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Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago. Until recently the art of the 1980s has often been regarded as a kind of embarrassmentexcessive, brash, contentious, too theoretical, insufficiently theoretical, overblown, anti-aesthetic, demonstrably politicalas though the decade were just too much. Cracks in this facade have appeared, to be sure. A handful of European museums mounted shows dedicated to surveying the decade. Martin Kippenberger, Richard Prince, and retainer for overbite, Cindy Sherman all received major retrospectives. Perhaps most notable was the 2003 Artforum double issue dedicated to that nettlesome decade; in his opening salvo guest editor Jack Bankowsky went so far as to say that, counter to nottingham the increasingly canonized work of the 1960s and 1970s, the art of the 1980s was an “open wound.” 1. Artforum, March 2003 [cover] This Will Have Been (which covers the period from 1979 to 1992) neither attempts to for overbite tell a properly chronological story of the decade nor cleaves closely to the dominant art historical terms of the day. You will not find, for instance, a section on “appropriation” or “neo-expressionism” in either the exhibition or the catalogue.
Likewise, the case of dr.jekyll historical antinomies between those two formations will not be given pride of place. Rather, definitively retrospective in its gaze, This Will Have Been narrativizes the decade from the position of memory and hindsightwith all of the open wounds, elisions, anachronisms, and blank spots implied therein. Unavoidably, given the staggering loss of retainer for overbite, life experienced as a result of the HIV/AIDS crisis, pain attends the machiavelli politics task. Again and again in organizing this exhibition I realized that I could never approach the retainer for overbite material at hand as if I didn’t know about red kangaroo nottingham AIDS, as if there were an innocent “eighties” before the disease and its attendant political crisis came into full view toward the end of the for overbite decade. If the 1980s is an open wound, then surely AIDS is largely responsible for cask of amontillado, causing it. This Will Have Been also contends that the for overbite eighties feel like an “open wound” because of the transformations brought about by feminism. This might help to explain how in 2007, when the art world’s “year of feminism” rolled around, the flight centre 1980s was a blank spot in the historicization of retainer for overbite, feminist art. Dilation Means That. 2 The early twenty-first-century revival of retainer, feminism in the art world was both the cause and politics, effect of two exhibitions: WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution , which covered the period from for overbite 1965 to 1980, and Global Feminisms , which started with the 1990s. Their mutual omission of the 1980s felt bizarre, an utterly unconscious redaction of history.
Could the prevailing silence regarding the time means that eighties vis-à-vis the recent reinvestigations of feminism also be seen as a symptom or cause of the “wound” that makes this period too difficult to discuss, too fraught to reassess? The second-wave feminism of the for overbite 1970s produced revolutionary changes in both culture at large and dilation means that, the microcosm of the for overbite art world. It was the charge of the 1980s to tobacco tax uk assimilate these changes; to wit, when asked what the most important development of the 1980s was, Lisa Phillips, one of the most prominent curators of the period, responded quickly: “[W]omen finally got a seat at retainer for overbite the table.” 3 In addition to the rise of women artists and arts professionals in the 1980s, the decade witnessed artwork that was deeply preoccupied with mass-media imagery and the role of the nottingham “image world” (the title of an important exhibition organized by Phillips). One result of this interest was a critical engagement with the mass media’s role in for overbite producing and case shmoop, maintaining the patriarchal construction of “woman.” Simultaneously, however, there were serious attempts to curtail, and even reverse, the gains of the women’s movement of the 1970s (e.g., the 1982 defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment and the decade’s long struggle over the sanctity of Roe v. Wade ). 4 During the 1980s, feminism found itself in a squeeze play, attacked from the right by retainer those who wished to stop its advances for social justice and challenged from within its own ranks by an increasingly theoretical and psychoanalytical version of time dilation, feminism more interested in deconstructing the how and for overbite, why of patriarchal forms of power than in gaining access to power within a patriarchal system. Added to this internal schism was the rise of emerging discourses of queer theory, identity politics, and postcolonial studiesall of which worked to destabilize any narrative blind to the compound properties of difference that make up our subjectivities. These new formations pressured existing discourses and practices of feminism to consider class, sexuality, race, and ethnicity in in the ways that ultimately challenged the very category of “woman” as a unitary and retainer, unifying concept.
These discourses argued that gender was not the primary organizing axis of identity, contending instead that one’s subjectivity was an ineluctable mixture of all these competing and commensurate qualities of being. This Will Have Been ’s retrospective gaze is deeply informed by the matrix of AIDS activism and of dr.jekyll and mr.hyde shmoop, the challenges laid at retainer the feet of Anglo-American feminism by writers and theorists more frequently associated with the early to mid-1990s. This Will Have Been argues, however, that these voices and ideas were nascent at that the beginning of the 1980s and, more importantly, they were also being fleshed out in retainer for overbite works of art and in art criticism (which was remarkably robust during this period), just as they were slowly forming in case of dr.jekyll shmoop the minds of writers such as Judith Butler and Homi Bhabha. This exhibition suggests that much of the art of the 1980s was involved in a shared project of expanding our understanding of identity and retainer, subjectivity, exploring the possibility of politics in a mediated public sphere, and offering increasingly nuanced and complicated versions of history and memory. This Will Have Been presumes that works of red kangaroo nottingham, art did not illustrate these ideas, but helped to create the conditions of possibility for both the most advanced theoretical writings of the period and the AIDS activist movement that profoundly shaped the end of the for overbite decade. These are the stakes in the ground, so to speakthe farthest parameters of this exhibition’s overall project. There are others, to be sure, but these two “events”feminism and the AIDS crisisshaped the contours of the 1980s investigated by This Will Have Been . The art of the 1980s is, from a curatorial standpoint, almost impossibly heterogeneous.
For several years, whenever I told people I was at work on a 1980s exhibition, they would invariably ask if artist “X” was in flight the exhibition, and frequently my answer was a polite (and anxious) “no.” Rather than giving in to for overbite the impulse toward inclusivity, This Will Have Been is structured by a partisan premise: more than any other twentieth-century decade, the 1980s enacts most fully the flight centre ramifications of feminism for retainer, art, theory, and politics. Or as Craig Owens would write: “Among the most significant developments of the past decadeit may well turn out to have been the most significanthas been the emergence, in. nearly every area of dilation means that, cultural activity, of a specifically feminist practice.” 5 In the most explicit terms, as women artists, critics, art historians, and for overbite, theorists rose to prominence, gender could no longer be taken as a given or as a neutral area of thought. Implicitly, feminist critique in the eighties often manifested itself through the registration, enactment, and belief in tobacco tax uk the mechanisms and retainer, power of desire. While the confluence of the civil rights movement, the antiVietnam War protests, the student uprisings of 1968, and the feminist movement failed to produce a full-blown political revolution, what could not be eradicated from the culture was an increasingly robust sense of agency and entitlementa belief that individuals had the right to the pursuit of happiness, a pursuit that meant one’s personal desires would no longer be sublimated in the name of the family or the state. To be fully human, to be equal, was to have the power and freedom to enact one’s desires (even if one failed to achieve them). So too historical coincidence places the and mr.hyde shmoop major movements for social justice of the 1960s and 1970s in proximity to the rise of a highly mediated televisual culture. The artists represented in This Will Have Been belong to the first generation to have grown up with a television in the home.
They came of age in for overbite a culture shot through with visual regimes designed to promote desire across a variety of spectra: desire for objects, for cask of amontillado, lifestyles, for fame, for conformity, for anti-conformity. Retainer For Overbite. These two powerful social forcesmovements for social justice and machiavelli politics, the rise of retainer for overbite, televisionconverged and matured in the art of the 1980s. There were hundreds, probably thousands, of artists working during the 1980s, but the ones included in This Will Have Been register and negotiate the machiavelli effects of the above socio-historical phenomena. The culture born of this nexus of desire, shaped by demands for equality on the one hand and the image world of the mass media on retainer for overbite, the other, makes desire both the cause and the effect for dilation means that, much of the art in this exhibition. Sometimes the desire is erotic, for objects or for bodies; sometimes the desire is for fame, for political change, for endings (e.g., of humanism or painting) or for new beginnings (the emergence of post-structuralism or hip-hop). But always coursing through the works chosen for this exhibition is a profound belief in the capacity of art objectsindeed, of culture in retainer for overbite the broadest senseto signify, enact, and enable these multifarious forms of desire.
For many 1980s artists, making art was itself propelled by the desire to participate, in a transformative way, in the culture at large. This shared aspiration may be what prompted curator Ann Goldstein to refer to tobacco tax uk the 1980s as the “last movement,” the last time artists, however seemingly disparate their respective bodies of work may have appeared, nonetheless held in for overbite common a set of hopes and assumptions about the role of art in centre the public sphere. 6. Because desire is such an important concept for the 1980s, it is worth an excursus into psychoanalysisthe methodology that has taught us the most about desire’s workings. The authors of the dictionary The Language of Psychoanalysis take pains to distinguish desire from both “need” and “demand.” Need is directed toward and for overbite, satisfied by of amontillado specific objects, whereas “demands are formulated and addressed to others,” and, while they can be aimed at an object, are “essentially a demand for retainer, love.” Desire “appears in the rift that separates need and demand.” 7 It is by nature about lack: one desires what one does not have.
Desire forms in “relation to phantasy,” the realm of the imagination and the unconscious, and it is in machiavelli these areas that desire most frequently erupts, demanding to be recognized. As such, desire perpetually finds itself in dialogue and tension with reality. For Sigmund Freud, phantasy is not defined as “an object that the subject imagines and aims at,” but rather “a sequence in which the subject has his [ sic ] own part to play and in which permutations of rules and attributions are possible.” 8 It is the very porousness of phantasy, its openness to multiple subject positions simultaneously, that makes it desire’s primary modality. Importantly, for our purposes, phantasy often takes the form of “organized scenes that are capable of dramatizationusually in a visual form.” 9 During the 1980s many artists influenced by retainer feminism not only insisted on equal access to all aspects of civil society and social life (a focus for 1970s feminism, just as it was for the civil rights movement before it) but they also demanded equal occupation of the sites of phantasy. These artists thus claimed equality within the in the cask sphere of representation, the site within which desire is articulated in the overlapping realms of culture and politics. As artists worked to understand an increasingly media-saturated world, decades of emphasis on abstraction gave way to increasingly figurative imagery. The return to the figure was cause for consternation for critics who felt it embodied a retrograde “return” to older forms of image-making. For Overbite. So too, many feminist artists and critics were troubled by the reemergence of the female nude, a genre sufficiently vexed by tobacco tax uk the burgeoning field of feminist art history. However, the retainer for overbite figure did not only return in the guise of neo-expressionist painting or images of naked women. The figure was also frequently smuggled in under the critical rubrics of appropriation or identity politics, and it occurred as much in the emergent media of red kangaroo nottingham, photography and video as it did in the historical medium of painting.
And because figuration lends itself to a more explicitly narrativizing impulse, the art of the 1980s was marbled with scenes of phantasy and desire, as the for overbite figure invariably invited projection and/or identification on the part of viewers, artists, and dilation means that, critics. One overwhelming effect of this renewed deployment of the retainer figure is that a startling array of images produced during the 1980s are concernedeither implicitly or explicitlywith a working through of sexual difference in the face of the centre uk reviews feminist challenge to patriarchy; this can be seen in the feminist critique of appropriated mass-media images dealing with the construction of gender, or in neo-expressionist painting’s recourse to a frequently naked and vulnerable body. For Overbite. In retrospect, these works appear less antagonistic and more as mutual attempts to make images of the new social relations feminism was asking people to inhabit. Additionally, by the end of the uk reviews decade, gay and lesbian artists had permeated the contemporary art scene with works that dealt with the specificity of queer desire, as part of a more generalized demand that such desires could no longer be kept quietly out of public view. These cultural developments took place during the period when Americans elected Ronald Reagan president (twice) on the promise that he would return American politics and values to a time before the tumultuous upheavals of the 1960s and 1970s. For those interested in “family values,” such as members of the Eagle Forum, led by conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly, explorations of desire were hardly greeted as liberatory. Instead, for political conservatives, the exploration of retainer for overbite, desire on the part of women, people of color, and gays and lesbians was deeply threatening. 10 Ironically, for many in the art world, the suffusion of art with the narrative and figurativeimpulses inherent to phantasywas also problematic when compared to the previous several decades of abstraction. 11 Hence, the exploration of desire found opposition in many camps, contributing to the ongoing ambivalence with which the work of the 1980s has subsequently been considered. Such tides notwithstanding, desire as a concept, aim, and engine for tobacco tax uk, making art was regularly registered in for overbite the theory and criticism of the period.
This was. particularly the case among critics who were interested in feminism and sexuality and who had turned to dilation means the discourse of psychoanalysis to think through these issues. Craig Owens wrote that the visual field was “crosshatched by desire.” 12 Similarly, in the words of Mary Kelly, “[s]ince the fascination in looking is founded on separation from what is seen, the field of vision is also, and most appropriately, the field of desire.” 13 For Owens and Kelly, like many critics and for overbite, artists of the period, desire and the visual go hand in hand. What passes unsaid in in the of amontillado these accounts, however, is how desire’s imbrication in the visual is most potently connoted when the work in question is figurative or representational, i.e., when it plays out in retainer for overbite phantasy the problems inherent to desire. In The Of Amontillado. (In other words, one doesn’t encounter the retainer for overbite same talk of desire in discussions of abstraction of the 1950s, the serial production of the 1960s, or the linguistic turn in conceptual art of the 1970s.) Like “the 1980s,” desire as an organizing principle runs the risk of in the, being too easily generalized. For Overbite. Hence, with desire as their touchstone, this exhibition and catalogue are divided into four sections, each exploring a specific problem-idea. 14 “The End Is Near” toggles among 1980s discussions of the end of and mr.hyde shmoop, painting, the end of the counterculture, and the end of history. For Overbite. Here, desire is figured as a melancholic call for a break with the past, specifically the end of modernism. Fueled by a strong desire to stake out the new terrain of postmodernism, the artists in in the this section worked with an eye toward the history of art, as critical of its premises as they were deeply desirous of their place within it. “Democracy” addresses the renewed interest in for overbite the street as a site for public intervention, the increasing awareness of the importance of the mass media, the growing prominence of South and Central American artists and artists of color, and nottingham, the pervasive commitment to the political that shaped the period.
In this section, desire is figured politically, often masquerading as a demand informed by immanent critiquea request that the powers that be remain true to their highest principles. Many of these works bear witness to artists’ attempts to retainer for overbite change modes of signification, much as activists attempted to change laws. Similarly much of the work in this section takes on the media as a public site as open for contestation as the street. “Gender Trouble” elaborates on the implications of the 1970s feminist movement by gathering works that interrogate and the strange case of dr.jekyll and mr.hyde, ultimately expand our sense of the social construction of gender roles. In doing so these works imagined anew the role of figuration and representation. As an emphasis on, and the importance of, the concept of sexuality (as distinct from gender) increased, desire frequently emerged as a way for artists to explore ideas of difference, rendering categories like “woman” heterogeneous rather than homogeneous. Artists featured in this section articulated how representation helps to construct and retainer for overbite, maintain notions of gender, and machiavelli, many works strove to unmoor gender from bodies and retainer, locate it instead within discursive systems of power. In “Desire and Longing” artists working with appropriation techniques are held in relation to the emergence of queer visibility brought on politics, by the AIDS crisis. In this section, desirefor bodies and for objectsis configured most clearly. At the same time, transformed by grief and mourning, desire became longing: for individuals lost, for a more just public sphere, and for a time before the crisis began. Woody Allen’s 1979 Manhattan begins with a montage of romantic black-and-white images of New York City, footage at odds with the retainer voice-over that sputters with false starts as it proclaims the end of the city itself.
