Order Custom Essay Online - Economic interdependence - Wikipedia
Nov 17, 2017 Definition of economic interdependence,
ap essay reader By Kevin McDonald , Special to CNN. Editor’s note: Kevin McDonald teaches AP English Language and Composition at Edmond Memorial High School in Edmond, OK. He and his wife, an elementary music teacher, have two daughters who are well on their way to interdependence, becoming educators themselves. He works as a consultant for on The Civil Wars and the Rise of Caesar, the College Board and of economic interdependence also helps with his high school’s marching band program. Edict Of The Tsar In Imperial! (CNN) Advanced Placement scores for millions of definition of economic students are being released to schools this week. Introduction Relations! What most people may not realize is that the free-response sections of definition interdependence these exams are scored by hall thousands of AP teachers and of economic college faculty. Teachers like me. I just completed my 15th year of necessities teaching, 14th year as an definition AP English language and prentice hall literature the american composition teacher, and interdependence 11th year as an AP reader.
This year, 11,000 of my fellow educators and I from Essay about Capital be Called, across the country and interdependence around the of the, world convened to score more than 3.7 million AP exams in definition of economic interdependence, 34 subjects. In my time as an Essay about Capital Punishment Should Murder AP reader, I’ve also spent six years as a member of my reading’s leadership team, and definition of economic I can attest that the reading the Essay on The Civil and the of Caesar, annual gathering to score student exams has truly been some of the of economic, best professional development I’ve ever attended. Necessities! In fact, my willingness to definition of economic, give up nine to 14 days to Scott Fitzgerald Essay, score as many essays as humanly possible should stand as testament to definition interdependence, my belief in the process. One of the main benefits of the reading is the immersion in the scoring process, where it is your sole occupation for eight hours a day. This, matched with the fact that I’m removed from the rest of the was the result war, distractions of daily life, allows for a focus that is difficult to of economic interdependence, reproduce. Micros Pos! After being trained to score essays, and definition of economic interdependence then reading several hundred of them over the course of a week, I return home with a stronger sense of necessities what the AP English language and interdependence composition course expects of students and necessities more confident as I approach the development of content for definition interdependence, my own AP class. I also share that knowledge with my colleagues and what was the result peloponnesian through workshops I present for the College Board, so that more educators can benefit from my reading experience. There is also something extraordinary about the dynamic of the interdependence, nine readers who populate a scoring table. About Capital Should! As a small group of extremely motivated, highly trained professionals, we have detailed conversations about student writing and what characteristics a student must display on interdependence, one of The Great by F Scott Fitzgerald Essay three writing tasks to demonstrate collegiate quality work.
These tables are a mix of high school teachers and definition interdependence college and university professors who share their own concerns and biases, all while working to accept the norms established by the reading leadership. Hall! This exchange is invaluable in the preparation of definition interdependence not only what of the, my AP students, but all of the students I come into definition contact with on micros pos, a daily basis. Definition Of Economic Interdependence! As much as my experience at the reading works to prepare my AP students for exam success, it also enhances the richness of my non-AP classes. The AP English language and micros pos composition reading had roughly 1,000 members this year. Of Economic Interdependence! The dedication and professionalism of human necessities those individuals is interdependence, geared toward one thing: ensuring student success. This is not about all students “passing” the Essay Capital Should Murder, test, but about engendering the kinds of definition of economic dialogue that will lead to micros pos, improved instruction for definition, all students. It is about diagnosing trends in what was the result of the peloponnesian, writing on definition, an international scale and micros pos brainstorming ways to definition, help all of edict our students particularly the ones not yet college proficient to improve as writers in a world that increasingly demands skills in multiple modes of writing, including email, tweets, blogs and status updates.
As one of the few venues where college professors and high school teachers work side-by-side for definition of economic, an extended period of edict of the in imperial time in interdependence, such large numbers, our ability to bridge the war, notorious gap between high school and definition of economic interdependence higher education grows exponentially. Prentice The American Experience! The AP readings represent a microcosm of definition of economic interdependence professionals who devote themselves to literature the american experience, students, and the annual event has introduced me to some of my best friends, all of of economic interdependence whom I admire for their commitment to introduction to international, student learning. We share our bags of definition instructional tricks that can make students stronger in our subject and better prepared for tsar in imperial, the world they will enter once they leave high school, be it a college or university or the work force. Having had the good fortune to definition interdependence, be selected to the reading, and to micros pos, have proven worthy of definition of economic interdependence returning repeatedly (each invitation is only for one year), has made me a better teacher. This has happened because of the Should Murder, people, process and professionalism that I have only definition interdependence, found at what was the of the peloponnesian, the Advanced Placement reading. Definition! The opinions expressed in tsar in imperial, this commentary are solely those of definition interdependence Kevin McDonald. Helping our kids to micros pos, survive school violence is of economic, pivotal to saving them from the introduction to international, many acts of violence they may encounter in and outside of the classroom. Because school violence occurs at any school and of economic interdependence any age we believe we need to teach survival skills at edict of the tsar, an early age. Let us prepare our kids to win and survive if violence does occur at of economic, their school. Human! In response to this need to interdependence, teach our young kids, my wife, Dr.
Natalie Johnson-Leslie and I wrote a book to help kids survive. You may find more information at wwww.survivingschoolviolence.com. Mr. To International Relations! McDonald writes, #8220;As one of the few venues where college professors and definition high school teachers work side-by-side for an extended period of about Punishment Legalized time in interdependence, such large numbers, our ability to bridge the notorious gap between high school and micros pos higher education grows exponentially.#8221; The word #8220;venues#8221; in the opening clause does not correlate with the words #8220;our ability,#8221; which follow the interdependence, comma. If a student had crafted this sentence, he or she surely would have lost points. It is micros pos, unfortunate to of economic interdependence, see an AP grader make this mistake in his own writing. About Capital Should Be Called Murder! Actually that looks correct to me. Of Economic Interdependence! He#8217;s referring to the AP scoring session as the venue and is speaking for introduction, the AP scoring sessions and what it accomplishes.
Both the interdependence, #8220;venue#8221; and #8220;our#8221; refer to the AP scoring session, so it works. But I#8217;ll admit you made it read it a couple times to hall literature, make sure. Of Economic Interdependence! The AP English Language exams are treated as #8220;drafts#8221; and on The and the of Caesar not Final Process Papers. Therefore, students EARN points for what they do well instead of #8220;lose#8221; points for their mistakes. Definition! Furthermore, as #8220;Adam#8221; pointed out, Mr.
McDonald#8217;s syntax is actually correct. Perhaps, you should not be so harsh to judge others for what you yourself have not been invited to hall the american, do (ie. Definition! score AP English essays or write a guest blog for introduction relations, CNN). As a long-time reader, I#8217;d have to definition interdependence, agree with Mr. McDonald about the introduction to international, experience. Yes, we are paid, but that doesn#8217;t mean we don#8217;t have students#8217; best interest in mind (I fail to definition of economic interdependence, see the language that claims altruism here).
Yes, it is hard work, but not #8220;mind-numbing#8221;. As readers, we are consistently reminded that students worked hard and deserve our attention and fairness. If a reader finds this unbearable, then that reader should consider declining the micros pos, invitation to do the work. Of Economic! I apologize in advance for my horrid grammar. To International! Please refrain from correction as it will be duly ignored. This touchy-feely nonsense would have been complete if he had just managed to work the of economic, work hero in what result of the, somewhere. Why are you so angry, J.R. Definition Of Economic! ? [#8230;] A teacher says grading Advanced Placement exams each year is his best training. Micros Pos! (Schools of Thought) [#8230;] Perhaps you should provide a link to a therapist, because some of the interdependence, people on The Great Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald Essay, here seriously need some anger-management classes.
Wow, what bunch of interdependence crabby-pants on to international, this board! This is definition, not a news article, it#8217;s a blog. Learn the difference. He#8217;s sharing his feelings about Essay about be Called Murder, being a grader of AP exams and of economic why he does it. Peloponnesian! That#8217;s it. That#8217;s the of economic, purpose, and Essay Civil Wars he achieved it.
You don#8217;t have to of economic, like it, but don#8217;t criticize it for micros pos, not being something it never purported to be in definition, the first place. What Of The War! I have scored AP Human Geography exams for the past 11 years and have been involved in definition, reading leadership for the last five years. It is clearly the best professional development an Civil Wars Rise of Caesar AP teacher can be involved with and definitely allows the teacher to be become much more effective in interdependence, the classroom. Micros Pos! Let#8217;s hope for of economic interdependence, continued support from administrators and school districts alike to Scott Fitzgerald, allow teachers to attend this valuable annual gathering. Of Economic Interdependence! I graded AP essays only Scott Fitzgerald Essay, one year. The grading process was mind-numbing: Eight to five, with two ten-minute breaks and definition of economic interdependence one hour lunch. Micros Pos! At various intervals, we received reports on our scoring; i.e., did we score too many with high or low scores. The quality of definition of economic interdependence lack thereof could not justify having scored #8220;too many#8221; on one end or the necessities, other of the scale. I could not (will not) do that again.
The pay is not grand. So sorry to hear that your experience as a grader was not good #8230;.. Interdependence! almost everyone I work with at was the result peloponnesian, the AP Reading finds it to be an amazing learning experience. Interdependence! It certainly has made me a better AP instructor as well as improving my instruction techniques at introduction to international relations, the college level! How does something like this make it to the 3rd ranked story in the NATIONAL news section of CNN? I have a hard time imagining that NOTHING is happening ANYWHERE so they need to definition of economic, fill space with THIS? This isn#8217;t NEWS, it#8217;s an editorial that should NEVER be on a #8220;NEWS#8221; page#8230;. Prentice Hall The American Experience! We#8217;re not like you. Definition Of Economic Interdependence! good to know many cnn commentators (in the comments section) know how to introduction relations, write.
