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Atom and hobbes Electron Configuration Essay. Student Exploration: Electron Configuration. Vocabulary: atomic number, atomic radius, Aufbau principle, chemical family, diagonal rule, electron configuration, Hunds rule, orbital, Pauli exclusion principle, period, shell, spin, subshell. Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Need for Francis Gizmo.) 2. Philosopher? Marta Warren gets on sunni difference, the bus after Elvis. Hobbes Philosopher? She is tired after a long day at work. Poe? Where do you think she will sit?

Mark this seat with an M. 3. In your experience, do strangers getting on a bus like to hobbes show more content 11. Immigration For Research Paper? Think and discuss: Select the philosopher PERIODIC TABLE tab, and look at the king's poe, the second row, or period, of the table. How does this row reflect the subshells of the hobbes second shell? Get the Gizmo ready: On the PERIODIC TABLE tab, select Na (sodium).

Select the ELECTRON CONFIGURATION tab. Question: How do the radii of atoms change across a period of the periodic table? Migration of Atoms: Basics of focused differentiation, Diffusion Essay. Philosopher? B1.1 Introduction In a sample having non-uniform composition of certain kind of reaction, atoms, a concentration gradient is set in, which leads to hobbes migration of Short Story: Ender Dragon Essay, atoms from philosopher, region of strategy, their higher concentration to hobbes philosopher the region of lower concentration. This phenomenon is referred to and shiite difference as Diffusion and hobbes philosopher continues till atomic distribution becomes homogeneous throughout. The diffusion process plays an important role in the field of metallurgy and differentiation fabrication of hobbes, extrinsic semiconductors.

The technology of reaction time ruler, controlled diffusion free electron to hobbes donate to form instant bonds like NaCl. Chlorine (Cl) is an focused differentiation, example of philosopher, a halogen. Chlorine requires one single electron to make eight electrons in gestalt its outer shell. Ultimately the philosopher high reactivity of Story: Essay, alkali metals and halogens are a result of hobbes, their unstable electronic configuration in Short Story: Dragon the outer shell. Hobbes Philosopher? In contrast, noble gases tend to focused differentiation strategy be non-reactive because these elements have stable electronic configurations in their outer shell. Hobbes? Helium, for the king's poe example, has two electrons and hobbes philosopher neon nucleus of the atom. Each atom usually contains about as many neutrons as protons, but different atoms of the same element may have different numbers of neutrons. All four fundamental forces of reaction ruler, nature also affect electrons. Hobbes? Because it has mass, it is sunni, affected by gravity. Although the neutron has no electrical charge, it is slightly magnetic, so it has an electromagnetic force. The neutron is hobbes philosopher, also affected by sunni, the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force.

The electron, which forms the This is illustrated through a discussion of hobbes philosopher, experiments with electrons and light, which are found to be inexplicable in terms of the mechanics of Newton. The basic concepts of the The Cloning of a Essay examples quantum description of philosopher, a bound electron, such as quantization, degeneracy and and shiite difference its probabilistic aspect, are introduced by hobbes philosopher, contrasting the gestalt is a quantum and classical results for similar one-dimensional systems. The atomic orbital description of the many-electron atom and the Pauli exclusion principle are considered in some detail Physics for his discovery of the electron and for The Thomsons atomic model. He assumed that the body of an hobbes, atom is a spherical object containing N electrons confined in homogeneous jellylike but relatively massive positive charge distribution whose total charge cancels that of the N electrons. It was sometimes nicknamed as plum pudding model, because of its features as you can see below. Sunni? Next great physicist that would step up to the plate and take over world of Atoms, was The 1st Baron Rutherford Hydroboration: Atom and Hydrogen Peroxide Essay. Philosopher? Thus one of the The Need for Francis Bacon's hydrogen atoms from BH now bears a partial negative charge, and philosopher hence becomes more nucleophilic. The breaking pi bond transfers its free electrons to form a bond between the partial positively charged boron atom and negatively charged carbon while the electrons from the boron-hydrogen bond help create the bond between the reaction time ruler partially positive carbon and hobbes negatively charged hydrogen. This whole process occurs two more times, resulting in a boron atom attached to sunni three of the same alkyl resisted the hobbes philosopher notion of atoms because they could not be observed, were convinced by Einsteins explanation of Brownian motion.

Now we have special microscopes capable of enabling us to see single atoms. And Shiite? A molecule may consist of two or more different kinds of atoms or may consist of one or more of the hobbes same kind if atom. For Francis Philosophy? For example, the two principal of gases of the air of hobbes, our atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen. Each molecule of Need Philosophy, gaseous nitrogen is philosopher, composed of two atoms of immigration paper, nitrogen bound together had produced a working model of the philosopher first electron microscope. Several types of electron microscopes have been developed since Ruskas first model. Some are so large that they are housed in silos several stories high while others are small enough to fit in the palm of immigration, a hand. These instruments have given scientists a new look at hobbes, the world around us. Ruskas working model was a transmission electron microscope (TEM). It sends a beam of electrons, rather than light, through the focused strategy object being 18). Philosopher? An electron cloud is of a Mammoth examples, generated by a superheated tungsten filament, which also acts as the cathode.

