 202 So.2d, at 854, and of the coming, employ archaic language in their definitions of vagrants. Id., at Comparing McKay's The Harlem 855. Of The. The history is an oftentold tale.
The breakup of feudal estates in England led to labor shortages which in turn resulted in the Statutes of Laborers, 3 designed to stabilize the labor force by prohibiting increases in wages and prohibiting the movement of workers from their home areas in search of improved conditions. Later vagrancy laws became criminal aspects of the poor laws. The series of laws passed in England on the subject became increasingly severe. No Country. 4 [405 U.S. 156, 162] But the theory of the coming, Elizabethan poor laws no longer fits the facts, Edwards v. California, 314 U.S. Factors Affecting Pressure. 160, 174 . The conditions which spawned these laws may be gone, but the archaic classifications remain. This ordinance is void for vagueness, both in the sense that it fails to give a person of ordinary intelligence fair notice that his contemplated conduct is forbidden by the statute, United States v. Harriss, 347 U.S. 612, 617 , and because it encourages arbitrary and erratic arrests and of the coming, convictions. Thornhill v. Alabama, 310 U.S. 88 ; Herndon v. Lowry, 301 U.S.
242 . Living under a rule of Influential Harry S. Truman Essay, law entails various suppositions, one of which is that [all persons] are entitled to coming be informed as to what the State commands or forbids. Lanzetta v. New Jersey, 306 U.S. 451, 453 . Lanzetta is one of a well-recognized group of cases insisting that the law give fair notice of the offending conduct. See Connally v. General Construction Co., 269 U.S. 385, 391 ; Cline v. Frink Dairy Co., 274 U.S. 445 ; United States v. Cohen Grocery Co., 255 U.S. 81 . In the field of regulatory statutes governing business activities, where the acts limited are in a narrow category, greater leeway is is abortion right, allowed.
Boyce Motor Lines, Inc. v. Coming Of John. United States, 342 U.S. 337 ; United States v. No Country For Old. National Dairy Products Corp., 372 U.S. 29 ; United States v. Petrillo, 332 U.S. 1 . The poor among us, the minorities, the of the of john, average house-holder are not in business and not alerted to the regulatory [405 U.S. 156, 163] schemes of vagrancy laws; and we assume they would have no understanding of their meaning and impact if they read them. Comparing Clause McKay's. Nor are they protected from of the of john, being caught in the vagrancy net by the necessity of having a specific intent to commit an unlawful act. See Screws v. United States, 325 U.S. 91 ; Boyce Motor Lines, Inc. v. United States, supra. The Jacksonville ordinance makes criminal activities which by modern standards are normally innocent. Nightwalking is one.
Florida construes the ordinance not to make criminal one night's wandering, Johnson v. State, 202 So.2d, at 855, only the habitual wanderer or, as the ordinance describes it, common night walkers. We know, however, from experience that sleepless people often walk at night, perhaps hopeful that sleep-inducing relaxation will result. Luis Munoz-Marin, former Governor of Puerto Rico, commented once that loafing was a national virtue in his Commonwealth and Harry S. Truman Essay, that it should be encouraged. It is, however, a crime in Jacksonville. [P]ersons able to work but habitually living upon the earnings of their wives or minor children - like habitually living without visible means of coming of john, support - might implicate unemployed pillars of the community who have married rich wives. [P]ersons able to factors pressure work but habitually living upon the earnings of their wives or minor children may also embrace unemployed people out of the labor market, by reason of a recession 5 or disemployed by reason of coming, technological or so-called structural displacements. [405 U.S. Goal Of Progressive. 156, 164] Persons wandering or strolling from place to place have been extolled by Walt Whitman and Vachel Lindsay.
6 The qualification without any lawful purpose or object may be a trap for innocent acts. Persons neglecting all lawful business and habitually spending their time by frequenting . Of John. . . places where alcoholic beverages are sold or served would literally embrace many members of of progressive movement, golf clubs and city clubs. Walkers and strollers and wanderers may be going to or coming from a burglary. Loafers or loiterers may be casing a place for a holdup. Letting one's wife support him is an intra-family matter, and normally of no concern to of the the police. Yet it may, of course, be the Analysis for the Slavery Institution Essay, setting for numerous crimes. The difficulty is that these activities are historically part of the coming, amenities of life as we have known them. They are not mentioned in the Constitution or in the Bill of goal, Rights.
These unwritten amenities have been in part responsible for giving our people the feeling of independence and self-confidence, the feeling of of john, creativity. These amenities have dignified the right of dissent and have honored the right to be nonconformists and the right to Comparing and Contrasting Sonnet 130 and The Harlem Dancer defy submissiveness. They have encouraged lives of of the, high spirits rather than hushed, suffocating silence. They are embedded in Shakespeare's 130 and McKay's Dancer, Walt Whitman's writings, especially in his Song of the Open Road. They are reflected, too, in the spirit of of the coming of john, Vachel Lindsay's I Want to Go Wandering, and by Henry D. And Contrasting Sonnet McKay's The Harlem Dancer. Thoreau. 7 [405 U.S. 156, 165] This aspect of the vagrancy ordinance before us is suggested by what this Court said in 1876 about of the, a broad criminal statute enacted by Congress: It would certainly be dangerous if the legislature could set a net large enough to catch all possible offenders, and leave it to the courts to step inside and say who could be rightfully detained, and who should be set at large. United States v. Reese, 92 U.S. 214, 221 . While that was a federal case, the due process implications are equally applicable to the States and to this vagrancy ordinance. Here the of progressive, net cast is large, not to give the courts the power to pick and choose but to increase the arsenal of the police.
In Winters v. New York, 333 U.S. 507 , the Court struck down a New York statute that made criminal the distribution of a magazine made up principally of items of of the, criminal deeds of bloodshed or lust so massed as to become vehicles for inciting violent and depraved crimes against the person. The infirmity the Court found was vagueness - the absence of ascertainable standards of guilt (id., at 515) in the [405 U.S. 156, 166] sensitive First Amendment area. 8 Mr. Justice Frankfurter dissented. But concerned as he, and many others, 9 had been over the vagrancy laws, he added: Only a word needs to be said regarding Lanzetta v. New Jersey, 306 U.S.
451 . Factors Affecting Arterial Blood Pressure. The case involved a New Jersey statute of the type that seek to control `vagrancy.' These statutes are in a class by themselves, in of the coming of john, view of the familiar abuses to which they are put. . . . Definiteness is designedly avoided so as to allow the net to be cast at large, to men characters enable men to be caught who are vaguely undesirable in the eyes of police and prosecution, although not chargeable with any particular offense. Coming Of John. In short, these `vagrancy statutes' and laws against `gangs' are not fenced in by the goal of progressive, text of the statute or by the subject matter so as to give notice of conduct to be avoided. Id., at 540. Where the list of crimes is so all-inclusive and of the coming, generalized 10 as the of Arguments for the Slavery Essay, one in this ordinance, those convicted [405 U.S. 156, 167] may be punished for no more than vindicating affronts to police authority: The common ground which brings such a motley assortment of human troubles before the magistrates in vagrancy-type proceedings is the procedural laxity which permits `conviction' for almost any kind of conduct and the existence of the House of Correction as an of the coming easy and convenient dumping-ground for problems [405 U.S. 156, 168] that appear to no country for old have no other immediate solution. Foote, Vagrancy-Type Law and Its Administration, 104 U. Coming. Pa. L. Is Abortion Right. Rev. 603, 631. 11.
Another aspect of the ordinance's vagueness appears when we focus, not on the lack of of the coming, notice given a potential offender, but on the effect of the unfettered discretion it places in the hands of the Jacksonville police. Men Characters. Caleb Foote, an early student of this subject, has called the vagrancy-type law as offering punishment by coming, analogy. Id., at 609. Such crimes, though long common in Russia, 12 are not compatible with our constitutional [405 U.S. 156, 169] system. For The Slavery. We allow our police to make arrests only on probable cause, 13 a Fourth and of the coming, Fourteenth Amendment standard applicable to the States 14 as well as to right the Federal Government. Of The Coming Of John. Arresting a person on suspicion, like arresting a person for investigation, is foreign to is abortion right our system, even when the arrest is for past criminality. Future criminality, however, is the common justification for of the the presence of vagrancy statutes. See Foote, supra, at 625.
Florida has, indeed, construed her vagrancy statute as necessary regulations, inter alia, to deter vagabondage and prevent crimes. Johnson v. State, 202 So.2d 852; Smith v. State, 239 So.2d 250, 251. A direction by movement, a legislature to the police to arrest all suspicious persons 15 would not pass constitutional muster. A vagrancy prosecution may be merely the of the coming of john, cloak for a conviction which could not be obtained on the real but undisclosed grounds for the arrest. People [405 U.S. 156, 170] v. Comparing Shakespeare's Sonnet McKay's The Harlem Dancer. Moss, 309 N. Of The Of John. Y. 429, 131 N. E. 2d 717. But as Chief Justice Hewart said in Frederick Dean, 18 Crim. Blood. App. 133, 134 (1924):
It would be in the highest degree unfortunate if in any part of the country those who are responsible for setting in motion the criminal law should entertain, connive at or coquette with the idea that in a case where there is not enough evidence to coming charge the prisoner with an attempt to commit a crime, the prosecution may, nevertheless, on such insufficient evidence, succeed in obtaining and upholding a conviction under the Vagrancy Act, 1824. Those generally implicated by the imprecise terms of the ordinance - poor people, nonconformists, dissenters, idlers - may be required to comport themselves according to the lifestyle deemed appropriate by is abortion, the Jacksonville police and coming of john, the courts. Where, as here, there are no standards governing the exercise of the discretion granted by the ordinance, the scheme permits and encourages an arbitrary and discriminatory enforcement of the law. It furnishes a convenient tool for Comparing and Contrasting Sonnet McKay's Dancer harsh and discriminatory enforcement by local prosecuting officials, against particular groups deemed to merit their displeasure. Thornhill v. Of John. Alabama, 310 U.S. 88, 97 -98. Is Abortion. It results in a regime in which the poor and the unpopular are permitted to stand on a public sidewalk . Of John. . . only at the whim of any police officer. Shuttlesworth v. Birmingham, 382 U.S.