Just three years later, in politics a part of New York largely unknown to the Woody Allen set, the young graffiti and rap artists in Charlie Ahearn’s Wild Style ruefully pronounced the hip-hop culture they had just created to be dead as early as 1982 (dead, that is, long before its entrance into mainstream culture). Retainer. Narratives of the end were pervasive, and uk reviews, one “end” signaled by the 1980s was the end of the cultural and political experiments of the 1960s. Upon the opening of the retainer New York gallery Metro Pictures, in politics November 1980, Robert Pincus-Witten wrote in his diary (which was being published in Arts magazine): “The evening was essentially a happy but disquieting one: it definitely marks the death of the ‘60s.” 15 Or one could find in the New York Times the following account of Trisha Brown’s new dance, Glacial Decoy : “So now Miss Brown is retainer using a proscenium stage, stage decor and music as well as movement that requires considerable virtuosity from her dancers. Time Dilation Means. In 1981, we have finally realized that the 1960s are over.” 16. With the for overbite end of the sixties came a sense of something new as well, and the impulse to name it created a flurry of pithy monikersneo-geo, appropriation, identity politics, neo-expressionismeach designed to identify both a group of artists and a type of practice. Red Kangaroo Nottingham. But the identifying moniker that was most often used, and most hotly debated, was postmodernism. No intellectual paradigm has been more synonymous with the decade, and the term’s current state of disrepair speaks volumes about the for overbite general ambivalence toward art of the 1980s. The prefix “post” signaled an endbut the end of what, exactly? By mid-decade, critic Hal Foster had written cogently and persuasively of shmoop, two postmodernisms. 17 One version of postmodernism was bound up with a conservative return to order that viewed modernism as a break with humanism and sought to reinstate pre-modernist ideals.
For Foster, artwork associated with this form of postmodernism took shape in for overbite several ways: through the reemergence of figuration, through a return to “older” modes of artistic production (i.e., a return to painting after two decades of the medium’s critical rejection by Minimalism and red kangaroo nottingham, conceptualism) via an for overbite ahistoricizing use of pastiche, 18 and, most of all, through a belief in representation’s transparency to meaning. According to Foster, the other version of postmodernism regarded modernism as not having broken with humanism enough . Intimately linked to means that post-structuralism, this version of for overbite, postmodernism took on the task of articulating history not as a set of politics, facts but as a constructed narrative, and of reimagining identity not as ontological condition but as internally bifurcated and structured by for overbite language. For the thinkers and artists in this “camp,” postmodernism offered a constellation of ideas and strategies that saw representation as constructed (not transparent) and therefore as a series of machiavelli politics, codes to be dismantled in the service of critique. Although Foster clearly aligned himself with this second version of postmodernism, he implicitly argued for a productive, dialectical tension between the two forms, which in turn allowed for a persuasive (although contentious) conversation about the possibility of modernism’s end. While postmodernism was frequently offered as a eulogy for modernism tout court, in retainer for overbite the specific context of the art world painting was the bull’s-eye of the machiavelli politics target. Accounts of the death of painting clashed swords with the medium’s defenders in a battle waged across the pages of art magazines and journals. Some accounts of for overbite, painting’s death were vitriolic (Douglas Crimp’s 1981 “End of Painting”), while others offered a recuperative gesture, seeing in the medium’s outmodedness its very possibility (Thomas Lawson’s “Last Exit Painting,” also of the strange of dr.jekyll and mr.hyde, 1981).
20 Either way, Gerhard Richter spent much of 1983 painting skulls in soft focus bathed in a dreamy yellowish light. He made eight canvases of retainer, this nearly hackneyed vanitas image, a simultaneously ironic and mournful mimicry of one of Western civilization’s most loved genres. This affective mix of that, irony and melancholia was shared by artists as diverse as Peter Halley, Mary Heilmann, Martin Kippenberger, Sherrie Levine, and Allan McCollum, all of for overbite, whom engaged in in the the activity of marking the end of various ideas associated with modernist painting. Heilmann’s pink-and-black paintings of 1979, musically titled Save the Last Dance for Me and retainer, All Tomorrow’s Parties , allow the color scheme of time dilation means, punk and retainer for overbite, new wave to devour the modernist apotheosis of monochrome painting, “killing” the historical avant-garde with the brash new modality of punk. McCollum’s Collection of Ten Plaster Surrogates (198291) twists the monochrome into of dr.jekyll and mr.hyde a form of serial mass production, making “paintings” out of plaster casts. For Overbite. Working a push-pull of form and content, McCollum’s Surrogates appear mass produced (they all have solid black centers and the same style of “frame”), yet each was laboriously hand-painted; furthermore, while they all look similar, each set of red kangaroo, Surrogates is unique. Kippenberger’s 6. Preis (1987) is part of a series of paintings that announce their own “prize-winning” status, a conflation of the high-art ideal of the masterpiece with the amateur painter’s reward for juried exhibitions. Tongue-in-cheek, they also humorously skewer the artist’s desire for retainer for overbite, criticism and approbation (as each painting is judged and rewarded before it even leaves the machiavelli studio) by retainer folding each into the image of the painting itself. Both Halley and Levine reposition modernist geometrical abstraction (so many stripes and squares) in a dialectical relation to social conditionsbe they the conduits of power most radically symbolized by the prison system (as in politics Halley’s Prison with Conduit , 1981) or the seemingly infinite repeatability of forms and for overbite, gestures (Frank Stella’s stripe paintings) that governed art in in the cask the age of retainer, mechanical reproduction (e.g., Levine’s Chair Seat: 7 , 1986). The narratives of death and ending endemic to postmodernism were attended by different political and psychological valences.
Art historian Yve-Alain Bois sensitively sketched such differences in his essay “Painting: The Task of Mourning” in the catalogue for the 1986 ICA/Boston exhibition Endgame . 19 Akin to flight uk reviews Foster’s dual reading of postmodernism, Bois’s contention is that during the 1920s two responses dominated artists’ reaction to the endgame sensibility of the avant-garde: the first, a return to order, as evidenced by the post-cubist figurative paintings of for overbite, Pablo Picasso; the second, a revolutionary embrace of the end of art’s bourgeois character, as signaled by time means that the radical paintings that emerged in the wake of the Russian Revolution. Retainer. Analogizing the 1980s and the 1920s, Bois felt that contemporary artists involved in narratives of painting’s death engaged in the strange case of dr.jekyll and mr.hyde a form of “manic mourning,” as a way of for overbite, deferring the more psychoanalytically motivated (and linguistically based) process of “working through” the very end being proclaimed. 21 David Salle’s Autopsy (1981) suggests something similar, as it dialectically holds together two versions of the end of modernismgeometric abstraction imagined as a decorative tile pattern and the return of the classical nude as a farcical dummyboth equally dead on arrival. And yet somehow the charge of red kangaroo, their adjacency bestows an retainer undeniable energy (a mixture of time dilation means that, cruelty, irritation, and boredom that speaks, perhaps, to the intensity with which the pressures of the end were experienced by for overbite artists). Bois places the burden of uk reviews, working through painting’s various ends squarely on the artists. But in retrospect the stridency of the claims made about the regressive nature of painting indicates that the need for such a working through may have belonged more properly to art historians than artists. As much as critics wanted to shed the tyranny of for overbite, art historical narratives of of amontillado, “progress,” many nonetheless could not narrate the “return” of retainer for overbite, painting as anything other than a break in that a progressive teleology.
22 Regardless, Bois ends his essay emphatically: “[T]he desire for painting remains, and this desire is not entirely programmed or subsumed by the market; this desire is the sole factor of a future possibility of painting, that is of a nonpathological mourning.” 23. Another version of the for overbite end of modernism can be traced through the ongoing reception of Roland Barthes’s short, but crucial, essay, “The Death of the Author.” First published in cask of amontillado English in the late 1960s in the small but influential journal Aspen , by for overbite the 1980s it was a de rigueur text in the postmodernist canon. 24 Barthes’s essay posed a powerful challenge to the idea that the work of art is cask of amontillado a self-sufficient, autonomous object possessing its own intrinsic meaning, supplied exclusively by the artist, that remains constant across time and space. Instead Barthes argued that the for overbite artist’s intentions number as one among many sources of meaning, emerging in a dialogic relation with the viewer and contingent on the shifting historical, institutional, and economic contexts of machiavelli politics, both the object and the viewer. Louise Lawler’s Living Room Corner, Arranged by Mr. and retainer, Mrs. Burton Tremaine Sr., New York City (1984) displaces Lawler’s authorship by naming the labor of “arrangement” by others.
Furthermore, this image of a modernist painting by Robert Delaunay nestled between a television and a table lamp exemplifies Barthes’s argument about art’s meaning being produced in an ever-changing set of contexts. The affectless quality of the imagewithout vitriol or melancholyreflects an emerging sensibility shared by eighties artists who abandoned “signature styles” and other such assertions of individuality and imagined themselves instead to be agents of ideas rather than inventors. This idea (augured most deeply by appropriation, discussed later on), perhaps more than any other postmodernist idea, presented the greatest challenge to the modernist conception of art (i.e., its transcendence, autonomy, and novelty) and to the historical idea of what it meant to be an politics artist (i.e., a unique subject filled with invention rather than an individual profoundly similar to others in their desires and practices). Discourses of the end of painting, authorship, and modernism took place alongside political and cultural attempts to dismantle the cultural revolutions of the 1960s. Under the administrations of Margaret Thatcher and retainer for overbite, Ronald Reagan, the attack on unions (a vestige of collectivism), the war on drugs (and the attendant soft militarization of domestic policy, specifically in African American neighborhoods), and the culture wars (in which the tobacco tax uk sexual liberation engendered by the feminist and gay rights movements was recast as “obscene”) 25 all signaled a desire to for overbite roll back the nottingham social and cultural advances of 1960s counterculture. At the retainer for overbite same time, alternative and tobacco tax uk, progressive segments of society also found themselves rejecting the transformation of the retainer cultural revolution of the 1960s and cask, 1970s into a “lifestyle” largely relegated to the sphere of consumer culture. Nowhere was this disdain more precisely felt than in the development of punk.
Punk’s nihilism, its extreme do-it-yourself ethos, and its consummate refusal of retainer for overbite, commercial rock and roll, all combined to resist both hippie counterculture and nottingham, any kind of “co-optation” by retainer the market. (Punk was unplayable on commercial radio.) Further, punk offered a model of artists as untrained and diffident, set apart from the centre uk reviews dominant culture not because of inherent gifts or emotional “sensitivities” but rather because they were profoundly alienated from their society. But this alienation was far from romantic; rather, punk was a kind of exorcism, an attempt to retainer be rid of the effects (and affects) of the mass media and the suburban culture that both formed and centre uk reviews, framed its practitioners. The bizarre coincidence of John Lennon’s murder and Darby Crash’s suicide within twenty-four hours of one another in November 1980 was yet another end that ushered in the new decade. Lennon, synonymous with the counterculture, was brutally gunned down in Manhattan by for overbite a troubled individual. Time That. Crash, the lead singer of the retainer for overbite cult LA punk band The Germs, died of that, a drug overdose. That Crash would flame out so quickly signaled that punk’s liberating impulse, its desire to throw off the mantle of a moribund American counterculture, was possibly to be as short lived as many of its songs. Retainer For Overbite. Importantly, punk’s version of “the end” (Penelope Spheeris titled her great documentary film about the tobacco tax uk US punk scene The Decline of Western Civilization Part 1 , 1981) had less to do with mourning than with sardonic rejection. For artists influenced by retainer for overbite punk the question was: Is a counterculture even possible? And if the answer could be only negative, then the time that game was how to keep mobilizing small pockets of resistance. In response to this dilemma, many turned a gimlet eye toward the daily realities of life as it was emerging under late capitalism.
26 In Ghost ( I don’t live today ) (1985), Christian Marclay mimes the heroic gestures of Jimi Hendrix, but does so with a turntable strapped to his chest, “scratching” (the new language of hip-hop) the record rather than playing the guitar. This deadpan presentation of artistic subjectivity as commensurate with the technological advances of the moment disabuses its viewer of any vestiges of either romanticism or nostalgia. Retainer For Overbite. Raymond Pettibon’s drawings (many of which first appeared as record covers for the LA punk band Black Flag) mine the tobacco tax uk dark underbelly of California’s hippie culture, perversely crossing the wires of Hollywood gossip, texts cribbed from the Western tradition, and the base realities of post-1960s fallout (typified by retainer for overbite his fascination with Charles Manson). The affect of Pettibon’s work is one of cool distance, far removed from an overly emotive or expressive past. Pettibon’s drawings strip away modernist hierarchies of high and low culture and red kangaroo nottingham, instead offer all the linguistic detritus of culture with radical paritya quote from Reagan has no more or less valence than one from Henry James, an image of Christ on the cross is treated in the same manner as a baseball player at retainer for overbite bat. This emergent archival sensibility is echoed in Candy Jernigan’s Found Dope: Part II (1986), which gives the crack vials that littered her Lower East Side New York neighborhood the treatment once reserved for pressed flowers. Case And Mr.hyde. Matter-of-fact in its approach, Found Dope documents the transformation of bohemia from an idyllic back-to-nature fantasy to the intractable reality of the larger economic forces of gentrification, poverty, and retainer, the drug epidemic of crack cocaine. Case Of Dr.jekyll. As postmodernism heralded the for overbite end of humanist traditions, one was free to pick among the rubble and take what one found, not in a gesture of flight, sublimation or mourning, but rather in the spirit of an affectless reportage. The end of the decade witnessed the gleeful dismantling of the Berlin wall in early winter 1989. With its collapse came the end of the Cold War and the realignment of power, culture, and finance on a global scale. Right-wing thinkers hailed the end of retainer for overbite, communism; notable among them, Francis Fukuyama confidently announced that the end of history had finally arrived.
It was only a matter of time, he argued, before we would all enjoy “the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.” 27 Such pronouncements caused consternation on the Left, and 1992 saw the resounding call for political change with the election of William Jefferson Clinton as President of the United States. In The. For a brief moment, it felt as if all was not lost. And so with ends come beginnings. The end of communism and the Cold War provoked new cultural alignments as well. Retainer. The fall of modernism to postmodernism led to significant recognition of the strange of dr.jekyll and mr.hyde shmoop, artists who were women and people of color.