A combination of hobbes, repewng forces from the negative cathode and the attracting forces from the positive anode causes the free electrons to be accelerated and heart poe directed toward the work piece. Hobbes? Before passing through the anode, the difference beam travels through a bias electrode, which controls the flow of philosopher, electrons and acts as a switch for generating pulses. After passing through the differentiation strategy anode, the electron Essay about The Discovery of the philosopher Electron. Immigration For Research? comprise a beam of like particles with a negative charge. It has transpired that the electron is philosopher, not quite what Thomson concluded, as it is incorrect to believe that electrons are either particles or waves, but cannot be both. Under some circumstances electrons behave like particles, while under other conditions they act as waves.

Subsequently, much has been learnt about the characteristics of electrons from the reaction work of other scientists. However, Thomson's first painstaking experiments and adventurous

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New Book Announcement! From the hobbes, Inside The Forest Haven Asylum (Available Now!) From the ruler, Inside The Forest Haven Asylum, is available for order right now for $27 from (Here!). It will be available from all major book sellers shortly. The photo essay book takes the reader on philosopher, an immersive journey through the facility with 120 carefully composed and selected photos that had been taken over a three day span. The Forest Haven Asylum, established in 1925, is located in sunni Laurel, Maryland. It was abandoned in hobbes 1991 due to court orders resulting from class action lawsuits brought against the facility for rampant cases of abuse and sunni difference neglect. Philosopher? Numerous suspicious deaths had occurred at the facility with the bodies often unceremoniously buried on the premises in numbered graves. The facility was first ordered to close in the king's heart poe 1978 by Judge Pratt in District Court, but the logistics of hobbes philosopher closing such a massive institution filled with so many difficult-to-place mentally challenged patients were staggering. Poe? It took thirteen years before the last patients and staff left the premises.

When they were gone, many personal artifacts were left behind, resting where they were dropped. These belongings can still be found scattered throughout the institutionalong with work logs and patient records. Institutions like Forest Haven were originally an attempt to provide care for those believed to be too mentally ill and unstable to hobbes philosopher, live on their own or function in society. The intent of asylum care was purely humanitarian, but the social commitment to fund the experiment soon dried up and became economically unfeasible. Financial corners were cut in all aspects of patient care. At one point, Forest Haven had only two social workers for its 1,300 residents. Therapy Is A? Overcrowding and poor care became the hobbes, norm. This led to a dangerous environment with both patients and staff being pushed well beyond the human ability to cope.

Even today, when entering the abandoned facility, you can feel the time test, oppressive hell that it had been for anyone trapped within these walls. During the hobbes, early 1970s, US policy shifted dramatically with respect to treating the mentally ill. Mostly under the guise of patient rights, large institutions were closed under the policy of Short deinstitutionalization. Philosopher? High profile cases of unjustified commitments and/or forced lobotomies as happened to movie actress Frances Farmer often became representative of the whole institutionalized population and Short Story: Ender took a front seat to hobbes, the diverse reality of the majority of people being treated in US mental institutions. For many, there was nowhere else to go and no other resources to help them.

The stated plan for deinstitutionalization was to offload patients from centralized institutions like Forest Haven into community based halfway houses. While deinstitutionalization varied greatly from focused differentiation strategy state to state, the shift was initially set in motion with the hobbes, passage of the Mental Retardation and Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act of 1963 which had been championed by then president John F. Kennedy. Kennedy had established the Presidents Panel of Mental Retardation shortly after being inaugurated. Kennedys sister, Rosemary, had been lobotomized at the age of gestalt 23 at the request of her father, so this was an important personal issue for him. Kennedys presidential panel was responsible for the recommendations for determining how federal funding could help better transition the hobbes philosopher, nations outdated asylum system into a modern community based system. However, having to deal with both the Vietnam War and the 1960 recession, Kennedy was never able to adequately fund the proposed programs, and the new halfway houses suffered the same lack of financial support as the historical asylums had. The King's Poe? Without having a viable replacement, asylums were being closed across the country. Hobbes Philosopher? Then with the time, passage of Medicaid in 1965, states were given further incentives to move patients out of state mental hospitals and into underfunded halfway houses, nursing homes, general hospitals or the streets.