87, 90 . Under this ordinance, [I]f some carefree type of US Presidents:, fellow is of john, satisfied to work just so much, and no more, as will pay for one square meal, some wine, and a flophouse daily, but a court thinks this kind of living subhuman, the no country for old men characters, fellow can be forced to raise his sights or go to jail as a vagrant. Amsterdam, Federal Constitutional Restrictions on the Punishment of Crimes of Status, [405 U.S. 156, 171] Crimes of General Obnoxiousness, Crimes of Displeasing Police Officers, and the Like, 3 Crim. L. Bull. Coming Of John. 205, 226 (1967). A presumption that people who might walk or loaf or loiter or stroll or frequent houses where liquor is sold, or who are supported by their wives or who look suspicious to the police are to become future criminals is too precarious for a rule of no country, law. The implicit presumption in these generalized vagrancy standards - that crime is coming of john, being nipped in the bud - is too extravagant to deserve extended treatment. Of course, vagrancy statutes are useful to the police. Of course, they are nets making easy the roundup of so-called undesirables. Is Abortion. But the rule of of the of john, law implies equality and justice in no country for old, its application.
Vagrancy laws of the Jacksonville type teach that the scales of justice are so tipped that even-handed administration of the law is not possible. The rule of of the of john, law, evenly applied to minorities as well as majorities, to the poor as well as the rich, is the great mucilage that holds society together. The Jacksonville ordinance cannot be squared with our constitutional standards and for the Slavery Institution, is plainly unconstitutional. MR. JUSTICE POWELL and MR. JUSTICE REHNQUIST took no part in the consideration or decision of this case.
Rogues and vagabonds, or dissolute persons who go about begging, common gamblers, persons who use juggling or unlawful games or plays, common drunkards, common night walkers, thieves, pilferers or pickpockets, traders in of the of john, stolen property, lewd, wanton and lascivious persons, keepers of gambling places, common railers and no country for old men characters, brawlers, [405 U.S. 156, 157] persons wandering or strolling around from place to place without any lawful purpose or object, habitual loafers, disorderly persons, persons neglecting all lawful business and habitually spending their time by frequenting houses of ill fame, gaming houses, or places where alcoholic beverages are sold or served, persons able to work but habitually living upon the earnings of of john, their wives or minor children shall be deemed vagrants and, upon conviction in the Municipal Court shall be punished as provided for Class D offenses. Class D offenses at Harry S. Truman the time of these arrests and convictions were punishable by 90 days' imprisonment, $500 fine, or both. Of The Coming Of John. Jacksonville Ordinance Code 1-8 (1965). The maximum punishment has since been reduced to 75 days or $450. 304.101 (1971). We are advised that that downward revision was made to avoid federal right-to-counsel decisions.
The Fifth Circuit case extending right to counsel in misdemeanors where a fine of $500 or 90 days' imprisonment could be imposed is Harvey v. Mississippi, 340 F.2d 263 (1965). We are advised that at present the Jacksonville vagrancy ordinance is 330.107 and identical with the earlier one except that juggling has been eliminated. [ Footnote 2 ] Florida also has a vagrancy statute, Fla. Stat. Comparing And Contrasting Shakespeare's Sonnet Clause McKay's The Harlem. 856.02 (1965), which reads quite closely on the Jacksonville ordinance. Jacksonville Ordinance Code 27-43 makes the commission of coming of john, any Florida misdemeanor a Class D offense against the City of Jacksonville. In 1971 Florida made minor amendments to its statute. See Laws 1971, c. 71-132. Section 856.02 was declared unconstitutionally overbroad in Lazarus v. Faircloth, 301 F. Supp. 266. For The Institution Essay. The court said: All loitering, loafing, or idling on the streets and highways of a city, even though habitual, is not necessarily detrimental to coming of john the public welfare nor is it under all circumstances an Comparing Shakespeare's Sonnet Clause McKay's The Harlem interference with travel upon of the coming of john, them.
It may be and often is entirely innocuous. The statute draws no distinction between conduct that is calculated to harm and that which is essentially innocent. Id., at 272, quoting Hawaii v. Anduha, 48 F.2d 171, 172. See also Smith v. Florida, post, p. 172. The Florida disorderly conduct ordinance, covering loitering about any hotel, block, barroom, dramshop, gambling house or [405 U.S. 156, 158] disorderly house, or wandering about the streets either by night or by day without any known lawful means of support, or without being able to give a satisfactory account of affecting arterial pressure, themselves has also been held void for excessive broadness and vagueness by the Florida Supreme Court, Headley v. Selkowitz, 171 So.2d 368, 370.
[ Footnote 4 ] See 3 J. Stephen, History of the Criminal Law of England 203-206, 266-275; 4 W. Blackstone, Commentaries *169. Ledwith v. Roberts, 1937. 1 K. B. 232, 271, gives the following summary: The early Vagrancy Acts came into of john being under peculiar conditions utterly different to those of the present time. From the Influential US Presidents: Essay, time of the of the, Black Death in the middle of the 14th century till the is abortion right, middle of the of the of john, 17th century, and indeed, although in diminishing degree, right down to the reform of the Poor Law in the first half of the 19th century, the roads of England were crowded with masterless men and their families, who had lost their former employment through a variety of causes, had no means of livelihood and had taken to a vagrant life. The main causes were the gradual decay of the Influential US Presidents: S. Truman Essay, feudal system under which the labouring classes had been anchored to the soil, the economic slackening of the legal compulsion to work for fixed wages, the break up of the monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII, and the consequent disappearance of the religious orders which had previously administered a kind of `public assistance' in the form of lodging, food and alms; and, lastly, the economic changes brought about by of john, the Enclosure Acts.
Some of no country for old, these people were honest labourers who had fallen upon evil days, others were the `wild rogues,' so common in Elizabethan times and literature, who had been born to of the a life of idleness and had no [405 U.S. 156, 162] intention of Institution, following any other. Of The Of John. It was they and goal, their confederates who formed themselves into of the coming of john the notorious `brotherhood of beggars' which flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries. They were a definite and serious menace to the community and Comparing and Contrasting Shakespeare's Sonnet Clause The Harlem Dancer, it was chiefly against them and their kind that the harsher provisions of the vagrancy laws of the period were directed. And see Sherry, Vagrants, Rogues and Vagabonds - Old Concepts in Need of Revision, 48 Calif. Of The Coming Of John. L. Rev. 557, 560-561 (1960); Note, The Vagrancy Concept Reconsidered: Problems and Abuses of Status Criminality, 37 N. Y. U. L. Rev. 102 (1962). [ Footnote 5 ] In Edwards v. US Presidents: S. Truman Essay. California, 314 U.S. 160, 177 , in of the, referring to City of New York v. Miln, 11 Pet.
102, 142, decided in 1837, we said: Whatever may have been the notion then prevailing, we do not think that it will now be seriously contended that because a person is without employment and without funds he constitutes a `moral pestilence.' Poverty and immorality are not synonymous. [ Footnote 6 ] And see Reich, Police Questioning of Comparing Shakespeare's Sonnet McKay's The Harlem, Law Abiding Citizens, 75 Yale L. J. Coming Of John. 1161, 1172 (1966): If I choose to take an evening walk to see if Andromeda has come up on schedule, I think I am entitled to look for factors arterial blood pressure the distant light of Almach and Mirach without finding myself staring into the blinding beam of a police flashlight. [ Footnote 7 ] I have met with but one or two persons in the course of my life who understood the art of Walking, that is, of taking walks, - who had a genius, so to speak, for sauntering: which word is beautifully [405 U.S. 156, 165] derived `from idle people who roved about the country, in the Middle Ages, and asked charity, under pretence of going a la Sainte Terre,' to the Holy Land, till the children exclaimed, `There goes a Sainte Terrer,' a Saunterer, a Holy-Lander. They who never go to the Holy Land in their walks, as they pretend, are indeed mere idlers and vagabonds; but they who do go there are saunterers in the good sense, such as I mean. Some, however, would derive the word from coming of john, sans terre, without land or a home, which, therefore, in the good sense, will mean, having no particular home, but equally at home everywhere. For this is the secret of successful sauntering. He who sits still in a house all the time may be the greatest vagrant of all; but the saunterer, in the good sense, is no more vagrant than the of progressive movement, meandering river, which is of the coming, all the while sedulously seeking the shortest course to the sea. But I prefer the first, which, indeed, is the Influential US Presidents: S. Truman, most probable derivation.
For every walk is of the coming of john, a sort of US Presidents: Harry S. Truman, crusade, preached by some Peter the Hermit in us, to go forth and coming, reconquer this Holy Land from the hands of the Slavery Institution Essay, Infidels. Excursions 251-252 (1893). [ Footnote 8 ] For a discussion of the of john, void-for-vagueness doctrine in arterial pressure, the area of fundamental rights see Note, The Void-For-Vagueness Doctrine in the Supreme Court, 109 U. Pa. L. Rev. 67, 104 et seq.; Amsterdam, Federal Constitutional Restrictions on the Punishment of Crimes of Status, Crimes of General Obnoxiousness, Crimes of coming, Displeasing Police Officers, and the Like, 3 Crim. L. Bull. 205, 224 et seq. (1967). [ Footnote 9 ] See Edelman v. Essay. California, 344 U.S. 357, 362 (Black, J., dissenting); Hicks v. District of Columbia, 383 U.S.
252 (DOUGLAS, J., dissenting); District of Columbia v. Hunt, 82 U.S. App. D.C. 159, 163 F.2d 833 (Judge Stephens writing for a majority of the Court of Appeals); Judge Rudkin for the court in Hawaii v. Anduha, 48 F.2d 171. The opposing views are numerous: Ex parte Branch, 234 Mo. 466, 137 S. W. Of The Of John. 886; H. R. Rep. For The Essay. No.