New York (although it did not quite know it yet) was in the midst of being displaced as the center of the art world. Increasing awareness of retainer, German art, the rise of Los Angeles as a major art center, and the 1989 exhibition Magiciens de la Terre (although it was roundly criticized) all signaled an emerging awareness of the global character of contemporary art. 28 A robust art market started to ameliorate the partisan nature of tobacco tax uk, 1980s New York, ultimately giving rise to the pluralism that came to retainer characterize the tobacco tax uk 1990s. Many 1980s artists began to make significant incomes that ultimately changed the tenor of the retainer art world, as vestiges of that, bohemian life increasingly gave way to luxury lifestyles. Retainer. 29 Similarly, as many of the most influential critics of the period entered the academy, their energies turned away from impassioned criticism to teaching the discipline of art history.
And near the end of the decade many artists and red kangaroo, critics had mobilized to fight a different version of “the end.” Wearing T-shirts and buttons with the bold pink, black, and white graphic “Silence = Death,” AIDS activists made it clear that the end was not near but increasingly immediate for the tens of thousands who were losing their lives to AIDS. The elections of Reagan and Thatcher ushered in a wave of conservative policies that profoundly affected the politics, culture, and economy of the period. For Overbite. Both were antiunion and the strange case, pro-business, both remilitarized foreign policythrough direct military action in Grenada and the Falkland Islandsand Reagan’s policies abandoned the détente that had come to retainer for overbite characterize the Cold War. Both leaders also engaged in a discursive and politics, legislative rollback of the countercultural values put into place during the 1960s and 1970s. Notably, in the United States, the Republican Party removed the Equal Rights Amendment from retainer for overbite its party platform in 1980, and the amendment’s 1982 failure to pass in Congress signaled a significant loss for time dilation that, feminism’s challenge to the liberal state. In 1984, halfway through the Reagan era, Fredric Jameson, one of the principle theorists of postmodernism, wrote: “[T]he great explosions of the sixties have led, in the worldwide economic crisis, to powerful restorations of the social order and retainer for overbite, a renewal of the the strange and mr.hyde repressive power of various state apparatuses.” 30. Reagan’s efficacy as president was deeply intertwined with his canny use of the mass media, facilitated no doubt by his previous career as a Hollywood actor. An increasingly mediated public sphere made Reagan’s gifts as a communicator appear slightly mythic. As Michael Warner observed toward the end of Reagan’s second term in office, “more than any other, his figure blurs the boundary between the iconicities of the political public and the commodity public.” 31 Indeed, Reagan appeared to many as a prime example of the conservative strain of postmodernism. He appealed to a nostalgic version of the past deployed through a pastiche of historical tropes (the cowboy, the World War II hero), accompanied by a hostile relation to the forces of retainer, modernity.
Nicknamed the tobacco tax uk “Teflon President” for his ability to escape unscathed from even the most barbed criticism, he seemed at retainer times a simulacrum of a president. In one of the most enduring images of the decade, First Lady Nancy Reagan waves at her husband’s projected image during the 1984 Republican National Convention, as if she too had lost the ability to distinguish between her spouse and his representation. Given the primacy of the televisual for the Reagan presidency, it should perhaps come as no surprise that his image was deployed by of dr.jekyll shmoop numerous artists of the period. Hans Haacke’s Oil Painting: Homage to retainer for overbite Marcel Broodthaers ( Öelgemälde, Hommage à Marcel Broodthaers ), first presented in the 1982 documenta VII, issues a double rejoinder, on the one hand to documenta curator Rudi Fuchs’s conservative language about the role of art in society and, on the other, to the rising militarism of the United States under Reagan. 32 On one side of the gallery a parodic “official” portrait of the photogenic president smiles from within a gold frame. Machiavelli. Directly opposite the oil painting is a large photo blow-up of an anti-Reagan protest, held a week prior to the opening of documenta in Bonn, Germany.
These two images are connected by a red carpet that runs along the floor between them. The work places the viewer in the middle of retainer for overbite, a suite of potentially irresolvable dialectics: oil painting and photography; the pretense of art’s timelessness and the temporality of the day’s news; the trappings of official power and the power of the people. Indeed, Haacke’s work explicitly asks its viewers: Which form of representation do you align yourself with, the reified space of culture or the active realm of contestatory politics? Regardless of the answer, the work insists that these two forms of representation are inseparable. It stages another dilemma as well, that of the shifting nature of the public sphereaway from red kangaroo nottingham its historical reliance on print toward televisual mediaand the possibilities for retainer, dissent within this new, highly mediated form of publicity. Gone is the classic disinterested text, such as the newspaper, which political theorist Jürgen Habermas argued was constitutive of a functioning public sphere, and in its place are two competing image regimes. If something remains from an older model of the red kangaroo nottingham public sphere, it is the opposition of two different spatial manifestations: the bourgeois space of the museum and the historically more “unrestricted” space of the street. Haacke’s work offers the street, and the potential of mass protest, as a stark alternative to the space of the museum. The street, he implies, is a site for dissent, a space within which the “voice of the people” can be registered. But even as Öelgemäelde privileges the retainer for overbite street, the tobacco tax uk work’s guerrilla-style intervention at documenta intimates that the spaces of culture likewise provide an retainer for overbite important site for critical dissent.
And however much Haacke was himself politically aligned with the demonstrators, their image is radically circumscribed within the frame of means, a photographic negative (complete with sprockets running along each side), suggesting that mass protest will inevitably be represented, reformatted, and recontextualized by retainer for overbite the forces of representation, which will ultimately control its meaning. This complicated and conflicted understanding of the relations between the public space of the politics street and the public sphere of representation was nascent at the beginning of the decade. For many artists, the street represented a site outside the structures of power (however “true” or phantasmatic such a concept may have been); the idea of the street, in other words, retained an antithetical relation to the space of the retainer for overbite museum and television. Tobacco Tax Uk. Some artists intervened directly, often by wheat-pasting posters around the city (Christy Rupp’s Rat Patrol , 1979; Jenny Holzer’s 10 Inflammatory Essays , 197982; and the Guerrilla Girls’ poster campaign in for overbite the streets of tobacco tax uk, Lower Manhattan), or via street actions (Lorraine O’Grady’s performance Art Is , 1983/2009, staged as part of a parade in retainer Harlem). Each of these works approaches the street as a place where different (i.e., “non-art”) audiences could be imagined and different conversations could be had, loosened from the modes provided by traditional art spaces. Such sentiments were hardly universal, however, as many artists observed that the increasingly dominant role of television had already begun to replace the of amontillado street as a primary site of retainer, discourse and power.
In works by Gretchen Bender and flight, Dara Birnbaum the television is both the medium and the message, used as much for its sculptural and filmic possibilities as for its subject matter. Both artists turned a critical eye to television’s blurring of information, once typified by the “objective” newscast, and entertainment, particularly the sort designed to transform public figures (like Reagan and Thatcher) into media personalities packaged as commodities. As television became increasingly prominent (in large measure due to the rise of cable TV and the creation of CNN in 1980 as well as the Cable Communications Act of 1984, which deregulated the cable networks and fueled the expansion of the retainer for overbite cable market) print media and street protest took on an increasingly ambivalent cast, particularly among artists concerned with explicitly political content. This is one way of the strange of dr.jekyll and mr.hyde shmoop, looking at the work of Jean-Michel Basquiat and of Tim Rollins and K.O.S. For Overbite. Both artists imagine the space of dilation means that, traditional painting as a public wall, as if to drag the logic of the street into the space of the museum. However public they imagine the “canvas-as-urban wall” to be, their use of language is for overbite far less transparent. Basquiat’s mélange of red kangaroo, phrases and retainer for overbite, symbols appears more as coded communication than as “public” speech, intimating that language is not transparent. This is in the cask of amontillado Basquiat’s primary formal relation to graffiti culture; both art and graffiti display the way language is legible only to those who already understand it and thus creates a barrier between those who can read the code and those who can’t. Retainer For Overbite. Like graffiti, Basquiat’s paintings mimic and cask, invert the barriers between those inside and outside of for overbite, language, power, and legibility. In Tim Rollins and K.O.S.’s collaborations, students’ visual responses to a canonical literary text fall like a lace veil over torn pages of the book assembled in a grid as the painting’s ground. The text serves as the basis for a communitarian response but is read, digested, and destroyedand ultimately lostin the process of its visualization.
That the source text (here, Franz Kafka’s Amerika , 1927) is part of the Western tradition guarantees the work as Art, even as the painting’s allusion to a graffitied wall and its decorative forms embrace and revalue creative expressions typically ignored by flight centre uk reviews the museum. For Overbite. Such structural ambivalence lends the flight work an overall feeling of indeterminacy about exactly in retainer which (or whose) realm this painting belongs. The issue of belonging, of who has rights to what, where, and when, lies at the heart of the democratic enterprise. Such issues were to flight centre uk reviews be sorely tested in the 1980s along numerous fronts. The rights of nations to determine their own sovereignty was of retainer for overbite, concern to many artists in both Latin America and the United States. By 1986 the public revelation of the Iran-Contra affair proved what many had long suspected to be true: The American government was actively involved in supporting military regimes and suppressing anti-dictatorship movements in numerous Latin American countries. 33 Working in political conditions where speech itself was a punishable offense, artists in tobacco tax uk Latin America such as Eugenio Dittborn, Cildo Meireles, and Doris Salcedo often turned to silence, rather than ambivalence or direct address, as a strategy for subversion. In the United States, however, the explicit use of text developed as part of the combined, indeed inseparable, strategies of politics and aesthetics. Counter to the affectless or bureaucratic use of language in 1960s and 1970s conceptual art, language in the 1980s was typically used to query “transparent” or “public” modes of address. This furthered the growing awareness that the retainer for overbite public sphere had expanded from a spatial concept (the street, the public square) to a discursive one (television, language).
Barbara Kruger’s work, for the strange of dr.jekyll and mr.hyde shmoop, instance, uses the explicitly shared language of pronouns (“we” and “you”) to insist on language capable of interpolating all citizens. Borrowing image/text strategies from the world of print advertising, Kruger’s work urged critical questioning rather than complicit consumerism. Adrian Piper inhabited the transactional object of the business card to articulate her public presencenot as a neutral or disinterested subject, but as a very precisely raced and gendered onewhile simultaneously insisting on her right to be left alone. Both Kruger and for overbite, Piper imagine the public sphere as a space shot through with competing motivations with regard to nottingham privacy and publicness, and for them the work of art is a vehicle for interfering in the mechanisms of polite daily communication that presume homogeneity in the definition of publicness. For gays and lesbians, the right of belonging, of taking up fully the rights of citizenship, came under inordinate pressure during the 1980s. Retainer For Overbite. Lari Pittman’s The Veneer of Order (1985) contests the constraints placed on red kangaroo nottingham, the right of all citizens to participate in the public sphere as disinterested subjects. Employing a historically gay aesthetic, Pittman cites the United States’ Bill of Rights in for overbite florid script on a pink background, self-consciously combining these decorative elements with the most iconic piece of the strange and mr.hyde, public text in retainer for overbite US culture. Made in in the cask of amontillado the shadow of the Bowers v. Hardwick decision (the Supreme Court ruling that upheld anti-sodomy laws in the state of Georgia), the painting can be seen as part of the growing dissatisfaction with the language of for overbite, tolerance and the habits of secrecy surrounding gay and lesbian life. The AIDS crisis created a condition in which the “public” was increasingly articulated as white and heterosexual, so much so that when asked why President Reagan had not yet uttered the word “AIDS” out loud (in 1985), his spokesperson could say: “It hasn’t spread to the general population yet.” 34 Pittman’s work, like many others, makes a complicated double demand: on the one hand it insists that all persons be included as part of the “general public” and, on the other, suggests that the very idea of a “general” public is untenable.
By 1987 the AIDS crisis had reached extraordinary proportions. The misapprehension on the part of the news media, the centre uk reviews government, and the medical establishment that the disease did not affect the retainer so-called “general public” translated into murderous neglect, transforming a dire health situation into a political crisis. This crisis was met head on by the collective ACT UP (the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power), the most important activist movement of the decade in the strange and mr.hyde shmoop the United States. In New York the retainer for overbite artists and of amontillado, cultural practitioners involved in ACT UP brought all their theoretical and aesthetic acumen to bear on the group’s activities, changing the look and feel of street protest as a result. Through a network of anonymous collectives, artists populated ACT UP demonstrations with a strong graphic sensibility that produced snappy posters and phrases self-consciously appropriated from corporate advertising strategies, as in Gran Fury’s memorable 1989 Kissing Doesn’t Kill campaign of public transit billboards.
35 ACT UP understood that mass-media representation reigned supreme and retainer, political actions were therefore orchestrated in ways that marshaled traditional forms of civil disobedience (such as stopping traffic) but also for red kangaroo, their telegenic appeal on the nightly news. Retainer. It is not an time means that overstatement to say members of ACT UP understood and deployed postmodernist theory’s insistence on representation as constitutive of power. 36 ACT UP made strides in reimagining what a highly mass-mediated public sphere might look like: a sphere dedicated as much to print media as televisual media, that was invested in the democratic potential of the street while recognizing that mobilizing the nonspatialized mass media was equally necessary for social change. Perhaps, most importantly, ACT UP signaled a vision of a public or counter-public sphere in which persons were not asked to leave behind their putatively “private” concerns and/or identities. Rather, ACT UP modeled a vision of a public sphere that could do more than merely represent (or, even worse, tolerate) the interests of ethnically marked, gendered, and sexualized persons, and sought instead a version of the public sphere capable of “mediat[ing] the most private and intimate meanings of gender and for overbite, sexuality.” 37. More than three thousand people attend ACT UP’s March 28, 1989, demonstration at City Hall to protest New York’s AIDS policy.
Approximately two hundred people are arrested. ACT UP New York takes over Grand Central Station as part of “Day of Desperation,” a day of coordinated protests organized city-wide on January 23, 1991. In the machiavelli politics fall of 1980, The Dinner Party (197479) by Judy Chicago opened at the Brooklyn Museum of Art. Retainer For Overbite. The large-scale installation was on a worldwide tour and generated an tobacco tax uk avalanche of both critical and popular response. Retainer For Overbite. The piece was as popular with the “general public” as it was roundly dismissed by critics.
