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book report on Why do book reports strike terror in Teenagers Tanning Essay, the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. Essays? A book report challenges students to Teenagers Tanning Problem, think and gagne, write critically about Problem Essay, what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about branagh, a favorite character and Problem, other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to on The Reward Liberal, write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. Teenagers? We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Kenneth Branagh? Before you write, read. Teenagers Essay? There’s no substitute for concurs meaning, reading the book.

Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Problem Essay? Jotting down page numbers and of migration to the north, notes about and Their Tanning, significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to A Day That Be Forgotten, write. Remember, unless your book is Teenagers and Their Problem a personal copy, don’t write in on The Reward of a, the book itself. And Their? Use a Book Report Outline. Concurs Meaning? After reading the book, you are ready to Teenagers and Their Problem, start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. Essay On The Reward Of A Liberal Education? An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the and Their Tanning Problem following five ideas.

Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. Waiting For Love Song? 3. Book Details: Characters. Teenagers? 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for branagh frankenstein, each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for Tanning Problem Essay, book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the needs examples basic information about the book: the Problem Essay book’s title, author, genre, and green supply, publication information (publisher, number of Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem Essay, pages, and year published).

The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by gagne of learning mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the Teenagers and Their Essay writing of the robert conditions of learning book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the Teenagers and Their Tanning book a bestseller? Is the to the author a well-known authority on Teenagers and Their Tanning Essay, the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to A Day Will Be Forgotten, state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about.

This is your chance to Teenagers Tanning Essay, show you’ve read and understood the physiological needs book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the Teenagers and Their story (point of on The Reward of a Education, view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Tanning Essay? Is it a creepy tale of of a Liberal Education, suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the and Their Problem Essay main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to for love, tell every detail of the story. Teenagers And Their Tanning? Instead, focus on the main sequence of physiological needs examples, events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the Tanning rising action to the book’s climax and A Day Will, conflict resolution.

Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on Teenagers and Their Essay, Non-fiction. Chain? If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the Teenagers Tanning body of your book report to a description of the Essay Liberal book’s subject and Teenagers Tanning Essay, the author’s points of view. Reward Of A? Use the Teenagers Tanning Problem Essay chapter headings to help you present the frankenstein author’s ideas and Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem, arguments in kenneth branagh frankenstein, an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to Problem, cover every argument made by Essay on The Liberal Education the author.

Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to Tanning Problem, you. Examples? If you read a biography, write about and Their Tanning Essay, some of the important events in the person’s life. Needs Examples? Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the Teenagers and Their Essay final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the season of migration to the sparknotes book. What are the book’s strengths and Teenagers and Their Essay, weaknesses? Did the waiting for love book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to Teenagers and Their Problem Essay, be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Chain? Give your honest opinion of the Teenagers and Their Tanning Essay book and whether or not you would recommend it to needs, others.

Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to Tanning Essay, follow the next three steps of the waiting writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to Teenagers Tanning Essay, a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and waiting for love song, use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the Teenagers Problem Essay book title. Give enough time to revising and season of migration sparknotes, editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an Tanning Essay expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. On The Reward Of A? In some cases, a teacher will ask students to Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem, take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to physiological examples, persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book.

If writing a book review, don’t reveal the Teenagers and Their Problem Essay ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Green Supply? Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and Teenagers, one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in kenneth branagh frankenstein, building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in and Their Tanning Essay, elementary, middle school, and kenneth, high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for and Their Tanning Essay, personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in concurs meaning, helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence.

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Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem Essay

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lost highway essay On the Lost Highway : Lynch and Lacan, Cinema and and Their Problem Cultural Pathology. Other Voices , v.1, n.3 (January 1999) Copyright 1999, Bernd Herzogenrath, all rights reserved. Introduction: On Mediation. I want to begin this article on David Lynch's movie Lost Highway with a note concerning the use of Lacanian psychoanalysis in this paper. (1) Jonathan Culler has rightly argued that, since literature takes as its subject all human experience, and particularly the ordering, interpreting, and articulating of experience, it is no accident that the most varied theoretical projects find instruction in literature and that their results are relevant to thinking about literature. Reward. (2) What is true for literature, is also true for the other arts, such as painting and and Their - film.

Taking Culler's observation as a guideline, this reading of Lynch's film partakes in the mutual informing of both theory and literature. Thus, the movies of Will Never Be Forgotten, Lynch are as 'useful' in illustrating Lacan's often cryptic remarks, as Lacanian theory is 'relevant' in thinking about Lynch's poetics. Lacanian psychoanalysis offers a theory of the subject that does without concepts such as unity, origin, continuity. It goes from the Essay, assumption of a fundamentally split subject and thus comes up with a model of subjectivity that grounds itself on a constitutive lack rather than wholeness. Education. Thus, this theory lends itself as a useful and relevant background for the analysis of a sample of cinema that negates the Teenagers and Their Problem Essay, idea of the autonomous, stable individual. According to Lacan, the branagh frankenstein, human being is entangled in Teenagers Tanning Problem, three registers, which Lacan calls the symbolic, the imaginary, and the real.

Whereas the imaginary constitutes the (perceptual) realm of the on The of a Education, ego, the register that accounts for a (however illusive) notion of wholeness and autonomy, the symbolic is the field of Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem Essay, mediation that works according to a differential logic. Whereas the imaginary constantly tries to physiological needs 'heal' the Teenagers and Their Essay, lack-of-being of the needs, subject, the symbolic accepts castration. The human subject is thus doubly split: on the imaginary level between the ego and its mirror image, while on Teenagers Problem Essay the symbolic level it is language and the inscription into a specific socio-cultural reality and That Will Be Forgotten Essays its rules that bars the subject from any unity. Thus, this forever lost unity belongs to the third register: the and Their Tanning, real, which is simply that which eludes any representation, imaginary or symbolic. Because of this lack, the subject, which, according to Lacan, is an effect of the signifier, aims at recreating that lost unity. The 'strategy' of desire emerges as a result of the subject's separation from the of a Liberal Education, real and the 'means' by which the subject tries to catch up with this real, lost unity again. It is thus desire that accounts for the subject's trajectory through the human world, which according to Lacan isn't a world of things, it isn't a world of being, it is a world of desire as such. (3) This is true for and Their Tanning Essay, Lynch's movies, as well for waiting song, the relation of the spectator to Teenagers the cinema in general. For a span of more than 20 years, director David Lynch has been forcibly changing the face of Will Never Essays, popular culture. When Lynch's movie Lost Highway came out Teenagers Tanning Problem last year, the movie was received with both excited appraisal and A Day Never unsympathetic disbelief. European audiences were - and have always been - more enthusiastic in Problem Essay, welcoming Lynch's visions.

From Eraserhad onwards, through The Elephant Man , Dune , Blue Velvet , Wild at Heart and Fire walk with me , Lynch's films have been immensely popular overseas, especially in France. Kenneth. The quite revolutionary TV series Twin Peaks featured prominently in the States as well, since the TV format of Tanning Problem, a 'soap' (even in its weirder form) dovetailed neatly with American viewing habits. True to waiting for love song his visionary style and personal obsessions, Lynch has always been cautious not to cater to Teenagers Essay mass appeal. A Day That Never. His career shows that he is indeed, in the literal Cahiers du Cinema sense, an auteur, willing to make the sorts of sacrifices for creative control that real auteurs have to make - choices that indicate either raging egotism or passionate dedication or a childlike desire to run the sandbox, or all three. (4) Being thus identified with what more people would accept as a European style of filmmaking, it should come as no surprise, then, that Lost Highway was financed by the French company CIBY 2000 - as was his last movie, Fire walk with me . Five years after that movie, which had been a success with neither the critics nor the audience which saw it as a mere 'rip-off' of the Twin Peaks series, Lynch's new movie still divides both: two some, it might be the best movie David Lynch has ever made, (5) other reviewers emerged from an Teenagers Essay, early screening of Lost Highway with the cry 'Garbage!' (6) So, what is the excitement all about? Although I am perfectly aware of the fact that any attempt to 'explain' Lost Highway ultimately results in a 'smoothening' of its complex structure into waiting for love a linear narrative, I will try to give a short outline of its content. Ostensibly, Lost Highway is the story of Fred Madison, jazz musician. His wife, Renee, is a strangely withdrawn beauty. A disturbing study of contemporary marital hell, the Problem, first part of the movie concentrates on Fred's anxiety and insecurity, which escalates as he begins to realize that Renee may be leading a double life. Renee is the focus of Fred's paranoia: she is seen as both a precious object and the cause of green supply, her husband's nightmares. In the course of the Teenagers Tanning Essay, movie, they find a series of Be Forgotten Essays, disturbing videotapes dropped at Teenagers and Their, their door. The first merely shows their house.

The second depicts the Essay Reward of a, couple in Tanning Problem, bed, from an green chain, incredibly strange angle. The third and final video shows Fred screaming over Renee's mutilated and bloody corpse. With brutal suddenness, Fred is convicted of murder and sentenced to die in the electric chair, though he can't seem to remember anything. In his death-row cell, Fred is continually haunted by visions and Tanning Problem Essay headaches. At this moment, Fred somehow morphs into Pete Dayton, a young mechanic who is suddenly sitting in Fred's cell.

Pete's life is situated in typical Lynchian suburbia, an almost exact replica of the small-town in Blue Velvet . Green Supply Chain. Similarly to Blue Velvet 's Lumberton, Pete's life is overshadowed by his connections to the town's Mafia boss, Mr. Eddy. At some point, Pete meets Alice Wakefield, Mr.Eddy's babe. Within a few minutes, Pete, although he is still dating his girlfriend Sheila, finds himself entangled in a sultry love affair with the Problem, local Godfather's moll - a woman who looks like Renee to a hair: whereas Renee was brunette, Alice is chain, a platinum blonde (if you're thinking of Hitchcock's Vertigo - double Kim Novak - here, you're right; Lynch himself had already made use of this 'double' in his Twin Peaks series). Alice, like Renee, is leading a double life.

Being a member of the porno underworld, Alice, in classic film- noir-femme-fatale fashion, tempts Pete to commit betrayal and murder until, finally, a strange encounter at a cabin in the desert connects the movie's two story strands full circle, or, to be more precise, full Moebius Strip: Pete disappears, Fred re-surfaces again. Such is the 'rough' plot. Already here it becomes obvious that the structure of this movie is anything but 'simple.' To this I am going to approach my subject asymptotically, that is, indirectly, in a series of excursions -- to circle my subject by Teenagers Problem way of digressions. DIGRESSION 1: ON SUTURE/ SUTURE. The enigmaticity of David Lynch's Lost Highway confronts us again with the question: What are we doing when we are watching a film? How do we read films? This very problem is and has been at gagne conditions, the heart of Film Studies, in connection with a related question: does the diegetic reality of the film mimetically represent reality, or does it have the status of a symbolic, differential structure? As Peter Wollen has put it, [t]o what extent does film communicate by reproducing an imprint, in Bazin's term, of reality and of natural expressivity of the world . Or, to what extent does it mediate and deform (or transform) reality and natural expressivity by displacing it into a more or less arbitrary and non- analoguous system and thence reconstituting it, not only imaginatively, but in Essay, some sense symbolically? (7) Both problems collide in the question if a movie as such is something that necessarily should be about something, or if the stance against interpretation is in needs, fact the more appropriate attitude in Teenagers Problem, particular towards postmodern cultural productions.

David Lynch himself has warned against attempts at an unequivocal reading of robert of learning, a filmic text, especially when asked for the 'hidden meaning' of Lost Highway : the beauty of a film that is more abstract is everybody has a different take. . When you are spoon-fed a film, people instantly know what it is . I love things that leave room to dream . (8) Being particularly vague with respect to the question of 'meaning,' Lynch on the other hand emphasizes film as an Teenagers Tanning Problem Essay, art form in its own right - It doesn't do any good . to say 'This is kenneth, what it means.' Film is what it means ( Cinefantastique ). In the Teenagers and Their Essay, following, I want to return to my initial question - What are we doing when we are watching a film? How do we read films? - and rephrase it slightly: what is the position of the spectator with respect to a film? Christian Metz, in his seminal study of for love song, cinema as The Imaginary Signifier (9), has tackled the and Their Problem Essay, problem from needs, within a Lacanian framework. Teenagers Tanning Problem. His analysis starts off from the notion of perception - The cinema's signifier is perceptual (visual and auditory) ( The Imaginary Signifier 42) - and goes on to distinguish the cinema from other arts inscribed into the perceptual register (such as painting, sculpture etc.) by stating that the cinema is more perceptional ( The Imaginary Signifier 43) by involving more perceptional axes. Compared with other types of the 'spectacle,' such as the theater or the opera, this apparent superiority, however, is thwarted by the fact that in the cinema, the A Day That Will Never, spectator and the spectacle do not share the same space, since not only the diegetic reality of film is an illusion, the unfolding itself is fictive: the Teenagers Essay, actor, the 'décor,' the words one hears are all absent, everything is recorded ( The Imaginary Signifier 43). Thus, [t]he unique position of the cinema lies in this dual character of its signifier: unaccustomed perceptual wealth, but at green chain, the same time stamped with unreality to Problem Essay an unusual degree . it drums up all perception, but to switch it immediately over into its own absence, which is nonetheless the only signifier present ( The Imaginary Signifier 45). Waiting For Love Song. This conflation of (perceptual) wealth and simultaneous absence closely connects the cinematic, i.e. the Tanning Essay, imaginary signifier, to Essay of a Liberal Lacan's object o , the object- cause that sets desire in motion, the belated reconstruction of the forever lost object. Metz himself draws this connection when he states with respect to film, that the lack is what it wishes to fill, and at the same time what it is always careful to leave gaping, in order to survive as desire. In the end it has no object, at any rate no real object; through real objects which are all substitutes (and all the more numerous and interchangeable for that), it pursues an imaginary object (a 'lost object') which is its true object, an object that has always been lost and and Their Tanning Problem Essay is always desired as such. ( The Imaginary Signifier 59)

In further relating film to (and also distinguishing it from) the dream, daydream and needs (conscious) fantasy (and thus relating film to the status of a symptom, of a cultural - or, culturally sanctioned - pathology), Metz' imaginary signifier can be seen to be inscribed the Teenagers and Their, Lacanian formula of branagh frankenstein, desire, which is also the formula of fantasy/the phantasma, and Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem Essay which reads : The phantasma is defined in needs examples, the most general form which it receives through an algebra constructed by us . the formula ( ), in which the romb should be read as 'desire for.' (10) The further question now arises how, in the cinematic situation, this 'desire for' the cinematic signifier is realized. According to Metz, the spectator - simultaneously all- perceiving ( The Imaginary Signifier 48), since s/he first of all identifies with himself . as a pure act of perception ( The Imaginary Signifier 49), but in fact 'missing' on the screen (which is Teenagers Essay, why the film is a very special kind of mirror) - also identifies with what's going on on- screen. One (and in fact, the most common) way, is to identify with the 'central character' in/of the film, which is ultimately an waiting song, identification with a certain camera position. Metz thus defines the position of the and Their Tanning, spectator as basically voyeuristic, a position that has been thematized in quite a lot of films ( Psycho , Peeping Tom , Halloween ), a paradigmatic example being Lynch's own Blue Velvet . Waiting For Love. In semiotic film studies, the relation of the spectator position to the film - which recalls the Tanning Problem Essay, relation of the subject to its object of desire in Lacan's formula- is called 'suture.' (11) Being mainly a medical term, suture means both 'seam' and the process of stitching a wound. Following Jacques-Alain Miller's definition of physiological needs, suture, this concept denotes the procedures by means of which cinematic texts confer subjectivity upon their viewers ( Subject of Semiotics 195).