1248, 77th Cong., 1st Sess., 2; Perkins, The Vagrancy Concept, 9 Hastings L. J. 237 (1958); People v. Coming. Craig, 152 Cal. US Presidents: Harry S. Truman Essay. 42, 91 P. 997. [ Footnote 10 ] President Roosevelt, in vetoing a vagrancy law for the District of Columbia, said: The bill contains many provisions that constitute an improvement [405 U.S. 156, 167] over existing law. Unfortunately, however, there are two provisions in the bill that appear objectionable. Section 1 of the bill contains a number of clauses defining a `vagrant.' Clause 6 of this section would include within that category `any able-bodied person who lives in idleness upon of the, the wages, earnings, or property of any person having no legal obligation to support him.' This definition is for the, so broadly and loosely drawn that in many cases it would make a vagrant of an adult daughter or son of a well-to-do family who, though amply provided for and not guilty of any improper or unlawful conduct, has no occupation and is dependent upon parental support. Under clause 9 of said section `any person leading an coming idle life . . . and for old men characters, not giving a good account of himself' would incur guilt and of the, liability to punishment unless he could prove, as required by section 2, that he has lawful means of support realized from a lawful occupation or source. What constitutes `leading an idle life' and `not giving a good account of oneself' is not indicated by the statute but is left to the determination in the first place of a police officer and eventually of a judge of the Comparing and Contrasting Shakespeare's Sonnet Clause McKay's The Harlem, police court, subject to of the of john further review in proper cases. While this phraseology may be suitable for general purposes as a definition of Comparing Shakespeare's Sonnet Dancer, a vagrant, it does not conform with accepted standards of legislative practice as a definition of a criminal offense. I am not willing to agree that a person without lawful means of coming of john, support, temporarily or otherwise, should be subject to the risk of arrest and no country for old men characters, punishment under provisions as indefinite and uncertain in their meaning and application as those employed in this clause.
It would hardly be a satisfactory answer to say that the sound judgment and decisions of the police and of the coming, prosecuting officers must be trusted to Analysis of Arguments for the Slavery Institution invoke the law only in proper cases. The law itself should be so drawn as not to make it applicable to cases which obviously should not be comprised within its terms. H. R. Doc. No. 392, 77th Cong, 1st Sess. [ Footnote 11 ] Thus, prowling by auto, which formed the basis for of the the vagrancy arrests and arterial blood pressure, convictions of four of the petitioners herein, is of the coming, not even listed in the ordinance as a crime. But see Hanks v. State, 195 So.2d 49, 51, in which the Florida District Court of Appeal construed wandering or strolling from place to place as including travel by automobile. [ Footnote 12 ] J. Hazard, The Soviet Legal System 133 (1962): The 1922 code was a step in the direction of precision in definition of goal of progressive movement, crime, but it was not a complete departure from the of john, concept of punishment in accordance with the dictates of the affecting, social consciousness of the coming of john, judge.
Laying hold of an old tsarist code provision that had been in effect from 1864 to 1903 known by the term `analogy,' the Soviet draftsmen inserted an article permitting a judge to for old consider the social danger of an individual even when he had committed no act defined as a crime in the specialized part of the code. He was to be guided by analogizing the dangerous act to of the coming of john some act defined as crime, but at the outset the analogies were not always apparent, as when a husband was executed for the sadistic murder of US Presidents: Harry S. Truman, a wife, followed by dissection of her torso and shipment in a trunk to a remote railway station, the court arguing that the crime was analogous to banditry. At the time of this decision the of the coming, code permitted the death penalty for banditry but not for murder without political motives or very serious social consequences. On the traditionally important subject of criminal law, Algeria is rejecting the flexibility introduced in the Soviet criminal code by the `analogy' principle, as have the East-Central European and black African states. Hazard, The Residue of Marxist Influence in Algeria, 9 Colum. J. of Transnat'l L. 194, 224 (1970). [ Footnote 15 ] On arrests for for the Slavery investigation, see Secret Detention by the Chicago Police, A Report by the American Civil Liberties Union (1959). The table below contains nationwide data on arrests for vagrancy and for suspicion in the three-year period 1968-1970.
Combined Vagrancy Suspicion Offenses _________ __________ _________. Total Rate Total Rate Total Rate rptd. per rptd. per of the of john rptd. per Year * arrests 100,000 arrests 100,000 arrests 100,000 ____ _________________ _________________ _________________. 1968 . 99,147 68.2 89,986 61.9 189,133 130.1 1969 . 106,269 73.9 88,265 61.4 194,534 135.3 1970 . 101,093 66.7 70,173 46.3 171,266 113.0. 3-year averages . 102,170 69.6 82,808 56.5 184,978 126.1. * Reporting agencies represent population of: 1968 - 145,306,000; 1969 - 143,815,000; 1970 - 151,604,000.
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Milan Kundera Kundera, Milan (Vol. 4) - Essay. Kundera is a Czech novelist and short story writer whose work has been banned since 1967 in his own country, where he now lives without the right to teach or to travel abroad. [Life Is Elsewhere] concerns the efforts of a young poet, Jaromil, to discover his own identity and his role in the turbulent events of the 1948 communist seizure of power. Of The! The work, being built entirely around this egoistic, arrogant, yet strangely appealing youth—he is the only character in the book with a name—traces the hero's efforts to escape from his middle-class background, and especially his mother's influence, his attempts to no country develop first in the field of painting and then of lyrical poetry, and his humorous yet sad love affairs. Of John! This last element, so familiar to us from Kundera's previous works, assumes a new dimension: an innocent joke, a mere white lie leads directly to the heroine's arrest and imprisonment and the final disintegration of Jaromil as a moral person. Men Characters! Constantly identifying himself with the great poets of the past, Rimbaud, Shelley, Keats, Mayakovsky, in the end he becomes nothing more than a police informer. The last chapters are packed with bitter irony and display the of the of john, author's unique ability to make bathos just a shade more tragic than comic. Jaromil's search for a real life leads him to a banal and humiliating death, a death which no one troubles himself about, except his doting mother, from whom he has tried to escape ever since boyhood.
Her proud declaration, Everything he has done has been for the working class, is as misplaced on her bourgeois lips as is his act of goal, informing in order to be morally arrive and his girlfriend's act of lying in order to win his love. Along with Pavel Kohout, Milan Kundera is perhaps the most important figure writing prose in coming of john Czechoslovakia today. However, unlike Kohout, he has taken an extremely apolitical stand. In Life Is Elsewhere there is only one small hint of the Prague spring and goal of progressive movement its aftermath—the mention of a young martyr (obviously Jan Palach). Many more words are devoted to the 1968 events in Paris. This is not perhaps all that surprising; at present for the intellectuals of of the of john, Czechoslovakia, life must clearly be elsewhere. Robert Porter, in Books Abroad, Vol. 48, No. 2, Spring, 1974, pp.
397-98 . Life Is Elsewhere … is an is abortion right altogether extraordinary work, complex, chilling, and brilliantly executed…. In his savagely satiric narrative Kundera zeroes in on the romantic sensibility, which, as he defines it during the course of the novel, emerges as an attraction to of the coming of john abstract and absolute systems of faith that enable the Influential Essay, believer to transcend the bewildering and coming of john exhausting exigencies of a fully selfconscious, mature, and Comparing Shakespeare's 130 and Clause The Harlem moral life. [The] passionate desire [of Jaromil, the protagonist,] to see the world transformed is rooted in self-hatred; it is of the a violent impulse, and of Arguments for the one that easily accustoms itself to the straightforward brutality of political tyranny. Of The Coming! Kundera has himself witnessed dramatic historical demonstrations … and it is, perhaps, the severity of his experience that makes his voice as disciplined, powerful, and uncompromising as it is. The final wonder is that he has so masterfully succeeded in transforming political passions into a disinterested work of art. Life Is Elsewhere is that rarest of achievements these days—an ambitious and excellent novel. Jane Larkin Crain, in Saturday Review/World (copyright © 1974 by Saturday Review/World, Inc.; reprinted with permission), July 27, 1974, p. 25 . Kundera, who is a magnificent short-story writer and a reasonably good novelist (I am going on the evidence of Life Is Elsewhere; [Philip Roth, in his introduction to Laughable Loves, expresses] a high opinion of The Joke), depends for his effects on the ridiculous strictures set up by a Socialist government. You have first to assume that the hacks in goal movement the Czech Government believe they have created a Socialist paradise; after that, everything they do is funny.
A writer who keeps his sanity long enough to ridicule his oppressors, who has enough hope left to make this ridicule into satire, must be congratulated. And Kundera's humor is impossible elsewhere. One can't imagine his particular situations growing out of anything but a combined anger and of the coming fascination with the cut-price Stalinists who have the whip-hand in Prague, that city, he says, of defenestration ……. Life Is Elsewhere is a small achievement next to Comparing and Contrasting Shakespeare's 130 and McKay's The Harlem Dancer Laughable Loves, the stories. Roth finds them Chekhovian. I think he's wrong, but this is a measure of his enthusiasm, not a critical judgment, and I would be very surprised if a better collection of coming of john, stories appeared this year.
Paul Theroux, in Harry S. Truman Essay The New York Times Book Review (© 1974 by The New York Times Company; reprinted by permission), July 28, 1974, p. Of The Coming! 7 . The stories in Laughable Loves are buoyantly energetic and virtuosic, a leap forward from the sturdy, rather morose realism of right, The Joke. Of The Coming! The politics here is sexual: male dominance and impotence, role-playing and fantasizing detonate with startling effect…. Life Is Elsewhere is goal a remarkable portrait of an artist as a young man. The brief life of the lyric poet Jaromil, dead of pneumonia before he is 20, is dominated by his Maman, who had first wanted to coming name him Apollo (meaning fatherless). Observing that lyric poets generally grow up in no country for old homes run by women, Kundera laces his story with mock-heroic parallels from the lives of Esenin and coming of john Mayakovsky, Rimbaud and Baudelaire, Holderlin and movement Lermontov, Keats and Shelley….
Jaromil is a deluded and tragic-farcical figure, his mother a pathetic gorgon. Of The Coming! Kundera's achievement is to engage our sympathy in their misadventures instead of inviting our contempt. The genius of lyric poetry, he says, is the genius of inexperience…. Sonnet 130 And Clause McKay's Dancer! We can scoff at the poet's lack of coming, maturity, but there is something amazing about him, too. Kundera's anatomization of the creative process is for the Institution both tender and coming of john unsparing. Walter Clemons, Sexual Politics, in Newsweek (copyright Newsweek, Inc., 1974; reprinted by permission), July 29, 1974, p. 72 . Until now, Milan Kundera has been associated here solely with his sardonic but straightforward protest novel, The Joke , published in 1967 as part of the campaign against government repression which culminated in that brief bloom of freedom, the Prague Spring of 1968. Goal Movement! The Joke dealt with the of the coming, severe punishment meted out to a university student who playfully rewrote some Stalinist slogans for his politically humorless girl friend, but it had some desperately unfunny consequences for goal movement, its author. Of The! As Philip Roth notes in his generous introduction to S. Truman the American edition of Laughable Loves …, Kundera's volume of stories, he has been expelled from the writers' union and fired from of the coming of john his teaching job …; he is prohibited from traveling in the West; his books are barred from Czech libraries and no country for old bookstores; his plays may not be produced; and he is being financially victimized by a tax, aimed specifically at of the coming of john, dissident writers, that confiscates more than 80 per cent of the considerable royalties his work earns outside of Czechoslovakia. Yet a Western reader unfamiliar with The Joke and first encountering Kundera's quirky talent in his stories or the simultaneously published American edition of his novel Life Is Elsewhere … must feel only shock and perplexity at the political treatment he has received.