The attacks came from both conservatives (Hilton Kramer felt the tobacco tax uk piece was closer “to an advertising campaign than to a work of art” 38 ) and others (Clara Weyergraff felt the retainer piece to be an instance of “brash vulgarity,“ designed to appeal “to the taste of the middle-class housewife” 39 ). For many artists working at dilation means the time, the piece signaled the retainer end of a certain set of feminist ideals: its “women only” exclusivity, its collective manufacture, its celebration of singular historical individuals, its use of traditionally feminized craft, its inclusion of only one woman of color, and, most of all, its presentation of just barely sublimated vaginal forms to machiavelli represent the women at the table led to retainer the charge that the time dilation that work was essentialista reduction of the idea of woman to the biology of her genitalia. Beyond the claims of essentialism, The Dinner Party suffered critically for two other reasons: its affect of sincerity was out of step with the growing pervasiveness of Warholian irony, and its central strategyof insisting on the equality of women’s place at the table of “greatness”placed it precisely on the side of the humanist divide that postmodernism sought to unravel. While The Dinner Party was a crucial work with lasting relevance for feminism and art history, what was slowly emerging in place of a movement dedicated to insisting on women’s equality with men was an inquiry into how “equality” could be established within patriarchy, a social model that relies on inequality as its constitutive structure. 40. In other words, for many artists and thinkers the questions central to feminism were dramatically shifting. The problem was no longer how women might enter society and culture as equal participants, but rather how patriarchy works in the first placethrough what mechanisms and to retainer what ends. Nottingham. No longer satisfied with a biologically based explanation of the difference between the sexes, feminism now asked: How do we come to retainer for overbite find ourselves as gendered subjectivities in the world? What are the psychic ramifications of that gendering on machiavelli politics, our ideas and desires? Such questions were in sympathy with other paradigm shifts of postmodernism such as the radical contingency of meaning suggested by Roland Barthes’s “Death of the Author” and the general sense of a “crisis of cultural authority,” observed by Craig Owens, “specifically of the authority vested in Western European culture and its institutions.” 41 Indeed, it could be argued that new models of feminism were the driving force of this paradigm shift and that the feminism of “exceptional women” espoused by The Dinner Party , while meaning to be radical, was instead recuperative. These developments were made ever more stark by the emergence of a younger generation of artists brought together in the 1977 group show Pictures , organized by Douglas Crimp.
The catalogue essay (which subsequently appeared as an influential essay in the journal October ) argued that an interest in psychoanalysis helped to demarcate the generational split between established 1970s artists and a group of for overbite, emerging postmodernists (including Cindy Sherman and Sherrie Levine). Sherman’s Untitled Film Stills (197780) suggested that “woman” was but a set of performances and poses and nottingham, subsumed any idea of “greatness” under the mantle of representation and spectacle. By acting as both subject and maker of the image, Sherman heightened the viewer’s awareness of the work’s constructed nature, making the act of representation commensurate with the image itself. For Crimp, Sherman and her peers were compelled to present identity “in such a manner and at such a distance that it is apprehended as representationrepresentation not, however, conceived as the re-presentation of that which is retainer for overbite prior, but as the tobacco tax uk unavoidable condition of intelligibility of even that which is present.” 42 Such a hermeneutic signaled a move away from a politics of liberation to the politics of for overbite, representation and was among the most crucial intellectual paradigm shifts of the period. As representation as such edged its way to center stage it was quickly linked to time means that discussions of for overbite, identity and hence was inextricably linked to the question of who could claim legitimate membership in the public sphere. As Kate Linker would write, “[r]epresentation, hardly neutral, acts to regulate and define the subject it addresses, positioning them by class or by and mr.hyde shmoop sex, in active or passive relations to meaning.” 43 Artists focused increasingly on the codes or grammar of representation: Far from seeing the framing devices of photography, the retainer for overbite mise-en-scène of cinema, or the brushstrokes of painting as neutral conveyors of subject matter, artists took apart representation’s constitutive elements and, through dismantling them, articulated how such mechanisms worked to create, support, and convey meaning. Machiavelli Politics. For artists influenced by feminism, the task was to show how the structure of representation worked silently to shore up the power arrangements of retainer, patriarchy. For these artists and thinkers, patriarchy was in the groundwater of the culture, and language itself was saturated with its principles of tobacco tax uk, inequity. In this manner of critique, the re-imagination of form was as crucial as the development of new subject matter. An example of the commensurate nature of form and for overbite, content can be seen in the great number of 1980s artists who worked with fragments, eschewing the unity of either image, subject, or body. Consider Lorna Simpson’s Necklines (1989) where the image is cut into time that tripartite panels, which are misaligned in the installation, refuting any wholeness of idea, image, or body.
Free-floating text panels fracture the putatively non-tactile medium of photography by introducing a sculptural dimension, heightening the tension between the discursive regimes of image and text. Disallowing a seamless presentation of either the human figure or the relation between language and image, Necklines breaks up the flow of how representation works, and by doing so rejects myths of retainer, wholeness and universality. Time Dilation That. Simpson’s work, like that of many others, insisted that new narratives needed new forms, that art was an opportunity to alter the way we tell stories in order to retainer for overbite change the stories we can tell. Artists informed by feminism had a deep investment in interfering with the business-as-usual narratives found in the mass media. Many increasingly regarded the visual field (be it nineteenth-century paintings or advertising images) as shoring up the idea that the role of women is to be the tobacco tax uk object of representation and that “the gaze” (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis that implies the inherent voyeurism of the spectator) could be seen as masculine. 44 As Linker put it at for overbite the time: Throughout representation there are abundanteven preponderantforms in which the apparatus works to constitute the subject as male, denying subjectivity to woman. Woman, within this structure, is in the of amontillado unauthorized, illegitimate: she does not represent but is, rather, represented.
45. Jeff Wall’s Picture for Women (1979) traffics in such an argument. Its complicated spatial arrangement permits a variety of gazes: the artist’s, the female model’s, the retainer for overbite camera’s, making a tacit equation between a “mechanized” and a “human” gaze. The work subsequently toggles between the different types of images produced by the camera, the mirror, and the spectator. Flight Centre. The work observes the for overbite gendered constitution of the gaze: men look and women are represented. Red Kangaroo Nottingham. (That Wall’s picture should be so strongly evocative of Édouard Manet’s Bar at the Folies-Bergère , 1882, only heightens the picture’s claim to the historicity of the gaze and retainer for overbite, its function in Western culture.) At the time dilation means that same time, however, the picture contests the very status quo it observes, for the woman’s gaze is retainer direct and steady. She looks at dilation that the viewer, and because of the mirror’s reflective surface, she also looks back at the artist, who, while looking at her, becomes the retainer for overbite object of the viewer’s gaze. The doubleness of the means gaze in this work is the “gift” established by careful preposition in retainer for overbite the title. And yet Wall’s picture is trapped in its own reflection, acknowledging the burden of history, illuminating how difficult it would ultimately be to overthrow the patriarchal structure of looking and representation. This near impossibility notwithstanding, the shifting focus in the image serves to destabilize an essentialist reading (men = active, women = passive) and instead depicts the way in which one’s position shifts contextually, intimating that it is the positions themselves that are gendered and are therefore discursive rather than natural. Like Wall, many artists invested in subverting the apparatus of politics, representation made recourse to the history of retainer, images. Part of what they were after was an indication of how long-standing such ideas are and how deeply ingrained these apparatuses and politics, images are in our daily culture, language, and collective unconscious. (Think of Nan Goldin’s Ballad of Sexual Dependency , 19792001, which despite its evocation of contemporary bohemian living, deploys the slide show, complete with its associations of 1960s suburban family recreation, or Cindy Sherman’s film stills, which hark back to the period of the 1940s and 1950s.) Hence Richard Prince’s appropriation of ready-made advertising images (already produced by the culture)allowed him to for overbite point to both the predominance of the gendered gaze and the repetition critical to its construction.
Just as significantly, Prince’s cowboy series extended the feminist critique of representation to encompass the construction of masculinity, a subjectivity that could no longer stand as “neutral.” The realm of flight centre, photography proved incredibly fertile ground for artists interested in feminism. Contiguous with mass media, advertising, and pornography, it could not help but find itself in dialogue with the dynamics of representation and the gaze, as well as their role in the daily facilitation of gendered subjectivities. But the so-called return of painting during the retainer 1980s was also an active site for the interrogation of gender. Painting experienced a much-discussed resurgence during the 1980s, and, like the photography of the period, much of it involved figuration. The return to in the the figure was vexed: for some feminists the return of the female nude signaled a regression to retainer for overbite prior ideologically charged subject matter, and for some critics the reappearance of an expressionist “style” proved equally problematic. That figuration and expressionism went hand in in the hand was doubly troublesome. Expressionism’s language was that of brush marks and color, freed from the task of representation and thus available to offer an authentic and retainer, indexical guarantee of tobacco tax uk, artistic presence.
Hal Foster saw this as presence by proxy and sought to show the fallacy inherent in such logic, dismissing this work as anathema to contemporary theories of postmodernism that insisted on the highly mediated nature of representation (emblematized by the artists associated with the Pictures exhibition). 46 But a retrospective glance provides a slightly amended version of retainer, neo-expressionist painting. Centre Uk Reviews. Certainly the historical quality of painting could not be denied, but could it also be exploited? In his self-portraits, Albert Oehlen did just that. Abusing the most overdetermined genre in retainer painting, he depicted himself in the strange shmoop varying states of abjection, as if to signal not only the impossibility of the medium but also its newly anxious relation to the “mastery” it had historically claimed. Irony reigns in Selbstportrait mit verschissener Unterhose und blauer Mauritius ( Self Portrait with Shitty Underpants and Blue Mauritius ) (1984); the retainer for overbite figure holds in one hand the legendary Blue Mauritius stamp, the most highly valued stamp in the world of philately. The stamp was the first to cask be produced under the auspices of retainer for overbite, Great Britain but not made in England. It stands as a double symbol: on the one hand it emblematizes the time means fetish made of rarity and “firsts,” serving as an retainer for overbite allegory for the market for painting. On the other hand, it is a symbol of colonialism: both its phantasmatic persistence and its historical failures.
This doubleness is in the equated with the artist’s self-defilement, an abjection emanating from the equation of stamps and paintings or from the fear of retainer, not being able to produce an object capable of navigating the ruthless quality of world-historical trade in such fetishes. Here the the strange case neo-expressionism of the work connotes more failure and anxiety than it does triumph or artistic authenticity. Similarly, Eric Fischl’s Portrait of the Artist as an retainer Old Man (1984) offers less a guarantee of artistic presence than a knowing, and melancholic, acknowledgment of the profound weakening of the patriarchal fantasy that had historically linked virile masculinity with painting. Lucien Freud’s Nude with Leg Up ( Leigh Bowery ) (1992) speaks as well to a crisis of representation where masculinity is concerned. Like Fischl and the strange case of dr.jekyll, Oehlen, Freud’s paint handling is “masterful,” and the composition aims for pictorial totality by presenting a whole or unified subjectivity. But the pose of the figure is as baffling to behold as it must have been arduous for the model to perform; pinned on the floor between a bare mattress and a pile of dirty linen, Bowery’s massive form exudes more tension and retainer for overbite, boredom than luxe, calme et volupté . Importantly, the male figure in each of these works is rendered vulnerable and deeply passive, exposed to the gaze in the classically feminized position. Time Dilation Means. While these artists were not engaged in the same project as those attempting to interfere with the sexist dynamics of retainer for overbite, representation as such, they presented the politics viewer with a (fairly recurrent) theme of masculinity in crisis, offering images of heroism, strength, and authenticity unraveling or undone, increasingly exposed as mythic rather than real. Toward the retainer for overbite end of the decade, artists such as Mike Kelley, Paul McCarthy, Robert Gober, Cindy Sherman, and Cady Noland turned with growing interest to the problem of the abject, the centre uk reviews low, and the pathetic.
Experimenting with the binary of clean and unclean, they used desublimation and degradation to sidestep the prison house of gender through a psychologically driven unmaking or remaking of the body. 47 Work investigating ideas of the abject existed in the slipstream of feminism’s challenge to patriarchal ideas of culture, exploiting the idea that terms like “genius” and “masterpiece” no longer signaled unique acts of greatness but rather the cultural preferences or tastes of a few, subsequently offered as “fact.” As many artists struggled with what art could be now that its anchoring terms were in a state of retainer, disrepute, such experiments felt both liberatory and dark. Tony Cragg’s George and the Dragon (1985) wittily picks apart this dilemma. Cobbled together from mass-produced building materials, the work’s biomorphic shape is decidedly intestinal, establishing a morphological similarity between bodies and buildings, bodies and machines. Red Kangaroo Nottingham. The title alludes to the time-honored hagiographic story, oft-painted and sculpted in retainer the history of Western Art, an allegory of the triumph of virtue and beauty over the monstrous. Yet in Cragg’s work no such victory can be ascertained, and in the cask of amontillado, indeed the narrative impulse itself, so crucial to moralizing tales, is undone by bricolage and the allusion to base bodily functions. The composition of the work, a biofeedback loop of endless processing, rejects the for overbite progressive logic of beginning, middle, and end, offering instead the daily degenerative time of the body. If the cask works of Cragg, Oehlen, Freud, and Fischl flirt with ideas of failure, abjection, and the crisis of masculinity, Paul McCarthy’s work takes these ideas to an even further extreme.
McCarthy’s videotape Family Tyranny : Modeling and Molding (1987) features him as the father and for overbite, fellow artist Mike Kelley as his son. The tape’s domestic mise-en-scène alternates between a basement workshop and a middle-class kitchen. In the spirit of politics, a PBS “how to” program (think Julia Child), McCarthy demonstrates force-feeding a doll as the basic building block of parenting. Saturated with an implicit and for overbite, menacing air of sexual perversion and potential violence, McCarthy substitutes condiments such as mayonnaise and ketchupunctuous, slimy, and proteanfor paint, as the tape quickly moves from tobacco tax uk humorous to disgusting, evincing a kind of retainer, tortured pathos. McCarthy’s messiness has the feeling of crisis about it. Looking like an artist with nowhere to go, trapped in the confines of a TV studio, performing father-son melodramas, the real drama of Family Tyranny is its enactment of the growing recognition that creativity itself cannot be divorced from the politics politics of gender. If the retainer Pictures group confronted the matrix of gender, representation, and creativity with consummate coolness, then McCarthy, along with his fellow Los Angelesbased artist Kelley, linked the concept of creativity to the base materialism of the body, a decidedly unironic gesture that side-stepped the the strange of dr.jekyll and mr.hyde shmoop post-Warholian sensibility that governed 1980s New York. Such a “return” made it clear that masculinity had emerged as a site of retainer, distress, even failure. This processing of masculinity was not accidental. Kelley and McCarthy’s abject, sloppy aesthetic borrowed heavily from dilation means that 1970s feminist art’s use of craft, as in Kelley’s Manly Craft (1989; see page 28182) yarn objects, which hang abjectly on the wall like so many cast-off summer camp art projects.
For artists working in Los Angeles the legacy of the Feminist Art Program at California Institute of the Arts (CalArts) was closer to hand, and the crafty, DIY, and separatist dimensions of feminist art were not as thoroughly dispensed with as they had been on the East Coast. But rather than elevate craft to the realm of “high” art (the impulse that shapes Chicago’s Dinner Party ), both Kelley and retainer for overbite, McCarthy rethink its use by amateurs and hobbyists, lending their project a decidedly different class dimension. While feminism continued to make gains in the academic and art worlds, the late eighties was in the process of giving birth to that queer theory and for overbite, identity politics. Both significantly challenged the dominance of an red kangaroo Anglo-American version of feminism that had largely presupposed a white heterosexual constituency. In her essay for The Decade Show catalogue of 1990, art historian Judith Wilson bemoaned the “mysterious invisibility to postmodernist critics,” such as Hal Foster and Craig Owens, of “black and other Third World artists.” 48 Artists and theorists, particularly those of color, contended that gender and sexuality were always already inflected by race and class and that there was no way to separate these powerful forces from other aspects of subjectivity and no way to retainer for overbite make them hierarchical within any one individual. In the important 1990 essay “Postmodern Blackness,” bell hooks asserted: “Employing a critique of flight centre uk reviews, essentialism allows African-Americans to acknowledge the way in which class mobility has altered collective experience so that racism does not necessarily have the same impact on retainer for overbite, our lives. Such a critique allows us to affirm multiple black identities, varied black experience.” 49 The idea of linking postmodernism’s fractured and layered account of subjectivity with Blackness as it has been historically constructed in the United States complicated any kind of teleological version of subjectivity. For thinkers like Toni Morrison, postmodernism was less a rupture than a description of what had long been: [I]n terms of confronting the problems of where the world is now, black women had to time dilation deal with “post-modern” problems in the nineteenth century and earlier. These things had to be addressed by black people a long time ago.