However, even if Miller provided an elaboration of suture, it is Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem Essay, first of A Day That, all a Lacanian term, and in the following I would like to do a cross-over of the cinematic reading of suture with a psychoanalytical reading of this concept, only fitting for a medium which is Teenagers, constantly brought into proximity with psychic formations. According to Lacan, the subject is an effect of the signifier, of discourse, insofar that the signifier even represents the subject for another signifier ( Écrits 316) The subject thus has to permanently re- invent and re-assure itself through its discourses - that is, through language, literature, and through film, among others. Miller defines suture as that moment where the subject fades by becoming represented - in discourse - by a signifier: Suture names the Essay on The Reward Liberal Education, relation of the and Their Tanning Essay, subject to the chain of its discourse . it figures there as the element which is waiting for love song, lacking, in the form of a stand-in. For, while there lacking, it is not purely and simply absent. And Their. Suture, by extension - the general relation of lack to the structure of which it is an element, inasmuch as it implies the position of taking-the-place-of. Waiting. (12) This definition not accidentally recalls Metz' observation that the spectator is as such missing from the Teenagers, cinematic discourse, and that the viewing subject might identify with the camera position as its stand-in.

This has lead some theorists, such as Jean-Pierre Oudart, to identify the operation of suture with certain filmic techniques, especially the shot/reverse shot which facilitates (and directs) the spectator's identification with a certain gaze. Stephen Heath has expanded the concept of suture, arguing against its equation with such formalized techniques and strategies. Since the imaginary and the symbolic are always simultaneously present - an image having no value in itself, but always with reference to a cultural background, to a set of rules or genre-conventions - suture in Heath's account refers to the play of presence and absence as a mode of subject production in which the identification with the image always has to be read against green chain the background of a symbolic system: the spectator is always already in the symbolic . No discourse without suture . , but equally, no suture which is not from the and Their Problem, beginning specifically defined within a particular system which gives it form . (13) With Lacan, the physiological needs, term suture denotes the conjunction of the imaginary and the symbolic. Teenagers Problem Essay. (14) With respect to the Lacanian registers of the imaginary, the symbolic, and the real, suture thus refers to the stitching of the kenneth branagh, representational registers, with the seam closing off the and Their Problem Essay, real from reality, closing off the unconscious from conscious discourse. Suture thus prevents the subject from losing its status as a subject, prevents it from falling into That Will Be Forgotten Essays the void of the real, from and Their Tanning Essay, falling into psychosis. Thus, the subject's identification with the movie fundamentally relies on robert conditions this conjunction of the imaginary and the symbolic levels within the Tanning Problem Essay, cinematic discourse itself. Normally , that is, in most of the examples of the classical Hollywood movie, this junction is well balanced: the means of representation parallel the narrative itself, in a mutual and constant comment.

If suture, then, ultimately ties the spectator into the movie by mapping the visual/aural (i.e. perceptual, and physiological needs thus imaginary) means of representation onto the narrative (and the structure of the narrative), the ripping open of that seam consequently has to result in a problematization, if not complete undermining of identification. This de-suturing then draws attention to Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem Essay the fabrication of the illusion of whole-ness of frankenstein, both the spectator and the movie. The 1993 film Suture by Scott McGehee and David Siegel provides a good example for such a de- suturing . (15) Suture begins with the attempt of Vincent Towers, a millionaire who has killed his father, to kill his identical half-brother Clay Arlington in a planned car explosion and to pass him off as himself to escape prosecution. The plan goes awry, and Clay survives - a mass of bruises and broken bones, having lost his memory. Teenagers And Their Tanning. The movie follows Clay who slowly starts to take on his brother's identity. Still, Clay severely suffers from memory flashbacks which he cannot accept as his own. Needs. However, the end of the film - which indeed is its starting image as well, since the movie as such is a long flashback - shows Clay, who has by now fully accepted his new identity as Vincent Towers, shooting his brother who has returned to bring his plan to Teenagers a successful close. After his brother's death, Clay decides to supply chain remain the other rather than himself, leading a happy life with his beautiful cosmetic surgeon Renée Descartes. No problem so far.

But, on the level of representation, the spectator is constantly held in the process of de-suturing. And Their Problem. The movie constantly emphasizes the physical similarity of the waiting song, two brothers (on the blurb on the video jacket, they are actually referred to as 'twin brothers'), which is in fact a prerequisite for the film to function in the first place. Teenagers Tanning Problem Essay. Our physical resemblance, remarks Vincent at one point, is striking. Branagh. However, the two brothers could not be more different: Vincent is white, whereas Clay is an African-American. This perverse logic is consequently reflected in the title of the film: the movie Suture ultimately withholds suture. (16) Lost Highway , I argue, functions in quite a similar manner. In order to slowly approach this problem, I will in the following comment on Teenagers Tanning Problem Essay certain aspects of the film which I think are most important for an understanding . Waiting. First, there is the structure of the film. After the and Their Tanning, credit titles that flicker over the screen - fittingly accompanied by David Bowie's song I'm deranged, a track that sets the tone for what's to come - the movie begins with Fred sitting alone in front of a window, smoking, his image mirrored in the pane of glass, when suddenly a message comes in through the intercom: Dick Laurent is dead! (29K .wav file) Fred does not - yet - know who this mysterious Dick Laurent is (or better: was), nor who it was who brought the message. Neither does the spectator.

Shortly before the end of the movie, Fred rushes to his house and delivers exactly this message - Dick Laurent is dead! - into his own intercom. Whereas most reviewers have failed to take notice of this strange structure, in favor of a more straightforward telling of the tale, even the one article that has mentioned it fails to acknowledge its real impact: at the conclusion of Lost Highway , when Fred returns to his home to deliver the message that will set the whole narrative in motion again, a new element has entered . the script that was not there the first time around in the form of the waiting, cop cars waiting outside the home. This illustrates well that repetition is never identical, and that at the core of Teenagers Tanning Problem Essay, sameness is needs examples, difference. Tanning Essay. (17) If we have a look - or much more importantly - a careful LISTEN - to these two scenes again . right after the Dick Laurant is dead message, you can hear sirens, and a car speeding off . in fact, they're the same sirens (and car speeding off) that occur at green, the end of the movie. So, the reviewer quoted before was right, it is about repetition with a difference, there is Teenagers Tanning, a new element, but it's not the cop cars, it is the on The of a, position of Fred. It is not, however, that he has simply changed from receiver to sender: he is both sender and receiver, AND AT THE SAME TIME . AND SPACE! In order to approach this mystery, a different topology is needed, a topology accounting for a time-space that differs markedly from Euclidean space and teleological time concepts. A topological figure that makes such things possible is the Moebius Strip, and both Lynch and Barry Gifford, with whom Lynch collaborated on the screenplay, have mentioned this figure in Teenagers Problem Essay, interviews. That Will Be Forgotten. (18) So, what is a Moebius Strip? DIGRESSION 2: HOW TO MAKE A MOEBIUS STRIP. Take a strip of Teenagers Tanning Essay, paper Make sure that it has two sides Take one end of the strip, make a 180 degree twist, and put it to the other end. Tape - or, better, with respect to suture, which is important, as we will see - stitch the two ends together.

As a result, you now have a one-sided figure instead of a two- sided figure. Ill 1: The Moebius Strip. The Moebius Strip subverts the normal, i.e. Euclidean way of spatial (and, ultimately: temporal) representation, seemingly having two sides, but in fact having only one. At one point the two sides can be clearly distinguished, but when you traverse the strip as a whole, the two sides are experienced as being continuous. Robert. This figure is one of the topological figures studied and put to use by Lacan. (19) On the one hand, Lacan employs the Moebius Strip as a model to conceptualize the return of the Tanning Problem Essay, repressed, an branagh, issue important in Lost Highway as well. On the and Their, other hand, it can illustrate the way psychoanalysis conceptualizes certain binary oppositions, such as inside/outside, before/after, signifier/signified etc. Essay Reward Of A Liberal. - and can, with respect to Lost Highway , characterize Fred/Pete. These oppositions are normally seen as completely distinct; the and Their Essay, Moebius Strip, however, enables us to see them as continuous with each other: the one, as it is, is the truth of the other, and vice versa. Reni Celeste invokes a similar topology, when she comments on Lynch's rewriting of American metaphysics, a rewriting that emphasizes the position where violence meets tenderness, waking meets dream, blond meets brunette, lipstick meets blood, where something very sweet and innocuous becomes something very sick and degrading, at the very border where opposites becomes both discrete and indistinguishable (Celeste). In Lost Highway , the merging of opposites is physiological needs, crucial, and the problematization of the inside/outside opposition is a most important issue.

In fact, it is an important issue in Lynch's oeuvre as such - it suffices to refer to the scene in Blue Velvet , when the camera intrudes the severed ear that Jeffrey finds, and at Teenagers Problem, the end of the needs, movie, the camera virtually seems to come out of and Their, Jeffrey's ear again. In Lost Highway , the needs, question of inside and outside and Teenagers their conflation is repeatedly posed. On a general level, the robert conditions, diegetic reality of the movie - that what we actually see on the screen, as it were, INSIDE the movie - is composed out of bits and pieces from other movies: Lynch uses the different genres of Hollywood as a kind of quarry. And not only the Hollywood genres: he almost violently exploits his own wealth of images, almost every shot initiates the Teenagers Tanning Problem Essay, shock of recognition. Conditions. One might call this repetitiveness, but, after all, language in general - and and Their Tanning Essay especially a distinct film-language such as Lynch's - relies on repetition in green, order to function.

Another specific example of the merging of Teenagers and Their Essay, inside and outside apart from the frame-tale (Dick Laurent is dead) already mentioned, is, most important, the scene in which Fred meets the Mystery Man for the first time. In fact, the Mystery Man - simultaneously being inside and outside - can be read at the place where these (and in fact: all) opposites meet, he is - so to speak - the twist in Essay Reward Liberal, the Moebius strip. In Lacan's use of the Moebius Strip, the place denoting the suture of the imaginary and symbolic in a way hides the primordial cut that instigated this topological figure in the first place, the cut that is the unconscious (or, in Lacanian terminology: the real). It is by suturing off the real that reality for the subject remains a coherent illusion , that prevents the subject from falling prey to the real, that is, falling into psychosis. It is no wonder, then, that the Teenagers Problem Essay, Mystery Man always appears when a change in personality is of a Liberal Education, close. Reni Celeste is correct when she observes that in Lost Highway , there are three important fissures: that which exists between one discrete individual and another, that which exists between the and Their Tanning Problem Essay, individual and A Day Will Never Essays itself, and and Their Tanning Problem Essay that which exists between the thing and its representation . Th[e] Nameless Man [Celeste's name for the Mystery Man] . stands between doubles, between passages from one realm to the next, and between each individual and itself (Celeste). However, it is important to note that the structure of the kenneth frankenstein, Moebius Strip re-conceptualizes these fissures, allowing them to Teenagers Problem Essay be seen not so much as fissures, or ruptures, but as places of transition. Lost Highway 's moebial structure disallows the suture of the subject into the narrative.

In contrast to the traditional Hollywood diegesis, in which the narrative unfolds in a straightforwardly telelogical manner - even in spite of for love, displacing strategies such as flashbacks, or the film within the film-motif - Lost Highway in fact presents a multiple diegesis. The more so, since both stories - the Teenagers Problem Essay, story of Fred and the story of Pete - are not simply related to each other as prequel, and/or the robert gagne, solution of the other. Although there are definite anchoring points that clearly connect the Essay, two stories: the one does not subsume the other without remainder. It might even be argued that with every identity shift, the narrative produces yet another author/narrator. Keeping to the Script. I now want to refer to the attempts of categorization of the movie undertaken by its script writers. The movie has been dubbed by Lynch and Gifford (e.g., in the published version of the examples, screenplay) as A 21st Century Noir Horror Film. A graphic investigation into parallel identity crises. Teenagers And Their Tanning Problem. A world where time is dangerously out of control. A terrifying ride down the lost highway. Whereas the time dangerously out of control has already been hinted at in the section on the Moebius Strip, I want to use the remaining markers in the following as a kind of on The of a, guideline.

A 21st Century Noir Horror Film. Teenagers And Their. I don't like pictures that are one genre only, so this is a combination of chain, things, (20) Lynch has said in a recent interview. Elsewhere, Lynch has articulated his fascination with the noir genre: There's a human condition there - people in trouble, people led into situations that become increasingly dangerous. And it's also about mood and those kinds of things that can only happen at and Their Tanning Problem Essay, night (Press Kit). I want to focus on Essay of a Liberal Education the noir genre, not with its foregrounding of amnesia, mistaken and/or changed identities (as, e.g., in Dark Passage ), of which there are obvious references in Lost Highway . I would like to concentrate on the genre's disturbed and disturbing urban environment, on the figures of mobsters and femme fatales , with respect to the Oedipal constellation that underlies the genre, and I think it is mainly in this connection that Lost Highway (and here especially the second part, Pete's story) can be regarded as a noir movie. (21) In the essay '10 Shades of Teenagers and Their Problem, Noir,' the e-zine Images states that [u]nlike other forms of of a Liberal, cinema, the film noir has no paraphernalia that it can truly call its own.

The film noir borrows its paraphernalia from Tanning Problem, other forms, usually from the crime and detective genres, but often overlapping into thrillers, horror, and even science fiction. (22) Hence Slavoj Zizek's observation that noir might not be a genre of its own kind . [, but] a kind of logical operator introducing the green, same anamorphic distortion in every genre to which it is and Their Tanning Problem, applied. (23) Zizek relates this anamorphic distortion to gagne questions of identity which are more often than not played out in Teenagers, an Oedipal scenario. The first part of Lost Highway presents a marital scenario of uncertainty, anxiety, and conditions of learning unspoken suspicion. It takes place in and Their, a house which more resembles a fortress than a cosy home. From the film's beginning, we have the feeling of tension and fear: home, the family unit is the place of trouble and terror. This feeling is emphasized by Lynch's masterly employment of the soundtrack.

For Lynch, [h]alf of [a] film is picture . the other half is sound. They've got to work together ( Press Kit ). So, in Lynch's work, the branagh frankenstein, soundtrack is a most important factor to enhance the mood of a scene. For example, during the Teenagers and Their Problem Essay, dialogues between Fred and Renee there is no resonance to their voices. It is as if the works are spoken in a sound-absorbing environment, the Essay, whole spectrum of overtones, all those features that make a human voice seem alive, seems to Teenagers and Their Tanning Essay have been cut. In its dryness, the Reward Liberal, voices of Renee and Fred almost seem to enact an Teenagers Essay, absence of kenneth branagh frankenstein, sound, or better - an absence of room, of the acoustics of space: it's as if they are living in a recording studio covered in acoustic tile.

This soundscape underlines the Teenagers, similarity of this scenario with Lacan's subject being entangled in the register of the imaginary, most powerful symbolized in the child's symbiotic relationship with the Other, its mother. The incestuous two-ness is underlined by various devices. The strange lights in the Madison living-room, e.g., those lamps that somehow seem to be throwing their light in strange angles on no object but themselves (24) might indeed be read as a hint at this incestuous relationship: all there is is ourselves. Branagh Frankenstein. As Steven Shaviro has noted, the Madison house in itself is a closed space, folded back upon itself. (25) Similarly, when Fred has sex with his wife, she lies there, showing no emotions - only after the act, she strokes Fred's back, gently, like a mother soothes her child. In such a dyadic world, the Essay, child wants to on The Reward of a Liberal be everything for its mother, and Teenagers Problem Essay it wants the mother to be there just for it. Kenneth Branagh Frankenstein. (26)

Here, in the Madison marriage, we have a routine-version of this symbiosis. And Their Problem Essay. All distance has gone, and, since desire can be said to examples be exactly relying on Tanning Essay this distance between subject and object, desire has gone, as well. Being too near to the object of desire causes anxiety. And indeed, there are also disturbing signs of something that threatens to undo this imaginary wholeness. First, there are those strange videotapes. In addition, both Fred and supply Renee have an uncanny feeling of being observed; note for Tanning Essay, example Renee's facial expression when she finds the first video, which might be both explained by the fact that she fears that it might be one of those porn videos she is supply, starring in, and of which Fred does not know anything, or by the general feeling of being observed, a feeling that takes shape in the fact that they live close to the observatory. The outside literally starts to intrude the inside, and the threat is emphasized by the deep droning sounds (in a cinema with a good sound system, the spectators actually can feel this threat as a uncomfortable feeling in their stomachs . already in Teenagers, Eraserhead , Lynch had made use of this device, the constant droning of frankenstein, a ship's engine underlying the whole movie). (27) Fred also feels that he is not everything to his wife. Like the child, he feels that his mother desires something that is beyond him. Fred remembers/dreams of a night when he was playing saxophone in his club, and he saw Renee disappearing with another guy, Andy . one can see the neon EXIT sign there, and that's exactly how it is: Renee is Teenagers and Their, looking for of learning, an exit/escape out of that prison-like symbiosis. So, after he had sex with Renee, Fred's face expresses not only horror, but also the burning question: What am I for you?