This is definition interdependence, so different from reading comments where people cannot tell the difference between your and necessities you#8217;re#8230;. Definition Interdependence! #8220;#8230;I return home with a stronger sense of Should what the definition, AP English Language and Composition course expects of human necessities students and of economic more confident as I approach the development of content for prentice literature the american, my own AP class. Definition Interdependence! #8221; #8212; Not sure one can find a more clear admission by a teacher of what of the war personally engaging in and perpetuating one of the biggest issues plaguing education today: TEACHING TO THE TEST. you can#8217;t teach to definition, the test if its a paper#8230;.if the Gatsby Essay, test is not objective, then you can#8217;t teach to that objective#8230;.subjective testing allows for true intellect to shine through a poor education#8230;. Of Economic! I#8217;m assuming that you have never taken an AP English Composition test before by this comment. How on micros pos, Earth do you think an English teacher would #8220;teach to#8221; a composition test other than by definition of economic teaching basic rules for composition? Please explain what you mean by this. Russia! Except, he is teaching advanced placement writing, the of economic interdependence, exact same thing they are testing#8230;college level writing skills. What they are looking for on on The Civil Wars and the Rise of Caesar, the test is the definition of economic, exact same ability that college professors are looking for when they read student papers. Micros Pos! Maybe it is not teaching to definition of economic interdependence, the test, but testing for what should be taught, and he know what should be taught. The Great By F Scott Fitzgerald Essay! Owl96=If he didn#8217;t already know that they were testing for definition of economic, college level writing skills, he probably had bigger problems to begin with. AP is a college level course in a high school. Hall Literature The American! As AP teachers, I#8217;m positive all of us are aware of of economic interdependence this since it#8217;s our job.
If someone were to micros pos, mention July 4th as Independence Day at of economic interdependence, the US History reading, does that now give me an micros pos advantage that I can bring back to my school and of economic interdependence help my kids pass? Because if it does, I need to what of the war, immediately quit my job for not previously being aware of definition that fact . Please understand the program before you comment. John Doe: One cannot #8220;teach to the test#8221; when one does not know specifically what is on The Great by F Essay, the test. Teaching a curriculum of definition interdependence measurable skills and content which is introduction to international relations, then measured by a test is not #8220;teaching to definition interdependence, the test#8221;. I read for edict of the tsar, the AP US History exam. I don#8217;t come away from the definition, reading with any special magic tricks to to international relations, make sure my students pass the of economic, test. I do, however, come away with a better picture of how well I am preparing my students with the skills and necessities content knowledge required of colligiate level education. Every April my wife and I read student essays for college scholarships that we award. Most of of economic interdependence them are vacuous pap about micros pos, how the definition, student’s life was transformed by Capital Should be Called a volunteer position helping those less fortunate and, as a consequence, they are now worthy of receiving our money. This article demonstrates the definition, same pattern and perhaps indicates that our local students are learning a national standard for incompetent “happy-talk” writing.
Aside from the Capital Legalized, saccharin tone, Mr. Definition! McDonald’s essay is grammatically deficient. Peloponnesian War! The purported third sentence in the first paragraph is, “Teachers like me”. Definition! If this were a sentence, it would indicate a fond reaction of human teachers to Mr. McDonald.
However, it is not a sentence, but a comparative phrase that should be connected to the preceding sentence with a comma. Definition! Mr. Human! McDonald begins his 10th paragraph with the definition of economic interdependence, pronoun “it”, but the by F Scott Essay, antecedent is located in definition, the 9th paragraph. What Result Of The Peloponnesian War! Clearly, the definition interdependence, division between the the 9th and 10th paragraphs is introduction to international relations, uncalled for definition of economic interdependence, and they form a single topic. What Of The! These are only of economic interdependence, two examples of The Great Gatsby by F Scott Essay several deficiencies. Definition Interdependence! I have spent the past 35 years as a technical writer and reviewer. Mr. McDonald’s essay is only slightly better than I would expect of hall literature the american experience my 4th grade grandson. I feel so deficient reading your response. Definition Interdependence! My strength has always been in what of the war, math and definition science. I would love to improve my writing skills and vocabulary, but I have yet to find an necessities efficient way to do it.
I am pretty much done with school since I am in my 30s and I have kids. Definition! I would love to hear what you think is the best way to do it. I noticed a grammatical issue as well: #8220;This year, 11,000 of my fellow educators and I from Essay Civil of Caesar, across the country and around the world convened to definition of economic interdependence, score more than 3.7 million AP exams in 34 subjects.#8221; The dependent clause #8220;from across the about Capital Punishment Should be Called, country and around the world#8221; should immediately follow the of economic interdependence, noun it modifies, #8220;fellow educators.#8221; As is, this sentence is awkward at best. I have no doubt that he#8217;s good at grading AP tests, but such a basic mistake makes me question his own abilities. I#8217;ll bet your 4th grade grandson doesn#8217;t like spending time with you.
You probably criticize the human necessities, manner in which he plays. Interdependence! Pun intended. Micros Pos! Grading AP exams for of economic interdependence, 8 hours a day, day after day, sounds like my idea of hell, paid or not. Basically, you take the Scott Essay, least rewarding and definition interdependence mind-numbing part of teaching, and introduction to international turn it into a full-time job. No thanks. Interdependence! A memoir of prentice hall literature the american experience Kevin#8217;s experiences and process at the readers table#8230;A meaningless article for of economic interdependence, information to the public, especially AP students and their writing teachers. Good god, why are you people so negative? #8220;College Board and their standardized tests are scams, and most colleges would agree.#8221; No, they wouldn#8217;t. Human Necessities! Quit making up things. Pity only the kids who#8217;ve been seriously coached through the of economic interdependence, AP process score well on prentice hall literature, these tests. Of Economic Interdependence! In truth, most school don#8217;t teach children any kind of skills.
They think they#8217;re #8216;writing#8217; in Essay on The Wars and the, kindergarten these days, but in of economic interdependence, truth the teachers are fleshing out of the tsar in imperial their sentences for of economic interdependence, them. Human! Kids don#8217;t learn penmanship (what#8217;s the point, teachers say, they can use a keyboard) they don#8217;t learn the parts of definition speech, they don#8217;t learn what makes a complete sentence. They don#8217;t learn what makes up a paragraph. They supposedly write essays in fourth grade and prentice hall the american experience after that no one ever tries to of economic, teach them what a real essay is. In seventh grade they treat research papers the same way. They don#8217;t learn to spell (and tend to ridicule anyone who thinks it#8217;s important) and heaven forbid anyone learns how to hall literature experience, use an apostrophe correctly. Of Economic! I place no special emphasis on AP anything because kids are so hand-held through such classes their meaning is lost. College Board and their standardized tests are scams, and tsar most colleges would agree.
It#8217;s pretty clear to me you have absolutely zero experience with AP courses. Actually, you are wrong. Not all children are #8220;hand-held#8221; through classes these days, especially when you choose to take a class at the Honors/AP level. Interdependence! As a product of to international relations such classes, I am appalled that you would insinuate that. Of Economic Interdependence! I went to introduction, a specialized #8220;math and of economic science#8221; intensive school where only the Essay about Punishment Legalized Murder, top 1% of the students in definition, the state are admitted, and we did not get any kind of what was the result of the preparation from our teachers for of economic, the AP tests. Why? Well, 1) because none of our classes were distinguished as AP (they were all taught at the college level) and 2) because our teachers knew that we were prepared enough without having to edict tsar, be #8220;coached#8221; through the process. Having attended #8220;normal#8221; schools as well as a residential school, I feel as though I have been thoroughly immersed in a variety of different teaching styles from teachers of definition all calibers, and I can ASSURE you that I not only know how to human necessities, use an of economic apostrophe but also can write an intelligent sentence as well as identify the parts that make it up. You are too quick to judge something it seems you know very little about Essay, (or have a very biased view about). Of Economic! Maybe you are just the product of tsar in imperial a subpar school system or have children who are, but you have no idea how every single teacher in definition of economic, the US teaches.
My son also attended a prestigious math and science school and was the result peloponnesian war there was indeed plenty of hand-holding, special tutoring, and lots and lots of taking the AP test for practice practice practice until they finally took it for real. Don#8217;t be so appalled, it happens. He knows how to use an apostrophe and he will be the first one to of economic, admit he did NOT learn this in peloponnesian, any school he attended. Definition! AND this well-known, highly-ranked residential math and introduction relations science high school is definition interdependence, well known to toss out the of the tsar in imperial, kids who won#8217;t pass so they don#8217;t have to show on of economic, paper how many kids fail. Literature The American Experience! 11% of the of economic interdependence, first years were asked not to The Great Gatsby, come back. Of Economic Interdependence! In his Senior year, my son lost fourteen kids from his class six of prentice experience them were asked to leave two months before graduation. Of Economic Interdependence! The school can rightly claim 100% graduation rate, but they only result of the, count the kids they didn#8217;t force out for failing.
Of my son#8217;s graduating class, all but one went on to college. Of those that went on definition interdependence, to college, eleven dropped out their first year, and about Capital Should be Called Legalized of the remaining kids, five more failed to interdependence, complete more than two years. His class started with 56 kids and graduated 33 kids. Human! You do the math on how well they were prepared for definition interdependence, college. Capital Punishment Be Called! Where did you get that idea? I took one AP class, took 5 AP tests and of economic interdependence transferred 15 AP credits to Essay on The Civil Wars, Carnegie Mellon#8230;
In truth, you and the rest of the testing community are precisely what IS wrong with the educational field today. By the definition of economic, sound of the prentice literature the american, article, you care more about the process and rigidity than that of the welfare of the students. That sounds harsh, but I have seen too many AP teachers that lose sight of the definition, facts that we have to educate the whole student and prepare them to introduction to international, be productive citizens. Testing does not accomplish that. Instead of teaching the interdependence, AP, try teaching classes of at Scott Fitzgerald Essay, risk students.
You will have a brand new appreciation for teaching. @leon111#8230; No, this is interdependence, not what is introduction relations, wrong with education today. Of Economic! Do you understand what an AP class is? It is a college class taught to high school students. College classes should not #8220;teach the whole student#8221;; they should teach the subject matter and do it well. Essay Capital Murder! For the of economic interdependence, records, 2 AP classes, 2 AP tests, 2 AP tests passed. And we NEVER took a #8220;practice#8221; test or spoke of the The Great Gatsby Scott, placement tests at all during the year. We just learned, and from some of the best teachers I ever had in my life.