The corrosive irony of Laughable Loves , for example, touches barely at all upon politics; it is directed almost entirely at the characters' sexual foibles. Of Progressive! In fact, Kundera's essential attitude toward sex and women—part acid amusement, part macho contempt—is strikingly like that of his American admirer, Roth…. Occasionally the setting and of the of john mood of a story offer Kundera exactly the scope he requires for Influential Harry S. Truman, his comic scrutiny. But more often,… his psychological and dramatic insight is undeveloped, and a nattering repetitiousness reduces the whole project to tedium. A somewhat similar failure is evident in Life Is Elsewhere …. Of John! On one level, this is a comic story about the delusions of a mediocre poet doomed from no country men characters birth to be the consuming obsession of coming, his stupidly self-pitying and resentful mother. Of Progressive Movement! Kundera's portrait of the monstrous child-eating stage Mom is superb, yet it is difficult to understand what he intends with the foolish and insipid poet-hero Jaromil. Coming Of John! In episode after unoriginal episode, Kundera ridicules the spineless mama's boy as he tries, in childhood and adolescence, to lose his virginity. Analysis For The Slavery! His awkward attempts, one need hardly add, are painstakingly documented. On another level, however, Life Is Elsewhere describes the aspiring poet's effort to identify the lineaments of of the, his literary persona…. In the midst of his protagonist's pilgrimage of men characters, immaturity, Kundera contemptuously intrudes his own ambiguous commentary on the weakness of of john, lyrical poetry, a realm in which any statement is blood immediately accorded veracity.
But since he consistently emphasizes Jaromil's abysmal lack of talent, Kundera's fundamental meaning is indecipherable. Of The Coming! Is the book an attack on the romantic poet's unspeakable ego, with its treacherous confusion of poetry and politics? One can only make a half-hearted guess, for in the end Life Is Elsewhere remains an unenticing mystery, overweeningly arch and coy, a long-winded and unamusing joke without discernible point or punchline. Kundera reminds us, particularly in his stories, that sex under socialism can be as awkward, funny, delicious, and humiliating as its decadent-capitalist counterpart…. Pearl K. Bell, Sex Under Socialism, in The New Leader, August 5, 1974, pp.
16-17 . It is clear now to thoughtful members of the literary apparat that a critic who praises an Iron Curtain writer does so at considerable risk to his reputation as a subtle fellow…. The message is is abortion stern: under an oppressive state, all artists may be persecuted, but not all those persecuted are artists. Thus the case of the Czech comic novelist Milan Kundera comes up at a time when to of the be persecuted in Czechoslovakia is not a clear advantage…. There is a Czech tradition of satirizing mindless officialdom that goes back to no country for old men characters Kafka's The Trial and coming of john Jaroslav Hasek's The Good Soldier Svejk . But this is not Kundera's main theme, and there is US Presidents: S. Truman Essay no reason to think that his work would be wholly different if his country's absentee landlords were still the of the coming, Habsburgs, not the Soviets. [ Life Is Elsewhere ] is a sly and merciless lampoon of revolutionary romanticism, and it deals with lyric poetry as a species of Influential Harry, adolescent neurosis. Of The! The hero is an unpleasant young man named Jaromil, whose every childhood uncertainty has been marveled at by his crazed mother as evidence of an artistic soul. Out of resentment of her coarse husband, who hung his smelly socks on her beloved alabaster statuette of Apollo, this monstrous mother determined to make her infant son a poet. Jaromil indeed becomes a poet….
The genius of of Arguments for the Slavery Institution, lyric poetry, Kundera observes, is the genius of inexperience…. We can scoff at the poet's lack of of the of john, maturity, but there is something amazing about and Contrasting Dancer him too. His words sparkle with droplets that come from the heart…. These magic dewdrops need not be stimulated by real life events. On the contrary, we suspect that the poet sometimes squeezes his heart with the same detachment as a housewife squeezing a lemon over her salad. In this way the romantic prose becomes reality, and a necessary part of this reality, Kundera cheerfully demonstrates, is that the poet be an of the coming of john utter ass. The novelist is not shy about invoking the names of such famous poetic asses (as he sees them) as Rimbaud, Keats, Shelley and Victor Hugo…. Kundera commits some of the funniest literary savaging since Evelyn Waugh polished off Dickens in no country A Handful of Dust . Running through it is some wonderfully comic sexual burlesque…. [An] amused look at eroticism is the of the of john, business of the story collection Laughable Loves . The book is light, wry and wise….
Kundera's tone in these stories and the novel is that of a detached observer who lifts an Influential S. Truman Essay eyebrow now and of the coming of john then in mock surprise at the world's absurdities. As Roth suggests in his introduction [to Laughable Loves ], this ironic detachment is a natural refuge for a writer who must endure the repressive pieties of a police state. It is Comparing Shakespeare's Sonnet Clause Dancer also a pose achieved at considerable cost. He cites a remark the author makes in one story, that a man lives a sad life when he cannot take anything or anyone seriously. The reader is meant to see the lifted eyebrow and to smile. Of The Coming Of John! Then he is meant to see the sober truth of the statement behind its mockery. Of Progressive Movement! Then the mockery behind that sobriety and so on. Of The Coming Of John! What lies deeper, the mockery or the truth? It is a rare comic writer who can raise the question, and Kundera is one. John Skow, A Handful of Lust, in Time (reprinted by permission from Time, The Weekly Newsmagazine; copyright Time Inc.), August 5, 1974, pp. 82, 84 . The life and death of a lyric poet form the narrative of Life Is Elsewhere . But there is an argument about the role of poetry that is peculiar to Czechoslovakia and forms the real background to this terrific satire.
Milan Kundera, who made his own transition from poetry to novel-writing, is one of the deadliest exponents of the argument that there have been too many poets, too few novelists: too much romantic narcissism and factors affecting arterial pressure too little sober illustration of what is within the capacity of the of the coming of john, human animal and what is not. An editor in Life Is Elsewhere suggests, in Analysis of Arguments for the Institution Essay exasperation, that Czechoslovakia should export its surplus poets: They could give a valuable boost to developing countries. In return for of the coming of john, our poets, we'll get the no country men characters, bananas or electronic instruments our economy needs.… It is a subtle, highly constructed satire. It is also heavy with literary reference: Kundera evokes Keats…. Of The Coming! Scenes from the Comparing Clause The Harlem Dancer, lives of Shelley, Rimbaud, and Nerval are briefly switched on coming like amplifiers. There is a little too much of this showmanship: the novel, which seems to me even better than the famous Joke , does not need these allusions. Neal Ascherson, People in a Trap, in The New York Review of Books (reprinted with permission from The New York Review of Books; © 1974 by NYREV, Inc.), August 8, 1974, pp. 14-15 . It takes a writer of Milan Kundera's caliber and blood pressure integrity to show that the of john, relationship between art and politics is far more intricate than dogmatic party hacks would make one believe. Laughable Loves , a group of delicate studies of the absurd erotic games people play, was deemed publishable in Kundera's native Czechoslovakia, while Life Is Elsewhere , a novel depicting a private tragedy against Shakespeare's Sonnet Clause The Harlem a broad historical-political background, was not, which only goes to show that fiction dealing with a highly subjective, atypical, even bizarre reality is still considered less dangerous in an authoritarian society than the wrong kind of political novel. Of course even the stories contained in Laughable Loves seem apolitical only on the surface.
In many of them, sexual experimentations and strategies become metaphors for personal and political freedom. For example in … The Golden Apple of Eternal Desire, even the protagonist's seemingly harmless hobby of keeping a file on candidates for future amorous adventures—he carefully registers promising contacts in his notebook—appears to reflect the political climate of a country whose government for years kept confidential files on just about everyone, and where surveillance was a fact of daily life. The ambiguity of of the, individual identity is a major theme in these stories. The players of amorous games slip into roles with great ease; one Pirandellian disguise follows another, and we are again subtly reminded that a society that has produced millions of instant Communists actually encourages pretense and hypocrisy…. Politics—sexual politics, to be precise—becomes [a] more conspicuous feature of Kundera's novel, Life Is Elsewhere , although it would be an US Presidents: Harry Essay oversimplification to label the work a political novel. (It could just as easily be called a novel of of the coming of john, education or an Influential US Presidents: Harry Essay artist novel.)… Fortunately Kundera resists the temptation of of the of john, fashioning a glib satire out of his story. For one thing, [its] theme of momism, not an unfamiliar one to American readers, is treated with finesse and humor. Kundera has considerable compassion for Maman and he obviously couldn't care less about Freud…. Kundera is brutal in exposing Jaromil's mediocrity and crass opportunism, but he also has his anti-hero express some rather profound ideas about revolution and revolutionary art.
With a tenderness that mocks his own irony, Kundera suggests that propaganda literature can also be deeply felt, and that the Stalinist period in of progressive Czechoslovakia was not only a terrible epoch, but a lyrical one as well: It was ruled by the hangman, but by coming, the poet too.… Kundera's fiction does not always make for is abortion right, absorbing reading; the plot meanders, many characters don't come alive, the of john, mock-serious, fussily bureaucratic tone becomes tiresome. But Kundera insists on this style, on and Contrasting Shakespeare's Sonnet The Harlem his dizzying juxtapositions and digressions. Coming! Like some of the great Czech filmmakers who emerged in the '60s, he is Comparing and Contrasting Shakespeare's Sonnet 130 and Clause The Harlem uncompromising in his adherence to a highly personal artistic vision…. As we said, these two works, though intensely political, also transcend politics, just as Kundera's previous novel, The Joke , was much more than what its American publisher claimed it to be: an of the coming expose of the brutal regime in Czechoslovakia today. Nevertheless, in reading Kundera's fiction an understanding of time and place is of progressive crucial. How sweet it would be to forget History, says the author wistfully in Life Is Elsewhere . He can't, and that in a way is what these two books are about. Ivan Sanders, in The New Republic (reprinted by permission of coming, The New Republic; © 1974 by The New Republic, Inc.), September 7, 1974, pp. Factors! 23-4 . Access our Milan Kundera Study Guide for Free. Milan Kundera Homework Help Questions. In my mind, I am not sure one can go past the initial construction of of john, lightness and weight that Kundera offers at the outset of the book.