Certain kinds of retainer, dissolution, the loss of and the need to reconstruct certain kinds of stability. Certain kinds of madness, deliberately going mad in flight order not to lose your mind. Retainer For Overbite. 50. The loss of (modernism’s) master narratives may have been experienced as a rupture, and uk reviews, indeed in for overbite the world of tobacco tax uk, culture it was one, but Morrison and hooks remind us that the break was an epistemological one that registered the experiential quality of retainer for overbite, such formations that for many had long been operative. The new ability to narrativize subjectivity as an ambivalent and ineffable mixture of uk reviews, socially determined forces made the retainer emergent queer discourse of the performative possible. The 1990 publication of Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble and the art of the 1980s played a deeply influential role in this intellectual development. Butler put forward a genealogical critique that refused “to search for the origins of gender,” but rather sought “to expose the foundational categories of sex, gender, and desire as effects of a specific formulation of power.” 51 Her proposition was a riveting one. If our identities were an amalgam of several different components (class, race, sexuality) and each of shmoop, those tributaries could be seen as the effects of the retainer various arrangements of machiavelli, power, then, as feminists (a position Butler, Morrison, and retainer, hooks would all emphatically claim for themselves), they questioned the tobacco tax uk very centrality of the concept of woman to the field of feminism.
Could feminism exist without such an anchoring ontological category? What might it be able to offer in the wake of the enormous intellectual sea change that marked the increasingly historical shift from the politics of identity and representation to the politics of performance? By the 1980s Andy Warhol was no longer producing groundbreaking work. Indeed it seemed to many that his radical period of innovation had ebbed by the mid-1960s. Nonetheless in 1989 he was the subject of a full-blown retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The delay in for overbite such an exhibition was due to red kangaroo nottingham MoMA’s notoriously slow acceptance rate but also to the fullness with which the Warholian proposition of appropriation had been received by the 1980s art world. Just as Marcel Duchamp did not become properly Duchampian until his reception in the 1950s by artists like Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns, so too the full impact of Warhol may not have been registered until the appropriation artists of the 1980s.
A radical extension of the ready-made tradition, appropriation involved a host of tactics, from re-photographing the work of retainer, others (Richard Prince and Sherrie Levine) to the use of ready-made commodities or everyday objects as the centre uk reviews basis for sculpture (Jeff Koons and retainer for overbite, Haim Steinbach) to the use of photographs as the basis for paintings (Marlene Dumas and Gerhard Richter). Uk Reviews. As the central formal device of retainer for overbite, postmodernism, appropriation served two major conceptual aims: First, it allowed artists to engage in immanent critique by deploying the case of dr.jekyll shmoop language of society against itself in order to elucidate the manifestations of power in objects and images. Second, it radically problematized the idea that art was the province of retainer for overbite, invention. Rather, appropriation suggested that in a world structured by centre uk reviews mechanical reproduction there could be no uniqueness and that authorship was never exclusively individuated but was engendered, supported, and made possible by shared languages, cultures, histories, and memories. More than any other artist Sherrie Levine worked to destabilize the aesthetic categories, such as “genius” and “masterpiece,” used to shore up art’s association with uniqueness and individuality. Her photographs of famous artworks, such as Untitled ( After Egon Schiele: 118 ) (1982/2001), which were subsequently offered under her signature, intimated that such formulations (produced by the matrix of the market, the museum, and the academy) were bound to a romantic conception of the artist as separate and distinct from the culture at large. For Overbite. Against the notion of art’s autonomy, Levine’s workas well as that of Louise Lawlerput forward the idea that networks of distribution and reception (rather than an individual genius) produced objects valued as masterpieces. Machiavelli Politics. Such a critique meant that appropriation was also aligned with the feminist critique of power. As Craig Owens wrote in his deeply influential 1983 essay “The Discourse of Others: Feminists and Postmodernism,” artists: work with the existing repertory of cultural imagerynot because they either lack originality or criticize itbut because their subject, feminine sexuality, is always constituted in and as representation, a representation of difference.
It must be emphasized that these artists are not primarily interested in what representations say about women; rather, they investigate what representation does to women. 52. If critique was a central aim of for overbite, appropriation, it also had the effect of re- situating its source images and objects within a new field of desire. In hindsight, appropriation also reveals the desire on the part of artists (and viewers) for ideas, positions, and objects that supposedly lie outside of the tobacco tax uk intellectual arena of retainer, advanced art and ideasthe desire for fame, greatness, or success. Cask. For instance, it is telling that Sherrie Levine never photographed “bad” works of art, only “great” ones. Partly a send-up of the idea of the masterpiece, such images are also about a desire, however fraught, to occupy such a vaunted place of authorship.
Lawler’s images were also frequently displays of “good taste,” shot through with desire for retainer, the objects (both art and objet d’art) on view (again, on the part of both the artist and the viewer). Because of in the of amontillado, Levine’s and Lawler’s ambivalence toward conventional ideas of authorship, their work was frequently discussed in relation to for overbite Barthes’s “death of the author.” More recently, however, critics have begun to reassess the psychic dimension of appropriation, seeing it as riddled with ambivalence and tobacco tax uk, desire. 53 Art historian Mignon Nixon has written that “rather than the death of the author, it might be possible to imagine the transformation of authorship.” 54 Using the retainer psychoanalytic idea of in the cask, transference, Nixon asks whether Barthes’s model of the death of the for overbite author is born out of a fantasy of absence. She argues that the production of meaning is necessarily a network of projections and counter projections in which the artist is never and flight centre uk reviews, can never be absent. Accounting for the presence and role of the artist in the dialogue between artist and object, artist and viewer, and viewer and object should be, Nixon suggests, part of how the artwork’s meaning is constructed. By pointing to the many ways in which Barthes’s essay is insufficiently dialogic, Nixon’s argument complicates the retainer perhaps too-easy evacuation of the desires of nottingham, both the artist and retainer, the critic in 1980s art criticism. Teasing out the desire of artists may have been difficult at the time, because part of appropriation’s Warholian legacy is its use of diffidence to keep the desiring subjectivity of the in the of amontillado artist in a kind of permanent suspension. Still, several appropriation artists adopted the Hollywood fetish for the culture of fame. David Robbins’s Talent (1986) portrays the retainer for overbite young crop of up-and-coming 1980s artists in a grid of celebrity-style head shots. In MICA-TV’s Cindy Sherman: An Interview (198081) Sherman plays a young artist, dressed like a Hollywood star in big shades, carting her portfolio around for review as she expresses her desire for fame and stardom.
In Ashley Bickerton’s Tormented Self Portrait ( Susie at Arles ) No. 2 (1988), his titular send up of the most romantic of all modern artists (Vincent van Gogh) can be seen as a tongue-in-cheek expression of time dilation means that, his own desire for notoriety, akin to that of the corporate-logo-draped sports star. If Warhol’s mimicry of celebrity culture (through the creation of The Factory) eventually made him a celebrity, then the idea of the artist as having a role to play in the dominant culture (while at the same time being able to comment on it from a putative outside) was itself appropriated by 1980s artists. Rather than discount such gestures as being complicit rather than critical, it now seems possible to see these emulations or extensions of the Warholian principle as riddled with desire and ambivalence, as sites of struggle and pleasure rather than cynical capitulation and for overbite, bad faith. Machiavelli. 55.
As appropriation increased its hold on the artistic imagination, bringing with it an examination of desire and power and their relation to the gaze, another form of desire emerged as well. From the 1970s through the early 1980s, gay culture experienced an undeniable rise in the rhetoric of liberation, making the “closet” an increasingly untenable place to be. The politics of self-actualization and the feminist slogan “the personal is retainer political” were being newly articulated by in the the gay rights movement through increasingly open expressions of sexual identity and desire. The photographs of retainer, Peter Hujar and Robert Mapplethorpe simultaneously helped to means that create this opening as much as their work was made possible by it. Hujar took photographs of art-world denizens throughout the late 1960s and for overbite, 1970s. In the 1980s he took explicit photos of gay men. Quirky and sentimental (they feel decidedly bohemian), they are images by and for members of politics, a downtown avant-garde and queer community. Mapplethorpe was primarily a studio photographer, and his images are largely fantasy tableaux masquerading as a kind of highly personal documentary.
Their subject matter is retainer for overbite explicit, ranging from underground SM culture to in the of amontillado the beautiful and highly eroticized black men of his infamous Black Book (1986). Retainer. The pictures in Black Book are sexually frank, both in their content and their acknowledgment of the desiring gaze behind the camera. Unlike Hujar’s delicate, almost private sensibility, the intense frontality of Mapplethorpe’s pictures made them appear destined for public consumption (albeit of an intimate sort). So while the content may have been “new,” the structure of the images, which borrowed heavily from the upscale fashion photography of artists like Irving Penn and the strange case, pornography, was familiar. While Mapplethorpe’s images were a gesture of desirous liberation on retainer, the one hand, part of their erotic charge emanated from their use of stereotypes of black masculinity. This greatly complicated their critical reception, as the then-emergent postcolonial theory began to demonstrate the ways in which racialized fantasies structured images of sexuality. As Kobena Mercer argued, openly drawing from feminism: “[W]hat is represented in the pictorial space of the photograph is a ‘look,’ or a certain ‘way of looking,’ the pictures say more about the white male subject behind the camera than they do about the black men whose beautiful bodies we see depicted.” 56 Despite being disturbed by the objectification of the black male subject, Mercer remained alive to his own desirous relations to the image, and in a second essay on Black Book relinquished the historian’s time-honored position of objectivity or silent mastery by introducing the problem of authorial “ambivalence and undecidability” 57 into red kangaroo nottingham the critical scenario. In doing so he cracked open, ever so slightly, the facade of critical omnipotence, allowing art criticism to be as ambivalent, contradictory, and nuanced as the art itself.
The appropriation of existing forms was a hallmark of gay and lesbian cultural practice widely noted and theorized in the 1960s by Susan Sontag’s influential essay “On Camp.” By the 1980s, however, camp was only one form of appropriation. Richard Dyer discussed the “gay appropriation of disco in ways that may well not have been intended by for overbite its producers,” 58 and politics, this description resonates with the logic of appropriation as it was being employed by visual artists: “The anarchy of capitalism throws up commodities that an oppressed group can take up and use to cobble together its own culture.” 59 Artists such as Deborah Bright and G. B. For Overbite. Jones did just that when they appropriated the genres of Hollywood cinema and red kangaroo, Tom of Finland cartoons, respectively, producing images of lesbian and queer desire in a culture almost exclusively devoid of such images. In this version of appropriation, desire is for overbite twofold: the desire to make an image of one’s own erotic desire and the desire to insert oneself into an image, to occupy space in the field of representation. Centre Uk Reviews. Bright and Jones thus critique representation by retainer for overbite registering absence through presence. Tobacco Tax Uk. That they did so in such a performative guiseBright play-acts Hollywood’s male romantic leads, and Jones uses gay male sexuality as an avatar for queer desirewere the retainer for overbite as-yet-unread signposts on and mr.hyde shmoop, the way to Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble . For Overbite. Artists working in appropriation in time the 1980s may not have had language with which to discuss the performativity of gender, but by for overbite occupying the in the cask of amontillado roles and codes offered by mass culture and by tackling desire head on, their work implicitly tended to use appropriation as a form of performance. Craig Owens argued as much in his essay “Posing” for the influential 1985 exhibition Difference: On Representation and Sexuality : “[P]osing is a form of mimicry” in which “the subject poses as an retainer object in order to be a subject .” 60. Queer Nation activists at an outreach action at the Vallco Shopping Mall in Cupertino, California, December 29, 1990. Sometimes, however, the language of the strange case and mr.hyde, identity politics congealed around identities as either monolithic (e.g., the African American community) or hierarchical: lesbian trumped woman, black trumped sexuality, etc. As people of color, gays and for overbite, lesbians, and women muscled their way into galleries, art magazines, and museums, their poses were frequently narrated as frozen, and identitiesparticularly marginalized identitieswere reduced to sound bites, by both artists and critics. Independent film- and video-makers led the field in generating more nuanced and complicated representations of desire and flight, identity across and between multiple “poses” or positions. Much of this work came out retainer, of an emerging discourse around postcolonial identity (the work of Homi Bhabha, Coco Fusco, Isaac Julien, and Kobena Mercer is exemplary).
The historical conditions of hybridity that structured the postcolonial situation offered a framework of competing and coexisting forms of identity, difference, and temporality theorized in ways that opened a corridor through the identity politics impasse. Machiavelli. As Bhabha would write in 1983, the stereotype is “an ambivalent mode of knowledge and retainer for overbite, power” that he felt could only be examined via a “shift from the identification of images as positive or negative, to an understanding of the processes of subjectification made possible (and plausible) through stereotypical discourse.” Bhabha’s text (with its self-acknowledged debt to feminism) argued that because ambivalence was a structural condition of subjectivity, the calcification of identity in the hands of critics on both the Left and tobacco tax uk, the Right had to be challenged in favor of interpretations and narratives that sensitively approached the problem of retainer for overbite, identity through the nuanced lens of ethics (rather than moralizing tendencies toward good or bad images). Butler’s Gender Trouble amplified this type of hermeneutic: good-bad, female-male, black-white; such antinomies were no longer productive. Artists, as well as theorists, turned to increasingly polyvalent accounts of identity and subjectivity, necessarily messy and complicated, structured by internal contradiction and not prone to flight centre easy assessment. Julien’s film Looking for Langston (1989) is a multilayered, nonchronological narrative, complete with historical re-creations, poetry, and contemporary theorya textual and visual field as heterogeneous as the territory the film explores: the knot of black male gay desire in which no one term (black, gay, or male) is allowed to dominate the field. Rather, all three conceptual frameworks are shown to for overbite be inextricably bound to one another, requiring both artist and viewer to cultivate a delicate sense of ambivalence in order to navigate them simultaneously. The joyful and playful forms of appropriation of gay culture and the nuanced and highly dialogic use of in the of amontillado, images and forms in postcolonial work were to retainer be sorely tested by tobacco tax uk the increasingly dire nature of the HIV/AIDS crisis. Representations of gay desire came under extraordinary stress as the medical establishment and the US government refused to acknowledge the extent of the growing health crisis in communities of gay men and people of color.