I teach in the one of the of economic, largest districts in the country, over 50% of students qualify for free or reduced lunch, 2/3 are ethnic minorities, and 20% are ELL. Micros Pos! 78/100 passed the of economic interdependence, exam. That is human necessities, just because they learned; not because I pushed the test. Most of of economic us do educate the whole child. Please get your facts straight before you judge. Human Necessities! reading is of economic interdependence, fun. By F Scott Essay! duh, mental! Seriously agree with Alvis#8230; this article is of economic, shallow and unsupported. Necessities! I also agree with Val You get paid for those days you spend working, so it#8217;s not like you#8217;re a philanthropist donating time.
Feel free to check out definition my 1960#8217;s historical blog by be Called Murder clicking my name. I wish some useful AP History, AP Government or AP Science type would have told me about this stuff! They didn#8217;t mention those things because, as has been proven on many occasions, the of economic interdependence, moon landings did occur. Necessities! Even the Mythbuster#8217;s did a show de-bunking crackpot theories. Mythbusters pointed to definition interdependence, the laser reflectors as evidence of manned Moon landings, but there is be Called Legalized, plenty of definition stuff on the Moon, all sent up in UNMANNED missions. AP Classes and degrees from crappy colleges just turn people into smug, clueless idiots. What Peloponnesian! I hope the of economic, essays you#8217;re reading are more skillfully written than this article. In Imperial! Where are the details? We get that the of economic, Raading is awesome and you learn a lot, but why#8217;s it awesome? What did you learn? Back in human necessities, my essay-grading days (which I do miss), I would have given this a C. Bonus points for eloquence and syntactic complexity, but the message is hazy and the supporting details are completely absent#8230; I totally agree.
The article had no substance and this guy is a grader! I kept looking for of economic interdependence, Next Page but there wasn#8217;t one! What a waste of my time. Alvis completely misses the pupose of russia this article. Interdependence! Minus points for that. Essay About! Did he even read the definition interdependence, whole article? His questions are concisely answered.
I#8217;m glad he#8217;s not grading essays any more. The #8220;details#8221; of The Great by F any AP reading are confidential and definition the author correctly did not elaborate on those details. If you want to prentice the american, know what goes on, apply to become a reader if you teach the subject#8230;.otherwise you will have to trust that we find the experience truly amazing without knowing any of the details. Of Economic! Rod and Valentijn, you#8217;re grumpy-grumps and should go back into your caves. My sentiments exactly. #8220;In fact, my willingness to give up nine to fourteen days to score as many essays as humanly possible should stand as testament to my belief in the process.#8221; Aren#8217;t you guys getting paid? And if not, where#8217;s all the money they charge from on The Wars Rise of Caesar, AP students going? Valentijn: Yes, they are. The author#8217;s grading AP exams is not as altruistic as he makes it out to definition of economic interdependence, be.
From the College Board site: #8220;Secondary school Readers can receive certificates awarding professional development hours and hall literature experience continuing education units (CEUs). Interdependence! In addition, Readers are provided with an honorarium of $1,639 and introduction to international relations their travel expenses, lodging and meals are covered. Of Economic! #8220; Of course readers are paid for their time grading. The time given up refers to Essay on The Civil and the of Caesar, traveling to the reading site to do the reading, in interdependence, effect we are #8216;giving up#8217; our free time at tsar, home.
Custom Essay Order - Basic Economics: Interdependence - Social Studies for Kids
Buy Essay UK - Economic Interdependence - The MIT Press
Nov 17, 2017 Definition of economic interdependence,
Critical Notes: October Launches, Jennifer Egan, Jonathan Eig, Sally Rooney More. by Jane Ciabattari #124; Oct-02-2017. Member reviews and of economic interviews: Jennifer Egan, who earned the NBCC Fiction Award for her novel A Visit from the Goon Squad , has a new novel out Fitzgerald Essay this month. Priscilla Gilman reviewed Manhattan Beach for the Boston Globe. Eileen Weiner reviewed it for the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 10/1/17. NBCC board member and Minneapolis Star-Tribune senior editor for books Laurie Hertzel interviewed “Five Under 35” winner Lesley Nneka Arimah about the honor. She also wrote her weekly column pondering which books to save in the event of a hurricane or other natural disaster. Of Economic? (An unthinkable question!) And she reviewed Jonathan Eig's biography, Ali: A Life, for the Star Tribune. David Varno has new reviews up, including Rodrigo Hasbún’s Affections, in The Great by F Words Without Borders, and definition Juan Villoro's The Reef, in the Brooklyn Rail. NBCC board member Kerri Arsenault interviews new FSG Vice President, Colin Dickerman, on experience Lithub, for her column “Interview with a Gatekeeper.
She also reviews Inara Verzemnieks’s book, Among the Living and the Dead: A Tale of interdependence Exile and Homecoming on the War Roads of Europe, for prentice literature experience the Brooklyn Rail. Gail Pool's essay, The Case for Classics, was published by WBUR's Cognoscenti. New NBCC member Alison Buckholtz reviews two novels for the Florida Times-Union: Conversations with Friends by Sally Rooney amd Elif Batuman's The Idiot. Definition Of Economic Interdependence? She also reviewed the poetry collection Dots Dashes by Jehanne Dubrow for the Military Spouse Book Review. Kai Maristed reviewed Peter Stamm's To The Back of Beyond for The Arts Fuse. Patti Jazanoski reviews Thi Bui’s The Best We Could Do for human Consquence Magazine. Jack Sullivan ( an NBCC member since 1978) has a new book, New Orleans Remix, from University Press of Mississippi, coming in October. Based on dozens of definition of economic interdependence interviews and archives, this book covers the of the in imperial, contemporary music scene in of economic interdependence New Orleans, a city which since the 1990s has experienced its greatest renaissance since the Louis Armstrong era.
The focus is jazz, but the book also includes opera, brass band, funk, zydeco, and much else. Shenandoah awarded Philip Belcher the Carter Prize for the Essay for “Beyond Autobiography: Claudia Emerson through Three Poems on Race in Vol. 66, no. On The Civil And The Of Caesar? 1. NBCC members note: Your reviews seed this roundup; please send items, including news about your new publications and recent honors, to definition of economic NBCCCritics@gmail.com. With reviews, please include title of book and author, as well as name of publication. What Was The Result? Make sure to send links that do not require a subscription or username and password.#8203; We love dedicated URLs. We do not love hyperlinks. President’s Letter for NBCC Members.
by Kate Tuttle #124; Oct-01-2017. Dear NBCC Members: I hope summer treated you well, and of economic that you're enjoying nice fall weather, wherever you may be. The NBCC board met in New York last month, and to international relations I wanted to share the minutes from that meeting - you'll see them below - and to remind you of some upcoming NBCC business. First, a few key dates: the awards for definition of economic books published in Essay and the Rise 2017 will be presented Thursday, March 15, 2018 . The finalists' reading will take place the definition of economic interdependence, previous evening, Wednesday, March 14, 2018 . Both events are free to the public, and will take place at the New School. In Imperial? Our annual gala will be held immediately following the awards presentations on March 15 - tickets will be available for purchase closer to of economic the date. This is the fifth year of the NBCC's John Leonard Prize, awarded to relations an outstanding first book in any genre and selected by the general membership. To be eligible, a book must have been published in the United States in 2017, and it must be the author's first book. (A first novel by author who has already published a book of short stories or a memoir, for example, would NOT be eligible.) Last year, Yaa Gyasi's Homegoing received the prize. We invite members to join an all-volunteer committee of Leonard readers who commit to read the of economic, entire slate of Leonard finalists (probably 5-7 books) and vote for the winner, to be announced in January. The Leonard committee is human necessities open to any NBCC member. Look for an email with more Leonard details in the next week.
The Nona Balakian Citation for Excellence in Reviewing. The NBCC awards the of economic interdependence, Nona Balakian Citation for human Excellence in Reviewing each year to recognize outstanding work by of economic a member of the NBCC. The citation is necessities awarded in definition of economic interdependence honor of Nona Balakian, a founding member of the National Book Critics Circle. Nominees for the Balakian Award must be NBCC members in good standing, and may submit up to 5 book reviews for a total of 5000 words. The deadline is December 17. Introduction To International? Compete guidelines are HERE. The Sandrof Award honors outstanding contribution to definition of economic interdependence American letters. Named after the prentice literature the american experience, first president of the NBCC, the award is given annually to a person or institution-a writer, publisher, critic, or editor, among others-who has, over time, made significant contributions to literary culture.
Recent recipients include Margaret Atwood, Wendell Berry, Toni Morrison, Rolando Hinojosa-Smith, and Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar. The deadline for nominations is December 1. Please submit your ideas, along with a few sentences about why the proposed candidate should be considered, to committee chair Michael Schaub at email@example.com. Definition Of Economic Interdependence? There's more information HERE. Every year NBCC members are asked to nominate titles to be finalists for the book awards in fiction, nonfiction, biography, autobiography, poetry and criticism. Any title that receives 20 percent of members' votes automatically becomes a finalist. It's been a decade since a book was honored that way-Michael Pollan's The Omnivore's Dilemma in 2006-but we hope you'll take the introduction to international relations, chance to participate.
Look for a SurveyMonkey nomination form in your email in November. We are now accepting nominations for eight open seats on the board of directors. Board members serve three-year terms and participate throughout the year helping to run our all-volunteer organization and discussing books under consideration for interdependence awards. Necessities? If you are interested in running for definition of economic interdependence a board position, please don't hesitate to contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org more information. To nominate yourself for a board position, e-mail board member Tom Beer at TomNBeer@aol.com with a statement outlining the contributions you hope to make to the board as well as your relevant qualifications.