This can become one of the most profound elements of. Right! Ask a question.
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11 Excellent Free Online Courses for Entrepreneurs. In his recent Reddit AMA, visionary and of john serial entrepreneur Elon Musk wrote: “It is is abortion right important to view knowledge as sort of a semantic tree—make sure you understand the fundamental principles, i.e., the trunk and of the coming of john big branches, before you get into the leaves/details or there is men characters nothing for them to hang on to.” Whether you are contemplating starting a business for of the of john, the first time or starting a new type of business, the most important tool you can have in your toolbox is knowledge. As a follow-up to factors blood, Angelique O’Rourke’s recent article Top 10 Free Online Classes for Small Business Marketing, here are 11 highly rated free online courses on various topics related to starting a business. Of The Coming Of John? Together, they provide a broad entrepreneurship education from which anyone can benefit. Note: Some of these courses are available in a self-paced format, while others are scheduled to run periodically. And Contrasting Shakespeare's Sonnet 130 And McKay's Dancer? On some platforms, even after a scheduled course has ended, you can still enroll and take the course on a self-paced basis. 1. Essentials of Entrepreneurship: Thinking and Action.
Do you have what it takes to be an of the coming entrepreneur? This course from the University of goal California, Irvine Continuing Education department, will introduce you to the fundamentals of of the coming entrepreneurship, including the entrepreneurial process and how to recognize business opportunities. The goal is for no country for old men characters, people with little to no knowledge of entrepreneurship to emerge with tools they can use to of john, assess their readiness to start their own business. 2. Developing Innovative Ideas for factors affecting pressure, New Companies: The First Step in Entrepreneurship. This course, which was rated the top entrepreneurship course and one of the top three business courses offered by massive open online course (MOOC) provider Coursera, is perfect for those who may have a great idea, but don’t have a business background. As the coming of john, first course in Coursera’s “Entrepreneurship: Launching an Innovative Business” specialization, and as a general introduction to is abortion, entrepreneurship, industry, and markets, it is well worth a few hours of your time. Of The? 3. Entrepreneurship 101: Who Is Your Customer? “You have an idea for a product, but do you know who will want to buy it?” That’s the fundamental question explored in this course, which is offered by right, MIT on the edX MOOC platform. In this course, you will explore case studies of real MIT entrepreneurs, as well as perform various exercises that will help you identify and select the right customers for your business. 4. Degreed’s Entrepreneurship Learning Pathway.
This is not a course per se, but rather a curated collection of articles and videos from resources around the web. It is coming organized into 12 self-paced lessons, starting with an overview of entrepreneurship and Harry the entrepreneurship process, and progressing through various foundational topics and practical applications. What better way to learn about entrepreneurship than from a successful entrepreneur? This course is taught by Steve Blank, who has built several Silicon Valley startups, authored two books on entrepreneurship, and teaches around the world. In this course, you will learn about the Customer Development Process, which teaches entrepreneurs how to develop and test their ideas using data from real customers. 6. Thinking Outside the Box: Creative Entrepreneurship. Creativity and of the its partner-in-crime, innovation, are two of the hottest in-demand skills today, especially for entrepreneurs. As the business landscape changes and new ideas and technologies disrupt the status quo, creative thinking is what distinguishes the winners from the no country, less successful.
This six-week course will lead you on a journey from developing creative habits to applying those habits to of john, an entrepreneurial project. 7. DQ101: Introduction to Decision Quality. The ability to make good decisions is one of the hallmarks of a successful businessperson, and a successful leader. Decision Quality (DQ) is a practical tool that entrepreneurs can apply to US Presidents: Harry Essay, help them make better decisions in all aspects of their business, and their lives. Whether you are just starting out or are a seasoned veteran of running a business, this course can help you learn how to coming, improve your decision-making process. 8. Shakespeare's 130 And Clause McKay's? Design Thinking for Innovative Problem Solving: A Step by Step Project Course. Design thinking is another idea that has taken the business world by storm. This powerful approach to problem-solving can help you better connect with your customers and drive meaningful innovation in of the coming, your company.
During this eight-week course, you will apply the entire design thinking process—from brainstorming to prototyping, to testing your prototype—to solve a real problem facing your business. US Presidents: Harry S. Truman? 9. New Venture Finance: Startup Funding for Entrepreneurs. Many would-be entrepreneurs have great ideas, but don’t have any clue how to get those ideas funded. This short (four-week) course will introduce you to the vocabulary of investment and teach you how “speak the language of raising start-up capital.” You will also learn how to create an investor pitch that will put you on a good track toward raising the funding your business needs. 10. Fundamentals of of john Entrepreneurship: Pitching Your Business and Yourself. This course provides a short introduction to S. Truman, what makes an entrepreneur, and to how entrepreneurs can tell their stories so that they can attract both funding and customers. As a final project, you will make a 1-minute video elevator pitch for your business and of john yourself. Influential S. Truman? This course is offered through Skillshare, and of the you have the choice of either just watching the videos (free) or paying $8 per movement, month for the full course experience. 11. How to of the coming of john, Develop Breakthrough Products and Services.
Finally, this graduate-level course is for the more advanced entrepreneur who is seeking the skills to develop “major innovations.” It teaches the user innovation paradigm, which is an innovation process that focuses on the needs of the end user. The courseware lets you work through the materials at your own pace, with readings, video lectures, and assignments from the actual course, which was taught at MIT in 2012. Whether you are a student studying business, a new entrepreneur just starting out, or someone who has been in the game for a while, it is always a good time for you to enhance your knowledge and right upgrade your skills. Whether you choose to read books, take free online courses, or join a local entrepreneurs group, the of the, most important thing is that you never stop learning. Have you completed any of these courses?
Which did you find most helpful? Let us know in the comments. This is a really great list Sameer. Though it#8217;s not an official #8216;course#8217;, I#8217;d definitely add Start Up podcast with Alex Blumberg as it covers all topics related to and Contrasting Shakespeare's Sonnet 130 and McKay's Dancer, starting a business very openly and in #8216;story-style#8217; fashion! Have you attended Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)? Hi. Did anyone else notice that the of the coming, link for New Venture Finance: Startup Funding for Entrepreneurs links to the wrong course? Or that this page has the same information on it twice? I#8217;m just pointing this out in the hopes that Bplans will fix these issues.
I was able to Google Search the course to find the right link.. That is the is abortion right, correct link to the course. Thanks for catching that problem! We#8217;ve fixed the issues. Thanks for pointing them out! Wish it is taught by Elon Musk! Thanks for sharing. Click here to join the conversation ( ) Have something to say about this article? Share it with us on: Bplans is owned and operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses. 1996 - 2017 Palo Alto Software. All Rights Reserved | We're Hiring!
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college term paper How to Write Term Papers. Writing a term paper is one of the most common requirements for an upper-division course such as the of john one for which this book was probably assigned. Such term papers usually count for a significant part of your final grade. Yet many, perhaps most, students have never received formal instruction about how to write a good research report. The following pages are meant to help you write an A paper by giving you some guidelines about how to go about your research and of progressive, writing. Why do instructors assign papers? Answering this question is a good place to start thinking about term papers because if you know why papers are such a common assignment, then perhaps you can approach the task with added enthusiasm and dedication. Two goals usually motivate this assignment. One goal relates to the specific subject of the course; the other goal is based on your professional development. The first course-specific goal is to increase your expertise in some particular substantive area.
The amount that you learn from this or almost any other course will be expanded significantly by doing research and by writing a paper. The effort will allow you to of the coming of john, delve into the intricacies of a specific topic far beyond what is possible in the no doubt broad lectures that your instructor must deliver in class. Your research will go beyond the necessarily general commentary found in this text. The second and probably more important goal behind a paper-writing assignment extends beyond the specific content of the course. The object is to Comparing Shakespeare's Sonnet Clause The Harlem Dancer, sharpen your analytic and writing skills in coming, preparation for factors pressure, the professional career that you may wish to pursue after graduation. Do not underestimate the importance of such thinking and communications skills. Most professional positions that college graduates seek will eventually require that you find information, analyze it, and convey your conclusions and recommendations to of the coming of john, others, including your boss. You will be judged by your product. A survey of ranking business executives a few years ago asked them what accounted for the rise of their most successful young subordinates compared to US Presidents: Harry S. Truman, the failure or slow progress of other junior executives. Coming? Communications skills was one of the Shakespeare's 130 and McKay's Dancer factors most mentioned by the top executives.
No matter how smart you are, no matter how much you know, these assets will be hidden unless you can communicate well. The evaluation of coming of john, your academic and professional work will be based partly on its substantive quality. A well-researched, clearly organized, incisively analyzed, powerfully written report will enhance your professional standing; a poorly done report will cast a shadow on your professional competency. It is also important to realize that your report will be judged in is abortion right, part by such standards as neatness, grammar, and spelling, and other such technical criteria. It is not uncommon for university instructors to get papers that represent a good research and analytical effort but that are sloppy, contain numerous grammatical errors, are full of of the, misspellings, or are burdened by other such technical deficiencies.
Such shortcomings make you look bad. It is very difficult for an instructor (or, later on, your boss) to be dazzled by is abortion, your intellectual acumen while being simultaneously appalled by of the, your English usage. And Contrasting Sonnet 130 And McKay's The Harlem? Also do not delude yourself with the common refrain, When I get on the job, I will do it right. It takes practice to coming, do things well. That is true for rollerblading, shooting baskets, and playing the guitar. It is also true for doing a research paper. Now, in college, is the of progressive time to coming of john, practice and learn. Your instructor is likely to be more patient and helpful than your boss will ever be. Most successful efforts require some planning.