As tens of retainer, thousands died, desire turned into the fear and rage that fueled ACT UP, but it also transmogrified into longingfor days past, for the presence of loved ones gone. Artists who had contracted the disease made works prior to their deaths that telegraphed this quick succession of affects and centre uk reviews, realities. David Wojnarowicz’s Untitled ( Buffalo ) (198889) offers an appropriated image of a herd of American buffalo careening off a cliff to their death, the result of the homicidal purges perpetrated by early white settlers in the American West. The image is a remarkable composite of emotional affects, ranging from rage, futility, and for overbite, desperation to mourning and guilt. A frozen frame, the image refuses any kind of progressive temporality to these emotions, suggesting that a proper “working through” of the ramifications of the AIDS crisis was still a long way off. This concern with time was shared by Félix González-Torres in “Untitled” ( Perfect Lovers ) (198790) in which two store-bought clocks hang plainly, side by side.
Synchronized at the time of their installation, they slowly, inevitably grow out of step with each other. The work, made at the height of the the strange crisis, could not help but be seen as a condensation of the fears and apprehensions about the for overbite success of either love or life amid the devastating waves of death that permeated communities of gay men and people of color. Now, more than two decades later, at the time of this writing, these two clocks, ticking ever so slightly in and out of flight uk reviews, rhythm with one another, offer a model of retainer for overbite, history and subjectivity that This Will Have Been is an attempt at writing: there is never one story, one account, one sense of time that prevails. There is always more than one. The gameof history, of politics, of art, of loveis to figure out how to let the clocks strike differently without losing time.
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an essay sample The remainder of this essay writing tutorial is based on a short sample #039;divorce essay#039; (about 1,000 words). To complete all of the associated tasks, it is easiest if you have the sample essay in front of you. A major change that has occurred in for overbite the Western family is an increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in time dilation means that recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out clearly in census figures.
For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the for overbite figure is more than one in three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997). An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for all of society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage. For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable.
It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301). Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system. The problem with this type of cask of amontillado explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place. It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of more fundamental changes in society. Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the retainer result of economic changes that have affected the family. Tobacco Tax Uk. One example of these changes is the retainer for overbite raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to machiavelli politics, become both homemakers and retainer, economic providers.
According to politics, Hart, the retainer contradiction of these two roles has lead to flight uk reviews, conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in families where only the husband is working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to for overbite, be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change. The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the solutions also being determined in dilation this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the consequence of liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to retainer for overbite, stem this rise is to make them less obtainable.
This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society. Machiavelli Politics. Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at retainer symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the experience of social workers, working in the area of machiavelli family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to retainer for overbite, exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981). In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to in the, be a solution little favoured by Australians. (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in for overbite Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of men and women.
It is difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into practical social policies. This is because the Hart program would appear to require in tobacco tax uk the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is not achievable in the present political climate. Hart is for overbite right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in cask some way to the economic circumstances of families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and security for these types of families.
It is little cause for optimism however, that in for overbite recent years governments of flight uk reviews all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to for overbite, offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is uk reviews even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by it. Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Finally, it is retainer worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of tobacco tax uk increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the premature death of one or both parents. This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the retainer for overbite possibility of looking to the past in searching for ways of dealing with problems in the present. Australian Bureau of flight Statistics (1996). For Overbite. Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Bell, R. and G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. In R. Jureidini, S. Kenny and M. Poole (eds).
Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Unwin. Politics. Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan. Haralambos, M. (1995). Sociology: Themes and for overbite, Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and Hyman. Harrison, M. (1995).
Grounds for divorce. Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. Dilation Means. (1981). Retainer. The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Kilmartin, C. (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families. Time That. Family Matters . Retainer. No. 48. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. (1993). Family Trends and Structure in Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of cask Family Studies.
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Columbine Shooting Essays and for overbite Research Papers. Columbine Shooting On April 20, 1999 two young men . from the time dilation means that, city of Littleton, Colorado went on retainer rampage causing a massacre. In total there were thirteen casualties; twelve students and one lone teacher. Preventing violence in public areas such as schools, airports, malls, etc. security must be increased. Violence can happen anywhere therefore security in schools and public places should be increased. In The. In our society. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1967 Words | 6 Pages. Columbine Columbine high school was built in 1973 on a dirt road off a larger dirt road way out in horse country.
It was named . For Overbite. after the flower that blankets section of the the strange case of dr.jekyll shmoop, Rockies. Retainer. Hardly anybody lived near the school, but soon enough there were about 100,000 new arrivals that filled one continuous suburb with no town center: no main street, no town hall, town library, or town name. Littleton is what they called this quiet suburb where columbine lied several miles west from. Tobacco Tax Uk. Eric and for overbite Dylan called. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1172 Words | 3 Pages. Depression Kills Columbine Research Paper Teen depression has become more common and wide spread in machiavelli politics our society. Depression is a . mental disorder that comes from abnormally low moods that last for at least two weeks.
Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders all around the world. 121 million people around the for overbite, world are being affected by depression (teendepression.org). There are many different causes, symptoms, treatments and of dr.jekyll and mr.hyde shmoop preventions that come with teen depression. Some. Adolescence , Bipolar disorder , Columbine High School massacre 904 Words | 3 Pages. Columbine Shooting Areas of Sociology. Ayesha Hussain 10HJS Why did the ‘ Columbine shooting ’ happen? The Columbine High School massacre was a . school shooting which occurred on 20th of April 1999, at Columbine High School in Columbine , Colorado, United States. Two senior students, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold aged 18, embarked on a shooting spree in which a total of 12 students and 1 teacher were murdered.
They also injured 21 other students directly, with three further people being injured while attempting to escape the school. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1212 Words | 3 Pages. The Shootings at for overbite Columbine High School: The Law Enforcement Response Problem Statement: The response to the . shootings in Columbine could have been handled more effectively if there was a solid coordinate effort from law enforcement and emergency units in the area. The plan of action to prevent the incident from playing out further was hastily put together and only cost more lives at danger. All possible lines of communication whether it be from law enforcement officials, emergency. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1071 Words | 3 Pages. Media's Perception of the Columbine Shootings. film that provides a factual record or report. But how factual is a documentary, really? This presentation aims to investigate the persuasive devices used in . Bowling For Columbine . This is a documentary by well known director Michael Moore, which uses a range of filming techniques to persuade the audience that the tobacco tax uk, Columbine shootings were a result of so much fear, greed and consumerism in America. Retainer. This is his extremely biased idea of the truth.
In Michael Moore’s expose style documentary he intentionally. Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston , Columbine High School massacre 1203 Words | 3 Pages. On April 20th, 1999 two teenagers, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold walked into their school in Columbine Colorado and began a one-hour long . killing spree, which ended in cask the death of 12 of their fellow classmates and retainer for overbite one teacher and left another 28 wounded. The shooters then took their own lives. The two teenage gunmen did not have a previous history of cask, violence but were both enthusiasts of killing-oriented video games.
The violence in video games was a major factor in retainer teaching these kids how to shoot. Arcade game , Boy , Columbine High School 971 Words | 3 Pages. On April 20, 1999, two high school students by the names of Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold carefully and maliciously planned a massacre at . Columbine High School in dilation means Littleton, Colorado. Retainer. They killed fifteen people, one being a teacher, and left twenty-three in need of hospitalization before finally turning their guns on cask themselves. This event influenced Elliot Aronson to write his book, Nobody Left To Hate, in for overbite hopes to educate people on why such travesties occur within our schools, and?most importantly?what. College , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 838 Words | 3 Pages.
Shooting at tobacco tax uk Columbine High School: Causes. Cause ? Effect Even since the shooting at Columbine High School caught the attention of America and all the world on April . Retainer. 20, 1999, high school shootings and other forms of violence at tobacco tax uk schools has been plaguing America during the retainer for overbite, last ten years. It is tobacco tax uk, also found that most of the violence that occurs in high schools is caused by retainer for overbite young men. Students aren't feeling safe at red kangaroo nottingham school anymore and retainer for overbite parents are enraged that students could bring the weapons to dilation that, school in the first place. Many people. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Doom 1311 Words | 4 Pages. Cause Effect of Columbine Shooting. references of mass murders, police and military interest, weapon comments, stalking, depression and retainer extremely unreasonable. Many people agreed that both . boys showed many of these signs. Nottingham. Klebold was placed in a juvenile diversion program before Columbine . TAG believes there are also warning signs that are the retainer, boys desperately screaming for help.
These warning signs are suicide, fame, revenge and anger. When Eric’s girlfriend broke up with him he pretended to commit suicide in order for her to tobacco tax uk, come. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Doom 832 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Columbine High school massacre The Columbine High School massacre occurred on Tuesday, April 20, 1999, at retainer for overbite . Columbine High School in Columbine , an unincorporated area of Jefferson County, Colorado, United States, near Denver and Littleton. Two senior students, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, embarked on a massacre, killing 12 students and flight one teacher and injuring 24.The pair then committed suicide. Retainer. It was the deadliest massacre throughout U.S history taking place at a high school. Machiavelli Politics. This. Brooks Brown , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 5596 Words | 18 Pages. Columbine High School Massacre and Topic School Shooting. School shooting I've chosen this topic because: Personal interest It's a big problem I'll try to find the reason School . Retainer For Overbite. shooting : Information about the strange case shmoop, school shooting - What kind of people do it Columbine High School The gun law - The Second Amendment What could be the reason My own opinion - Relate to retainer, Denmark Sources: The book ”School shooting ” by Heidi Kokholm and Lene Nielsen page 8-11 and means page 38 The movie ”Bowling for Columbine ” by Michael. Bowling for for overbite, Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 966 Words | 4 Pages.
conveyed is heard, which could affect the outcome of was actually instructed of one to politics, complete. Retainer For Overbite. The instance of the Shooting at . Columbine High reminds me of when you take ten people, you tell the first person to pass along a message and by the time you get to the tenth person the original message is so out of politics, context that it unclear what was said to be passed. In the Shooting at retainer for overbite the Columbine High, there was way too much misinformation; a lack of information. One of the in the, many facet of the lack of communication. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 446 Words | 1 Pages. At 11:19 on April 20, 1999 one of the worst tragedies involving kids occurred in retainer Littleton, Colorado. Most people woke up to the strange case and mr.hyde shmoop, a day like any other except two . For Overbite. teenagers, Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris. Nottingham. They took guns with them to their school, Columbine High School, stood at retainer for overbite the west entrance ready to shoot students. Thirteen people where killed by this incident and twenty were hurt. Of Amontillado. Then Dylan and Eric killed themselves, leaving us with the mystery of why they had done what they did.
Dylan Klebold. Brooks Brown , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 526 Words | 2 Pages. Lord of the Flies and Columbine High School Shooting. Lord of the Flies and Columbine High School Shooting On April 20, 1990 a horrible tragedy occurred, the . Retainer For Overbite. Columbine High School Massacre. Case Of Dr.jekyll And Mr.hyde Shmoop. It was one of the most horrible school shootings in the United States. When Eric Harris and retainer for overbite Dylan Klebod killed students at their high school, it was similar to Lord of the Flies where children were stranded on an island by themselves with no adults, and they gradually started to become more violent ending up trying to kill each other. What drove these boys to. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , English-language films 930 Words | 3 Pages. Research Paper-The Columbine Shooters Many people wonder what goes through the mind of killers, why they committed such acts, and and mr.hyde shmoop what . Retainer. persisted them to carry out such horrific crimes.
Two killers in the strange case particular, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, who were responsible for the Columbine massacre are constantly questioned why they would shoot up their own school with intentions to kill hundreds. People often speculate that it video games, a mafia, movies, and bullying drove Harris and Klebold to. Antisocial personality disorder , Brooks Brown , Columbine High School 1694 Words | 4 Pages. not the case as Columbine High School would end up being the site of a school shooting that would haunt the nation for years to retainer for overbite, . come. That. Bowling for Columbine , is retainer for overbite, a documentary by Michael Moore covering the machiavelli politics, events that transpired at Columbine High School.
After viewing Bowling for Columbine , I was shocked. Moore’s video examines a number of retainer, issues involving gun ownership. Flight Centre Uk Reviews. What follows is a summary of the points made in the film, my thoughtful reactions, and the aftermath of Columbine . There were a number. Bowling for retainer, Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1449 Words | 4 Pages. previous school shooting that have happened in the United States. It looks at the shooters, and also look at theories of what possibly could’ve . been their motives for commenting such a tragedy, taking innocent lives. The paper looks at time means what we have learned and what we can do to prevent future school shooting tragedies. It looks at how bullying has pulled the for overbite, trigger and how kids just want to be heard.
The paper looks at what psychologist and flight centre uk reviews criminologist have to say about future shootings and past shooters. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 2557 Words | 7 Pages. to Megan McArdle, “Since 1982, there have been at least 62 mass shootings * across the country, with the retainer for overbite, killings unfolding in 30 states from nottingham, . Massachusetts to Hawaii. Twenty-five of these mass shootings have occurred since 2006, and seven of for overbite, them took place in 2012.” Violence in schools as well as the country is on the rise at an alarming rate, raising questions about gun control. After viewing the documentary Bowling for Columbine , I was intrigued. What follows is a summary of the documentary. Bowling for red kangaroo nottingham, Columbine , Charlton Heston , Columbine High School 1462 Words | 4 Pages. David Nunez 11-26-2012 Columbine Book Report Columbine by Dave Cullen is based upon the true story of the retainer, author’s . research that took ten years to find out red kangaroo, why did Eric Harris and Dylan Kleblod decide to go on a shooting spree at retainer the Columbine High School in Columbine , Colorado on April 20, 1999, and what became of the survivors?
As the politics, author explains in his book, the two young men Eric and Dylan had a plan to blow up their school, surpass Columbine in horror, and leave a “a lasting impression. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 851 Words | 3 Pages. ? Columbine High School Tuesday, April 20, 1999, was a turning point in the lives of many Columbine students and families. For Overbite. Eric . Harris and tobacco tax uk Dylan Klebold, two former students at Columbine High School, went to for overbite, school on that day for one purpose, to annihilate the school building as well as the student body. Although Eric and Dylan’s bombs did not detonate, they still succeeded in destroying the lives and centre families of the twelve students and the one teacher that died. The Columbine High School shooting. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 624 Words | 2 Pages.
The 20th of April was the anniversary of the massacre at retainer Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado. Case And Mr.hyde. The shooting deaths of for overbite, 12 . students and 1 teacher?and the two suicides of the teenage executioners and left many others psychologically and physically damaged. Who's to blame? , On the in the of amontillado, issue of blame, of this massacre it is not music, or video games, and not even movies, it's the shooters because everybody is responsible own actions. However, the parents could have been more involved in their. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Doom 1205 Words | 4 Pages.
School shooting in the United States A school shooting is an incident in which gun violence is used on retainer a school campus. . Schools shooting are committed by students or even intruders. School shooting is topic of intense interest in the United States. The first school shooting ever recorded in the United States was the the strange of dr.jekyll shmoop, Pontiac’s rebellion school massacre. As time change, the progression of school shooting increases. For Overbite. On April 20, 1999 a massacre occurred at columbine high school in Littleton, Colorado.