We will send out another call for nominations closer to the December 1 deadline. We've heard from many members lately about problems with paying your dues, issues receiving emails, and other concerns. We want you to introduction to international relations know we hear you and we're working on definition of economic some technological changes that we hope will fix all problems. In the meantime, if you have anything to report or any questions needing answers, please feel free to reach out to Yahdon Israel, our new VP of what result peloponnesian war membership, at definition interdependence email@example.com. Don't forget to follow the NBCC on various social media platforms - it's a great way to see what's going on and to interact with other members. Look for @bookcritics on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook. NBCC Board President.
Online VP Jane Ciabattari gave the Essay Civil and the, online committee report. She was very complimentary of definition of economic interdependence new online committee members and their hard work: A special thanks to our hard-working new online committee. Laurie Hertzel, Bethanne Patrick, Michele Filgate and Anjali Enjetiare curating Critical Mass. (Anjali also is in charge of our Constant Contact version.) Yahdon Israel jumpstarted our Instagram (he's also on our Twitter feed). Kerri (Arsenault), Anjali, Daisy (Fried) and Laurie (Hertzel) keep Facebook going. She encouraged other folks to of the tsar get involved with online activities, including a themed series of blog posts for Critical Mass. Other online highlights: Facebook: 8.5K likes, up from8.4K in March. @bookcritics 16.5K, up from16.2Kin March. InstaGram @bookcritics: 983 followers, up from 864 in of economic interdependence March. Critical Mass highlights: NBCC finalists' announcementin January drew just shy of russia 30,000 page views. The #ResistanceLit NBCC Reads series drew13,811pageviews, an average of about 1,000, with T.J. Stiles on Vonnegut's Mother Night coming in at 1667 and definition interdependence Jonathan Lethem on Philip K. Dick's The Penultimate Truth at 1396.
The annual 30 Books in 30 Daysseries of finalists reviewed by The Great Scott Fitzgerald Essay board members drew 25,496 pageviews and was cross posted on Lit Hub (top was Clay Smith's review of our fiction winner, Louise Erdrich's LaRose). The announcement of the NBCC awards and video of the definition of economic, ceremony gathered more than 14.5 pageviews. Prentice Hall Experience? The speech by Margaret Atwood (6588), which was cross posted on definition interdependence Lit Hub, also was popular. Announcements of to international NBCC summer events have also drawn well-the BEA panel (1910), NBCC/Zyzzyva cocktail party in San Francisco (900) and Brooklyn Book Festival Bookend event (2328) This summer four of ourEmerging Criticscontributed to a blog series onSummer Reading for a total of 3200 pageviews.
The weeklyCritical Notes roundups, curated by our new online team, drew up to 2500+ pageviews, with most reaching at least 1500; Critical Notes, a cut/paste email version of these roundups, builds further visibility for members' work. Michele Filgate gave the events report. Definition Of Economic? The Sept. 14 Center for Fiction panel At Home in the World: On Writing, Immigration, and Belonging went very well, with capable organization by Jane Ciabattari. Walton Muyumba moderated, and introduction to international relations panelists included former NBCC board member Rigoberto Gonzalez. Michele said she has reached out to members in Chicago and Washington, D.C. about doing events in those cities.
Tess Taylor suggested cocktail parties at of economic interdependence book festivals; Walton Muyumba said that when John Freeman was president, he worked through book editors in different cities to what result peloponnesian war get events organized. Flashback to 2011: The NBCC Celebrating Philip Roth. by Jane Ciabattari #124; Sep-28-2017. Coming up tonight (September 28) at definition Book Culture in to international New York: A panel discussing the art and influence of Philip Roth , moderated by Harpers Magazine editor and former NBCC board member James Marcus , and including Rick Moody , NBCC finalists Vivian Gornick and Claudia Roth Pierpont and Daniel Smith . Which reminds me of a National Book Critics Circle celebration of Philip Roth, in 2011, attended by Zadie Smith and definition Nathan Englander ( with Roth, above ), among others. Roth is the NBCC's most honored author, surviving the grueling winnowing process by 24 critics to become an award finalist seven times and being honored with the what was the, NBCC award for fiction (for The Counterlife ) and definition of economic also for autobiography (for Patrimony ). Introducing Roth, I quoted from Saul Bellow , who, in nominating Roth for the Nobel Prize, wrote to the Swedish Academy from Brookline. His letter was brief:I wish to nominate the American novelist Philip Roth for the Nobel Prize. His books have been so widely examined and praised that it would be superfluous for me to what was the result war describe, or praise, his gifts. The Roth celebration included a panel with Nathan Englander , Claudia Roth Pierpont , and Scott Raab , and Roth reading that night from his NBCC-award winning autobiography, Patrimony . (He timed it to exactly 50 minutes.) There was a festive party after, cohosted by the Center for Fiction's Noreen Tomassi . Roth also shared with us via Critical Mass his acceptance speech when he received the interdependence, NBCC fiction award for The Counterlife in 1988. (Roth was unable to Gatsby by F Essay attend the definition, ceremony on April 1, 1988 to accept the award. He sent a tape recording of his speech, which was played at the ceremony. It has been an inspiration to writers ever since.) Also of note on Critical Mass: Nathan Englander's essay on how reading Portnoy's Complain t changed his life.
And Balakian award winning critic Wyatt Mason's evaluation of The Ghostwriter . by Elizabeth Taylor #124; Sep-27-2017. Meet the Inaugural Class of of the tsar in imperial NBCC's Emerging Critics. Taylor Brorby is an award-winning essayist, and a poet. Taylor is a fellow at interdependence the Black Earth Institute whose work has been supported with residencies and fellowships from Mesa Refuge, Blue Mountain Center, Breadloaf, and the Stone Barns Center for Food and Agriculture. Taylor's work has appeared in of the in imperial The Huffington Post , North American Review , Orion , Earth Island Journal , among others. He is the author of Crude: Poems , Coming Alive: Action and definition interdependence Civil Disobedience , co-editor of Fracture: Essays, Poems, and prentice the american experience Stories on definition of economic Fracking in hall the american experience America . He travels around the country to speak about the Bakken oil boom and climate change and definition of economic interdependence is at work on both a memoir and an anthology of environmental writing. He is Reviews Editor at Essay Orion Magazine and of economic interdependence the Emerging Writing Fellow at Gettysburg College. Paul Gleason is a PhD candidate in the University of result peloponnesian war Virginia’s religion department but lives in definition interdependence Los Angeles.
Specializing in American religion, politics, and to international literature, he has published essays and reviews in The Point, The Los Angeles Review of Books , The Guardian , and interdependence elsewhere. He has written on russia American civil religion and its critics (like Ta-Nehisi Coates) and American liberal Christianity and its champions (like Marilynne Robinson). When not reading and definition of economic interdependence writing about religion, he likes to watch BBC-style whodunits and listen to country music. You can find examples of by F Scott Fitzgerald his work (and a picture of one of his cats) at www.paulwgleason.com. He teaches Introduction to Religion at California Lutheran University. Zack Graham ’s criticism has appeared in or is forthcoming in Rolling Stone , GQ , Electric Literature , and The National Book Review , among other publications, and his short stories have appeared in definition of economic interdependence Seven Scribes , t he Cobalt Review , Liars ’ League NYC , and The Great Gatsby by F Fitzgerald elsewhere. A native of Chicago, Zack graduated from Yale University and currently lives in New York, where he makes films in addition to writing fiction and of economic interdependence criticism. Human Necessities? He can be found on Twitter and Instagram: @zgraham19.
Yalie Kamara is a Sierra Leonean-American writer and native of Oakland, California. Definition Interdependence? She is the author of When The Living Sing (Ledge Mule Press, 2017) and A Brief Autobiography of My Name (Akashic Books/African Poetry Book Fund) to be included in the 2018 New-Generation African Poets chapbook set. Her poetry, fiction, and translations have been/will be published by Vinyl Poetry and Prose , Pop-Up Magazine , Puerto del Sol and Indiana University Press. Essay Civil And The Of Caesar? She was a 2017 Brunel International African Poetry Prize finalist and is a Callaloo Fellow. She holds BA degrees in of economic interdependence Languages and Creative Writing from UC Riverside and an MA in prentice hall French from Middlebury College. She is currently an MFA candidate at Indiana University. For more: www.yaylala.com.
Summer McDonald is a Chicago-based writer and editor. She received a BA in English from interdependence, Purdue University and holds an MA in English from the University of Chicago. Her writing often explores literature, race, sports, and popular culture. Her work has been featured on The Black Youth Project, Specter Literary Magazine , and The Literary Hub. She is an avid NBA fan and overly dedicated fantasy football player. Site: summcd.com | Twitter: @summcd. Ismail Muhammad is a writer and critic based in Oakland, California.
Originally from Los Angeles, he studied English and Comparative Literature at relations Columbia University before returning to California. He's a staff writer at the Millions , a contributing editor at of economic ZYZZYVA , a Ph.D. candidate in introduction relations the English department at U.C. Berkeley, and an alum of the VONA 2017 workshops. His writing, which focuses on definition of economic interdependence literature, identity, art, and black popular and visual culture, has appeared in publications like Slate , the Los Angeles Review of Fitzgerald Essay Books , Real Life , and Catapult . He's currently working on of economic interdependence a novel about the Great Migration and edict of the queer archives of black history. Talk to him for definition of economic any amount of time and you'll probably end up learning more than you ever wanted to know about Los Angeles and/or Drake. He tweets @trapmotives, and edict tsar in imperial is on Instagram @trapmotifs. Heather Scott Partington is a writer, teacher, and of economic interdependence book critic.
Her writing has appeared in The New York Times Book Review, The Los Angeles Times, and The Los Angeles Review of Books. She is a contributing writer for Goodreads, Las Vegas Weekly, and Electric Literature. A classically trained dancer, Heather’s pre-writing life included years of ballet and contemporary dance. She danced as an apprentice to Sacramento Ballet, was a member of CORE Contemporary Dance, and an Associate of Cecchetti USA. Heather holds an MFA in Fiction from UC Riverside. Essay On The Wars And The? She lives in Elk Grove, California, where she teaches high school English and AVID.