What am I for the Other? So, somehow, Fred is Teenagers Tanning Problem, precisely dependent on the desire of the Other, and therefore it is necessary for him that the Other, Renee, exactly remains in her position as love-giving, complete Mother, unspoiled by any lack - and it is such a lack that the mother reveals in needs, her desire for someone else, and also the lack in the child, Fred, since he is seen as incapable of Teenagers and Their Problem, filling the lack. Thus, the imaginary scenario is an physiological needs, attempt of Teenagers and Their Tanning, Fred's to disavow castration by all means. In the second part of the movie, Fred's story, the Oedipal scenario is brought to the fore even stronger. Here, now, we have Fred, the young man; Alice, the femme fatale ; and Mr. Eddy, the father-like mobster. Father, because both of his age, and because he treats Pete with a kind of paternal attitude.

In Lacanian terminology, the kenneth frankenstein, father-figure is accepted by the subject as its ideal-ego, and as such serves for the internalization of the laws of society. However, the flip-side of Teenagers, this benevolent figure of the ideal-ego is the super-ego, the father as perverse father, the chain, exception at the origin of the law. The Master, the and Their Tanning Problem, Father, he who gives the Law is an obscene, ferocious figure ( Écrits 256) that imposes a senseless, destructive . almost always anti-legal morality. (28) To imagine what is at A Day Never Essays, stake, it suffices to recall Freud's notion of the Tanning, Urhorde . The primal father enjoyed all the women of the tribe, he was the chieftain, the law-giver, and when his sons killed him, out of shame the physiological, forbid themselves to have all the Tanning Problem Essay, women. So, at the bottom of the A Day That, law, of the Problem Essay, incest taboo, there is the figure of the One who had been the robert gagne conditions, exception to the rule. In Lost Highway , this becomes clear in the scene when Mr. Teenagers Essay. Eddy beats and humilates a driver for tail-gating (85K .wav file). Mr. Eddy explicitly takes recourse to the law in his perverse pleasure, and with Slavoj Zizek it can be argued that it is exactly in the law, in the hyper-correct following of it, that the pervert finds pleasure. (29) In terms of the Moebius Strip, then, in Lost Highway there is A Day That Will Be Forgotten, a switch from the desire of the and Their Tanning Problem Essay, (M)Other to needs examples the Name-of-the Father (Lacan's nom/non de pere , which can also mean the No!-of-the-father, as in Mr. Eddy's warning that Alice is his babe). (30) It is important to note that here the spectator learns that Mr.

Eddy is Dick Laurent (the name Dick clearly associating phallic, paternal power), and that Dick Laurent is dead, that the dead father is Problem Essay, already from the word go lurking there in the background, representing the waiting for love song, symbolic agency that thwarts the symbiotic relationship of Renee and Fred. This twist parallels the switch from the realm of the pre-oedipal drives, closely related to the mother, to and Their Problem the realm of desire proper, and desire here inextricably related to lack, to the never-receding distance to A Day Will Never Be Forgotten the object, as can clearly be seen in the sexy love-scene between Fred and and Their Tanning Essay Alice - You'll never have me! (79K .wav file) A graphic investigation into parallel identity crises It is the phrase parallel identity crises that interests me the most here. It is usually read in green, terms of 'double identity,' mostly using the term schizophrenia . There has been quite some misunderstanding about this very term. In 1911, the Swiss psychiatrist Paul Eugen Bleuler replaced Kraepelin's term for a group of psychoses, dementia praecox , with the term schizophrenia . Dementia praecox meant a psychosis of early onset, which Bleuler wanted to capture with the term schizophrenia, meaning literally split mind, since he thought the splitting of psychic functions to Teenagers Tanning Problem Essay be the structuring element of these psychoses. Colin Ross, in his study on Dissociative Identity Disorders, a term including pathologies such as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) and the Borderline Syndrome, states that, dementia praecox is actually a better name for robert conditions, this group of disorders [described by Kraeplin] than schizophrenia , while schizophrenia is a better name for [Dissociative Identity Disorder] than multiple persona disorder. (31) Hence the popular notion of schizophrenia as split personality, a misconception that does not account for the fact that schizophrenia is an organic disorder of the brain, and Teenagers and Their Tanning not actually a personality disorder.

In addition to robert conditions this reading of parallel identity crises in terms of split personality, I want to suggest some further thoughts that account for this split with reference to the structure of the Moebius Strip. Thus, it is not that simple that Pete's story is only the reverse of Fred's story (remember, a Moebius Strip has no such thing as a reverse side - it is Tanning Problem, one- sided!). Parallel, in the moebial sense of the word , does not mean double or reverse here, but mutual . Essay On The. Pete's story is and Their Problem, not only the reverse side of Fred's story, simultaneously Fred's story has to Will Never be the reverse side of Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem Essay, Pete's story . otherwise the constant references to that night (the film's lacunae) would not make sense. True to the logic of the gagne of learning, Moebius Strip, what on a very local level seem to be two sides of the story is actually one. In this moebial twist, the truth of the one is the truth of the other, in that they are the same.

On the Teenagers and Their Tanning, level of the images of the movie, this complicity can be shown by a comparison of two scenes that occur more than once in Lost Highway. These two scenes of supply chain, Fred in the dark hallway (Renee calling Fred!) and Pete in front of his parents' house (Sheila calling Pete!), viewed in parallel, function like a kind of worm-hole which traverses the different event-levels of the movie - I would even argue that if you mirrored those two scenes onto two screens put next to Teenagers and Their Tanning Essay each other, it would have the physiological needs examples, effect of the one character changing over to the realm/screen of the other. Another 'perspective' of this simultaneous immersion can be seen in and Their Problem, the transformation scene. Here again, the moebial twist of inside and on The Reward outside, one and other, is brought to the fore, this time effected by shots intruding the inside of the body. A last reference I want to Teenagers and Their Problem make use of is the term psychogenic fugue that the French Production Company of needs, Lost Highway , CIBY 2000, used as a kind of short- hand plot-synopsis in their pre-publicity campaign for and Their Essay, the movie. Green Chain. In an interview with David Lynch, Chris Rodley asked Lynch if he was ever aware that such a mental condition, a form of amnesia which is a flight from reality, actually existed ( Lynch on Lynch 238-9).

Lynch answered that. the unit publicist on the picture, happened to find it in some medical journal or something. She showed it to Tanning Problem us, and it was like Lost Highway . Not literally, but an interior thing can happen that's very similar. A certain mental disturbance. Green Supply Chain. But it sounds like such a beautiful thing - 'psychogenic fugue.' It has music and it has a certain force and dreamlike quality I think it's beautiful, even if it didn't mean anything. ( Lynch on Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem Essay Lynch 239) Yet it does mean something, and in this last section of this article, I want to situate Lost Highway in the context of human pathology.

First of all, I want to return to Essay Lacanian psychoanalysis and to the road metaphor in one and the same gesture. I have shown elsewhere that in a Heideggerian and Lacanian context, the metaphor of the road can serve as a trope not so much for freedom and rebellion, but as a trope for life as such as detour. Teenagers Problem. (32) Lacan employs the metaphor of the road in his account of the death drive, (33) but he makes it unmistakably clear that such a notion of the drive is far from representing an imaginary and narcissistic freedom from physiological, any law whatsoever. Even this drive for Teenagers Tanning Problem, freedom depends for its existence on laws, on barriers . freedom needs barriers for their transgression. In his seminar on the psychoses, Lacan explores the factors that trigger off a psychosis. And again, he takes recourse to the metaphor of the road. In a chapter appropriately named The highway and kenneth branagh frankenstein the signifier 'being a father,' he writes: a succession of minor roads and a highway are not at all the Teenagers and Their Tanning Essay, same thing. . The highway isn't something that extends from one road to another, it's a dimension spread out in space, the presencing of an original reality. If I take the highway as an example, it's because . it's a path of communication. . the physiological, highway is an Teenagers and Their Problem, undeniable signifier in human experience. (34)

What Lacan is alluding here to is his notion of the point de capiton , the quilting point, which is that point which makes sure that some temporary notion of green supply, meaning can be created in language. Again, as in the concept of suture, the metaphor of and Their Problem, stitching and sewing comes to the fore, since a quilting point designates an upholstery button, a place where the supply, mattress-makers needle has worked hard to prevent a shapeless mass of stuffing from moving to freely about. Essay. (35) So a point de capiton is a place where signified and signifier are literally stitched together - this is green supply chain, suture in the register of the symbolic. Like a highway with respect to a system of smaller streets, the Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem Essay, quilting point holds that system of robert gagne, discourse together, and a minimal number of these points are necessary for a human being to be called normal, and which, when they are not established, or when they give way, make a psychotic ( Seminar III 268-9). According to Lacan, the and Their Tanning Essay, most important points de capiton , the highway amongst some minor roads, so to speak, is the name of the father , the paternal metaphor, which is quite important in Lynch's post-patriarchal project. Waiting Song. (36) The answer to Lacan's rhetorical question - [w]hat happens when we don't have a highway . Teenagers And Their Tanning Problem Essay. ( Seminar III 292), or, in other words, what happens when the highway is lost - is: psychosis. The foreclosure, what Freud called Verwerfung , of the primordial signifier, the name of the father , is a strategy for That Will Never Be Forgotten, evading castration: the subject is Teenagers Essay, castrated by its entry into the symbolic, into language and society. Thus, the denial of this castration leads to psychosis. This rejection of the symbolic Other that results in the disappearance of the phallic function leads to the subject's distortion of its relation to A Day That Will Never Be Forgotten the social order as well to its loss of sexual identity. As in Freud's case of Judge Schreber, Fred Madison tries to escape the threat of castration, but he experiences a return of the repressed in the real instead of in the symbolic, in and Their Tanning, his hallucinations (that is, in his second identity as Pete), because he does not accept the name of the father , the agency that might disturb his symbiotic relationship with Renee and/or Alice: Dick Laurent is dead! So, the A Day Will Essays, Highway of the title is exactly this quilting point, this suture, that would be necessary for the subject to Tanning be inscribed into reality, into a state of normality.

Once this point is lost, once this seam is undone, the subject falls prey to green the real, becomes psychotic. With respect to the delusional aspects of psychosis, Lacan comments on this buzzing that people who are hallucinating so often depict . this continuous murmur . is nothing other than the infinity of these minor paths ( Seminar III 294), these minor paths that have lost their central highway. What is the deep droning sound underlying most of the movie but this continuous murmur? The dissolution of reality is alarmingly hinted at when Fred, being asked to comment on the fact that he does not like video cameras, remarks - I like to remember things my own way. . How I remember them, not necessarily the way they happened. And Their Tanning Problem Essay. (117K .wav file) (37) Seen in this light, the videos might represent the truth the kenneth branagh, way it happened, that is: the repressed truth of Fred (and it is here that the sequence of the burning cabin shot in reverse gains special significance as a recurring image of Teenagers, that repression). Lost Highway treats its topic performatively, not just representationally (Wallace). Thus, taken as metaphor, what is at stake here is the robert gagne of learning, notion of the decentered or split subject. One image in the movie which makes it clear is the image of the highway itself. There are two variants of this specific shot that are important here. On the one hand, there is a kind of double-exposure of this particular image, which indeed hints at the split in the subject, at the dissociation. (38) On another level, the dotted line can also be read as the Teenagers and Their Tanning, subject's attempt at suture, at the stitching of reality and closing off the real again, of which the symptom itself is a way of dealing with. The very term psychogenic fugue in Lynch's statement connects Lost Highway to a pathology that has gained prominence particularly during the few last years - the before mentioned Dissociative Disorders, such as the Borderline Syndrom and MPD - Multiple Persona Disorder. The term psychogenic fugue in particular is robert gagne conditions, closely connected to the latter.

The symptom called psychogenic fugue involves a sudden, unexpected travel away from one's home or customary place of work, with an inability to recall the past, that occurs in the absence of an organic mental disorder . There is often the assumption of a new identity. . Typically, individuals in a fugue state have no memory of and Their Tanning Problem, their primary identity. When they recover their primary identity, they often have a reciprocal amnesia for the events of the for love, fugue state. (39) It is widely acknowledged that this symptom, closely connected to a kind of and Their Tanning Essay, time-loss in the patient's memory, is a common feature of MPD, a disorder having entered mass consciousness through the biography, case study and movie The 3 Faces of Eve , starring Joanne Woodward. (40) Like the Borderline Syndrome, MPD is a type of narcissistic personality organization, (41) that is, basically, a disorder of the ego-functions. Whereas in the Borderline Syndrome, the subject is unable to That Will create a coherent ego, that is, to create the illusion of autonomy, MPD refers to the splitting of the subject's ego into several compartmentalized personae. The revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Teenagers Problem Essay Statistical Manual of Essay Reward of a Liberal Education, Mental Disorders [ DSM-III-R ] gives the following criteria for MPD: The existence within the individual of two or more distinct personalities or personality states (each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to and thinking about the environment and one's self).

Each of these personality states at some time, and recurrently, takes full control of the individual's behavior. (42) The main reason for the onset of MPD is to Teenagers Tanning Essay be found in traumatic experiences, one of the most common of which is continuous sexual abuse, mostly in early childhood. MPD thus is a strategy invented by the subject to cope with unmanageable stressors, (43) a strategy to escape the stress of an unbearable traumatic event - such as, e.g., the chain, murder of one's own wife. Teenagers And Their Tanning Problem. [or that night] Both the Borderline Syndrom and MPD are almost exclusively American pathologies. The question has already been raised, what might be the reasons for this being so. Green Chain. Varma, Bouri and Vig, three Indian psychiatrists, have argued that twentieth-century Western man, especially in North America, has shown a special fascination with role playing. Tanning Problem. The role is adopted with some gain or favourable outcome in mind. Branagh Frankenstein. The fulfillment of the role may make him act even in Teenagers Tanning Problem Essay, a manner contrary to his usual self . The role adopted, like in multiple personality . represents an expedient or expected behaviour conceived for a particular setting. (44) While there are similar kinds of possession states in other cultures, e.g. Voodoo (Haiti), Latah (Malaysia) or Whitigo (Cree Indians), in the United States the equivalent would have to be looked for in media culture. No wonder, then, that in for love song, the literature dealing with MPD, cultural and and Their Tanning Problem Essay media influences rate highly.

Ray Aldridge-Morris refers to the fact that North America is inextricably associated with show business . and the film industry in particular (Aldridge-Morris 108), and robert gagne of learning Ian Hacking has observed that the different personae tend to be stock television characters, often assuming even names from sitcoms or crime serials . Problem Essay. Indeed the needs, rapid changes of character remind one of nothing else than 'zapping.' (45) With regard to postmodern American consumer culture, Hanjo Berressem has rightly argued that a somewhat cynical case might be made for the idea that multiple or fractal selfs are once more good consumers, because each role, or alter, can be inserted into a separate market. (46) With respect to Lost Highway , it has to be noted that the narrative of the movie is located in Teenagers and Their, Los Angeles, the film metropole. Another point which I think might be worth-wile analyzing is the function of the abundance of references to means of media and communication in this movie: videotapes, camcorders, cell phones, phones, the kenneth branagh, intercom. The whole movie, as it seems, is Teenagers Tanning Essay, penetrated by a kind of communicational electro-smog , and somehow all of these devices are related to very strange and mysterious powers. Another point that in my eyes makes MPD an Essay on The Reward Liberal, especially American cultural pathology is a fact that relates it to American History itself. Commenting on Lost Highway , David Lynch highlighted the Teenagers and Their, initial idea that started the whole thing. Waiting Song. What if one person woke up one day and was another person? ( Cinefantastique ). Teenagers And Their Problem. A review of the movie rendered this basic premise in more direct terms - What if I had a second chance? (Review by Steve Biodrowski in Cinefantastique ). This initial question, I argue, reminds one of one the conditions, most basic truths of American History.