Adolescence , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1208 Words | 4 Pages. Psychopath: The FBI’s Analysis of the Killers Motives” The Columbine Alamac (20 April 2004) Janofsky, Michael. Machiavelli Politics. Year Later, . Columbine Is Learning to Cope While Still Searching for retainer, Answers. New York Times (17 April 2000) Luzadder, Dan and cask Vaughan, Kevin. “Inside Columbine Investigation” Denver Rocky Mountain News (19 December 1999 ) This paper is going to for overbite, explore what effect the labeling theory had in regards to the tragedy at Columbine High School. Were these two students labeled, to what. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1234 Words | 3 Pages. Bowling for columbine -speech- I’m here to talk about Michael Moore’s film ‘Bowling for Columbine ’ and some of the shmoop, techniques . Retainer. that are used in the film. Michael Moore uses persuasive film techniques to case and mr.hyde shmoop, position the audience to accept his version of the truth. Retainer For Overbite. Some of the techniques used by Michael Moore to position the audience are editing, sequencing and music. Machiavelli. He uses them by editing parts of the film to marginalize the NRA and for overbite gun owners.
He sequences the film into a certain position to make. Black people , Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston 1334 Words | 4 Pages. Bowling for columbine is a biased, deceptive and tobacco tax uk misleading documentary created by Michael Moore, detailing how gun legislation is the main . cause for crime in America. Documentary is an undeserved title that Moore has falsely claimed, as stated in Farlex dictionary, a documentary is, and I quote, “Presenting facts objectively without editorializing or inserting fictional matter”, which Moore has consistently done. Good afternoon, my name is Tim Geldard, and I am a spokesperson for for overbite, the NRA, protector. 2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston 956 Words | 3 Pages. General Bowling for Columbine Notes SYNOPSIS: The Academy Award winning documentary film “Bowling for Columbine ” by . Director Michael Moore attempts to find a reason for the Columbine High School, Colorado shootings and leads to an investigation into gun laws and in the of amontillado gun violence. Through a series of retainer for overbite, interviews, stunts, cartoons, commentary and media pieces, we are left at the end of a blunt and flight centre revealing journey wanting the answers to the various moral and ethical questions raised. Retainer. Moore travels.
Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School massacre , Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold 2360 Words | 7 Pages. ?School shootings School shootings are something horrible yet something that has occurred more than once in the USA. I have . had a hard time understanding exactly how someone can pick up a gun and in the cask shoot people at their own age – people they’ve gone to school with, innocent people. I don’t understand how you can steal their life for retainer, no reason. It’s teenagers who suddenly shoot people – boys and girls who are supposed to be their friends. Why do they do this? The first person that did a school.
Bowling for machiavelli, Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1033 Words | 3 Pages. Effects of mass shootings in retainer for overbite America. mass shootings in America Intro. Technique: News story from Colorado Theater shooting 1. Examples: Columbine , CO . Theater, Virginia Tech, Ft. Hood, Sandy Hook, Washington Navy Yard A. Most notable: Columbine B. Evolved and multiplied over times C. Tobacco Tax Uk. Nowhere is sacred 2. Positive Effects of the mass shootings A. Increased awareness of mental illnesses B. Experience from past shootings have allowed first responders to better response tactics 3. Negative Effects of the mass shootings A. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1175 Words | 5 Pages. Bowling For Columbine Bowling for for overbite, Columbine is a Michael Moore documentary about gun control and America’s violent . national history.
The United States has the highest number of gun related deaths in the world. Politics. Michael Moore sets out to get an understanding of why Americans have such a strong violent culture. To grasp the reasoning for the amount of retainer for overbite, forcefulness within our country, Michael Moore sets out to Columbine Colorado. Columbine High school was involved in a shooting massacre on. Cold War , Columbine High School massacre , Michael Moore 741 Words | 3 Pages. ?Kaitlin Wilson The Art Craft of Writing September 24, 2012 “Bowling for the strange case and mr.hyde, Columbine ” Review Sometimes the best tool for questioning a . social problem is humor - which is exactly what Michael Moore does in Bowling for Columbine . This is not a movie about guns or violence or television, but about culture. Using the Columbine school shooting as his hook, Moore attempts to find answers as to why American culture is saturated in violence and fear. Moore is retainer for overbite, a director who isn’t afraid to tobacco tax uk, ask.
Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1084 Words | 3 Pages. What would drive two teenagers to comit such a horriffic tragedy as what happened at for overbite Columbine ? In Bowling for Columbine . director Michael Moore takes a look at gun violence in America and means that the causes behind such horriffic events that have led to Columbine . For Overbite. In the film Michael Moore explores the question What makes the US have the most gun deaths than the rest of the world? By exploring this Moore and cask his viewers explore a variety of reasons, The strongest point made by Moore is that largely. Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School massacre , Crime 829 Words | 3 Pages. Bowling for Columbine Thesis Statements. October 17, 2010 Bowling for retainer for overbite, Columbine Thesis Statements 1) The high casualties caused by guns are a result of how easy it is to red kangaroo, obtain . one.
If policies were made stricter, casualties would go down. Retainer. I do not agree with this because it would only affect the people who go to obtain their guns legally. If you really wanted one all you would have to of dr.jekyll shmoop, do is steal it, so the policies would then have no effect on retainer for overbite you. 2) Minorities and blacks are made to be scarier than they are because they. Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston , Crime 770 Words | 3 Pages. School Shootings I. Cases of where this has happened A. Columbine High School massacre B. Montreal, Canada . Flight. shooting II. How can it be prevented A. Metal detectors 1. Efficiency 2. Private rights B. School Resource officers 1. Intimidating 2. Friend C. School Surveillance 1. For Overbite. Cost 2. Effectiveness D. Counseling III. Who is committing these crimes? A. Students B. Outcasts at school C. How they form groups IV.
Why is machiavelli politics, this happening? A. Teasing B. Retainer For Overbite. Lost of red kangaroo, old friends . Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Dawson College shooting 1809 Words | 6 Pages. Bowling for Columbine Reaction Paper By: Brian Scheu Violence! What causes it? Has it Increased/decreased over the past few years? I . will try to answer these questions to the best that I can in the next few pages. One thing you must look at when dealing with violence is the nature of the for overbite, crime. You can look at violent murders but not be able to compare them to machiavelli politics, other violent crimes because the nature of the crime is completely different. Retainer. One may believe that violence in cask of amontillado our society has.
Apples and oranges , Columbine High School massacre , Comparison 921 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Columbine and Virginia Tech. The Columbine Shooting and Virginia Tech. shooting were called similar in retainer various ways. They were both declared a . national tragedy 13 people killed total in the Columbine and of dr.jekyll 33 in the Virginia Tech shooting . Though the two incidents were similarly done by psychopaths, there were differences in the details of both shootings , the reactions of society, and upcoming psychological development. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold were responsible for the 13 deaths during the Columbine Shooting on April 20. Columbine High School massacre , Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold , Mental disorder 1375 Words | 4 Pages. Carrie and Columbine: American Gothic. Carrie, by Stephen King, and the Columbine High School Incident; looked at separately, they are to things that have nothing to do with each . other. Carrie was Stephen King's first major novel and retainer a New York Times bestseller. Columbine was and incident in tobacco tax uk Colorado that happened in retainer 1999, where two high school seniors orchestrated a bloody massacre at their high school.
The two events occurred over twenty-five years apart, but when juxtaposed we can see many similarities between the book ant the incident. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1854 Words | 5 Pages. The Use of Editing in Bowling for Columbine used to machiavelli, argue an retainer for overbite, idea. Of Dr.jekyll And Mr.hyde. In the movie, Bowling for for overbite, Columbine , Michael Moore is a genius when it comes to his editing choices concerning . Charlton Heston and the NRA. Using a few well placed insert shots Moore is able to bring the attention away from Heston long enough to change around parts of his speech and shorten dialogues.
By means of crosscuts he is able to in the cask, make it seem as if though Heston is talking insensitively to the weeping children of Columbine . All of this is an attempt to incriminate Heston. 2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston 1355 Words | 4 Pages. S. Zamb. November 29, 2001 “ Shooting and elephant” Erick Arthur Blair better known as George Orwell was born in Mohitari, India on June . Retainer For Overbite. 25, 1903. India into a family of the “lower-upper middle class.
George Orwell’s education brought him to England where he was unable to win a scholarship to continue his studies. With a very few opportunities available, he followed his father’s path into service with the British Empire. Orwell joined the Indian Imperial Police from 1922 to 1927. When. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 934 Words | 3 Pages. School Shootings and Their Causes. On April 20, 1999, in the moderately sized town of Littleton, Colorado, at approximately 11:20 a.m., two young men, Eric Harris, 18, and Dylan Klebold, 17, . stormed into Columbine High School. No more than twenty minutes later, 15 people were dead, including the two of them, and flight uk reviews another twenty-three wounded (Gibbs 28-29). Knowing that the duo are teenagers, and probably played many violent video games and watched hundreds of violent shows, people immediately began to blame the media, and for overbite the violence. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Doom 1577 Words | 5 Pages.
Increase in School Shooting Incidents. Alberta Taber School Shooting : A 14 year old boy who had been bullied at W.R. Myers High School in Taber Alberta had entered the machiavelli, school on . April. Retainer For Overbite. 28. Case Of Dr.jekyll And Mr.hyde. 1999 with a .22 Calibre rifle and opened fire. He killed a 17 year old young boy named Jason Lang. Retainer. Another 17 year old boy was shot, but fully recovered after the nottingham, shooting . 14 year old “Todd Cameron Smith” a high school dropout showed signs of depression before the for overbite, school shooting . Todd Smith had been bullied since grade one. The shooting happened 8 days.
Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 2446 Words | 6 Pages. Account for the Success of Bowling for Columbine. for Columbine ” has been accredited to Michael Moore and his talents in conveying his message through the film of the issues which plague . American society. The reasons for cask, this success are the subject of the film; there are the fear and racism in society and the controversial issues which Moore addresses through the film. The growing fear of others in the States can be called many things such as hate but mainly racism. Moor interviews various individuals such as those who live in Columbine and.
2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School 942 Words | 3 Pages. Bowling for Columbine Bowling for Columbine has been written, directed, produced, and narrated by Michael Moore who has used a . number of techniques to produce a piece of work about Americas fascination with guns and violence. This documentary discovers the reasons for the Columbine High School massacre along with further actions of violence in America. Moore emphasises on the background of gun violence and captures some of the communities’ views of the massacre and other associated problems. This. 2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School 1069 Words | 3 Pages. George Orwell’s “ Shooting an Elephant” “ Shooting an Elephant” is an essay written by George Orwell and published in 1936 . (Orwell 66). Orwell was born June 25, 1903, as Eric Arthur Blair and passed away January 21, 1950, in India (“George Orwell Biography”).
Orwell was known for his journals, novels, and essays published about his own political views (“George Orwell Biography”). Orwell traveled to for overbite, Burma after not doing good enough in dilation means that school to earn a scholarship and for overbite decided to tobacco tax uk, join the imperial. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 938 Words | 3 Pages. In George Orwell’s “ Shooting an Elephant”, Orwell is presented with a task that causes him a great deal of retainer for overbite, stress as he battles with his . The Strange Case Of Dr.jekyll. internal conflict throughout the story. Orwell has mixed feelings after he kills the elephant. He feels wrong for retainer for overbite, killing the elephant because he feels that there could have been a more peaceful solution and killing it will bring more harm than good. He also feels that he killed it just because of his own pride. Although killing the politics, elephant may seem wrong to. Authority , Burma , George Orwell 1225 Words | 3 Pages.
Julien Combes Natasha Rebry Writing 009 20th November 2011 “ Shooting an Elephant“: Orwell’s combat against imperialism . “ Shooting an Elephant” is an essay written by George Orwell, first published in the journal New Writing in 1936. For Overbite. In this essay, the author tells his own story about when he was working as a police officer for the Indian Imperial Police in Burma. His five years of experience in the Indian Imperial Police allowed him to have a good understanding of what exactly the “real. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 1200 Words | 4 Pages. How Bowling for in the, Columbine Is Bias. Bowling for Columbine : A Narrow View of a Complicated Story The Biased viewpoint of Michael Moore tears viewers away from the retainer for overbite, actual . In The Of Amontillado. problem, and perhaps even the film’s intended message itself… Alexi Heazle The idea of a documentary being an artistic or even personalised expression of a director is long gone, or so it seems in retainer recent times.
In Michael Moore’s latest documentary, Bowling for Columbine , he attempts to flight centre uk reviews, get across to retainer, viewers his, and essentially only his point of in the of amontillado, view. 2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston 767 Words | 3 Pages. It compels its followers to act irrationally in order to keep appearances. Retainer For Overbite. Facing an impenetrable tyranny, the narrator, George Orwell, realizes his own . oppression is not a product of his enemies but his own internal conflicts. In the red kangaroo nottingham, essay “ Shooting an Elephant”, George Orwell narrates his experience serving as a sub-divisional police officer for the British Empire in Moulmein, Burma. For Overbite. Orwell uses metaphors to represent his feelings on imperialism, intimate struggles with his own personal morals.
British Empire , Burma , Colonialism 1120 Words | 3 Pages. ?Bowling for Columbine Emily Organization: 1. Example: Many examples are used throughout this film to prove the overall thesis of Americans . revolve around gun violence. Flight. For example, Moore went to a bank, opened up an account and received a free gun. This symbolizes the retainer, absurd love for guns Americans have. In The Cask. A bank handing out retainer for overbite, guns that people can turn around and rob the red kangaroo nottingham, bank with is a terrible idea, but thats the logic of the United States. Kids growing up around violence can be influenced to try. Birthright citizenship in the United States of America , Cannon , Columbine High School massacre 1920 Words | 3 Pages. Shooting an elephant written by George Orwell brings to light the evil of for overbite, imperialism. Being a police officer in the lower Burma, Orwell hated . his job. The reason was because the people in Burma ridiculed, insulted and laughed at him whenever they felt safe to in the cask of amontillado, do so. Retainer. Orwell opposed imperialism, and thus was able to feel the hatred of the people of Burma, but still resented them.
The story starts with Orwell receiving a phone call about tobacco tax uk, a tame elephant destroying bazaar. He carried with him an old. British Empire , Burma , Colonialism 1125 Words | 3 Pages. '' If it were necessary to retainer for overbite, give the the strange and mr.hyde shmoop, briefest possible definition of imperialism, we should have to say that imperialism is the monopoly stage of retainer, . capitalism now according to Vladimir Lenin. George Orwell immediately begins the essay '' Shooting an flight centre, Elephant by retainer for overbite claiming his perspective on tobacco tax uk British Imperialism, and for overbite how this imperialism affected himself, his empire, and the Burma people.
Though George Orwell is nottingham, a British officer himself at retainer the time in red kangaroo Burma , he claims that he is fully against. British Empire , Burma , Colonialism 1885 Words | 5 Pages. Columbine High School Massacre On Tuesday, April 20 1999, Columbine High School located in Columbine Colorado . an unfortunate massacre happened and many teens lost their lives. The two students responsible for this incident were Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold. These two senior students were responsible for killing twelve students and for overbite one teacher; they were also responsible for injuring an additional twenty one students on their rampage.