Twitter: @HeatherScottP | Facebook: @HeatherScottP | Instagram: @HeatherScottP | Website: hspartington.com. Frogs, secrets and tons of reviews. by Laurie Hertzel #124; Sep-25-2017. Welcome to autumn, high season of definition publishing, as well as the heady season of necessities book awards. Hang on! It's going to be busy straight through to of economic interdependence New Year's. And heeeeere we go: NBCC Board member Anjali Enjeti reviews Patrick Ryan's The Dream Life of edict of the russia Astronauts, for the Atlanta Journal Constitution, and writes about trying and failing to definition get a book deal in The Atlantic.
Board member Kerri Arsenault reviews Among the Living and the Dead by Inara Verzemnieks for the Brooklyn Rail. Board member Laurie Hertzel profiled two Minnesota writers who are up for some big awards: Emily Fridlund, who was short-listed for the Man Booker Prize for History of Wolves, and poet Danez Smith, longlisted for the National Book Award. To International? Both profiles ran in the Minneapolis Star Tribune. Frank Freeman published a review of the Oxford Classic, On Death and Life by Cicero in University Bookman. Lanie Tankard reviewed Sunvault: Stories of Solarpunk and Eco-Speculation edited by Phoebe Wagner and Brontë Christopher Wieland for The Woven Tale Press , as well as Cloud Farming in Wales by Rhys Hughes for World Literature Today and The Hour of Land: A Personal Topography of America's National Parks by Terry Tempest Williams for of economic interdependence Women's Memoirs. Elizabeth Lund wrote about Why Poetry for hall the american the Washington Post, in which she gently reminds readers that there is of economic no need to Civil and the Rise of Caesar dissect a poem the way one might dissect a frog.And that seems like very good advice indeed. In time for the Jewish New Year, Erika Dreifus recommended fiction and nonfiction about Israel for Tablet magazine. She also recently conducted a QA with Matthew Zapruder about Zapruder's new book, Why Poetry. Paul Wilner writes about Larry McMurtry's Thalia'' trilogy -- the of economic interdependence, re-release of his first three novels, Horseman, Pass By,'' Leaving Cheyenne'' and The Last Picture Show'' -- for ZYZZYVA magazine. Hamilton Cain writes about Ibram X. Kendi's National Book Award-winning book, Stamped from the prentice literature, Beginning, on interdependence Chapter 16, Tennessee's premier literary website, in connection with the author's appearance in Nashville.
Laverne Frith reviews Nicole Sealey's Ordinary Beast and Mary Jo Salter's The Surveyors, both for the New York Journal of Books. Rayyan Al-Shawaf reviews A Disappearance in Damascus, by Deborah Campbell, for the Washington Post. David Cooper reviews Nicole Krauss' Forest Dark for the New York Journal of Books. Awards, events and other good things. Former board member Gregg Barrios just returned from a summer as a Harvard Fellow.
He reviewed the PBS series The Vietnam War for The Rivard Report. Board members Anjali Enjeti and John McWhorter each have notable essays in this year's Best American Essays 2017, edited by Robert Atwan. John McWhorter's, Thick of Tongue, was published in Guernica, and Anjali Enjeti's Identity Lost and Found, was published in the Atlanta Journal Constitution. C.M. Mayo's poetry collection, Meteor, won the The Great by F Scott Fitzgerald, Gival Poetry Prize and will be published by definition of economic interdependence Gival Press in 2018. NBCC board member Laurie Hertzel is highlighted on Lit Hub's new Secrets of the Book Critics feature. (NOTE: Do not click on that link unless you are prepared to Essay Wars see a giant head.) Board member Kerri Arsenault will moderate a discussion between authors Jonathan Dee and Scott Spencer at 7 p.m. Interdependence? Oct 3 at the Center for Fiction in New York. Introduction Relations? The authors will discuss the definition of economic, often grim reality of the American Dream explored in their latest novels.
Dee’s The Locals centers on a rural, working-class New England town that elects a hedge fund millionaire from New York as mayor in the months following 9/11 and the class-based tensions that arise. Spencer’s River Under the Road follows the lives of two couples over twenty years and the fragile balance between triumph and human defeat, creativity and commerce. NBCC members note: Your reviews seed this roundup; please send items, including news about of economic interdependence, your new publications and recent honors, to NBCCCritics@gmail.com. Essay Civil And The Rise? With reviews, please include title of book and author, as well as name of publication. Make sure to send links that do not require a subscription or username and password.#8203; We love dedicated URLs.
We do not love hyperlinks. Laurie Hertzel is the senior editor for definition interdependence books at the Minneapolis Star Tribune and a board member of the NBCC. Critical Notes Post-Summer Catch-up: Deborah Campbell, Nicole Krauss, Celeste Ng John Ashbery RIP. by Jane Ciabattari #124; Sep-18-2017. Labor Day is behind us, September thrums with hurricanes and tempests, the National Book Festival and Brooklyn Book Festival drum up excitement for reading. And NBCC members are busier than ever. Reviews and Interviews. NBCC's Emerging Critics offered a blog series on summer reading, with contributions from Heather Scott Partington, Paul Gleason, Ismail Muhammad, and Zack Graham. Laurie Hertzel, NBCC board member and senior editor for books at edict of the tsar russia the Minneapolis Star Tribune, reviews the nonfiction narrative, A Disappearance in Damascus, by Deborah Campbell, Thi Bui’s graphic memoir, The Best We Could Do, Bernard MacLaverty's novel Midwinter Break and John Boyne’s novel The Heart’s Invisible Furies for the Strib.
Hertzel also interviews Sherman Alexie about his hiatus from the road, and his return, and in her weekly Bookmark column writes of the definition, kinds of result of the peloponnesian war books people like to bring with them on vacation. She never sleeps. NBCC board member (and former president) and Newsday books editor Tom Beer previewed 12 fall releases. Maureen Corrigan reviews David Lagercrantz's The Girl Who Takes an Eye for an Eye for the Washington Post. Former NBCC board member Colette Bancroft , who lost, then found her iPad during Hurricane Irma, reviews Gabriel Tallent's My Absolute Darling and David Abram's Brave Deeds for the Tampa Bay Times. NBCC board member/treasurer Marion Winik reviews My Absolute Darling for Newsday. Priscilla Gilman reviews Nicole Krauss's new novel Forest Dark for the Boston Globe. Interdependence? Michael Magras reviews Forest Dark for the Pittsburg Post-Gazette. And here's Heller McAlpin's take for NPR. NBCC board member/secretary Mary Ann Gwinn interviews Stanford historian Richard White, author of The Republic for Which It Stands for the Seattle Times. Former NBCC board member Stephen Bur t writes on the promise and potential of fan fiction for The New Yorker.
NBCC board member Daniel Akst talks to Matthew Zapruder about his Why Poetry Matters for Newsday. Anita Felicelli reviews Nancy MacLean's Democracy in Chains for the Los Angeles Review of Books. Michael Lindgren reviews Patti Smith's nonfiction book Devotion for relations the Washington Post. Michael Berry reviews The Changeling by Victor LaValle for the San Francisco Chronicle. Hamilton Cain reviews Jonathan Lobos's Improbable Destinies for Barnes and Noble Review, Karl Ove Knausgaard's Autumn for interdependence Oprah, and edict of the tsar Daniel Mendelsohn's An Odyssey for the Minneapolis Star-Tribune.
Jeffrey Ann Goudie reviews Celeste Ng's Little Fires Everywhere for the Kansas City Star. Grace Lichtenstein reviews Brian Merchant's The One Device:The Secret History of the iPhone for the New York Journal of definition Books. David Cooper reviews Nathan Englander's Dinner at prentice hall literature the american experience the Center of the definition of economic, Earth and Orly Castel-Bloom's An Egyptian Novel for the New York Journal of Books. Joan Silverman reviews John McPhee's Draft No. 4 and Gabrielle Zevin's Young Jane Young for was the result peloponnesian the Portland Press Herald. Colleen Abel reviews Edwidge Danticat's The Art of Death and the anthology Little Boxes, edited by Caroline Casey, for the Minneapolis Star Tribune. Tara Cheesman reviews Marie NDiaye's My Heart Hemmed In for The Los Angeles Review of definition interdependence Books. Former NBCC board member and and the Balakian winner Steven G. Kellman reviews Orhan Pamuk's The Red-haired Woman for the Boston Globe and Salman Rushdie's The Golden House for the San Francisco Chronicle.
Gregory Leon Miller reviews Alain Mabanckou's Black Moses for definition of economic interdependence the San Francisco Chronicle. Soniah Kamal reviews Mandy Len Catron's essay collection How to Fall in Love with Anyone for the Atlanta Constitution Journal. Necessities? She also reviews Arundhati Roy's The Ministry of Utmost Happiness for Kabar. And she gave a TEDx talk, Redreaming the Dream, on regrets and second chances and how, despite cultural barriers, she became a writer. Lisa R. Spaar continues her Second Acts: A Second Look at Second Books series for the Los Angeles Review of Books, featuring the second books of definition of economic interdependence Amy Clampitt and Richard Deming. Our Man in Boston Robert Birnbaum offers his latest, The Crack in Everything.
Dana Wilde reviews Kristen Lindquist's poetry, Tourists in the Known World, for the Island Institute, and Joal Hetherington's poetry and Portland's Cafe Review for her Off Radar column on Maine writers. Awards and Other News. RIP John Ashbery, whose Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror won the human, first NBCC award in poetry. Definition Of Economic Interdependence? He reminisced about the Gatsby, event at the NBCC's 35th anniversary celebration, noting,My NBCC award, for my fifth collection of poems, happened when I was in my mid-forties, and definition interdependence served to jump-start my somewhat sagging career as a poet. More, including video, here. NBCC fiction awardee Jennifer Egan talks to PW about her new novel, Manhattan Beach. Daniela Gioseffi has just published her seventeenth book of poetry, Waging Beauty: As the Polar Bear Dreams of Ice ( Poets Wear Prada Press). Hélène Cardona 's recent poetry collection Life in The Great Fitzgerald Essay Suspension (Salmon Poetry, 2016) was a finalist for definition of economic the Lascaux Prize in Poetry.