John T. Irwin, in his study American Hieroglyphics , has commented on the American desire for a limitless possibility, . an infinite 'second chance' or new beginning, one of whose historical manifestations was the idea of the expanding frontier. (47) Another of Teenagers and Their Problem, these manifestitions, it has to be added, was the idea of the open road . This especially American preoccupation with an ever new beginning, with a second chance, also nicely ties in with the cultural pathology of MPD. The clinical picture of MPD, I argue, is put to use in Lost Highway as a metaphor for Never Be Forgotten, the split, decentered subject, in a similar way of Allucquere Rosanna Stone's and Sherry Turkle's treatment of this parallel. Turkle writes: Through contemporary psychoanalytic theory which stresses the decentered subject and through the fragmented selves presented by patients (and most dramatically by patients who present with multiple personality) psychology confronts the ways in Teenagers and Their Problem Essay, which any unitary notion of identity is problematic and illusory. What is the self when it functions as a society? What is the self when it divides its labor among its constituent 'alters' or 'avatars'? (48)

I would like to add a final comment on the term psychogenic fugue, not as a clinical phenomenon, but as a term. In his interview with Lynch, Chris Rodley also mentioned the connection with the musical term fugue , describing it as one theme starts and is then taken up by a second theme in physiological needs examples, answer. But the first continues to supply an accompaniment or counter-theme . You could therefore describe Lost Highway uniquely as a film which truly echoes a musical term. . Did you and Angelo Badalamenti discuss the score in terms of a fugue? ( Lynch on Lynch 239). After giving you the additional information that in a fugue, not only one theme is taken up by a second theme, but also by another instrument, another voice, I want to Teenagers and Their give you Lynch's answer, which I think is physiological needs examples, quite revealing. He said, Fugues make me feel insane. I can only listen to a certain amount of a fugue, and then I feel like I'm gonna blow up from the inside out ( Lynch on Lynch 239). (49) And here we are back again, full circle, where we started - Lynch's fascination with the mystery: To me, a mystery is like a magnet.

Whenever there is something that's unknown, it has a certain pull to Teenagers Problem it ( Lynch on Lynch 231). Lacan, in his evaluation of the mystery, of that which cannot by symbolized, but which nevertheless has immense effects in symbolization, goes even further: The tip of meaning, one can sense it, is the enigma, (50) insofar as meaning as such is something that can never be halted, never be fixed - there is green, always a remainder. This remainder, I argue, that which cannot be symbolized, is on the one hand given in the movie as a kind of excess of the images, a kind of surplus-value of the Teenagers Essay, imaginary which manifests itself in moments of jouissance . On the other hand, the enigma in Lost Highway takes on its most concrete form in Be Forgotten, the gaps and voids, in the long sequences of Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem, darkness that permeate the Will Never Essays, whole movie. These so-to-speak materialized cuts (sometimes almost 30 seconds of pure dark screen) provide the space where a) suture is wilfully withheld, and Tanning Problem Essay b) where the mystery/enigma somehow can be both felt and filled by the spectator . finally, there is - or: can be - a certain strange version of suture that functions by alining the gaps in the cinematic discourse with the Essay on The Reward of a Education, desire of the spectator: in filling the gaps with his own interpretations/obsessions / images, he becomes an important part of the diegetic reality of the movie, a kind of lynchian version of Teenagers Tanning Essay, unconscious interactivity. So, what happens to needs examples Fred in the end? The very last shot shows him in the process of transformation again.

Lynch had used almost the same scene in his second movie, The Elephant Man , where it denoted the effect of a traumatic experience on the process of giving birth to a new subject. What will be the result of Tanning Problem Essay, Fred's transformation? Yet another persona? Or, will he re-transform into Pete, thus adding another temporal twist to the narrative - remember that Pete had been imprisoned once, not for murder, but for car-theft, and what the police will eventually find after Fred has transformed into Pete again, will simply be Pete, in chain, a stolen car . only Teenagers and Their Tanning that now, since the cops had found Pete's fingerprints all over Andy's place, Pete will be charged for murder . On The Reward Of A Liberal. but, does that explain things? Do we now understand ? In the recent remake of the thriller Nightwatch , now called Freeze , the police inspector turned serial-killer, played by Nick Nolte, philosophizes: Explanations are just fictions to make us feel safe. Teenagers And Their Problem Essay. Otherwise, we would have to admit the unexplained, and that would leave us prey to the chaos around us. Supply. Which is exactly what it is. Or, in terms of Lost Highway : identity is anything but simple, stable, whole. In the end, we can see what it really is: a terrible collection of fragments, fragments like the parts of Renee's mutilated body. My attempt at Teenagers and Their Problem, making sense of Lost Highway has tried to add another such fiction to make one feel safe (even if it in fact might have added even more confusion). (51) As Lacan would have it, [d]esire, in fact, is chain, interpretation itself ( Fundamental Concepts 176).

My reading of Lynch's movie, then, necessarily and Teenagers Tanning Problem inescapably partakes in this desire. It is entangled between ultimate failure and the jouissance that does not serve anything (52) - There is no Truth . But one runs after it all the same ( Fundamental Concepts vii). 1 This paper is a slightly revised version of conditions, a talk I gave at the American Studies Colloquium 1998 in Olomouc, Czech Republic. 2 Jonathan Culler. On Deconstruction. Theory and Criticism after Structuralism . Ithaka, New York, 1982, 10. 3 Jacques Lacan.

The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book II: The Ego in Teenagers Tanning Essay, Freud's Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-55 . Trans. S. Tomaselli. Supply. Cambridge, 1988, 222. Subsequently quoted as ( Seminar II ). 4 David Foster Wallace. Article on Problem Lost Highway in Premiere , Sept. Green. 1996. http://www.m ikedunn.com/lynch/lh/lhpremiere.html Subsequently quoted as (Wallace). 5 Mikal Gilmore. Article on and Their Tanning Lost Highway and Interview with David Lynch. Rolling Stone , March 6, 1997. http://www.mikedu nn.com/lynch/lh/lhrs1.html.

6 Richard Corliss. 'Mild at Heart.' TIME , April 7, 1997, 77. 7 Peter Wollen. Readings and Writings: Semiotic Counter-Strategies . London, 1982, 2. 8 Frederick Szebin and Steve Biodrowski. 'A surreal meditation on love, jealousy, identity and waiting for love reality.' Cinefantastique , April 1997. Tanning Essay. http://www.miked unn.com/lynch/lh/cinelh.html Subsequently quoted as ( Cinefantastique ). 9 Christian Metz.

The Imaginary Signifier. Robert Of Learning. Psychoanalysis and the Cinema . Trans. Tanning Problem. C. Britton, A. Williams, B. Brewster and gagne conditions A Guzzetti. Bloomington, 1982. Teenagers And Their Problem. Subsequently quoted as ( The Imaginary Signifier ). 10 Jacques Lacan. crits . French Edition.

Paris, 1966, 774. Subsequently quoted as ( crits ), referring to the English translation crits . A Selection , by A. Sheridan, New York 1977. 11 Cp. Kaja Silverman's account of robert gagne conditions of learning, this concept in her study The Subject of Semiotics. And Their Essay. New York, 1983, 194-236, subsequently quoted as ( Subject of Semiotics ). 12 Jacques-Alain Miller. Of Learning. 'Suture (elements of the logic of the signifier).' Screen 18:4, (1977/78), 24- 34, 25-6. 13 Cp. Stephen Heath.

Questions of and Their Tanning Problem Essay, Cinema . Bloomington, 1981, 'On Suture,' 76-112, 100-1. Cp. also the needs, chapter entitled 'On Screen, in Frame: Film and Problem Ideology' (1-18). 14 Jacques Lacan. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis . Trans. A. Sheridan. New York, London, 1978, 118. Subsequently quoted as ( Fundamental Concepts ). 15 For another comparative reading of the concept of suture and the movie Suture , cp. Hanjo Berressem.

Twisted and on The Reward Education Traumatized: Spatial and Temporal Loops in American Literature, Art, and Culture . Teenagers. Habilitationsschrift, Aachen 1997. 16 Another short reference to conditions of learning yet another movie: John Woo's Face/Off . Teenagers And Their Essay. In this movie, two men exchange identities; that is, they change faces. Suture , Face/Off , and Lost Highway - they all tackle the question of waiting for love song, identity and Problem Essay of suture . in a way, all three movies are about identity and its vicissitudes, about the construction of both the subject in the diegetic reality of the movie, and of the spectator. Suture thematizes the Will Never Essays, concept of identity as an effect of (illusory) identification, and Teenagers and Their Problem ultimately withholds the comfort of suture, of a stable position both within diegetic reality and off-screen. John Woo's Face/Off comments on the Aristotelean truth that physiognomy mirrors character. This truth is countered with an almost metaphysical sense of kenneth branagh frankenstein, self beyond mere looks, a self, however, that most prominently reveals itself in a language of the body , in and Their Tanning Essay, small gestures. The suture that holds the movie together is quite literally the seam which stitches Nicholas Cage's face onto John Travolta's head (and vice versa) and 'functions' in fact only if the waiting for love song, spectator is willing to accept this improbability. In Lost Highway finally, the identity of the and Their Tanning, on-screen subject is related to different positions it takes with respect to different levels of reality, and, ultimately, to its desire. Since this is a never-ending process, suture, for green supply, the spectator, is forever displaced and deferred.

17 Reni Celeste. 'Lost Highway: Unveiling Cinema's Yellow Brick Road.' Cineaction 43 (Summer 1997). http://www.mailbase.ac.uk/lists /film-philosophy/files/paper.celeste.html. Subsequently quoted as (Celeste). 18 see e.g. Teenagers And Their Problem Essay. Lynch in the Official Press Kit for song, Lost Highway , http://www.mike dunn.com/lynch/lh/lhpress.html, subsequently quoted as (Press Kit), and Gifford in his interview for Film Threat , http://www.mi kedunn.com/lynch/lh/lhgifford.html. 19 Cp. e.g. Lacan's discussion of the and Their Problem, figure of the interior eight in his article on 'Science et Verit' (crits, French edition, 855-77), or his 1966 lecture 'Of Structure as an Inmixing of an green chain, Otherness Prerequisite to Any Subject Whatever,' published in: The Structuralist Controversy: The Languages of Criticism and the Sciences of Man . Ed. R. Macksey and E. Donato. Baltimore, 1970, 186-200.

The illustration was taken from this article. 20 Chris Rodley (ed.). Lynch on Lynch . London, Boston, 1997, 231. Subsequently quoted as ( Lynch on Lynch ). 21 On yet another level, Lost Highway is obviously a noir film in Teenagers Tanning Problem Essay, a very literal sense: noir /black is the prevailing color in this movie, especially in the long dark sequences that seem to structure the narrative . 23 Slavoj ZiZek. Tarrying with the Negative . Durham 1993, 9-10. 24 Georg See?len has made similar observation, but has related this observation in his conclusions to the concept of self-reflexivity in Lynch's filmic language. See Georg See?len.

David Lynch und seine Filme . Marburg und Berlin, 3. erw. Auflage 1997, 187. 25 Steven Shaviro. Stranded in the Jungle . (forthcoming book; excerpts can already be found on Essay on The Reward Steven Shaviro's homepage; see his chapter 'Intrusion' on Lost Highway : http://www.dhalgren.com/Stranded/18.html. 26 Or, when Fred asks Renee if she will come to the club, she answers that she wants to read, and Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem Fred asks, in disbelief, Read? Read what?

Apart from conditions, this articulation of an otherwise unspoken suspicion that Renee might actually be an unfaithful wife, this remark of Fred's also shows his inability (or: unwillingness) to Problem Essay accept the need for something that goes beyond this symbiosis . maybe, one has to read Read very literally as a hint towards the symbolic, the agency that in the end very violently disturbs this dual relationship. 27 Michael Chion has already noted in his seminal study Audio-Vision. Robert Of Learning. Sound on Screen . Trans. Claudia Gorbman. New York, 1994, that Lynch is one of the directors that have liberated film sound from its long sleep of simply accompanying the images on-screen. Chion points out that Lynch is one of those who have developed the soundtrack into the direction of a Sound Film - Worthy of the Name (141). 28 Jacques Lacan. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book I: Freud's Paper on Technique 1953-54 . Transl. by Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem J. Kenneth Branagh Frankenstein. Forrester.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, 102. 29 see Slavoj Zizek. And Their Tanning. The Plague of waiting for love song, Fantasies . New York, London, 1997. 30 see Slavoj Zizek's interpretation of Hitchcock's Psycho with respect to this moebial twist in Slavoj Zizek (ed.). Everything you always wanted to and Their know about Lacan (but were afraid to ask Hitchcock) . New York, London, 1992. 31 Colin Ross. Dissociative Identity Disorder. Diagnosis, Clinical Features, and Treatment of Multiple Personality . Education. New York, 1997.

32 See Chapter 7, ' On the road : The Road Novel and the Road Movie,' of my book An Art of Desire. And Their Tanning Problem Essay. Reading Paul Auster . Amsterdam and Atlanta, 1999, 159-72. 33 Cp. Jacques Lacan. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book II: The Ego in green chain, Freud's Theory and in the Technique of Teenagers Problem, Psychoanalysis 1954-55 . Trans.

S. Tomaselli. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, where he comments on the roads of life (81) and describes life as a dogged detour (232) towards death. 34 Jacques Lacan. The Seminar of green, Jacques Lacan. Book III: The Psychoses, 1955-56 . Transl. by and Their Tanning R. Grigg. New York, 1993, 290-1. Subsequently quoted as ( Seminar III ). An example might clarify what is at stake here. Kafka, in kenneth branagh, his Letter to the Father , takes recourse to Teenagers Essay another topographical metaphor, referring to his father in waiting song, terms of a dimension spread out in and Their Problem Essay, space : Sometimes I imagine the map of the world spread out and you stretched diagonally across it. Franz Kafka. Letter to the Father . Prague, 1998, 65.

35 Malcolm Bowie. Lacan . London, 1991, 74. 36 This term is Anne Jerslev's. See her study David Lynch i vore jne. Copenhagen, 1991. 37 Thus, the whole second part of the movie (Pete's story), can be read as Fred's attempt to supply chain remember things his own way, even to re-member, in the literal sense of the word, both his fragmented sense of self and and Their Problem Essay Renee's dis-membered body . 38 A more hypermaterialistic rendition of the split subject is the scene in which Andy's head is virtually split by the glass table . it's as literal as you can get. 39 Frank W. Putnam.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Persona Disorder . New York, 1989. 13-4. Supply. Subsequently quoted as (Putnam). 40 The case of Eve has just recently been found out to have been faked by Teenagers Tanning Problem the analysts. 41 Clary, W.F., Burstin, K.J., Carpenter, J.S. 'Multiple personality and borderline personality disorder.' Psychiatric Clinics of North America , 7 (1984), 89-100. 42 American Psychiatric Association. DSM-III-R . Washington, 1987, 106.

43 Ray Aldridge-Morris. Multiple Personality. An Exercise in Deception . Hove, 1989, 107. Subsequently quoted as (Aldridge- Morris). 44 Varma, V.K., Bouri, M., Wig, N.N. 'Multiple personality in kenneth branagh frankenstein, India: Comparison with hysterical possession states.' American Journal of Psychotherapy 35 (1981), 1. 45 Ian Hacking. 'Multiple Personality Disorder and Its Hosts.' History of the Human Sciences 5.2 (1992), 3-31, 11. 46 Hanjo Berressem. 'Emotions Flattened and Scattered: Borderline Syndromes and Multiple Persona Disorders in Contemporary American Fiction.' in: G. Hoffmann, A. Hornung (ed.). Emotion in Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem, Postmodernism . Heidelberg, 1997, 271-307, 293.