Here are two hints about what to do before you begin to no country for old, do research on, much less write, your paper. Both hints are tritely obvious; both are regularly ignored to the student's disadvantage. 1. Follow instructions. Your instructor will (or at least should) let you know what is expected. Far too often, students write papers that do not fulfill the assigned task. Of The Coming Of John? If you do not understand the assignment, if you have any doubts at Shakespeare's 130 and Dancer all, discuss it with your instructor. It is of the coming not uncommon in Analysis Slavery Essay, class or on coming of john, the job for a person to get instructions, to arterial blood pressure, not understand them, but to be reluctant to ask for clarification for fear of seeming dumb. This is a significant error. Of John? In the Influential S. Truman Essay first place, your boss will probably not think less of you for asking for clarification.
In the second place, asking for coming, supplementary instructions is far, far better than doing a report that does not meet the needs of your boss and is not what he or she wanted. For Old? That really makes you look dumb. 2. Do not wait until the coming of john last minute. Last-minute efforts usually read like last-minute efforts! Plan backward from the Analysis of Arguments Slavery date the paper is due to allow plenty of time to of the, get it done.
A good paper requires careful preparation, research, critical thinking, and writing. These steps take time. US Presidents: Harry Essay? Also, allow time for the unexpected. Computers crash or files get erased; printer toner or ribbons run out and have to be replaced; personal crises arise. You need to be able to cope with these and still get the paper done on time. My hard disk crashed is one of the modern excuses of choice; it is no more acceptable than the classic, My dog ate my paper. Being late with reports in of the, class or on the job is a very, very bad idea. The next step in your progress toward an award-winning research paper is to choose your topic carefully.
If you are responsible for affecting pressure, choosing your own topic, put some thought into this decision. First, as mentioned, make sure any topic you select fulfills the paper assignment. Second, if possible pick a topic that interests you. The more interested you are in a topic, the easier it will be for you to devote time and energy to studying it and to coming of john, writing about it. Third, ensure that you select a topic that fits the length of the paper that you intend to write, the research resources that are available to you, and your analytical tools. Length: If you attempt to write a 10-page paper entitled The President and factors blood, Congress Struggle for of the, Power: Two Centuries of Constitutional Conflict, then your paper is destined to be a mile wide and an inch deep, as they say. It is better to do something more narrowly focused and to affecting blood, do it well than to give a superficial treatment of a large subject. Research Resources: Trying to write a paper on Secret Military Operations in the Persian Gulf War would also be a mistake because the government has not released the relevant information.
You should take the holdings of your library into account. Of The Coming Of John? If you are at a major research university, you can probably find whatever you need. Even at large libraries, however, you may have trouble finding good sources to support a research paper on U.S.-Sri Lankan relations or U.S. policy regarding international cooperation in for old, the development of mining technology. As your library holdings decrease, your ability to study unusual or narrow topics decreases as well. So be careful not to choose a topic that destines you to of the coming of john, fail. Analytical Tools: If you are going to pick a topic such as The Use by the Federal Reserve of the Discount Rate to arterial blood, Influence Monetary Relations, then you had better be sure you have the of the coming of john background to understand the complexities that you will encounter. Similarly, ensure that you have the proper statistical skills if you are going to analyze votes in Influential US Presidents: Harry S. Truman, Congress to of the of john, see whether length of is abortion, service, party affiliation, constituency interest, or the margin of victory is most closely associated with a senator's support of presidential proposals. For all of these issues, rule number 1 here and throughout this writing guide is check with the of the of john instructor if there is any doubt in your mind. Indeed, it is a very good idea to Comparing and Contrasting Shakespeare's The Harlem, write a paragraph on what you intend to analyze, show it to of the coming, the professor, and Sonnet 130 and Clause McKay's Dancer, get his or her reaction.
Now the project begins in earnest. Good research is the foundation of of john, your paper. It stands to reason that without a solid foundation, the paper you build will inevitably be weak. As a general rule, your paper will be stronger if you use a good variety of the most up-to-date, and the most specific and expert, resources. The Library: The place to do research is the library. Do not be intimidated if the library on your campus is big and unfamiliar. Even the most experienced faculty member needs help sometimes, particularly when using such specialized sources as government documents. The good news is that assistance is readily available. This appendix will presently outline some of the main resources you may find in your library.
The list can serve only as a very brief introduction, however, so it is affecting arterial blood pressure important to make use of the library's staff. When you get lost, as we all do, ask the of john nearest librarian for help. Actually just standing around and looking confused will suffice sometimes to summon aid. Research Strategies: When you are doing your research it is important to be creative. Here are a few tips:
1. Start out by reading a general study or two on your subject. This will give you a broad grasp of your topic and will help you identify what is important and on what you need to focus your research. No Country For Old Men Characters? Simply jumping in and beginning to coming of john, do research in specialized studies can often waste a considerable amount of US Presidents: Harry Essay, your time. Coming Of John? Textbooks can also be helpful. Goal Of Progressive? For many topics, one starting point might be a U.S. diplomatic history text such as American Foreign Policy (Paterson, Clifford, Hagan, 1991a, b).
A general introduction to international relations such as International Politics on coming, the World Stage (Rourke, 1995) might also prove helpful to gain an overview of a topic. 2. Treat research like a detective story. Search under a variety of subject headings when looking for sources in the physical or computerized card catalog, in an index, or any other finding aid. If, for example, you are doing a paper on Vietnam, do not limit yourself to looking under V for for old, Vietnam. Coming? Other likely subject headings might be Asia, Southeast; Ho Chi Minh; Kissinger, Henry; Johnson, Lyndon B.; Nixon, Richard M.; U.S.-Foreign Relations; or U.S.-History. 3. Look at the most recent books and Influential S. Truman, journal articles first. These sources will usually contain a bibliography and notes that list earlier works on of the of john, the subject.
This can be an invaluable as well as a time-saving step in locating supplementary source material. 4. Photocopy important material. If you can afford it, photocopying is much faster than taking notes and for old, there is less chance for error. If you take written notes, use index cards. Larger cards are better than smaller ones. Use one card for each quote, statistic, or other piece of coming of john, research that you collect. Cards work well because they can be arranged easily. For topics with distinct parts, you might even want to try a different color card for each part. Some people use portable computers to for old, take notes. If you do, be sure to make a backup copy on a floppy disk. 5. Make a careful and coming of john, complete notation of the source of your material.
Later on we will cover why and how to cite material, but there is nothing more frustrating than having to go back to the library to look up a citation that you should have noted clearly and for the Institution, completely in the first place. Your library contains many types of resources that you can utilize to do your research. Coming? The following list is a mere beginning. Use it, but also go to your library, wander about a bit looking at its various sections and the resources that each contains, and ask librarians about what is available. You may be surprised at how many resources you discover. Reference Works: One of the most important places in your library is the reference room. We will mention some of the resources you will find there, but if you follow our advice about exploring this resource area, you may save yourself many hours later on. The materials in the reference room are valuable resources for beginning to structure the basic outline of your topic. Political science encyclopedias and dictionaries are one type of resource. There are many. For an American foreign policy course you might wish to look at sources such as the Dictionary of American Diplomatic History (Findling, 1989) or, at the most general level of political science, you might wish to consult The Encyclopedic Dictionary of American Government (Dushkin, 1991).
There are similar works, such as The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (Krieger, 1993), that are global in is abortion, scope. Then there are resources such as Editorial Research Reports , the coming of john Political Handbook of the US Presidents: Harry S. Truman Essay World , or the Index to International Public Opinion that deal with particular topics, give summaries of various governments, or take other specialized approaches. Such works are normally acceptable sources; general-purpose encyclopedias (such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica , the World Book , etc.) typically are not suitable, although the bibliographies they include with individual topics may prove helpful. In a U.S. Of The? foreign policy class, an often overlooked place to start is the right series of works published by Congressional Quarterly. Weekly updates come in the form of the Congressional Quarterly Weekly Reports . Of John? Information on an annual basis comes out in men characters, the Congressional Quarterly Almanac . Multiyear summaries called Congress and the Nation are available as well. These contain the basics of of the, most U.S. Factors Arterial Blood Pressure? foreign policy actions.
Besides coverage of congressional policy making, summaries of presidential or executive branch actions are included as well. The reference room also has bibliographies of works on of the of john, various subjects. These are classified under Z. Check with the Analysis of Arguments for the Slavery reference librarians. They may save you time. Books: Use your library's computer access system or card catalog for books on your subject. A good place to start is with the Library of Congress Subject Headings for ways to of the coming, cross-reference your search for books. In the Library of Congress system, most U.S. history is under the letter E. Factors Arterial Blood? For economics, look at H; for world history, consult books under D. Under H, the subsets of HC, HG, and HJ are particularly good for economics. The letter J encompasses most works on political science. As subsets, the letters JK focus on U.S. politics; JL, JN, and JQ cover other parts of the world; and of john, JX covers international politics. Military affairs are under U. Right? It is coming of john valuable to know these letters because sometimes it is worthwhile to simply go to the stacks where those letters are shelved and browse a bit to uncover resources that you may have missed in your computer or card catalog search. Of Arguments Slavery Institution Essay? The shelves in the reference room are partly arranged using the Library of Congress system.
Older books are also sometimes catalogued under the Dewey decimal system with the 300s and of the coming, 900s of especial relevance to political science and history. Scholarly Journal Articles: Some topics, like U.S. diplomacy during the recent fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina, may be so contemporary that there are few or no books yet available. In such cases, scholarly journals are more likely sources of information and analysis. You should consult journals even for goal, noncontemporary topics because scholars may have found new information or conducted new analyses. The places to find journal articles are the Public Affairs Information Service , the of the Social Sciences Index , the factors blood pressure S ocial Sciences Citation Index , and the ABC Pol Sci . You should be able to find most, if not all of of john, these, in your library's reference room. Just a few of the leading journals in foreign policy and international affairs are Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, International Affairs, International Organization, International Security, International Studies Quarterly, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Journal of International Affairs, Orbis, and World Politics. There are also many journals such as the American Political Science Review that contain general political science research.
Government Publications: You may also find valuable information that has been published in a report of a governmental agency, in hearings or reports of Analysis for the Slavery Essay, a congressional committee, or in the transcripts of the of the coming proceedings of Congress. The United Nations and a number of other international organizations also publish proceedings and factors affecting arterial pressure, reports. There are several indexes available. The Monthly Catalog of of the coming, United States Government Publications provides a comprehensive list of sources. The CIS/Index by the Congressional Information Service abstracts and indexes congressional hearings and reports. Debates and other proceedings of factors arterial, Congress are found in the daily Congressional Record. At some schools, accessing government documents can be a challenge. See your reference librarians for help with government publications. Newsmagazines and Newspapers: If you are covering a current topic or need to have a day-by-day account of events and cannot find one elsewhere, you may be forced to turn to newsmagazines and of the of john, newspapers. Be sure, however, to check with your instructor to ensure that these are considered acceptable sources for your assignment.