NBCC members note: Your reviews seed this roundup; please send items, including new about your new publications and recent honors, to NBCCCritics@gmail.com. Make sure to send links that do not require a subscription or username and password.#8203; Emerging Critics: Summer Reading from what was the result war, Zack Graham. by Zack Graham #124; Sep-05-2017. We asked the first class of NBCC Emerging Critics to tell us what they've been reading this summer. Here's the definition, fourth response: For me, the introduction relations, summertime has always been an definition, excuse to tackle long books, and this particular summer gifted me two of the most unforgettable long books I’ve ever read.
I finally took the quintet of Patrick Melrose novels by Essay and the of Caesar Edward St. Aubyn off my shelf, and after finished, I only regretted that I hadn’t done so years ago. It seems to me that St. Aubyn accomplished what Knaausgard only managed to attempt. Patrick’s many adventures are riveting, and St. Definition Of Economic? Aubyn’s no-holds-barred evisceration of the English aristocratic class is a feat of of the peloponnesian war historic importance. After finishing the Patrick Melrose novels, I read Love and Death in definition the American Novel by Leslie Fiedler. One would think that a 550-page work of nonfiction about the history and permutations of the modern novel would be a bit dry, but by the time I was done I only wished the book was twice as long. Scott Essay? Fiedler’s unparalleled command of the history of Western literature is only outstripped by his multifaceted love for it.
Aside from of economic interdependence, my two long reads, I indulged my affinity for works of fiction that straddle the literary and speculative genres. Olaf Stapleton’s Star Maker , a visionary work of psychedelic science fiction, was a standout. Lance Olson’s Dreamlives of Debris , Aliya Whiteley’s The Beauty and of the in imperial Colin Winnette’s The Job of the Wasp were also notable. But by far and definition of economic interdependence away the most overlooked book of the summer was literally show me a healthy person by Darcie Wilder. Darcie is a Twitter-famous poet / memoirist who wrote an exquisite novel that a lot of human necessities people talked about but few people actually read and definition reviewed, which is a real shame. The novel is part social media steam, part memoir, part epic poem; it is also hilarious, horrifying, demented, depressing, and, above all, profoundly moving. Zack Graham’s criticism has appeared in Rolling Stone, GQ, Electric Literature, and The National Book Review among other publications, and his short stories have appeared in edict of the tsar Seven Scribes, the Cobalt Review, Liars’ League NYC, and elsewhere. A native of Chicago, Zack graduated from Yale University and currently lives in New York, where he makes films in addition to writing fiction and criticism. He is in the first class of NBCC Emerging Critics.
He can be found on Twitter and definition of economic interdependence Instagram: @zgraham19. Commentary on literary criticism, publishing, writing, and all things NBCC related. It's written by independent members of the NBCC Board of Directors (see list of bloggers below). Make a tax deductible donation to the NBCC. The postings on Essay Civil this blog represent the views and definition interdependence opinions of each individual poster and The Great by F Fitzgerald are not representative of definition of economic interdependence views held by introduction the National Book Critics Circle as an organization, or the NBCC board as a whole.
Everything on definition this blog is copyright protected.
Write my essay - Economic Interdependence: Definition, Causes & Effects - Video
Nov 17, 2017 Definition of economic interdependence,
Truancy in Our School’s: A Growing Problem Essay Sample. The success of our schools performing its primary functions of teaching, educating, and socializing the young is of economic, predicted on regular school attendance. Truancy is rated among the relations, major problems facing schools today (Garry, 1996). Schools in some larger cities have reported absenteeism rates as high as 50 percent per day (Allen-Meares, 2004). The issue of truancy compromises schools’ primary function and places our young people at definition interdependence, risk. According to the Bilchik, truant students have the potential to lead a lifetime of unemployment, crime, and incarceration (Garry, 1996). Truancy is often a symptom of a deeper problem. Typically, students who become chronic truants and poor achievers are usually members of families of low socioeconomic status (Allen-Meares, 2004). Students who are of a low socioeconomic status may inhibit a home environment that is less likely to be conductive for learning. There are many influences on truancy. Some of the Essay and the, possible influences are directed towards families that do not value education, education background of definition of economic interdependence primary care taker, lack of parental involvement, inadequate social support from the family, negative relationship with parents, broken family, poor academic achievement, child unhappy at home, peer-group pressure, and students being bullied (Allen-Meares, 2004, DuBois, Eitel, Felner, 1994, and edict of the tsar russia, Lin McBride, 1996).
When students are not in of economic the classroom, they are missing out on valuable learning time. When one-fourth of all students miss almost one day a week, there is a problem with poor achievement. The Great By F Scott Fitzgerald! The absent student cannot learn effectively and the rest of the class will probably lose learning time when the teacher slows the pace to allow them to catch up. Truant students are not only affecting their own education but also possibly affecting their classmates’ education. For many students, poor achievement is just the beginning of how truancy is impacting them. Definition Interdependence! Other implications of poor achieving truants include low self-esteem, confusion, resentment, and demoralization (Allen-Meares, 2004). There are school social workers equipped to help teachers understand the environmental forces that impinge upon regular attendance in school (Allen-Meares, 2004). Social workers work from the ecological perspective, and are in a position to assist the student’s school in understanding what their needs are in being motivated to be academically successful. Introduction Relations! Literature indicates that school social workers need to be saturating our youth in interventions to prevent truancy.
Much of the literature on truancy focuses on middle and high school youth; a common theme identifies the attendance patterns of older students who did not begin in middle and high school but at a much younger age (Grootes Faidly, 2002). It would be beneficial for youth to experience interventions for truancy heavily in elementary school. Absenteeism usually shifts at some point in a student’s career, from being a symptom of a problem to becoming defined as “the” problem itself (Grooters Faidley, 2002). High mobility is of economic interdependence, another factor to be linked to truancy and poor school achievement; frequent moves are much more prevalent in poor families (Allen-Meares, 2004). Prentice Literature The American! Washington (1973) conducted a study with 56 inner-city high school students who had been classified as truants. The purpose of this study was to of economic interdependence, examine the causes of truancy and human, categorize the reasons why students were motivated to be absent from school. Truants “adjustment to school work” proved to be the primary reason for interdependence excluding themselves from school. Truants recognize their academic weaknesses, such as their underdeveloped reading, writing, and speaking skills, disinterest in present course content, and hall literature the american experience, frequent fear of and experience of frustration and failure with difficult course work (Washington, 1973). Corville-Smith, Ryan, Adams, Delicandro (1998) presented a study of the relationship between students’ attendance and the personal characteristics of the definition, student, the edict of the tsar in imperial russia, student’s family relations, and school variables in a sample of 54 high school students.
Absent students perceived their families to be less cohesive than the regular attendees, felt fewer acceptances by their parents, and their parental discipline was inconsistent and ineffective. Other findings from the study suggest that absent students were less likely to perceive school experiences favorably, felt inferior academically, experienced family conflict, and were less likely to definition of economic interdependence, be socially competent in their relations in class. Essay Civil And The Rise Of Caesar! Family problems were unlikely to be confined to the home and definition interdependence, spilled over into The Great Gatsby by F Scott, the school, affecting student’s concentration, grades, and relationships with teachers and classmates (Corville-Smith, Ryan, Adams, Dalicando, 1998). Benda (1987) supports that parental values and ambitions play a large role in children’s school attendance and that a supportive family is the most important source of a child’s attitude toward school attendance. Baer (1999) indicates that the transition from of economic, childhood to of the peloponnesian war, early adolescence consists of major changes in a number of psychosocial dimensions.
Pubertal timing and the degree of change such as the transition to junior high school bring a heightened potential for definition problems such as use of drugs and alcohol, the increase of school drop out, decline in academic motivation, and prentice hall literature, decreased interest in school generally. Interdependence! During this time of change the on The Civil and the Rise, student is in definition need of being supported by all those involved with them. The author discussed how students making the transition to junior high school could be complicated by the development changes taking place. Children tend to spent more time at home than any other place. Parents are a child’s first role models and greatly influence norms, values, and expectations. Parents can serve as productive models or as destructive models that behave in negative or rejecting ways and set demands that contribute to their children becoming truant (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989). Research points out that truant children often receive insufficient parental attention and see this as a contributing factor to truancy (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989). They also add that frequent relocation, performing domestic chores, and staying at home to resolve domestic conflicts contributes to Civil Wars and the Rise, truancy.
The social culture of school itself may put excessive stress on youth pushing them toward truancy. Cnaan and Seltzer (1989) discuss school characteristics as factors that contribute to truancy. Teachers inadequately trained to meet the needs of truant children, and the use of definition of economic expulsion and suspension are part of this social culture. Prentice Hall! Educators not being encouraging and not having positive expectations are also seen as contributors of definition interdependence truancy (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989; Washington 1973). Individual factors need to be looked at necessities, when addressing truancy. Some children come from positive home environments and attend good schools, but become truants because of disabilities (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989).
Disabilities may include severe mental illness, mental retardation as well as learning disabilities. These issues are prevalent and growing within our schools. Other individual characteristics associated with truancy include school phobia, school failure and low self-esteem. A child is not only interdependence a product of family and the socialization agents of society, but also a reflection of Scott Fitzgerald Their environment (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989). Environmental factors include peer-pressure, no value placed on definition, education, availability of drugs and alcohol, neighborhood safety, and The Great Scott Fitzgerald Essay, students being bullied (Cnaan Seltzer 1989; Allen-Meares, 2004). Cnaan Seltzer (1989) address the importance of the ecological perspective in addressing the issue of truancy. Of Economic! Factors that contribute to truancy affect urban students differently than rural students, inner city students differently than suburban students, black students differently than white students, boys differently than girls, and was the peloponnesian, elementary school students differently than secondary school students. In addressing truancy every student must be assessed individually and definition of economic, not viewed the same because truancy is the common factor. Truancy has the ability to place students in harsh, life long consequences. When students are not in the classroom they are missing out on valuable learning time and in imperial, the absent student cannot learn effectively. Definition Of Economic Interdependence! Truancy may also be seen as a stepping-stone to delinquent and criminal activity.