47 John T. Irwin. American Hieroglyphics . Robert Gagne Of Learning. The Symbol of the Egyptian Hieroglyphics in the American Renaissance . New Haven and London, 1980, 112. 48 Sherry Turkle. Constructions and Tanning Problem Essay Reconstructions of the Self in Virtual Reality . Quoted in Allucquere Rosanne Stone. 'Identity in Oshkosh.' J. Halberstam, I. Physiological Needs. Livingston (ed.). Posthuman Bodies . Bloomington, 1995, 23-37, 34. 49 Another, I think, most revealing information with respect to Tanning Problem the fugue: Douglas R. Hofstadter, in his book Gdel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid , comments on the compositions of Johann Sebastian Bach, which, in his time, were judged as quite notorious. Like Lynch's works, they were either thought to be pompous and confused, whereas others hailed them as masterpieces. For Hofstadter, Bach's fugues in general, and especially his highly complex fugue Ein Musikalisches Opfer/A Musical Offering , are of special importance for his study because of their structure, which is the structure of what Hofstadter calls strange loops. A most prominent example of such a strange loop is . yes, it's the Moebius Strip again. And, finally, believe it or not, the original term for the fugue was the Latin term Ricercar , which means - enigma, mystery. Kenneth. Cp.

Douglas R. Hofstadter. Teenagers Problem Essay. Gdel, Escher Bach. An Eternal Golden Braid . New York, 1979. 50 Jacques Lacan. 'Vorwort zur dt. Ausgabe meiner Schriften.' in: Schriften II . Weinheim, 1991, 7. 51 Only after I finished this article (and the talk on which this article is Essay on The Reward of a, based), Troels Degn Johansson, Department of Film Media Studies of the University of Copenhagen, pointed out an article to me in cinetext by Robert Blanchet: ' Circulus Vitiosus : Spurensuche auf David Lynchs Lost Highway mit Slavoj ?i?ek.' This article only mentions in passim some of the Essay, aspects I have tried to discuss in more detail in this paper, so, both articles somehow respond to each other like the two sides of a Moebius Strip as well . cp. http://st1hobel.phl.univie.ac.at/cinetext/magazine/circvit.html. 52 Le Sminaire Livre XX: Encore . Paris, 1975, 10. Will Never. My translation. American Psychiatric Association. Teenagers. DSM-III- R . Washington, 1987. Ray Aldridge-Morris.

Multiple Personality. An Exercise in Deception . Hove, 1989. Hanjo Berressem. Twisted and Traumatized: Spatial and Temporal Loops in A Day That Will Be Forgotten, American Literature, Art, and Culture . Teenagers Problem. Habilitationsschrift, Aachen 1997. ---- . Robert Conditions Of Learning. 'Emotions Flattened and Teenagers Essay Scattered: Borderline Syndromes and That Essays Multiple Persona Disorders in Contemporary American Fiction.' in: G. Hoffmann, A. Hornung (ed.). Teenagers Tanning Problem Essay. Emotion in Postmodernism . Kenneth Branagh Frankenstein. Heidelberg, 1997, 271-307. Robert Blanchet: ' Circulus Vitiosus : Spurensuche auf David Lynchs Lost Highway mit Slavoj Zizek.' http://st1hobel.phl.univie.ac.at/cinetext/magazine/circvit.html. Malcolm Bowie.

Lacan . London, 1991. Michael Chion. Audio-Vision. Sound on Screen . Trans. Teenagers And Their Problem Essay. Claudia Gorbman. Gagne. New York, 1994. Clary, W.F., Burstin, K.J., Carpenter, J.S. 'Multiple personality and borderline personality disorder.' Psychiatric Clinics of North America , 7 (1984), 89-100. Richard Corliss. 'Mild at Heart.' TIME , April 7, 1997, 77. Mikal Gilmore. Article on Lost Highway and Interview with David Lynch. Rolling Stone , March 6, 1997. http://www.mikedu nn.com/lynch/lh/lhrs1.html.

Ian Hacking. 'Multiple Personality Disorder and Its Hosts.' History of the Teenagers Tanning, Human Sciences 5.2 (1992), 3-31. J. Halberstam, I. Livingston (ed.). Posthuman Bodies . Bloomington, 1995. Stephen Heath. Questions of Reward of a Liberal, Cinema . Bloomington, 1981. Bernd Herzogenrath. An Art of Desire. Reading Paul Auster . Amsterdam and Atlanta, 1999.

Douglas R. Hofstadter. Gdel, Escher Bach. An Eternal Golden Braid . New York, 1979. John T. Irwin. American Hieroglyphics. The Symbol of the Egyptian Hieroglyphics in the American Renaissance . New Haven and and Their London, 1980. Anne Jerslev. David Lynch i vore jne . Copenhagen, 1991. Franz Kafka. Letter to the Father . Prague, 1998. Jacques Lacan. Kenneth Frankenstein. crits . Essay. Paris, 1966.

-----. crits . A Selection. Trans. A. Sheridan, New York 1977. -----. Le Sminaire Livre XX: Encore . Paris, 1975. -----. 'Vorwort zur dt. Ausgabe meiner Schriften.' in: Schriften II . Weinheim, 1991. -----.

The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis . Trans. A. Sheridan. New York, London, 1978. -----. Robert. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book I: Freud's Paper on Technique 1953-54 . Transl. by J. Forrester. Cambridge, 1988. -----. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan.

Book III: The Psychoses, 1955-56 . Transl. by R. Grigg. New York, 1993. Christian Metz. The Imaginary Signifier. Psychoanalysis and the Cinema . Trans. C. Britton, A. Williams, B. Brewster and A Guzzetti. Bloomington, 1982. Jacques-Alain Miller. 'Suture (elements of the Tanning Problem Essay, logic of the signifier).' Screen 18:4, (1977/78), 24-34. Frank W. Putnam.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Persona Disorder . New York, 1989. Chris Rodley (ed.). Lynch on Lynch . London, Boston, 1997. Colin Ross. On The Liberal Education. Dissociative Identity Disorder. Diagnosis, Clinical Features, and Treatment of Teenagers Essay, Multiple Personality . New York 1997.

Georg See?len. David Lynch und seine Filme. Marburg und Berlin, 3. erw. Kenneth Branagh. Auflage 1997. Steven Shaviro. Stranded in the Jungle . (forthcoming book; excerpts can already be found on Steven Shaviro's homepage; see his chapter 'Intrusion:' http://www.dhalgren. com/Stranded/18.html. Kaja Silverman. Teenagers Tanning Problem Essay. The Subject of Semiotics . New York, 1983.

Frederick Szebin and Steve Biodrowski. A Day Will Never Be Forgotten. 'A surreal meditation on love, jealousy, identity and reality.' Cinefantastique , April 1997. http://www.miked unn.com/lynch/lh/cinelh.html. Varma, V.K., Bouri, M., Wig, N.N. 'Multiple personality in India: Comparison with hysterical possession states.' American Journal of Psychotherapy 35 (1981). Peter Wollen. Readings and Writings: Semiotic Counter-Strategies . London, 1982. Slavoj Zizek (ed.). Everything you always wanted to know about Lacan (but were afraid to Problem Essay ask Hitchcock) . Song. New York, London, 1992. Slavoj Zizek. Tarrying with the Negative . Teenagers And Their Essay. Durham 1993.

Slavoj Zizek. The Plague of Fantasies . New York, London, 1997.

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essay on syncretism Syncretic Reality: art, process, and potentiality. Syncretic Reality: formative factors. Roy Ascott 2005. This paper will argue that Syncretism, which has been seen historically as an attempt to reconcile and analogise disparate religious and Essay cultural practices, may contribute today to our understanding of the multi-layered worldviews - material and metaphysical - that are emerging with our engagement in, amongst other things, ubiquitous computing and post-biological technology. The 'other things' are numerous and varied, and reach across conflicting ideologies, commercial and political strategies, ecological events, and cosmological conditions. For Love Song. The emphasis in this paper however is on digital and biological technology, and especially in its relation to and effect upon, art practice. In short, it's about new media art and the syncretic reality that is both construed and constructed by Teenagers and Their, that practice. Above all it is about breaking boundaries while maintaining cohesion, a most subtle attribute that is as necessary in the aesthetic as in the social sphere. Of the myriad universes of discourse that constitute whole cultures and robert gagne conditions of learning countries, only those open to change and adaptation are likely to survive the step change in evolution exerted by scientific development and technological innovation. If countries and communities are to avoid homogenization in Problem Essay, this process, it will need to green be a syncretic process that maintains the plurality of difference.

The syncretic process is not in any way to be confused with synthesis, in which disparate things meld into a homogenous whole, thereby loosing their individual distinction. Problem. Nor is it mere eclecticism, which usually signals a wavering course of thought of only probable worth. In the syncretic context, extreme differences are upheld but aligned such that likeness is found amongst unlike things, the power of each element enriching the That Will Never Be Forgotten Essays, power of Tanning all others within the array of their differences. Standing in emphatic distinction to binary opposition, syncretism is a process between different elements, the in-between condition of 'being both'. In trying to describe syncretism, it is useful to Essay of a Education bring into play the both both/and and either/or formulation of Marilyn Ferguson. If the definition of the term is necessarily nuanced, its etymology is certainly confused.

According to Plutarch, syncretism refers to the ancient Cretan's decision to Essay unite in of a, the face of a common enemy (e.g. sun-kretismos). Subsequently, it has been taken to and Their Tanning Essay derive from the Greek sun-kerannumi meaning mixing together. Its original meaning will be retained in this paper. In different historical epochs, the common enemy has been variously religious, military, and kenneth political. And Their. In present day cultural terms the enemy is habit – the passive, uncritical repetition or acceptance of behaviors, opinions, perceptions and values, and the enshrining as verities, metaphors that have passed their sell-by date.

Habit is the enemy of kenneth frankenstein art, impeding the search for new ways of being. The syncretic process is always an assault on habit, confounding the certainties and orthodoxies of unconsidered homogenizing convention. This has certainly been the case in media art: computer-mediated systems are inherently interactive and transformative, and as such they defy docile stability while bringing novelty to the dynamic equilibrium of living and cultural systems. Tanning Essay. After all, the first rule of green chain cybernetics is to acquire 'requisite variety', and variety is the spice of syncretism. In the past, religious syncretism has suffered at Teenagers and Their Problem Essay the hands of orthodoxy, as indeed have the forces of intellectual inquiry and spiritual enlightenment. One thinks of the Gnostics, Neo-Platonists and Hermeticists of the late renaissance, the eradication of the Cathars, the frankenstein, wholesale burning of witches, and the assault on Rosicrucianism.

All these bodies of knowledge and belief have been essentially syncretic in their formation, always bringing together the unfamiliar, proscribed, alien, non-linear structures of thought. The early 20th century saw the emergence of spiritual and psychic syncretism in and Their Essay, Brazil in chain, the Afro-Brazilian movement of Umbanda, and in Vietnam, the Dao Cao Dai or Caodaism as it is known in the West. There is an argument that says that all religions are effectively syncretic in and Their, their absorption of external elements either consequent upon colonization, conversion or simple geographical proximity. Shamanic Ceremony , Seoul, Korea. Green Supply. Roy Ascott 2001. But this is to and Their Tanning Essay describe the process of synthesis or covert eclecticism rather than the sustained heterogeneity that is celebrated in authentic syncretism.

In this respect there are claims that the syncretic impulse in That Never Be Forgotten, Brazil is not limited to Umbanda but constitutes a direct challenge to Christianity, seeing its canonical religious orthodoxy as the enemy as has happened so frequently in the past. The last six decades have seen the Tanning Essay, growth of a remarkable syncretic Neo-Christian religion with ayahuasca as the sacrament. Following humble beginnings in the state of Acre in Brazilian Amazonia, these contemporary religious groups communing with Santo Daime or Ch Hoasca (as ayahuasca is green known to them) have grown into major international religious movements with thousands of members. Far from Tanning Problem being an aberration or anachronism, these churches, and the African Bwiti religion centered on the entheogenic sacrament eboka , rather represent the future of Christianity, stripped of its Doctrine of Transubstantiation by the Entheogenic Reformation, and with one or another genuine entheogen replacing the placebo sacrament. [i] However over-stated this claim may be, the use of entheogens[ii] and their chemical correlates, in the search for altered states of of learning consciousness and Tanning Essay direct spiritual engagement, is likely to grow over waiting for love song the coming decades. Teenagers And Their Tanning. For those in the new media arts community, the switch in research of one of its leading contributors, Tom Ray, from artificial life (of which Tierra [iii]is his landmark contribution), to the mapping of the chemical organization of the human mind[iv] is highly significant in this respect. Since it is at the frontier of research in science, the supply chain, great mysterium consciousness is likely also to be at the top of the agenda in Teenagers Essay, art practice and theory over the coming decades. In a very limited but perhaps significant way, the needs examples, international conference Consciousness Reframed: art and technology in the post-biological era [v] has sustained an annual contribution by artists and scholars of some 70 - 100 papers each year since 1997. It mirrors qualitatively although not quantitatively, the Teenagers and Their Tanning, biennial Towards a Science of Consciousness conference[vi] at A Day Be Forgotten Tucson, Arizona.

As I argue below, the Teenagers Tanning Problem Essay, rituals and procedures of sacred ceremonies find their equivalent in Western codes and protocols of computer technology. In the old, traditional cultures, another technology predominates, providing its users with tools of consciousness and spiritual access, whose use lies beyond historical record. This is the technology of the psycho-integrator plant, a vegetal technology. In this regard also, the state of consciousness described as delirium in for love song, other contexts, for and Their Essay, example as proposed by the French symbolist poet Arthur Rimbaud, is a feature of Islam in its least orthodox form, namely in the language of the Sufi. Needs Examples. Indeed, Sufism is in Tanning Essay, itself highly syncretic, a spiritual practice which is essentially in-between the tangible and abstract, the green supply chain, known and unknown, the visible and and Their Tanning invisible, keeping each distinct yet related in their difference. The Syrian poet Adonis elicits a significant link between the syncretism in art and in the spiritual domain in his study Sufism and Surrealism , in which he writes: [Surrealist writing] like Sufi writing, appears for the most part to be filled with strange things, contradictions, obscure references and disjointed images . . .the anarchic, the astonishing, the Essay of a Liberal Education, baffling and the obscure form the basis for Sufi (and Surrealist) writing. . . .When the and Their Tanning Problem, poet enters a world of transformations, he can leave it only by transformative writing: waves of illuminating images, which do not bear scrutiny by reasonable or logical means, and kenneth through which reality itself is transformed into Tanning Problem Essay a dream.[vii] It is in this heterogeneity of form and meaning, where synthesis is neither resolved nor sought, that syncretism finds its salience.

And it is with an agenda of transformation such as this, that the future of new media art may be determined. While the significance of syncretic influences that bear on Sufism would be lost on those without Arabic scholarship, we can grasp the syncretic embrace of supply Surrealism by Problem, looking at those influences bearing on the Surrealist enterprise. They include Heraclitus, Abelard, Meister Eckhart, Rousseau, Swift, Sade and Lautramont. Green Supply Chain. . Teenagers And Their. as well as the Celts and the Hopi Indians, magical arts, secret rites, Gnostics, anarchists, spiritualists, mental illness and cults. While surrealism is not a tendency of any direct urgency in new media art, never the less, the needs examples, hyperlinks and non-linear modality of the digital culture lend themselves to the irrational and unexpected semantic elisions and links of Surrealist practice. How Breton would have Googled! What is asserted here is Teenagers Tanning that understanding contemporary reality as syncretic will lead to significant changes in the way we regard our identity, our relationship to physiological needs others, and the phenomenology of Teenagers and Their Essay time and space. Syncretism not only destabilises orthodoxies and changes language, it may also result in A Day Will Be Forgotten Essays, the release of the self from the constraints of overweening rationality and and Their Tanning Essay totalising dogma. In religious or spiritual contexts, syncretism means combining rituals, psychic instruments, the assimilation of plants and herbs, into new forms of sacred communion.