Mostly they are useful for facts or for contemporary quotes and are usually not good sources of analysis. Your library may have a computerized access system such as InfoTrac to assist you. The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature also helps access this material. Additionally, major newspapers like the New York Times, Washington Post, and Los Angeles Times are indexed. Of Progressive Movement? Some are now available on CD-ROM, allowing you to of the coming of john, use the computer to search by subject and then print out the relevant stories. For instance, InfoTrac is one CD-ROM-based system that among other things indexes the New York Times, Washington Post, Christian Science Monitor, Wall Street Journal, and Los Angeles Times. The Lexis/Nexis computer database will not only Influential Harry S. Truman Essay, provide you with indexed citations of of the of john, journalistic articles, but also with the text of the article in most instances. See the reference librarians for no country, help with such resources. There are sources such as Facts on File and Keesing's Contemporary Archives that are compilations of weekly news events and are indexed. World Wide Web (WWW) Electronic Resources: Over the past few years it has become increasingly easy to of the of john, find research information by using the Internet.
Until recently the Gopher system of data archives was the dominant form of Internet information access, but now most governmental and nongovernmental organizations, universities, and even many businesses have developed access to their research resources over the graphic environment on the World Wide Web. The following are a number of Web sites that will get you started in searching for information you may need in writing your research paper. Affecting Blood Pressure? Although some of the Uniform Resource Locators (URL) listed below are for coming, specific information sources, most provide you with hot-linked lists that will get you to where you might want to look for information. It is important to Comparing Clause McKay's Dancer, note that URLs change frequently. If any of these do not work for you, double-check the URL or contact the organization sponsoring the page. Miscellaneous Sources: Our listing here can only begin to cover what is in your library. There may be a map room.
There may also be an audio-visual section. Some libraries contain archives or a rare book collection. Coming Of John? Talk to a librarian or your professor for added information. Also realize that no library has everything. Consequently, you may find references to sources that are not found in your library. Factors Affecting Blood? You can usually order such sources from other libraries through the interlibrary loan program. Check with your reference librarians to learn how to use this service. Coming? Be advised, however, that interlibrary loans take some time.
So order any needed sources as early as possible. External Sources: Knowledge is not confined to libraries or even campuses. Is Abortion Right? A surprising number of students know someone who knows something about the specifics of of the coming, some U.S. Comparing And Contrasting 130 And McKay's Dancer? foreign policy issue. Even if you do not know someone personally, you might find it interesting and possible to of the coming, conduct an goal of progressive, interview with a decision maker or some other relevant person. Coming? Some students have been known to telephone the State Department for information successfully. Others have called the United Nations Missions or local consulates of other countries involved to of progressive movement, get information from of the of john them.
For advice on S. Truman, unconventional sources, see your instructor. The keys to effective papers are good organization and presentation of ideas and error-free technical skills. Coming? There are a number of sources that you can access to is abortion, help you both organize and write your paper. Some are: Writer's Guide: Political Science (Biddle Holland, 1987); The Chicago Manual of Style (1993); The Write Stuff (Cronin, 1986); Writing with Power (Elbow, 1981); The Elements of Style (Strunk White, 1979); and A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Turabian, 1987). Our comments on writing a paper that follow may prove helpful to you, but they are not substitutes for of the, the fuller discussions you will find in goal movement, these writing guides. There are three organizational issues to consider.
They are the outline, the parts of the paper, and the approach. Outline: No one would think of building a house, computer, or other important and of the coming, complex project without a plan. Students regularly write papers without a plan. As a result, poor organization is a common weakness of undergraduate term papers. The best way to construct your plan and to organize information for maximum effect is to right, put together an outline. Of John? An outline serves to lay out your paper's structure, to ensure that it is Analysis of Arguments for the Slavery Essay complete and logical, and to prevent you from getting off the of the coming track.
Determine what you wish to accomplish in the paper; then prepare an factors arterial blood pressure, outline specifying every step from Introduction to Conclusion. Linear writing is crucial in professional papers and reports. A good outline also serves to of the coming, help you later: It ensures that you stay on track, write an accurate summary for your conclusions, and cover all of the Analysis of Arguments Institution relevant information and arguments. Parts: All papers should have three basic parts: an of the coming of john, introduction, a main body, and a conclusion. The introduction is the key to letting your reader know where you are headed and what you will accomplish. Comparing And Contrasting 130 And The Harlem Dancer? Remember always that while the organization of your paper may be clear to you, it is not clear to your reader. Coming Of John? Therefore, the introduction is goal of progressive something like a road map that acquaints the reader with the journey ahead. This will make it easier for the reader to understand what follows and of john, will improve the is abortion right reader's evaluation of your work. Tell the reader in of the coming, concise terms (1) what the subject of the paper is, (2) what it is Analysis that you hope to find out, and (3) how you will go about of john, it. If you are writing an advanced, theoretical paper, your introduction might well also include a review of the existing scholarship on the subject, a section in which you identify how you collected your data and Influential US Presidents: S. Truman, other information, and a discussion of the of the coming of john methodology you will use.
Wolfinger (1993) is a guide for such advanced papers. The main body is the largest part of the Comparing and Contrasting Shakespeare's 130 and McKay's The Harlem Dancer paper. It should have a logical organization. Especially if the paper is long, it is coming often a good idea to divide the main body into sections designated by no country men characters, headings and subheadings. Look at almost any text, including this one, and you will see that it uses headings to help keep the reader aware of the organizational structure. Also with regard to coming of john, your main body, do not assume knowledge on is abortion right, the part of the reader. Of The Of John? Include all important information, explain its significance, and detail your logic. Write your paper as though its reader will be a reasonably intelligent and arterial pressure, informed person but not an expert on your topic. Your instructor wants to know what you know and will not read into the paper information that is not there.
The conclusion should sum up what you have found and stress the evidence that supports your analysis. There is something very human about wanting to have things summed up, so do not leave your reader hanging without a conclusion. Approach: There are several ways to approach your paper. A common organizational approach is a chronological one. The advantage of this approach is that it uses the passage of time as its organizing mechanism. The disadvantage of a chronological approach is that it can easily become a laundry list of events, both important and unimportant.
Students often list everything they find, leaving it to of the of john, the reader to determine which factors are most important. Analysis Of Arguments? Chronologies are also no substitute for analysis. There is nothing wrong with a chronological approach if it is of the of john done well; just be sure to put more emphasis throughout on why things happened than on what happened. A more analytic approach would be organized around a set of factors, or variables, that are important to Comparing and Contrasting Shakespeare's Clause The Harlem, the subject of the of john paper. Theoretical approaches can also be used to organize a paper. Comparing Shakespeare's Sonnet McKay's Dancer? See Allison's (1971) Essence of Decision for an illustration of such an of john, analytic approach. Whatever approach you choose, bear in mind that a cardinal rule is, analyze, analyze, analyze! Summarizing your findings in the conclusion does not mean that this is the only place to put you in the paper.
Your analysis should appear throughout the paper. Is Abortion Right? A big error that many novice writers make is to of the coming of john, use the main body of the paper to create a heap of goal of progressive movement, facts and to of the coming, wait until the conclusion to say what they mean. This approach is boring and will not impress your readers with your analytical ability. The best papers by Shakespeare's Sonnet McKay's The Harlem Dancer, far are those that draw data, events, and other material together and of the, interpret them throughout. Besides organization, the other hallmark of a good paper is clarity in writing.
Remember that if a paper fails to communicate well, then its research-no matter how well done--will have little impact. There is an old piece of advice that says, write like you speak. This is terrible advice, at for old men characters least for coming, formal papers. Good written communication is somewhat different from affecting arterial good spoken communication. Of The Coming? When you speak to someone, especially face to for old men characters, face, you can convey meaning through voice inflection, gestures, and other methods in addition to your words. Coming Of John? These methods are not available in written communications. Therefore, choice of words, punctuation, and other considerations are particularly vital when you write. Good writing can be divided into three parts: effort, style considerations, and goal of progressive movement, technical matters. Effort: Thomas Alva Edison once supposedly commented that Genius is one percent inspiration and coming of john, 99 percent perspiration. That is no country for old men characters true whether one is inventing the lightbulb or creating an essay, a report, or a book. Coming Of John? Writing and Comparing Shakespeare's Sonnet McKay's The Harlem, polishing drafts of of john, a paper take time and effort.
They cannot be done the night before the paper is due. If you sit down at your word processor the night before your report is goal of progressive movement due and of the, write it into the wee hours of the morning, you will almost certainly leave your reader as bleary-eyed when he or she reads the paper as you were when you wrote it. Two things to do are to write drafts and to get others to read your paper. 1. Write a draft, preferably more than one. No professional writer would dream of blood pressure, sending a manuscript out for review or to press without writing multiple drafts. Indeed, the more one writes, the more one feels the need to do drafts. Only undergraduates have the hubris to keyboard a paper into the computer, print a copy out, hand it in, and wait confidently for that rave review and an A grade from the instructor. A better idea is to write a first draft. Note here that the adjective rough does not precede draft.
Your draft should be complete and carefully done. Once your smooth draft is done, put it aside for a few days so that you can gain perspective. Then reread it. You may be surprised at how many ways you find to improve what you have written when you look at it with fresh eyes. The same is true for your third and subsequent drafts. 2. Get help.
There are many people who can help you write a first-rate paper. One person is coming your instructor. Discuss your topic and your ideas with your professor. He or she may be able to help you refine your topic, avoid pitfalls, identify resources, or plan the paper's organization. Submit drafts to your professor far enough ahead of the deadline to US Presidents: Harry S. Truman, give the instructor time to suggest revisions. It may prove helpful also to of the coming of john, ask a classmate, a family member, or someone else to read your paper.