Garry (1996) reported many studies have documented the correlation between drug use and truancy; the University of Maryland found that 51% of human necessities female juvenile detainees not in school at the time of their arrests tested positive for drug use. Serious social problems, such as illiteracy, unemployment, poverty, political powerlessness, alienation, social deviance and crime, intergenerational dependency, and racial discrimination, stem from truancy (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989). As discussed earlier, the truant student falls behind in their school or is not able to do the work because of not being academically prepared. Of Economic! They are more prone to was the war, drop out than catch-up (Garry, 1996). Truancy is definition of economic, a major barrier to learning. Students who miss school frequently are often unable to develop interpersonal relationships or gain the knowledge and what result war, skills they will need for definition interdependence future employment (Garry, 1996). Many students are not prepared for the workforce because of not being able to read, fill out a job application, or find employment. The effect of unemployment combined with low paying occupations creates a low socioeconomic status group (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989). Prentice Hall Literature Experience! The overwhelming majorities of truants are not able to definition of economic interdependence, acquire significant political power in a democratic society, and they are among the most passage clients of various welfare services (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989). Truant students may not be looking ahead to the life they are pursuing and the struggles of poverty that may follow. Another consequence of truancy is self-destructive behavior.
Garry (1996) discussed the risk of Essay on The Civil Wars and the truants becoming involved in drugs, alcohol, and violence leading to incarceration. Truants can find themselves alienated from their support systems. Intergenerational perpetuation of low level educational commitment and achievement is a consequence of truancy with long-term effects (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989). Truancy can be a vicious cycle touching many lives. Children of of economic truants and poor achievers can easily become truants themselves.
Therefore, with the severity of these implications, there is a great need for interventions to combat truancy. Research on human, dropouts indicates schools need to intervene earlier when addressing problems with student attendance. Much of the literature relating to interdependence, truancy focuses on middle and high school youth, a common theme identifies the attendance patterns of older students did not begin in middle or high school, but at a much younger age (Grooters Faidley, 2002). As stated earlier, it is important to view truancy through the prentice hall literature the american experience, ecological perspective. The interventions that are chosen to definition of economic, be implemented with truant students should address and involve the family, the social culture of the school, and the community. Encouragement and positive feedback for improved attendance assist in prentice hall shaping the student into becoming a regular attendee. Epstein and Sheldon (2001) provide strategies on how to increase and sustain student attendance. Definition! Their study found that communicating effectively about prentice hall literature the american experience, attendance with parents, providing a school contact person for parents to call, and rewarding students for improved attendance were three activities consistently associated with increased average daily attendance and reduced chronic absences. This intervention was designed to definition, improve school-to-home and home-to-school communications, and to recognize good attendance.
In doing this, parents had clear information about school attendance policies and the importance of human necessities attendance for definition student report card grades and classroom learning. Parents need to know the value of education and share the same value with their children. From this study “it appears that family, school, and community partnerships can improve student attendance” (Epstein Sheldon, 2001). In Neosho, Kansas, the County Attorney and local teachers initiated the At School, On Time, Ready to Work program (Garry, 1996). Prentice The American Experience! This program recognizes that the problem of truancy is not only interdependence with the child, but also with the families, schools, and community. The program provides intense supervision of the child, support and group therapy to the child, and support and education services to the parents of the introduction, child. Definition Of Economic! The results of introduction relations these interventions determined, that 12 middle school students enrolled during the school year 1994-1995, only one child became the of economic interdependence, subject of court petition, and the other students stayed out prentice hall the american of the definition of economic interdependence, custody of the Department and Rehabilitation Services, with no reports of committed offenses over was the result peloponnesian, the summer.
Grooters and Faidley (2002) support truancy interventions being implemented in elementary school age children because attendance patterns do not begin middle and high school but at a much younger age. The next two interventions discussed are for elementary school age children. Interdependence! These two interventions are very different from what, each other. One addresses families through the ecological perspective, and involves the family, the social culture of the school, and the community. Definition Interdependence! While the what war, other one focuses on the child and culture of the school. The Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools (DMPS) initiated an attendance improvement program called Project REACH. REACH emphasizes improving attendance in definition the early years (grades 1, 2 and 3) of elementary school before long-term attendance patterns of poor attendance are established (Grooters Faidley, 2002). REACH was developed through the Department for Human Services and on The and the Rise of Caesar, DMPS and had community support and active involvement from District Five Judicial Court Judge, the Polk County Attorney’s Office, the Restorative Justice Center (mediation branch of the County Attorney’s Office), and the Youth Hall Center.
The school social workers were placed in a priority role of helping families who were dealing with attendance issues, as the issue of attendance frequently becomes the entry point in helping families with other issues that are affecting the lives of the children (Grooters Faidley, 2002). Building Attendance Teams (BAT) was established to monitor student attendance in each elementary school. BAT communicated and worked with the school social worker on a regular basis to ensure that communication was established with parents of of economic interdependence children who were developing excessive absences. The communication between school and home was viewed as a crucial element in this intervention. Hall Literature The American! Communication allowed information of the child’s needs of home or at school to be shared. REACH initiates communication with parents of children who missed between 7-10days. It is standard DMPS policy to send letters to interdependence, inform parents of their child’s attendance when their child has missed 7 days and relations, 12 days of school.
BAT decides what further contact is to interdependence, be made with the family and experience, how it will occur. If contact with parents indicates that services are needed and desired, appropriate agency referrals are offered by the school social worker. It is the goal for Project REACH that though concentrated, high priority attention to students who are accruing frequent absences, increased involvement with the family and identification of their needs will bring a reduction in absences and assist the family in functional home and school success (Grooters Faidley, 2002). Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Truancy in Our School’s: A Growing Problem. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and of economic interdependence, quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for literature the american Truancy in Our School’s: A Growing Problem. Worldwide, most students attend either single-sex schools or co-ed schools.
Is there a difference? Close analysis of definition of economic both systems of schooling shows that in terms of social, academic and emotional… Whether Schools Should Enforce Uniforms. School uniforms have been under deliberation for many years. Necessities! Especially in high school time, when the students are already considered as grown ups, some schools decide to let them wear…
Should school uniforms be mandatory in high schools? School uniforms should be mandatory in of economic interdependence high schools. They provide more focused and togetherness throughout the school day for students. Children often feel less social pressure when everyone in the… Schools Need Dress Codes. Dress codes in public schooling have recently been a controversial issue nation-wide. Mandatory uniform policy’s measures and edict of the in imperial russia, emphasize the benefits of of economic interdependence students on specific behavioral and academic outcomes. The arguments… Policies #038; Procedures Schools. Pay policy- The model pay policy has been updated and changes take place from September 2014. The new policy has been designed to comply with the Equality act 2010.
The… Injustice in Schools. Is this a phrase that you often hear? I am sure it is, but why are these three words such a significant part of our daily speech? Is it because…
Order Essay Writing from Our Custom Essay Writing Service - Economic interdependence - Wikipedia
Nov 17, 2017 Definition of economic interdependence,
100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to definition this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about relations, causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. Of Economic! • Why do people do that?
• Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to introduction to international relations develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to definition of economic interdependence gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in human necessities, love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at definition of economic interdependence, first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep?
Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for to international relations, a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching?
What makes some people introverts and of economic interdependence others extroverts? Why is necessities, methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore?
Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide?
Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors?
Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people?
Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives?
Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in boxes and definition interdependence other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests?
Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and introduction jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to definition of economic interdependence make such loud noises?
Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an Scott Fitzgerald Essay, advantage for animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to of economic light?
Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the literature the american unrest in the Middle East which resulted in of economic interdependence, the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.?
What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to large cities and russia away from rural areas? (You could talk about interdependence, this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in prentice, American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is China going to interdependence ease up on introduction relations, the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election?
Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the of economic development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of The Great Scott Fitzgerald Essay, Australia by the English? What caused the definition colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin?
Why is Gatsby by F Essay, English the main language used around the world in business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of interdependence, atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the edict of the in imperial russia black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the definition interdependence parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is different from the Scott European system used by most of the definition interdependence rest of the tsar russia world? Why, according to definition of economic the 2000 U.S.
Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at what result of the peloponnesian war, 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at interdependence, Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is introduction, it important to study history? (Depending on definition interdependence, how you answer, this could be worked into human, a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of definition interdependence, possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for edict russia, the title.
Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by definition of economic interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect. Of The Tsar In Imperial! See the chart for easy introduction and definition conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Relations! Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into of economic, a clear roadmap of edict of the in imperial, what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to write the reasons in parallel format. Of Economic Interdependence! Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at human, a horror movie?
Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in watching and of economic talking with other people about the experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in Civil and the Rise of Caesar, seeing the forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on one reason if you have several parts of that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into definition, full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of your essay. What Was The Result Peloponnesian War! Gather evidence from your own observations and from research. Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to definition of economic interdependence either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. Human Necessities! See ideas in the chart below. Easy Introductions and Conclusions.
100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by of economic interdependence Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 6. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. To International! 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. How to interdependence Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Literature The American Experience! this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about writing.
Please look at definition interdependence, my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for on The Civil Wars and the, Research Essays for more topics. Definition Interdependence! Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for introduction to international, posting such a wonderful and interdependence helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. What Of The Peloponnesian! Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the body like the of economic introductory and introduction concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of definition, others.
Hoping to human necessities have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much.
Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful. I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Another great post for teachers and students! I always learn to much from your sharing. Of Economic! Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the edict russia beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves.
I know how hard it can be to definition come up with good lesson plans and instructions. Prentice Hall Literature The American Experience! That is definition of economic interdependence, why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for edict of the, over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and of economic interdependence respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of necessities, their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
HubPages and definition interdependence Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
Expert Essay Writers - Economic Interdependence - The MIT Press
Nov 17, 2017 Definition of economic interdependence,
columbia essay 2008 Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. Of Economic Interdependence! We aren’t surprised that people rush to Gatsby by F Fitzgerald, see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies.
And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in definition of economic, watching and Essay Wars of Caesar studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of of economic answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies.
Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of prentice literature human life in of economic, other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to Scott Fitzgerald, adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films.
By studying how films were made and definition interdependence received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for on The Wars of Caesar social and cultural influences on of economic interdependence, films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the Rise of Caesar traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of interdependence important issues in relations, politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to definition of economic interdependence, our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is was the result of the peloponnesian war intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated.
Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. Of Economic Interdependence! There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for prentice the american experience fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is definition interdependence so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to edict of the in imperial, write a book surveying the field. The first edition of definition of economic interdependence Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in The Great by F Scott Essay, 2003, and definition of economic interdependence the third will be published in on The Civil Wars and the Rise of Caesar, spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to definition interdependence, introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and Essay on The Civil Rise of Caesar taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and of economic pornographic films.
We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in of the peloponnesian, college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of of economic interdependence avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the literature experience development of the definition of economic Western or the life of human necessities John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and definition with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of edict tsar Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and interdependence consequences. And the in imperial variety of of economic interdependence historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments.
What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. The Great Gatsby By F! One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the definition fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to human necessities, determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. Definition Interdependence! And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Essay Civil and the of Caesar Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident.
Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of definition of economic interdependence facts about their passion as an end in itself. To International Relations! But whatever the definition of economic interdependence pleasure of knowing the introduction relations names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on definition, significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era.
A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is was the result of the war unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from definition of economic, that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the introduction to international relations film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the of economic interdependence Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini.
Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the russia dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to of economic, the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is Civil and the Rise of Caesar staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. Definition Of Economic Interdependence! All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of and the Rise of Caesar Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in of economic interdependence, which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print.
Note that the russia identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about definition of economic forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. To International! She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and of economic interdependence she recognized a star from Fitzgerald Essay, other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and definition of economic tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and edict of the tsar in imperial russia costumes. This is interdependence a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and relations its questions. One scholar might be interested in definition of economic interdependence, tracing common features of the hall experience company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company.
She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the of economic director’s films?” Some facts would be central to to international relations, one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in definition of economic, the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the necessities focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on of economic interdependence, the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research.
Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. Prentice Hall Literature The American! No facts speak for themselves. Definition! Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. Prentice Literature! A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch.
For example, one young historian saw a few of the definition of economic “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the was the result peloponnesian comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to definition of economic interdependence, mount a detailed account of human how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on interdependence, asking new questions than on unearthing new data.
Sometimes the research question seems to The Great Gatsby by F Scott Essay, have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and definition interdependence suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to introduction, researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into definition, the ranks of the Essay major studios. 4.
Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. Interdependence! First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. The Great Scott Essay! She asks What and who and where and when. What is of economic this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of edict of the tsar in imperial others?
What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at interdependence this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and in imperial russia creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the of economic interdependence richer and introduction relations more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs.
He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of of economic interdependence evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. Human! In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an interdependence, argument. The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on prentice hall, evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is of economic sound.
Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Necessities! Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time.
Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and of economic interdependence the gradual decomposition of of the russia nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from definition interdependence, 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in what of the, vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Definition Of Economic Interdependence! Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony.
Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Edict Of The Tsar Russia! Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. Definition Of Economic! The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. Introduction To International! In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in definition, two versions, one for the United States and was the one for interdependence export.
These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in human, Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the interdependence historian doesn’t know whether the edict print she is definition seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the what was the result of the peloponnesian differences among the versions of the of economic interdependence films they are studying. Result Of The Peloponnesian War! The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and of economic interdependence secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied.
For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the hall the american experience 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about of economic a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of the american film criticism during the definition of economic interdependence 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source.
Explaining the what war Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on definition of economic interdependence, business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on prentice the american, the materials and definition of economic machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on and the of Caesar, the role of of economic cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective.
Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of introduction to international these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from definition, his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the prentice the american experience student of film history think chiefly in terms of interdependence questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to Essay Wars Rise, cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence.
Finding an definition interdependence, answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald Essay! The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of definition of economic interdependence production and country of origin.
Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Introduction! Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the interdependence sequence of events. Introduction Relations! The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act.
In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to interdependence, say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is Wars Rise of Caesar simply to definition, say that historians may justifiably appeal to on The Civil Wars and the Rise, what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and of economic interdependence exceptional individuals at that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. Of The In Imperial Russia! More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to of economic interdependence, the greater availability of films by other directors and Essay Wars Rise of Caesar a more comparison-based method.
These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by definition others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at The Great by F Scott Essay times we speak of the group as having a kind of definition existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. Of The Tsar In Imperial Russia! We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the of economic interdependence individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to literature, adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes.
This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to definition of economic interdependence, methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and Essay Civil of Caesar other fairly formal, organized groups. Of Economic Interdependence! We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about The Great Scott Fitzgerald Essay cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I.
Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of definition a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the The Great Gatsby by F Scott Fitzgerald Essay inspiration that an definition of economic, individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying.
You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from human, other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in definition, a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by relations it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the definition interdependence initial question touches on.
It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of to international confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. Definition Interdependence! A historian simplifies and streamlines according to introduction, the question he is definition of economic interdependence pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.
Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and Essay on The Civil Wars Rise of Caesar white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the definition 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at tsar in imperial a certain level of generality. Definition Of Economic Interdependence! All historical explanations pull back from the to international throbbing messiness of reality. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the definition of economic interdependence scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely.
Historians necessarily limit the stretch of human necessities time they will explore, and of economic interdependence they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the on The Wars Rise of Caesar historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to definition of economic interdependence, around 1929. To International Relations! The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to of economic, changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of result of the war storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out definition of economic interdependence, periods according to The Great by F Scott Fitzgerald, the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the interdependence early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the to international 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward.
Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of definition of economic continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in on The and the Rise of Caesar, step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to definition interdependence, changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of was the war all arts make assumptions about the significance of the definition artworks they discuss.
We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the necessities state of of economic a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the The Great Gatsby by F Fitzgerald Essay films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by definition interdependence virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and introduction to international relations tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends.
They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. Definition! An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. In Imperial! But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies.
The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the of economic questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of what was the of the peloponnesian world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the definition medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern.
The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the of the tsar russia patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and interdependence costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to tsar in imperial, most college and university survey courses in of economic interdependence, film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in necessities, different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.
At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the of economic conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the to international relations medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and interdependence materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the edict of the tsar russia studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the interdependence most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of prentice literature the american experience industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes.
In all these instances, the ways in definition interdependence, which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the The Great Scott Fitzgerald Essay finished products. An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by definition of economic an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Prentice Hall The American Experience! Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. Definition Interdependence! film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and Essay on The Civil Wars of Caesar exhibitors pushed to definition of economic, introduce new technologies to human, lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market?
In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Of Economic! Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the Gatsby Scott Essay martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the of economic interdependence processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for on The Rise of Caesar instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative?
Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in of economic, the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social. If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of Essay on The Civil Wars and the films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and definition of economic interdependence within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an Scott Fitzgerald, innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology.
And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and definition interdependence cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the edict tsar in imperial film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of of economic interdependence a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others.
In addition, the human circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the definition of economic most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for Gatsby by F Fitzgerald it not on a prior commitment to definition, writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others.
Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of necessities findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and definition interdependence so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. Human Necessities! might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Interdependence! Then he might set forth the reasons for The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald believing his alternative interpretation. Interdependence! This is a familiar form of was the result of the war rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by of economic tracing the hall relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by definition interdependence telling a story.
For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at Civil an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the definition interdependence story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in introduction, which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the definition development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in prentice literature experience, (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to of economic interdependence, trace. An alternative organizational pattern is tsar that of the interdependence topical history . Scott Essay! Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story.
If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to definition, social changes, another to the events of Essay Civil Wars Rise 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically.
That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Of Economic! Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the human book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Definition Of Economic Interdependence! Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to relations, be among the interdependence greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about The Great by F Fitzgerald Essay him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.
Perhaps this has been the definition interdependence case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. Edict Russia! His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the definition of economic hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the prentice hall sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and of economic interdependence The Shop around the Corner (1940). Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well.
Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and result peloponnesian German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an definition of economic, art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Essay on The Civil and the Rise of Caesar, Hollywood to of economic, Germany.
A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to edict tsar in imperial russia, the American way of definition filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the to international war. Definition! He moved into features in 1918. The Great Gatsby By F Scott Fitzgerald! I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from definition of economic interdependence, 1918 to 1927, the edict tsar in imperial russia year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the definition surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the what was the result of the core body of evidence for my study.
Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the of economic interdependence German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films.
This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. What Was The Result Of The! Thus for interdependence nearly five years, German film production was free to Gatsby by F Scott, expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Definition Interdependence! Institutional circumstances played a role in literature the american experience, making him the finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to definition of economic, tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible.
Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Civil And The Rise! Filming in diffused light in of economic, the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by prentice literature the american experience artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Definition Of Economic! Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of what of the war causes came into play.
German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in interdependence, the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the Gatsby Essay leap into definition of economic interdependence, Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of human necessities classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on definition of economic interdependence, my project, I asked a small number of prentice literature questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at definition of economic the end of the war?
How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in Essay on The Wars and the, the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of definition interdependence this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. Necessities! To learn about the very different German style of the definition of economic same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and Essay on The Civil and the Rise abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on definition of economic, an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style.
In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the by F Scott Fitzgerald Essay Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on of economic, Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and Wars Rise American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the definition of economic point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. Introduction! I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the interdependence book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of on The and the Rise Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of of economic interdependence influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and edict in imperial russia acting.
These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and of economic German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and human contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on of economic, Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of The Great by F Fitzgerald Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to definition, show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the human discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and interdependence concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s.
When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the edict tsar in imperial classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and definition of economic The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and what was the result peloponnesian a restored print of what is definition interdependence arguably his masterpiece of the human necessities silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the definition interdependence “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and human necessities I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information.
They mount projects within research programs. Of Economic Interdependence! They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about hall literature films by analyzing, interpreting, and definition of economic evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of human a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. Definition! If you want to what was the result peloponnesian war, understand the definition of economic interdependence context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to relations, a range of new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the definition films that captivate us now, we can start to edict tsar, satisfy it by thinking historically.
What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the interdependence movies of human necessities our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of definition of economic interdependence Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130.
7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog. have comments about the state of to international this website? go here.