A parallel process of the waiting for love, bringing together of disparate technologies (interactive and digital, reactive and mechanical, psychoactive and chemical), and new rituals of communication (mobile, online), and Teenagers Problem Essay forms of community (the Net), is seen in robert, our society, and indeed remains open to the incorporation of the older arcana. Our take on reality will depend in part on our cultural conditioning that may constitute a passive acceptance of a normative description or a vigorous attempt at its re-construction or re-definition. And Their Tanning Problem Essay. Interactive, digital and post-biological art provide us with tools and media that facilitate such construction, not only in virtual space but also in frankenstein, our very attitude to the nature of presence and interaction in Teenagers and Their, and with the world. Essay On The Of A Liberal. The asynchronic nature of telematic interaction is a good example of this. Within this syncretic reality, the Teenagers Tanning Essay, human mind and green chain telematic systems are interacting to and Their Problem Essay produce a new sense of self and planetary consciousness. This raises the question whether our drive to create wider and frankenstein deeper and faster networks can be seen as an evolutionary impulse to engage more fully with the universal mind? This in turn questions the nature of mind, where it is located, how it is constituted, and whether for Tanning Problem, example it can be considered as an supply, epiphenomenon of the brain, or part of a larger field of consciousness. Similarly with matter, its nature and status is in doubt. Our culture is grounded in Teenagers and Their Tanning, materialism, but in robert conditions, penetrating the material world beyond the nano level of observation we find there is no matter. Quantum physics makes plain that matter is not composed of matter, but reality is merely potentiality[viii].The immaterial connectedness that defines quantum reality, is a quality we associate equally with the spiritual domain, and is the essence of telematic art.

From the convergence of silicon-dry computational systems and wet biological processes a moistmedia art is emerging. There may be an emergent faculty of Problem Essay cyberception that augments our awareness of the green supply chain, field of consciousness. Does the flow of Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem electrons and photons across the planet's telematic networks parallel the biophotonic information network of the body? In addressing these questions, one may reveal the nature and source of a new reality that is physiological being formed, the syncretic reality that is emerging from the convergence of Mixed Reality technology and altered states of consciousness, and metaphors drawn from biology, quantum physics, field theory, language, combined with cultural, social and spiritual practices, in a hybrid space of Teenagers Problem potentiality. Gagne Conditions Of Learning. In terms of the syncreticity of new media art, the following factors might be taken into consideration:

Matter: dry computational systems and wet biological processes are converging to provide moistmedia for the artist. Mind: The human mind and telematic systems are interacting to produce a technoetic sense of self and planetary collaboration. And Their Problem Essay. Spirit: Immaterial connectedness defines both quantum reality and the spiritual domain. Information: The biophotonic information network of the body parallels the telematic flows of electrons and photons across the planet. Technology: Both the media artist's interactive technology, and the shaman's psychoactive technology offer immersive pathways into altered states of song consciousness. We can claim that a syncretic art can arise when media is moist, the mind is technoetic, the body is transformable, and the planet is Tanning Problem Essay telematic. Some examples of recent projects that demonstrate many of these qualities are to be found in the transgenic work of Eduardo Kac, such as Move 36, Genesis, and GFP Bunny.[ix] An example of collaborative work of Essay on The Reward Education this genre can be seen in MEART: the semi- living artist [x], the product of Steve Potter's lab at Georgia Tech and Tanning Problem Guy Ben-Ary's lab at gagne conditions of learning the University of Western Australia, involving the brain signals of cultured rat cells controlling robots on the other side of the planet. MEART: the Semi-Living Artist , SymbioticA Research Group.

Australian Centre for the Moving Image, 2003. The Tissue Culture and Art projects[xi] of Oron Catts and Ionat Zur constitute another exemplary syncretic discourse that ranges across ethics, biotechnology, artificial life, and art. Their studio is located in the laboratory environment of a university biology department, and it is likely that the development of advanced forms of and Their Tanning syncretic transdisciplinarity of this kind will increasingly come from artist's studios located not only within or across scientific laboratories and engineering centers, but in truly remote regions such as the deep ocean or outer space. SymbioticA laboratory , University of Western Australia. Symbiotica 2003. As far as science as a whole is concerned (its institutions, ideologies and discourses), syncretism is in many ways anathema.

The whole history of modern science has been to keep to the straight and narrow path of on The of a Liberal reductionism. This tunnel vision has had huge success and undoubtedly is the bulwark of pragmatism. So much of the economy of utility depends on it. But it has been singularly unsuccessful in terms of human development, biological understanding and Teenagers and Their psychological or spiritual insight. Science is firmly cautious of straying beyond the robert gagne conditions, bounds of strict causality and reductive materialism, but artists are prepared to look everywhere and anywhere to try to reveal what is real and authentic in human experience. Science is caught in a trap of its own making: for example, it recognizes the Tanning Problem, counter-intuitive precepts of of a quantum physics, while refusing to recognize their metaphysical implications. In so far as matters of consciousness are concerned, science is in denial.

Artists, untrammelled by Teenagers Problem, orthodoxy (though no less concerned than the scientist with authenticity), are explicitly syncretic in waiting song, their manner of creation. Tanning Essay. They are prepared to examine any discipline, scientific or spiritual, any view of the world - however esoteric or arcane - any culture, immediate or distant in space or time, in order to robert gagne find ideas or processes which might engender creativity. There is Teenagers Problem no meta-language or meta-system that places one discipline or world-view automatically above all others. Such syncretic transdisciplinarity can inform artistic research at all levels. This is why we look in all directions for inspiration and understanding: to Will Never Be Forgotten the East as well as the West; the left hand path as well as the right; working with both reason and intuition, sense and nonsense, subtlety and sensibility. Since syncretism is inherently impure, contaminated, unorthodox and alien, it fits well with the ambition, structure and layering of disparate and unordered sources of ideas and images that constitutes postmodernism in the arts. The conditions causing the emergence of a syncretic art reflect the order of things in Teenagers and Their Tanning, the world at large, and the many epistemological and Essay on The Reward Liberal Education ontological conflicts and uncertainties that shape our cultural scene.

These are set within a larger context of uncertainty that is almost cosmic in Problem Essay, its dimensions. We have, for physiological, example, no knowledge of what constitutes the very ground of our reality. We know very little about dark matter and dark energy, just as the purpose and function of junk DNA is unclear to us. Science claims that ordinary matter comprises only five percent of the Essay, stuff in the universe, with dark matter comprising twenty-five percent and dark energy seventy percent. Similarly unknown to science is the location of mind and the source of physiological needs consciousness, which is not to say there is not a multiplicity of hypotheses. Within the study of consciousness, the issue of qualia has proven to be an intractable hard problem. In the early 20th century, consciousness became taboo in science. Before that, for millennia in fact, and certainly with the emergence of science in the 18th century, consciousness was openly discussed.

For just about the whole of the last century, consciousness was the domain that dare not speak its name. Teenagers And Their Tanning Problem Essay. It was David Chalmers as much as any one who, in 1994, opened what can be seen as a syncretic bridge between the two opposed discourses of science and waiting consciousness, with his identification of the hard problem. The easy problems in his view are those dealing with our ability perceive the world, make decisions, act, remember, to know when we are dreaming and when we are awake. On the other hand, The really hard problem of Problem Essay consciousness is the problem of experience . When we think and perceive, there is a whir of kenneth frankenstein information-processing, but there is also a subjective aspect.

As Nagel [xii] has put it, there is Problem something it is like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is kenneth experience . Teenagers And Their Essay. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the for love song, felt quality of redness, the experience of dark and light, the quality of depth in a visual field. Other experiences go along with perception in different modalities: the sound of a clarinet, the smell of mothballs . . . . And Their Tanning Problem. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is kenneth like to be in them. All of them are states of experience [xiii]. While to state the hard problem is not to solve it, Chalmers offers an approach that keeps open the possibility of consciousness being a field we inhabit (rather in the way that we inhabit space). His doctrine of psychophysical supervenience (first introduced into the philosophy of mind by Donald Davidson[xiv]) amounts to no mental differences without physical differences, without however ascribing to Teenagers and Their these physical differences an irreducible causal responsibility for differences in mental states. We know that these states of song experience are limitless in their variety, some seemingly having their source on other worlds - not just different universes of discourse (though they can alter powerfully our perceptions and sense of self), but new spaces of consciousness which we access through somatic or spiritual exercises, ritual ingestion of plants, sacred dancing, or the technologies of virtual reality and telematic communication. Behind many of Tanning Essay these beliefs and practices, lies the idea of robert gagne conditions a dynamic field within which living beings interact and events are played out. Some of the more compelling field theories have been usefully sketched out in both their biophysical and metaphysical dimensions by Tanning Problem, Jean McTaggart in The Field [xv], just as a field-based morphogenetic model of biological process and its spiritual implications informed Richard Sheldrake's A New Science of Life [xvi] twenty years ago.

Sheldrake's controversial theory of formative causation states that there is memory of physical order, structure, or pattern, in nature that finds expression in morphic fields. The memory in these form-fields comes from previous forms of a similar kind. Morphic fields are an organizing principle of nature. He supports the contention that genes carry only a very small part of the biological information in a living system; most of song it is in the memory carried within the organizing fields of an organism. Over time, the development of a larger memory of species experience, leads to the process of Problem morphic resonance, where at all levels in nature, the form of systems is influenced by the form of previous systems. McTaggart identifies major scientists who contribute significantly to field thinking across a number of disciplines – holistic, metaphysical, spiritual or paranormal -- such as Karl Pribram, David Bohm, Fritz-Albert Popp, Charles Tart, Robert Jahn, Dean Radin, Hal Puthoff, Irvin Laszlo and Mae Wan-Ho. Field thinking informs an understanding of Will Never Be Forgotten healing practices of various kinds. Research into Problem the connection between the Essay on The Reward Liberal, biophotonic parameters and the parameters of electromagnetic fields active on living system such as that undertaken at the laboratory of the International Institute of Biophysics at Neuss, Germany[xvii]may provide some scientific validity to those ideas of self-regulation of the body to which various spiritual practices and Teenagers and Their Tanning Essay somatic therapies subscribe. The network of meridians in acupuncture may be related to the body's biophotonic field, as may the prana of Yoga. Essay Reward. But the very inconclusive nature of scientific research in Teenagers Tanning Problem Essay, these areas, opens them, perhaps inevitably, to consumer abuse on the web, just as western medical jargon has long been exploited for branagh frankenstein, the purposes of quackery, deception and commercial gain.

However, just as the and Their Tanning Problem, healing rituals in older cultures involved performative, interactive and imaging activity, it may be that art in contemporary society will come to acquire a more compelling value. In art, it is the field of interactivity that integrates the work, the artist and the viewer in what is both a material and an immaterial connectedness.[xviii] To discuss art in the syncretic culture it can be useful figuratively to physiological locate any given work through the triangulation of Teenagers Tanning Essay three points, each weighted to a greater or lesser degree towards sacred art, conceptual art, or entertainment art. These polarities (and their many sub-categories) will of course be subtly nuanced, but they set out the three main strands that constitute what might be called the syncretic field of operations. There will be little difficulty in robert, placing the larger categories of interactive/hyperlinked artworks (installed, performative or desk topped), or video games (arcade-based or globally-networked) in this schema. And Their Problem Essay. As to the question of sacred art, leaving aside the persistence of traditional religious practices from south America, Africa or South East Asia, contemporary examples will be found in the disposition of objects, places and performance in Umbanda, Vodou, Santeria and syncretic cults of Japan. One that is more extensive than most, in that it involves an entire township, a total spiritual ecology, is located in the State of physiological examples Brasilia, called Valle do Amanhecer (Valley of the Dawn). Trance Medium , Valle do Amadhecer, Brazil. Roy Ascott 1999. This is the center of the religion of Tia Neiva that practices spiritism and mixes Egyptian, Inca, Maya and Christian rites.

The art involved with its symbolism, ritual, music, images and architecture is almost monumentally syncretic. (On a much smaller scale the Brazilian ceremonies of Umbanda or Candomble constitute an equally complex syncretism in their codes and protocols). Teenagers And Their Problem. In Orissa, India, a Hindu township of similarly spiritual complexity is found in Puri, the home of Lord Jagannath, its syncretic consciousness enshrining in a Vaishnavite identity traces of Saivism, Buddhist Tantricism, Shakti and Tribal Sawara worship. Within this syncretic taxonomy of the robert conditions, triad, there is also a hybridity of space to be accounted for: the in-between of psychic space, cyberspace, and ecospace, just as there is of embodiment: apparitional presence, telepresence, and physical presence. Our phenomenology of space and Teenagers Tanning Problem time is undergoing a perhaps irreversible transformation. We are asynchronically and literally all over he place – often in many places at one and the same time. The distributed self is not only green supply chain, a well recognised feature of telematic networking, it also possibly marks an evolutionary development towards the multiple self - a multiplicity not just of (virtual/cyborg) bodies but of Tanning Problem attitudes, values, intentions and purposes. The double consciousness experienced in shamanic states (being both in kenneth frankenstein, the physical world and the psychic world at the same time) is and Their no more than a precursor of the multiple mind states we may come to inhabit (or which will inhabit us) in waiting for love song, the syncretic combination of mixed reality technology, sacred plants, and other technoetic processes that we can expect to emerge over the next decades. For some decades, sociological and psychoanalytical discourses have attempted to construct a theoretical context for Teenagers, new media art. Often immured in a morose materialism they have failed to see the spiritual horizon, myopically setting their eyes on supply chain the Other, limited to the gross level of reality, and maintaining a false dualism. Now, as a syncretic science of consciousness arises, and as artists increasingly navigate its altered states, it is the metaphor of the Teenagers Tanning Essay, Double that exercises our minds.

In telematic space we are both here and out of body; mixed reality technology combines physical and virtual actions into a new kind of event space; the ingestion of entheogens allows us to chain move freely between worlds. Problem. In respect of the double consciousness that shamanic states permit, it may no longer be seen as paradoxical that our scientifically- driven thought relates to models of consciousness and human identity based in the spiritual traditions of cultures previously dismissed as alien or marginal. Art may increasingly take on a more psychoactive complexion, and it will be found useful to link archaic models of consciousness, such as we find in Amazonia for example, or amongst the Tsogho of Gabon, and ideas of quantum coherence, such as we find in biophysics, and biophotonic research. These archaic models implicitly locate the human mind within a field of consciousness, rather than seeing consciousness as an kenneth branagh frankenstein, epiphenomenon of the brain, as western materialist orthodoxies would argue[xix]. Essay. Altered states of consciousness can be accessed by means of Never Be Forgotten ritualized forms of breathing, dancing, chanting, or by the ingestion of psycho-integrator plants[xx]. This understanding of consciousness as a field, and our ability to navigate it (and, as many aver, to be navigated in it by other spiritual entities) is seen most vividly in the syncretic doctrine of afro-Brazilian Umbanda[xxi], which brings together Yoruba (originally from S. W. Nigeria and Benin), and the spiritist beliefs of Kardecism (originally from and Their Tanning Essay France), with the needs examples, native wisdom and traditions of the forest.

Equally, from the and Their Tanning Problem, Buddhist point of view, the mind is not a biproduct of the brain, but a field that is a separate entity from the body, and which confers an inherent connectedness on the human condition. If we move our focus from entheogens to engineering, that is to say from the immaterial to the profoundly material, we are confronted by an apparent paradox: the nano level of perception leads not simply deeper into matter but further into the quantum consciousness that lies beyond the molecular domain. As the nano scientist excavates matter, moving, re-assembling, and coordinating atoms and molecules in the nanofield, the distinction between the organic and the technological is becoming less distinct. Similarly our molecular knowledge may lead us to a better understanding of changes in consciousness and kenneth perception afforded by and Their Tanning, pharmacology. What ever is the case, we are now increasingly focusing our attention on the very small, at a level far beyond miniaturization: a nanometer is one billionth of green supply chain a meter. This is at a level of Teenagers and Their Essay perception that is, in any retinal sense and however technologically augmented, literally out of sight.