Most people are not good judges of their own writing. No Country Men Characters? We tend to of the, read what we meant to is abortion right, say, not what we actually wrote. A fresh reader will be able to point out technical errors and lapses in your argument and organization. Writing centers are another source of of the of john, help at many colleges and universities. You may have already paid for Influential Harry, such assistance with your tuition dollars; you might as well use it. Style Considerations: It may take innate talent to become a great literary figure, but achieving a reasonably pleasing literary style is possible for everyone who exercises a little care. A few suggestions should help you write a paper that has literary, as well as intellectual, merit. 1. Watch your sentence structure. Students and scholars too often seem to assume that long, complex sentences are symbolic of profundity. Coming? They are not; they are mostly just cumbersome.
Simple, subject-verb-object sentences are best. They are powerful. Still, if you do not vary them occasionally, numerous short sentences do not read well. Right? So, after several simple sentences, add a longer one. But do not go too far the other way. Consider Rourke's Rule of of the of john, 2s: Sentences more than two lines long or with more than two commas are probably too long to goal movement, be understood easily, especially if there have been two in a row. 2. Rely on active tense, action verbs. Avoid the passive tense (No: Politicians are disliked by many people. Yes: Many people dislike politicians.). Similarly, action verbs (made, jumped, went) are better than verbs of being (is, are, were). In general, active/action verbs generate more interest.
3. Use standard English. Colloquial English typically does not make a good impression unless you are writing fiction. Obscenities and other forms of gutter English are almost never acceptable. 4. Avoid starting too many sentences with adverbial or adjectival clauses or phrases. These are the coming short phrases (such as In the morning, we went. ) that are often followed by a comma.
Also shun beginning or ending sentences with words or phrases such as: however, though, for example, for instance. 5. Watch your paragraph length. Paragraphs over one page in length are usually too long. They may contain redundant statements or more than one major idea. Rework such paragraphs to delete unnecessary text or to separate ideas into Influential Essay, additional paragraphs. At the other extreme, one-sentence paragraphs are not acceptable. Remember that each paragraph should have a topic sentence and several others that explain or develop that topic. 6. Of John? Rely on transitions between paragraphs. Conventions like On the other hand, Still, Also, Nevertheless, Thus, However, or As a result help the reader get from goal one thought to another. They smooth the reading process. 7. Avoid clichés.
They fought like cats and dogs over which policy to adopt. Ugh! 8. Get to the point. Do not beat around the of the coming bush; save a tree; avoid word pollution. Technical Matters: Your paper must be free of common writing mistakes. Cautions about some of these are: 1. Pressure? Avoid sentence fragments. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb.
2. Check your spelling. Misspelled words make you appear uneducated, careless, or both. Keep in mind that misspelled words and typographical errors cannot be distinguished from each other by a reader. Both are unacceptable. Coming? Some professional proofreaders read a manuscript backwards to check for spelling. Try it. Do not rely on just your own sense of goal of progressive, how words are spelled. Use a dictionary, a spell check program if you have a computer, and of the, a second reader to proofread your drafts. Beware of spell checkers, though! Consider this sentence: Its necessary to Analysis Essay, get there attention or we may loose the vote. These three mistakes (its for it's, there for their, and loose for lose) are common ones that would not be caught by most spell check programs.
Thus it is of the coming of john crucial to factors blood, have a human scan your words. 3. Coming Of John? Make sure subjects and verbs agree. Subject-verb disagreement is most likely to occur when the two are separated in the sentences by several other words. 4. Be careful of verb tense. Many poor writers use only present tense. Use past tense, future, and other tenses as appropriate. Also be careful to keep verb tense consistent within paragraphs. 5. Right? Make pronouns mean what they say. Misuse of pronouns is very common.
A pronoun refers to the last noun of the same person and gender. Consider the sentences, John F. Kennedy was shot by Lee Harvey Oswald, who was subsequently also shot and killed. Many Americans wept at his death. What this means literally is that many Americans wept when they heard of Oswald's death because his refers to the closest prior singular masculine noun (Oswald). Also, do not normally use pronouns more than twice in a row to refer to the same noun. Use the noun or a variation thereof again for clarity. While we are on the subject of of the, pronouns, it is seldom correct to use a gender-specific pronoun (he, she, him, her) to refer to an inanimate object. The United States, for example, is an it, not a she. 6. Do not split infinitives. Except when absolutely necessary to of progressive, avoid misinterpretation, to of the of john, and the verb should not be separated by blood pressure, an adverb. 7. Avoid the use of of the coming, contractions.
Words like can't, won't, or don't are too informal for a formal writing assignment. 8. Be careful of abbreviations. Do not start sentences with abbreviations or numbers (unless spelled out). For countries, avoid using the abbreviation as a noun (No: The U.S. did. Goal Of Progressive Movement? ); but the abbreviation is acceptable as an adjective (Yes: Current U.S. foreign policy. ). The first time you name someone, give his or her full name and the title if appropriate. Also do not use an acronym unless it is very common without first spelling out the full name, as in, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). 9. Of The? Do not end sentences with prepositions. This rule is being relaxed, but repetitive use of is abortion right, prepositions at of john the end of sentences is indicative of poor sentence structure.
10. Know when and how to use specific punctuation. Comparing Shakespeare's Sonnet 130 And Dancer? The various style manuals mentioned earlier elaborate on the proper usage of commas, colons, semicolons, parentheses, brackets, and the like. All good research papers rely on information compiled by and analysis done by others. If you write a research paper without consulting other works, then you have written an essay, not a report. If you do rely in part on the work of other people and you do not cite them, you have failed in of the coming of john, your responsibilities.
A research paper must cite the work of others. There are two reasons that citations are mandatory. The first is to allow the reader to explore the subject further by consulting the works that you have utilized. Without regular and complete citations, such further exploration by for the Slavery, your reader is difficult or impossible. Second, intellectual honesty requires citations. Failure to use them is plagiarism, which is unacceptable in of the coming of john, any form. Plagiarism is the men characters theft of the thoughts, facts, or knowledge of others by not giving them proper credit. When to Cite: Follow these guidelines to protect yourself: 1. Anytime you quote or paraphrase the thoughts or work of others, cite the source.
It is incorrect to believe that only quotations require citations. You should also insert a note whenever you are relying on someone else's thoughts or research, even if you are only paraphrasing (putting it in your own words). 2. Simple, commonly known facts need not be footnoted. A rule of of the of john, thumb is that if you did not know the for old information before you started the paper, then you should use a citation to show where you found the information. Also, even if you know something when you start, you should cite the source of any controversial fact (Ireland's St.
Brenden and the Vikings came to the New World before Columbus). 3. Of John? When in doubt, cite the Comparing Clause The Harlem Dancer source. Plagiarism is unethical. Instructors and other readers take it very seriously. Grades, reputations, and academic careers have been ruined by plagiarism. Err on the side of safety. Of John? One citation too many is affecting far better than one citation too few.
How to Cite: The use of a correct format for citations used in endnotes or footnotes and in a bibliography often seem a bit complex and cumbersome, but doing so has two good points. Those advantages are completeness and consistency. Of The Coming Of John? Most styles fall into one of two categories, notation styles and reference-in-text styles. Notation style involves the use of numbers to Comparing and Contrasting Shakespeare's Sonnet The Harlem, indicate each citation. Each number's corresponding note may be at the bottom of the page as a footnote or at the end of the paper as an endnote. In either case, you should provide comprehensive information on each source the first time it appears as a footnote or an endnote, with shortened versions appearing in later footnotes or endnotes. At the end of the paper, a bibliography repeats the full documentation of these sources, listing them alphabetically by coming, author.
Bibliographies have their own formatting styles. Analysis Of Arguments For The Essay? A number of works demonstrate both citation and bibliography format styles, including A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Turabian, 1980) and The Chicago Manual of of the, Style (1993). A r eference-in-text style uses the author's name and the year of publication of the work, which are placed in parentheses and inserted at the appropriate place in the text. A page number is factors affecting blood also included for coming of john, direct quotes and in some other cases. Then at the end of the paper or book there is a References or Works Cited section that contains the full documentation for all the sources cited throughout the body of the work. These sources are listed alphabetically by author. 130 And Clause The Harlem? Reference-in-text styles are increasingly the of john norm in social science, and most are some variant of the style developed by the American Psychological Association (APA). No Country For Old Men Characters? For details of how to use such styles, see the APA's Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (1983); Writer's Guide: Political Science (Biddle Holland, 1987); or use this book as an illustration. Whatever citation style you choose, use it correctly and be consistent. Your job is not quite finished.
After writing the paper, you must prepare its physical presentation. Unless told otherwise, you should type your paper double-spaced, with one-inch margins on all four sides of each page. Your paper should feature a title page, the body of the paper, and of the coming, then the no country for old men characters bibliography, Works Cited, or References page(s). If your instructor prefers some variation of of the coming, this model, that will usually be specified in advance. Once again, it is important to stress that a paper is for old men characters a whole product. A paper that contains impeccable research, cogent analysis, and brilliant writing will still evoke a negative reaction from the reader if it is coming wrinkled, printed sloppily, or barely readable because the McKay's The Harlem Dancer ink on the ribbon is exhausted. Some general guidelines include: 1. Printed material is preferable. Of John? Most instructors will not accept handwritten reports. Even if printing is not mandatory, a printed report has a more professional image than does a handwritten report. 2. Is Abortion Right? Make sure the of the print is easily legible.
When you type or print your report, make sure that the ribbon or ink cartridge is up to par. 3. Do not play the S. Truman Essay margin, spacing, and font game. Coming? Professors are not naive and have read veritable mountains of papers. Having extra-wide margins; leaving extra spaces between paragraphs, headings, and excerpts; or using larger-size type or fonts to stretch a paper out (or doing the opposite to squeeze it in) are very obvious. You will not fool the instructor or anyone else.
So, why bother? 4. Number your pages. It is not uncommon for students to turn in papers with the pages out of order. Numbering the pages cuts down on this mistake. Also, unbound papers sometimes fall apart and must be reassembled. Numbered pages will facilitate this. 5. For Old? Securely fasten the paper together. Paper clips are a bad idea.
Staples or one of the of john various types of binders sold by your bookstore are better. 6. Read your paper one last time. US Presidents: Harry Essay? Even if the paper seems finished, you can still find mistakes that prior proofreading missed. A last-minute pen-and-ink (never pencil) correction that is inserted neatly is coming better than an error. 7. Analysis Institution Essay? Go home and relax.
Get a pizza, watch some television, catch a movie! You deserve it after working hard and coming, writing a great paper. Congratulations!