A few other students were injured while trying to escape. Cannon , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1953 Words | 5 Pages. Deceiving Images of Bowling for Columbine. countries that allow its citizens the right to have firearms. Due to of dr.jekyll, this, there are many more gun related fatalities compared to other countries that do not . Retainer. allow their citizens to flight centre uk reviews, keep firearms. For Overbite. Bowling for Columbine , directed by tobacco tax uk Michael Moore, focuses mostly on one tragic even that happened at Columbine High School, and uses it in order to persuade viewers to side against National Rifle Association, which is a big pro-gun group, and the whole gun control issue. Moore makes the reason why the retainer for overbite, US has more.
Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1866 Words | 5 Pages. Jessica DeBruhl Terry McCammond English Composition 111 6 February 2013 WP#2 First draft Pressures In this essay, Shooting an Elephant, . George Orwell, comes face to face with the machiavelli politics, effects of peer pressure and imperialism. While under constant scrutiny by the people who did not want to be ruled, he felt “stuck between the retainer, hatred of the empire I serve and my rage against the evil-spirited little beasts who tried to make my job impossible” (Orwell). Nottingham. George finds himself in retainer an impossible situation. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 1243 Words | 4 Pages. Trystan Tomco Mr. Stone English 110 12/03/13 Shooting an Elephant Essay George Orwell wrote “ Shooting an tobacco tax uk, Elephant” . to teach readers about for overbite, imperialism and its effects on not only those ruled but also those charged with maintaining order above them. Orwell’s narrator is a British colonial official stationed in Burma who is in the cask, charged with keeping the local populace from rioting. The officer speaks of how he is frightened by the Burmans and even by retainer for overbite his own people rulers.
Fear is case of dr.jekyll, one of the. Affect , British Empire , Burma 809 Words | 3 Pages. name of Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold entered Columbine High School with the intent of for overbite, killing hundreds of their classmates with guns, knives, . and bombs that they hand made in red kangaroo nottingham their homes. Retainer For Overbite. They began opening fire on their peers and setting off explosives all around the school. Before students had the chance to put together what was happening around them there were kids being shot injured and killed everywhere they turned. Nottingham. A student who attended Columbine said “I thought it had to be a firecracker -. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 2097 Words | 5 Pages. Shooting an elephant Author: George Orwell BIOGRAPHY OF GEORGE ORWELL George Orwell's three major books of travel writing--Down and . Out in Paris and London (1933), The Road to retainer, Wigan Pier (1937), and tobacco tax uk Homage to Catalonia (1938)--revived the tradition of excursionary literature as social and retainer for overbite political analysis.
Into Unknown England books were initiated by flight uk reviews reform-minded Victorian and retainer Edwardian authors. In his three travel books Orwell, who casts himself as a representative of English lower-upper-middle-class. British Empire , Burma , Colonialism 1331 Words | 4 Pages. Technology to Prevent School Shootings. talks about cask of amontillado, recent catastrophic events and brutal shooting incidents that have taken place in schools that are related to the safety of . children, faculty and other visitors. Further this paper discusses technological solution that could be applied to avoid such events and provide more safety to the people at school. Introduction: School shootings , especially in United States of America, are being witnessed all over the world. Retainer For Overbite. These shootings are not just recent incidents; we can find these throughout. Columbine High School massacre , Revolving door , School shooting 1340 Words | 4 Pages. Bowling for Columbine Michael Moore Documentary.
Is it the bowling? It must be the and mr.hyde, Video games? Michael Moore’s award winning documentary; ‘Bowling for Columbine ’ explores the reason for the . violence in America and the reason for the Columbine High school mascara. Retainer. In April 1999 two students Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold went on the strange case a shooting rampage killing 12 students and a teacher before committing suicide, Moore looks at the background in which the massacre took place and assumptions about related issues. Retainer. Moore uses Bill Nichols’ four modes of. Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 2198 Words | 6 Pages. Whitman climbed to the top of the observation deck at The University of Texas in Austin.
He was armed, and during a rampage which lasted 96 minutes, he . killed 16 people and left 31 wounded. (Kingsbury.) Since then, at least 50 incidents of school shootings have rocked the nation at its foundation. Nottingham. (Timeline.) Not all were so destructive at their ends as that of retainer for overbite, Charles Whitman. Some were more so. Time Dilation That. All have one thing in common: they have forever changed the retainer, face of the nation as we thought we knew. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , School shooting 1941 Words | 6 Pages.
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cd web resume Upon several occasions throughout your career you will need to retainer, provide your potential employer with important information about your background and your qualifications. The most common method to provide information to potential employers is to in the cask of amontillado, create a resume. A resume can create a vivid word picture of yourself. The World Wide Web (WWW) has recently became more popular, and is often considered the for overbite newest form of popular media by many people. Red Kangaroo Nottingham! In fact, making your resume available on the World Wide Web is comparable to broadcasting it on national television during prime time hours. The most obvious benefit you will immediately receive by making your resume available on the Web is that you will reach an for overbite, unlimited number of in the of amontillado people and retainer have opened new doors to audiences you would otherwise probably have never reached before. Flight Centre Uk Reviews! Many companies will visit college resume lists searching for retainer potential employees.
If you have your resume on paper but not on the Web, they will undoubtedly never see it. Another benefit of creating an electronic resume is cost. Many colleges provide space on their web server for their students' resumes free of and mr.hyde shmoop charge. Using college web servers, students can practically eliminate paper and printing costs. For Overbite! Rather than performing mass mailings of means that your resume, you can reduce the number of printed copies you will need and retainer for overbite reserve these for companies you are particularly interested in. Other benefits you will receive by creating an HTML resume include: the ability to provide electronic links to your reference and previous employers as well as providing links to previous jobs or projects you have been involved with the ability to in the, make updates immediately available ease of maintainability the retainer ability to show that you can adapt to, and use new technology as it becomes available (a plus to time dilation means that, many employers) simply making your resume look more professional. By creating your resume using HTML and making it available on the World Wide Web, you will improve your chances of getting a job that best suits your interests as well as your employer's interests. Writing Your Resume in HTML Format. CREATE YOUR RESUME ON A WORD PROCESSOR AND PRINT IT. When writing your resume, consult English books, writing guides, or take advantage of career services provided by many universities.
Be sure to have someone proofread and review your resume. Many instructors in the English department of a University will gladly proofread your resume, but be sure to give it to for overbite, him/her enough in advance to provide enough time to review it and so that it will not be an inconvenience to cask of amontillado, him/her. Remember to be courteous and thank them; after all, they are doing you a big favor. It is much better to have a professor see your mistakes while you have the retainer for overbite chance to correct them than for a potential employer to time dilation, see them. It is important that your resume be grammatically correct as well as in the correct format. Your resume is often the for overbite first impression an employer will receive. It will be easier to htmlify your resume if you have already created it.
By creating your resume first you can focus on formatting it rather than trying to create it and format it at the same time. SAVE YOUR WORD-PROCESSED RESUME IN TEXT (.txt) FORMAT. This can usually be done by using the save as option found under the file utilities of your favorite word processor. If you are unable to locate a save as feature for your word processor consult your user's manual or contact customer support. After selecting save as choose text or Ascii text from the available list of formats. Flight Centre Uk Reviews! By saving your resume in text form, you will be able to retainer for overbite, add HTML formatting tags more easily. Although you could save your file in other formats, saving in text format will make it easier to edit because text file format does not save any formatting information.
Other file formats embed formatting information like boldface, italics, and indentations as part of the file. When you view or edit word processor formatted files you will see formatting information that is unreadable by HTML browsers, thus you will need to delete it before you will be able to proceed. Editors allow you to machiavelli politics, change files without embedding formatting options such as boldface, italics and underscoring into the file. Many editors are available to use. Some of the retainer most common are: edit on DOS machines and PCs; emacs and vi on UNIX workstations; and edit on the strange case and mr.hyde shmoop VAX/VMS machines. You can also use your favorite word processor to open a text file.
For more information on the editor you will use, consult your system administrator or read your user's manual. Which editor you should use depends upon the type of system you are using and your preference between the retainer editors on your system. Make sure you use an editor that you are familiar with. By using an unfamiliar editor you will find yourself spending most of your time trying to learn to use the editor rather than actually creating your resume. Throughout the remainder of this document I will base the steps on the DOS editor and a generic word processor. To open your resume, first open the editor by typing edit at a DOS prompt, or the appropriate command for in the cask of amontillado the editor you intend to use. Next, choose the retainer for overbite Open File option from the FILE menu. Fill in the filename you choose earlier or use the browse feature to locate the file.
Elements of an HTML document are denoted using HTML tags. An HTML tag usually consists of a left angle bracket ( ). Tags are also usually paired (e.g. Cask! ltP and lt/P), the first is used to identify the beginning of the retainer for overbite element and the second (usually lt/tagname) identifies the end of the element. Some tags may also contain additional information. This information should be placed inside the angle brackets. For example, to display a paragraph using full justification use ltP ALIGN=justifygt. HTML documents have a minimum requirement of tags. These tags are required by politics, HTML browsers in order to recognize a file as a HTML file. Retainer! The following is a summary of the machiavelli politics required HTML tags: The required HTML tags must be placed in the appropriate order inside and retainer for overbite HTML file.
The following HTML is dilation that, a simple example of the minimum HTML document. Using indentation can greatly improve the looks of your HTML, make it easier to for overbite, read, and make it much easier to maintain. Although indentation is not required, you should always use it to improve your HTML. The benefits greatly outweigh the extra time it takes to tobacco tax uk, write your HTML. HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the indentation will not be visible when the document is viewed using a HTML browser. Retainer For Overbite! Here is the previous example written using indentation to make it easier to read.
ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY. The use of additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the politics appearance of your resume. HTML contains numerous tags to use, in addition many new tags will be added in the future. For Overbite! I could not possibly cover every tag here. However, I will briefly describe some of the commonly used and most useful tags. For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the latest HTML reference manual. This manual can be found on the world wide web at http://www.sandia.gov/sci_compute/html_ref.html. The following table contains many of the machiavelli politics most common and most useful HTML tags. You can use any of these tags by for overbite, simply placing the begin tag, the text to tobacco tax uk, format, and the end tag directly in your HTML document. Retainer! You will find it useful to view your document as you make changes.
See step 9 for instructions on how to view your current HTML document. Centre Uk Reviews! By doing this, you will become familiar with the effects of the tags. In order to ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into retainer your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the in the cask of amontillado .html or .htm extension. To do this choose save as from the file menu. Next you should choose the retainer text or ASCII text format from the available format list. Finally, type your filename in the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the time means name you wish to call your file (e.g. resume.html). CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming. There are many tools available to help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint.
For information on how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. An alternative to for overbite, creating custom images is to find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and copy it. Dilation That! One method of locating useful and free images is to view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of Clipart. Another method of retainer locating useful images is to use the Yahoo search engine and search for in the the image. To do this simply type image:keyword in the Yahoo's search box and click on the search button. This type of searching is very time consuming and retainer often does not result in case shmoop any useful images. If you are unable to retainer for overbite, create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to create the image for you.
Although images can improve the appearance of tobacco tax uk your resume, you should use them sparingly. Often the quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an increase in the number of images you add. Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from retainer, your page. In addition, you should keep the content of your images on a professional level unless the image directly relates to your job qualification. For example it is time dilation, acceptable to have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and creating a link to it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an image into your HTML resume open your resume in retainer for overbite your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the uk reviews location and retainer for overbite filename of your image. For example, to display an tobacco tax uk, image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in retainer size, use the following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt.
All images should be in the .GIF or .JPG file format. If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the that browser was unable to load your image. Possible causes of this problem are: you used an incompatible file format, the image does not exist, you did not specify the correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to 770. See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for help with setting file permissions). Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at for overbite, the command prompt. There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM. Cask Of Amontillado! Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Retainer! Open your resume by clicking on the Open File option on the File menu.
Next, type the filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the means that browse feature to locate the file, then click on the ok button. Your resume should be displayed in for overbite the browser window. Viewing your resume in an HTML browser is an excellent way to ensure the content of your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes. Once you are familiar with the the strange case shmoop process of creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in for overbite any order. You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on each of the links you've created using your HTML browser. Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the impression a potential employer has on your resume.
Broken links are usually the result of a typographical error or a link to a web site that no longer exists. Because the web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the tobacco tax uk resources for for overbite students to install their resumes. Nottingham! Contact your University Webmaster to obtain information. You can often locate the for overbite Webmaster through an email address on the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and all of the cask of amontillado images you have used to the directory your web provider specifies. After installing your HTML resume you should always test it.
Visit the URL your web provider supplies to insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to retainer for overbite, potential employers that contact you as soon as possible. In addition you should always mail a paper copy of flight your resume to any potential employers. By showing sincere interest, you will increase an employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . Retainer For Overbite! March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the Java environment.
Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and tobacco tax uk delivering interactive content across the Web. Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to retainer for overbite, bring the in the cask reader a broader range of information. In one of the retainer for overbite articles Philip David Meese does an excellent job of dilation means explaining to the reader how to create his/her first Java application. His article was well written and was equivalent in content to a small course. Retainer For Overbite! The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to understand example code. I strongly agree with Mr. Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to develop a Java application. An entire section of Java Report is machiavelli politics, devoted to Product Review. In this section the authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader. This information was the equivalent of for overbite a Consumer Reports article.
This section is a great source of flight centre uk reviews information about for overbite, individual products. In general, Java Report is a great source of information relating to the use and development of Java applications for any software developer. Red Kangaroo! However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the scope of the average reader. Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec. C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the retainer advantages and means that disadvantages of an HTML resume.
The article, which appeared in The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. Some of the topics Mr. Retainer For Overbite! Rampe discusses includes the in the searchability of for overbite HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and the dehumanization of the the strange of dr.jekyll and mr.hyde shmoop process. Mr. Rampe also discusses the importance of retainer writing your HTML resume in the proper fashion, to the computer. He states that you must resolve mentally to in the, address your resume to 'Dear Computer. ' and retainer just ignore the dehumanization of it all. In addition, the article provides the URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the reader get started. Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of information and tobacco tax uk should be reviewed by anyone who decides to retainer, create and HTML resume. Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to help the least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr.
Rampe provides an ample amount of information and resources necessary to create an politics, HTML resume. Rampe provides both the for overbite pros and the cons of an HTML resume in tobacco tax uk an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to decide the necessity of an HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in my opinion, the most complete and useful source of HTML information. Although the manual is currently over a year old, the information it contains is accurate, precise and very helpful. For Overbite! The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to tobacco tax uk, HTML in general, then lists important terms and for overbite definitions. Next the authors validate the tobacco tax uk document's content by discussing the conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to as HTML Version 2. For Overbite! The authors also discuss the importance of Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements. Next the authors discuss the general breakdown of HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons.
Finally, the authors break down over means one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and variations. Retainer! In addition the document contains an in the cask, easy to use index which allows the reader to jump directly to any element of interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available. In addition it is well written, well organized and very easy to use. This document is an excellent source of information for both the novice and expert HTML programmers.
Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by for overbite, their respective owners.