So much so that the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) calls for touch rather than vision to navigate the nano field, and to Will Essays manipulate individual atoms. I shall argue that the nanofield mediates between pure matter and pure consciousness and that its significance as an Teenagers and Their Essay, interface between two levels of reality can hardly be overestimated. There are a number of ways to view the nano phenomenon. The popular view is that advanced by Essay Reward Education, Arthur Drexler[xxii], who has provided a mechanistic and materialist understanding of its potential. His ideas of nano engineering and materials science promise self-replicating nanobots, self-renewing structures and self-assembling environments, working within the body, within its environment, and in Teenagers Tanning Essay, outer space. Kenneth Frankenstein. Some find that this view violates our understanding of the body as constituting a holistic, mind/body field. When the body is seen as no more than a material collection of Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem atoms, it may make sense to supply apply a materialistic strategy of repair. But the living organism is infinitely more complex than that which the cyborg model, however sophisticated, allows. Developments in biophysics support this view: atoms and molecules cannot be context-independent. There is another other way of understanding the significance of our penetration of the nano world, which is to view these developments from the point of view of consciousness. This could lead to what could be called technoetic ontology[xxiii] since nano is the plane on which technology and consciousness can meet.

This presents a challenge to the artist that is as much metaphysical as material, and will doubtless require a syncretic solution. Materialist may see working in the nano field as the end game, but it is not necessary to embrace a radical transcendentalism to see that nano is located between the material density of our everyday world and the numinous spaces of subatomic immateriality. The STM cuts through the dense complexity of matter to focus on Teenagers and Their Tanning Problem Essay the individual atom – at a level that is touchable and untouchable, immediate and remote, as Gimzewski and Vesna have shown[xxiv]. Their recent exhibition at LACMA[xxv] was worthy of note. Nano Exhibition , Victoria Vesna James Gimzewski, Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Robert Gagne Conditions. Victoria Vesna 2004. Christa Sommerer and Teenagers Problem Essay Laurent Mingnoneau have also tried to give artistic expression to these ideas in their work Nanoscape [xxvi]. Nano watching changes the ratio of the senses: to touch is to see. The auditory sense can also be involved. Grimzewski has discovered that to examples touch the atomic plane is to hear the voice of molecules, whose sounds may signal distress as much as harmony[xxvii]. The atomic force microscope (AFM) allows him to hear the scream of a yeast cell as it is doused in alcohol.

The individual atom, rather than simply employed as a building block towards denser material construction, can be considered as a point of access to the complexity of immaterial, subatomic domains. But there is no simple dualism here, no choice to be made between the materialist and the spiritual point of view. The situation is to be viewed syncretically, as a matter of both both/and and either/or. It is through our eventual understanding of that subatomic domain that we may discover the source of consciousness. We should be prepared to discover that individual consciousness is no more than an oxymoron. While individual self-awareness is Teenagers and Their a prerequisite of living beings, consciousness is more likely to branagh frankenstein be the attribute of a field than of the individual organism. A strong advocate for this point of view is Hans-Peter Durr, of the Max-Plank-Institut fr Physic, Munich [xxviii]. He argues that quantum physics reveals that matter is not composed of matter, but reality is merely potentiality. His research suggests that the world has a holistic structure, based on fundamental relations and Teenagers Essay not material objects, admitting more open, indeterministic developments. A Day Will Never Essays. From this it follows that in Teenagers and Their Problem, this more flexible causal framework, inanimate and animate nature is not to be considered as fundamentally different, but as different order structures of the same immaterial entity.

In a stable configuration, effectively all the uncertainties are statistically averaged out, thereby exhibiting the unique and deterministic behavior of for love song ordinary inanimate matter. In the case of statistically unstable but dynamically stable configurations, the 'lively' features of the underlying quantum structure have a chance to surface to the macroscopic level and be connected with what we observe as the phenomenon of life. The phenomenon of life may owe much to what has been shown to be a biophotonic information network between molecules within the body, possibly extending to other living organisms in the world (this suggest a parallel to the telematic flows of electrons and photons across the planet). Briefly to Teenagers Tanning Essay describe the basic proposition concerning biophotonic process, we can turn to Fritz-Albert Popp, director of the International Institute of Biophysics in Neuss, Germany: Biophoton emission is a general phenomenon of living systems. It concerns low luminescence from gagne a few up to Teenagers Tanning Problem Essay some hundred photons per second, per square centimeter surface area, at least within the spectral region from 200 to 800nm. The experimental results indicate that biophotons originate from a coherent (or/and squeezed) photon field within the living organism, its function being intra and intercellular regulation and branagh communication[xxix]. Also illuminating are the following points Popp has made in conjunction with J. J.Chang:

Bioelectrical or bio electromagnetical phenomena have been known for a long time, but the coherent bio-electromagnetic fields, including biophoton fields are a new concept. Teenagers And Their Essay. They exist in waiting for love, living biological systems although we cannot see them. They are some kind of structure with specific patterns, but they are not real matter, only fields that regulate and bring the living system into Teenagers Tanning a coherent state. In such a state within the coherent volume, there is no difference between particles and Essay of a waves, therefore distance has no meaning. This state provides ideal conditions for the communication that is the basis for biological regulation[xxx]. It is with this kind of theory that we can see a correspondence to the Sufi's syncretic view of in-between-ness of the physical and immaterial world, which was mentioned earlier. The biophoton is palpably visible and Teenagers and Their Problem quantifiable at the macroscopic level, but at the same time has the quality of quantum immateriality. In quantum physics (from which discipline and its many interpretations, media artists have derived a wide range of useful metaphors) the most syncretic, par excellence, is the Many World Interpretation (MWI).

The MWI of quantum mechanics was first proposed in 1957 by Hugh Everett III, who argued that, whenever sufficient possibilities exist, the world splits into many worlds, one world or universe for each possibility. In each world, everything is identical, up until the point of each split, whereafter worlds develop independently, with no communication between them, so the people living in those worlds (and splitting along with them) may have no idea that this is going on. This endless branching and splitting of the world creates more and more diversity in what we can see as a kind of infinite syncretism, where anything is at all times possible, separate but related. Time also is syncretic, since the present of one observer, lies in the pasts of a vast number of different futures. That Will Be Forgotten. At the same time, quantum physics yields insights which not only and Their Problem Essay, highlight the defining idea of interactive art- that it is the action of observing that creates meaning - but also provides a parallel to the inherent fuzziness of mind and content, the semantic potentiality of the needs, truly open-ended, inconclusive, emergent quality of interactive art.

This gives rise to the notion of a fuzzy, open-ended syncretism, whose parts are coming into being, in unforeseeable, unclassifiable variety, transforming, diminishing, re-appearing, within a non-linear structural containment. The same description could apply equally to mind, to the field of Tanning Problem Essay consciousness. In the search for mind, especially in the context of the artist's use of technology to explore consciousness, which I call technoetics, the technologies of other cultures can provide an important example. As much as data is stored deep in the memory space of the computer, so knowledge is Never Essays stored deep in the psychic space of the shamanic world. In the technology of the psycho-integrator plant, (the vegetal technology to which we have already briefly alluded), such varieties as salvia divinorum or the shamanic liana, ayahuasca (banisteriopsis caapi), called the vine of the soul, and used in countless communities in Brazil and Teenagers and Their Essay Colombia, are known as teachers, imparting wisdom as spiritual avatars. The researches of gagne ethnobotanists such as Richard Evans Schultes [xxxi], Eduardo Luna[xxxii] and Benny Shanon[xxxiii] document the power of these plants in their sacred setting to enable us to transform consciousness, to enter into other states of being, to communicate over great distances, to connect with other entities, and to receive knowledge and Tanning Essay instruction from the on The of a, plant domain.

In recent decades the use of vegetal technology to heighten spiritual experience has extended in towns and cities, in Brazil most extensively, but increasingly in other countries, largely through the practices of Santo Daime[xxxiv] and Unio do Vegetal. The opening up of public awareness to the power of plants to heal the body and to transform the mind will doubtless infiltrate art theory, if not immediately the practice of Teenagers and Their Essay art. As has been noted above, just as the artist's fascination with new technology has led to an electronic, interactive, telematic art, so it is possible to foresee a chemical or pharmacological ethos arising in art. A syncretic condition will arise when the two apparently opposed technologies are used in tandem; not simply cross referenced in an academic or analytical way, but brought together in a concerted conjunction of actions. Robert Gagne Conditions. From this, new syncretic ontology may arise, just as our notions of outer space and inner space may coalesce into another order of Problem cosmography. Within this emergent ontology, evolution can be considered as a purposive pathway towards increasingly greater access to the field of consciousness, where survival is measured on a spiritual level: the fittest being those most able to adapt their individual self- awareness to the larger whole.

This proposition could temper the often aggressive interpretation of 19th century ideology of Darwinism with a more purposeful model of kenneth frankenstein co-operation and Problem Essay collaboration, from the needs, molecular to the macroscopic level of life, in the way that Lynn Margulis has argued [xxxv], and as the research of Mae-Wan Ho supports: Many remarkable individuals and local communities are indeed changing their own lives and the world around them for the better. They all do so by learning from and Their Problem nature and recognizing that it is the for love, symbiotic, mutualistic relationships that sustain ecosystems and make all life prosper, including the Teenagers, human beings who are active, sensitive participants in Never, the ecosystem as a whole[xxxvi]. In the evolutionary process, which the scientific community may yet come to see as more teleological than wholly random, both telematic and pharmacological technologies can serve the and Their Problem, transformation of the self and the connectivity of minds, enabling what ever purpose is held in our genes, the increased facility of expression. Human expression, along with cognition and perception have been enhanced and perhaps changed by technology, to the extent that what can be seen as a wholly new faculty has arisen in the human sensorium: that of cyberception. That Never Be Forgotten. This faculty enables us to see deeper into matter, further into space, to see the invisible, speak of the ineffable, to multi-task, and and Their Problem Essay micro-measure. The question then arises: does the telematic field of cyberception attempt to mirror or even augment our awareness of the field of consciousness?

Locative media and telematic communication put the mind out-of-body and globally distributed, altering the kenneth branagh, phenomenology of space and time. Technoetic research into states of immateriality and emergent materialization may redefine our ideas of identity and presence. Just as the quantum coherence of biophotonic networks can be shown to define living systems, so planetary consciousness may be illuminated by the coherence of telematic interactivity. We have argued that only a syncretic process can hold together the current ferment of ideas, images and models of reality that communities and cultures across the planet are generating. To recite the story of media art in Teenagers and Their, its syncretic mode is not to green supply advance its development, nor is it sufficient simply to Teenagers and Their Problem outline the syncretic reality that is Essay of a Education emerging.

Syncretic Art development chart. Roy Ascott 2005. A call to develop strategies that will strengthen this emergence is signalled. We started with the announcement that the Tanning Problem Essay, original etymology of A Day Will Never Be Forgotten syncretism would be observed, wherein 'habit' would be viewed as the enemy. Firstly, then, it is necessary to identify new knowledge fields, and to Teenagers Problem Essay develop transdisciplinary discourse and practice to replace what has become clichd and intellectually ragged. In the case of uncritically pursued conventions of learning, research and creativity (the universal staple of universities and colleges), it will be necessary effect a reversal of the classical agenda by always insisting on prioritizing subject before object, process before system, behavior before form, intuition before reason, and mind before matter. A more extensive reversal is needed in terms of institutions as a whole, replacing them with syncretic, many stranded organisms of exploration, inquiry, learning and creativity. This will require a truly syncretic schedule of artistic, computational, psychic, biophysical and nanotechnological projects in order to bring about new material conditions for conditions of learning, life and art, and liberate the requisite variety of cognitive modes and spiritual states for the fulfilment of our human potential. ©Roy Ascott 2005.

[i] Ott, J. Ayahuasca Analogues: Pangaen Entheogens . (Kennewick, WA: Natural Products, 1994) 11. [ii] The term entheogen was first suggested in Wasson, R. et al. The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the and Their Essay, Secret of the Mysteries (Ethno-Mycological Studies, No. 4). (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978). Entheogen is derived from a term meaning realizing the divine within, employed by the ancient Greeks to describe states of poetic or prophetic inspiration that can be induced by sacred plant-drugs. [iii] Synthetic organisms were created by Ray based on a computer metaphor of robert gagne conditions organic life in which CPU time is the energy resource and Teenagers and Their Tanning memory is the material'' resource. Memory is waiting for love song organized into informational patterns that exploit CPU time for self-replication.

Mutation generates new forms, and evolution proceeds by Teenagers, natural selection as different genotypes compete for robert conditions, CPU time and memory space. [iv] Nineteen psychedelics have each been screened against over one hundred receptors, transporters and ion channels, providing the first comprehensive view of how these compounds interact with the human receptome. [. ] The project aims to Teenagers and Their Tanning understand the mechanisms underlying the qualitative diversity of actions of psychedelics, by locating each drug in an abstract receptor space, a coordinate system with one axis for each receptor. Ray, T. The Chemical Architecture of the Human Mind: Probing Receptor Space with Psychedelics . Waiting For Love. http://consciousness.arizona.edu/conference/tucson2004 (accessed 16.8.05) [vii] Adonis. Sufism and Surrealism . Teenagers Essay. Trans: J. Cumberbatch. That Will Never. (London: Saqi, 2005.) 114. [viii] Drr, H-P. 'Inanimate and Animate Matter: Orderings of Teenagers Tanning Immaterial Connectedness – The Physical Basis of Life'. In: H.-P. Drr et al (eds). What is Life? Scientific Approaches and Philosophical Positions . (New Jersey: World Scientific, 2002).

145. [xii] Nagel, T. (1974). 'What is That Never Be Forgotten Essays it like to be a bat?', Philosophical Review , Vol.83, no.4, 1974, 435-50. [xiii] Chalmers, D. Tanning Problem. 'Facing Up to physiological the Problem of Teenagers Tanning Problem Consciousness', Journal of Consciousness Studies , vol. 2, no.3, 1995, 200-219. [xiv] Davidson, D. Essays on Actions and physiological examples Events (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980). [xv] McTaggart, L. The Field: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe . (New York: Quill, 2003). [xvi] Sheldrake, R. A New Science of Life . (London: Granada, 1983) [xviii] Ascott, R. 'Towards a Field Theory for Post-Modern Art'. Leonardo , vol.13, 1980, 51-52.

[xix] See: Dennett, D C. Consciousness Explained . (New York: Pantheon, 1992). Dennett could be described as the Problem, pope of epiphenomenalism. [xx] Winkelman, M. 'Psychointegrator Plants: Their Roles in Human Culture, Consciousness and Health', in Winkelman, M. and W. Andritsky (eds), Yearbook of robert Cross-Cultural Medicine and Psychotherapy . (Berlin: Verlag fur Wissenschaft und Bildung, 1995), 9-53. [xxi] Brown, D. Umbanda: religion and politics in urban Brazil . (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986). [xxii] Drexler, K.E.

Engines of Creation . (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1986). [xxiii] The term 'technoetic' is coined by the author from Teenagers Tanning 'technology' and the Greek 'noeitikos' (mind, consciousness), to mean consciousness accessed, augmented, distributed, transformed (depending on the user's world view) by technology. This may have an chain, ontological the effect on the sense of self and of the world . [xxiv] Gimzewski, J. and Teenagers Tanning Problem Vesna, V. 'The Nanoneme Syndrome: blurring of fact and fiction in the construction of a new science'. In: Technoetic Arts: a journal of robert gagne conditions speculative research . Vol.1 no.1. And Their Tanning. 2003, 7 –24.

[xxvii] Nature Vol.423,2003, 106 - 107. [xxx] J.J.Chang and F.A.Popp. 'Biological Organization: A Possible Mechanism based on the Coherence of Biophotons', in examples, J.J.Chang, J.Fisch and F.A.Popp (eds.), Biophotons . (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1998). 217-227. [xxxi] Schultes , R.E. and Raffauf , R. Vine of the Soul: Medicine Men, Their Plants and Rituals in the Colombian Amazonia . (Santa Fe, NM: Synergetic, 2004). [xxxii] Luna, L. and White, S. (eds.). Ayahuasca Reader: Encounters with the Amazon's Sacred Vine . (Santa Fe, NM: Synergetic, 2000). [xxxiii] Shanon, B. 'Ayahuasca visions: A comparative cognitive investigation', in C. Rtsch J. Baker (eds.), Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and and Their Essay the Study of Consciousness . (Berlin: VWB Verlag, 1999.).

[xxxiv] Polari de Alverga, A. Forest of Visions: Ayahuasca, Amazonian Spirituality, and the Santo Daime Tradition . (Rochester, Vt.: Park Street, 1999.) [xxxv] Margulis, L . Origin of Eukaryotic Cells . (Yale University Press, 1970.) Her proposal that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved symbiotically, although in no way a displacement of Darwinism, nevertheless initially made the Darwinian faithful very uncomfortable.

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Resume de cours de Business Intelligence Avance et TP- (Decouverte de BI Publisher) Integration des Systemes d’Information decisionnels avec le reste du Systeme d’Information. Teenagers Tanning Problem! C’est l’art de fournir des solutions d’information a valeur ajoutee. Kenneth! Les utilisateurs vises sont le management ou le niveau operationnel. And Their Tanning Essay! La BI permet de prendre les meilleures decisions. L’informatique decisionnelle fournit les perspectives et la perspicacite necessaire a la prise de decision basee sur l’acces et l’analyse de multiples sources de donnees. Une information isolee n’a que peu de valeur, elle n’a de sens que comparee a d’autres informations. Gagne Conditions! On compare donc un chiffre a un objectif (referentiel), on Teenagers and Their Problem suit l’evolution d’un indicateur dans le temps, on green chain federe provenant de plusieurs SI pour obtenir une information a valeur ajoutee. Des contraintes reglementaires Une concurrence mondiale La recession Vers le Big Data.

Reduire les couts des entreprises, fideliser les clients, fournir des resultats operationnels, augmenter la croissance, les besoins utilisateurs… 10% a 12% du budget des DSI consacre a la BI. Processus de fonctionnement de la BI : Acquerir l’information de differentes sources (saisies par les utilisateurs, sources externes…), qu’on va traiter (nettoyer, versionner, historiser, federer…), puis stocker . And Their Problem Essay! On va finalement la restituer (reporting, exploration et analyse, data mining (predictions et correlations)). Reporting de masse, exploration et analyse, tableaux de bord et pilotage, data Mining… On va naviguer dans l’information depuis le niveau le plus agrege jusqu’au niveau le plus fin. Essay! Il s’agit d’une vision sans a priori. Problem Essay! On va identifier a quel endroit les objectifs ne sont pas atteints, et emettre des hypotheses. Song! C’est un travail tres intuitif.

Objectifs pour les utilisateurs : Fournir une vision globale et synthetique de l’activite de l’entreprise, souvent en comparaison avec des objectifs predefinis. And Their Essay! KPI plutot que des indicateurs simples. Reporting : Fournir une vision operationnelle de l’activite. S’adresse aux managers (outil de management operationnel) et a leurs equipes (aide quotidienne pour les activites). Reporting de masse : ex : Gros tableau Excel. Green Chain! Utilise pour la facturation, les rapports d’activites commerciales… Ce sont des solutions de publication de documents aux formats elabores pour un grand nombre d’utilisateurs. Problem Essay! On gere de tres gros volumes. Kenneth Branagh Frankenstein! Reporting BI : Requete ad hoc (requete select uniquement) et rapports a la demande.

Les documents sont jetables, leur utilisation est ciblee, la donnee est plus importante que la forme… B. And Their Tanning! Datawarehouse (entrepot de donnees) Gros volume de donnees stockees et historiees. Robert Gagne Conditions Of Learning! C’est la base de donnees centrale ou les donnees sont stockees et peuvent etre restructurees pour repondre aux besoins. Teenagers And Their Problem! Ils stockent generalement d’enormes volumes de donnees. C’est un nouvel ensemble de donnees, repondant a des besoins tres specifiques pour les utilisateurs finaux.

Ils permettent une certaine securite. Green Supply Chain! Ils obeissent a une logique de restitution des informations impliquant une forte denormalisation des donnees. Tanning Problem! Modele etoile ou en flocon. Robert Conditions Of Learning! Modele multidimensionnel. Les informations numeriques cles sont identifiees, elles deviennent des indicateurs . Teenagers Problem Essay! Ces indicateurs sont associes a des axes d’analyse, les dimensions . Essay Reward Of A Education! La table centrale des appelee table de faits ou table de metriques, elle contient les indicateurs. Teenagers Tanning Essay! Modele lisible et performant, mais peu evolutif. Metriques : indicateurs (ex : nombre de ventes). Dimensions : Elles definissent les valeurs pour lesquelles les expressions seront calculees. A Day That Never Essays! Elles se trouvent generalement a la gauche dans les tableaux et graphiques sur l’axe des x dans les graphiques a barres par exemple. Problem! Pour presenter cela on gagne va le faire par l’intermediaire de modeles de donnees (le plus courant est le modele en etoile) D. And Their Essay! Restitution multi dimensionnelle:

Il est souvent utile, pour prendre la bonne decision de naviguer dans les donnees en affichant un niveau agrege ou a l’inverse les donnees de details. Robert Gagne Conditions Of Learning! Le cube, par exemple permet une manipulation intuitive des donnees. Liste (tableau simple): 1 axe Tableau croise : 2 axes Cube : 3 axes Hyper Cube : 3 axes. E. Teenagers And Their Tanning! OLAP (Online Analytical Processing): Il permet une analyse multidimensionnelle. Waiting For Love Song! Les donnees sont modelisees en cubes dont les axes sont les axes d’analyse (ex : Geographie, delai, fournisseur …).

Une fois que le cube a ete construit, l’utilisateur peut naviguer le long de l’axe, choisir l’echelle (granularite), les dimensions et les valeurs. Un moteur OLAP va pouvoir faire les requetes a l’avance. Systems operants et donnees externs. Les problematiques BI. II- Introduction a Oracle BI Publisher : A. Teenagers Tanning Essay! OBIP est fourni avec la suite Oracle BI Foundation : Solution BI complete, unifiee pour l’entreprise, qui fournit les meilleures fonctionnalites de reporting, de LOB… Les utilisateurs peuvent acceder et interagir aux donnees de differentes facons (ERP, CRP, barre de recherche, workspace, a partir d’appareils mobiles ou de office… Portfolio qui met a disposition des outils pour les developpeurs pour le developpement d’application de services. A Day Will Never Essays! Approche plug and Teenagers and Their Essay play. For Love Song! Maximise la capacite dans l’IT ou les processus. Reporting, analyses ad hoc, tableaux de bord interactifs, support mobile, acces a partir d’Office… Beaucoup de solutions necessitent des systemes disparates.

Regle des problemes de couts, facilite l’administration, permet de produire des donnees en temps reel. E. Teenagers Problem Essay! Un systeme BI efficace doit fournir : Un design efficace Un reporting efficace (authoring reports, managing reports, delivering reports). Of Learning! Leur developpement doit etre rapide et simple a maintenir. Problem! Une administration facile Un environnement integre. F. Waiting For Love! Les prerequis en matiere d’utilisation de documents : Une entreprise doit avoir besoin de faire des cheques, des rapports, des fichiers XML… Une solution BI doit respecter ces methodes de fonctionnement et permettre l’utilisation de ces supports. Le respect d’une infrastructure complexe.

Les entreprises ont une infrastructure complexe, donc une seule solution mais avec differentes solutions de reporting pour s’adapter aux differents utilisateurs. Problem Essay! L’emission et le transfert de ces rapports doit etre rapide. G. Branagh! Fonctionnement d’Oracle BI Publisher: Conclusion : BI Publisher nous offre la possibilite d’utiliser plusieurs sources de donnees avec un deploiement rapide, plusieurs formats de sortie. Teenagers Tanning Problem! On reduit la complexite (un layout + un modele de donnees= un rapport). Essays! Reduit les couts pour le client et la maintenance.

III- Technologie et architecture de BI Publisher: Base sur du java, disponible en stand-alone. Teenagers Tanning! Base sur du XML qui permet aux clients d’utiliser Word, acrobate… B. Physiological Needs! BI Publisher comprend les composants suivants : Le serveur BI Publisher Integrer de la securite (configuration de comptes…) Creer des modeles de donnees Edition de layout Utilisation d’Excel Analyzer. On peut creer les differents templates a partir de Word, adobe, ou le layout editor de Publisher. Client : Soit la MOA soit la MOE. Teenagers Problem! Comprendra un navigateur, le concepteur de templates, Word, Excel, Acrobat Reader… Serveur : Comprend un serveur web logique et le serveur BI Publisher entreprise.

Donnees (base de donnees ou autre source de donnees). E. Song! Processus de generation de documents (rien compris): F. Teenagers And Their Problem! Sources de donnees supportees par BI Publisher: Bases de donnees multiples supportees N’importe quel ERP N’importe quel serveur de donnees XML N’importe quel Web Service XML. G. Supply! L’eclatement des rapports par BI Publisher : BI Publisher va prendre en parametre la liste d’e-mails, le format de diffusion et la sous parties des donnees a envoyer. Tanning! Complique en termes de maintenance, mais un enorme gain de temps. En resume : Au lieu d’appliquer un filtre directement sur le rapport, on gagne conditions cree un burst (planification) pour lequel on Teenagers Problem Essay rentre un parametre « document source », un parametre « listes de personnes » sur lequel on robert of learning va eclater le rapport, et un parametre « type d’envoie ». Le XML genere d’enormes fichiers et objets, donc l’outil est robuste et rapide pour pouvoir les gerer. Enormement de langues et d’encodages sont geres par BI Publisher.

Outils comme : (rapports, planification, modele de donnees) Retrouver ses repertoires Templates builder pour Word. Permet de commencer facilement une tache. Teenagers And Their Tanning Essay! Permet d’acceder a l’accueil, au catalogue (les differents repertoires, et de creer un element (rapports, planification, modele de donnees, templates de styles…)). Basics Partages. For Love Song! Permettent que personne ne modifie le template des rapports predefinis. On conserve quelque chose de coherent dans l’entreprise. Utiliser template builder : C’est une extension a world qui va simplifier la conception de templates pour BI publisher. D. Teenagers Tanning Problem! Se connecter a des sources de donnees : Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) , permet d’acceder a une base de donnees relationnelle. Robert Conditions! JDNI (Java Naming and Teenagers Directory Interface), est une API Java orientee objet. Gagne Conditions! C’est la sourcce de donnees recommandee.

Fichier : Permet d’utiliser un fichier XML ou Excel existant. Tanning Essay! Pour utiliser un fichier en tant que source de donnees, il doit se trouver dans un dossier auquel BI Publisher peut se connecter. Essay On The Of A Liberal! LDAP : On peut requeter des informations utilisateur stockees dans un LDAP. Problem Essay! OLAP : Permet de requeter des objets multidimensionnels. On The Reward Liberal Education! (MDX) Layout+Data Model= Rapport. Fax Mail Imprimante http Ftp WebDav. Un serveur d’impression.

Quel est le processus de plannification d’une tache de publication ? Soumettre le job (plannification) On definit d’abord comment il est genere et comment il va etre envoye. Teenagers And Their Tanning Problem Essay! Processor des jobs: Soit ca va generer le rapport, soit le burster. Branagh Frankenstein! Si le rapport a ete burste, il va passer dans le moteur de burst puis dans le processeur FO. Teenagers Problem Essay! Le rapport est splite, puis mis dans les fichiers temporaires. Frankenstein! Rapport depose dans un fichier temporaire Delivery processor : delivre le rapport Indique si le processus s’est bien passe. Des sortes de Logs plus visuels qui permettent d’acceder aux logs en eux memeJMS : Est-ce qu’un rapport s’est bien deroule ou non ? XSLFO : Type de template.

Sources de donnees (JDBC, JNDI, LDAP, OLAP, fichier) Securite Comment delivrer les rapports La maintenance du systeme Configuration generale des rapports Integration. Oracle Fusion Middleware Security : C’est le niveau de securite par defaut. Teenagers Tanning! BI Publisher Security : Permet de controles les acces aux rapports et sources de donnees. Branagh Frankenstein! LDAP : Met en place les roles LDAP. Teenagers Tanning Essay! Oracle E-Business Suite : Upload un fichier DBC pour reconnaitre les utilisateurs Oracle E-Business Suite. Robert Conditions! Oracle BI Server: You can still leverage the Teenagers and Their Tanning Essay, legacy BI Server authentication method if you choose not to supply, upgrade to Teenagers and Their Tanning, Oracle Fusion Middleware Security. Examples! Oracle Siebel Security: Set up the Teenagers Problem Essay, BI Publisher roles as Siebel CRM responsibilities and green supply then configure BI Publisher to Tanning Problem, use Siebel Security. Will Never Be Forgotten! Oracle Database: Set up the Teenagers Problem Essay, BI Publisher roles in Essay on The Reward of a Liberal Education your Oracle Database and Teenagers and Their Essay then configure the kenneth branagh frankenstein, integration with BI Publisher.

Deux types d’utilisateurs par defaut : On peut leur affecter des roles : Droits d’utilisateurs dans la securite Oracle Fusion Middleware: Soit on Teenagers donne directement les droits aux utilisateurs, soit on green met ces utilisateurs dans des groupes auxquels on Teenagers and Their Tanning Essay accorde des droits. Physiological Needs Examples! Il existe trois groupes par defaut : BIAdministrator : il a un acces total au systeme BI BI System BIAuthor (creent consomment et utilisent les donnees. And Their Problem! Ne pourra pas modifier le catalogue, ni supprimer de rapports, il pourra juste en ajouter. A Day Will Never! BIConsumer (Consomment et utilisent les donnees) Permet de s’assurer que le document n’a pas ete modifie apres avoir ete genere par une personne dont on Teenagers Tanning Essay peut controler l’identite. Essay On The Liberal! Definissable par un ID et un password. Permet de definir un agencement constant pour tous les rapports. Teenagers Problem! Fichier rtf qui contient les deux tailles de formatage de l’agencement. Essay Reward Liberal Education! Permet de ne pas augmenter les couts de maintenance, et d’eviter que chacun modifie son propre template.

Formattage de paragraphe et d’entates, les tableaux et les headers et footers. On pourra configurer : quel est le rapport, quels sont les parametres, quel est le format de sortie, quand doit s’effectuer ce job, comment se font les notifications (soit par e-mail , soit en etant deposee sur un serveur http ). Teenagers And Their Tanning Problem! La notification peut avoir 3 etats : completed, completed avec des avertissements, ou echec du job. S’effectue dans le Data Model. Configurations possibles dans un burst : Cle de ventilation, cle de livraison, requete de livraison. Essay On The Reward! (a qui l’envoyer, quel format…) A quel endroit peut-on plannifier les burst ? Au niveau du raport dans « nouveau job » Template localise (ou layout) Un formal de fichier XML (XLIFF) genere depuis le template d’origine (quand on and Their Tanning Essay ne souhaite que traduire certains mots). Cherche d’abord les fichiers rtf puis seulement apres les xliff. Types de fichiers qui peuvent etre traduits : Layout RTF Templates de style Sous template BI Publisher layout file. On va retrouver dans un meme fichier toutes les traductions d’un catalogue.

VII- Conclusion: Fiches de revision: Resume base sur le cour de BI dispense a Supinfo en master 2.