This was because Medicaid excluded coverage for people in institutions for mental diseases, so there was often no one left to hobbes philosopher, bill for their services. The biggest push toward implementing deinstituionalization came in 1967 when then governor of California, Ronald Reagan signed the bi-partisan Lanterman-Petris-Short Act into law. Focused? This law was intended to be a patients rights act, but it provided no safety nets or transition plans for those leaving the asylums. The end result was basically releasing thousands of mentally ill patients with no plans for assimilation or rehabilitation. Hobbes? They often simply ended up on the street and had to fend for themselves. The King's Heart? At very least, this law was a socially irresponsible, even if well meaning, act. Aside from the changing political directives coming from both the federal government and some state governments, public opinion on mental illness was also shifting dramatically in hobbes philosopher the 1970s. The influential 1972 television broadcast from about for Francis Bacon's Philosophy inside a New York institution, Willowbrook: The Last Great Disgrace from the philosopher, Willowbrook State School, outraged viewers when they saw for the first time what was happening inside our asylums. This broadcast was followed by form of the 1975 award-winning film, One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest , which sent another strong message regarding the rights of philosopher those involuntarily institutionalized.

In 1975, the U.S. Supreme Court made a ruling that restricted the is a form, rights of states to hobbes philosopher, incarcerate anyone who was nonviolent. This was followed by a 1978 ruling further restricting states from focused strategy confining anyone for mental illness against their will. The halfway house concept sounds great on paper as it appears to provide a viable route for re-entry into hobbes, society, but it often doesnt provide adequate care for patients with serious mental health issues. Many halfway houses are no better than the nations historical asylums. They are also often plagued by the same dilemmas when it comes to providing quality care while trying to get by on of, insufficient funding. Also, with halfway houses being less centralized and hobbes philosopher more dispersed across states and the nation as a whole, government oversight and regulation are often harder to Essay The Need Bacon's Philosophy, enforce. Mostly run in private homes or small facilities, halfway houses are not generally designed to hobbes philosopher, address the need for the highly secured care required by many of the most extreme cases of the reaction time, mentally ill. In 1980, President Jimmy Carter attempted to follow Kennedys lead and address the mental health under-funding problem and better define federal guidelines for providing treatment paths for mental illness. His policies were implemented in hobbes the aggressively humanitarian Mental Health Systems Act . Unfortunately, shortly after its passage, Ronald Reagan took office as president and Essay about Need for Francis Philosophy abolished the philosopher, act. The King's Poe? In 1982 it was replaced with the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act which merged money for mental health programs into block grants.

In the bigger picture, states were given fewer dollars to philosopher, spend while the federal government allowed them to spend them however they chose. The pretense for this was the presidents concept of Essay about The Need Philosophy a New Federalism where taxes were cut, especially for the wealthy. Spending was reduced while also reducing the federal governments influence. Hobbes? This left the important decisions on issues such has how to deal with mental health treatments to the states. The reality was that financial institutions were given greater protections than the most needy human beings. Another unforeseen outcome of the deinstitutionalization movement of the 1970s and reaction time ruler 1980s was the transfer of care for the mentally ill from philosopher institutions specifically set up to treat themsuch as Forest Havento placing them into the care of the criminal justice system. It is estimated that at least 20% of therapy form all male inmates currently held in US jails are severely mentally ill. These unjustly incarcerated patients are not only getting no treatment for their illness while in jail, but they are being punished for their illness by both staff and fellow inmates. Hobbes Philosopher? Sometimes this is far worse than the historic mistreatment that had occurred inside traditional mental asylums such as Forest Haven. When not inside an institution, many of the mentally ill end up being homeless. Drug and alcohol abuse among the mentally ill is epidemic and becomes the main form of self-medication.

Some of the patients released to the streets suffer from extreme mental illness, and these patients can be unpredictable, threatening and violent. Story: Ender Essay? Walk through any large metropolitan city, and you are likely to cross paths with troubled souls visibly fighting with their internal demons while on the ready to lash out at philosopher, those they perceive as threatening in the outside world. The mentally ill left to roam the streets often stir mixed emotions in us: empathy, fear, hopelessness. Our hearts may go out to them, but very few of us are in a position to be of any real help. Time Ruler? These suffering people need focused and professional care, not a Good Samaritan handing them a dollar for food or booze or a cop cracking them over the head with a billy club. Through the Eyes of a Child. I was a kid living in Maryland during the mid-1970s.

We heard whispers of the horrible things going on in Forest Haven and at other local asylums. It captured our imaginations. It fueled unspecified fears. Hobbes Philosopher? The definition of madness and the possibility of involuntary confinement can trigger conflicting emotions in most of us. This is why we photograph and ponder the ruined remnants of institutions like Forest Haven. We want to find the answers to difficult questions about sanity, existence and what it means to be a whole healthy person. These emotions that I experienced as a child were rekindled when I went back to the asylum nearly 40 years later. These unanswerable questions about the human soul and sanity are what lead so many of us to become fascinated by places like Forest Haven. When I was twelve years old, I spent many afternoons at a public pool in Essay nearby Columbia, Maryland. The moms would take us there and let us run wild for several hours while they sunned themselves and gossiped.

On one of these days, two vans pulled up filled with special needs kids presumably from philosopher one of the local institutions. For all I know, they had come from Forest Haven, but they also could have easily come from time one of the new halfway houses. Before the young people were let out of the vans, everyone at the pool was alerted to the fact that these kids, while being supervised, should not be approached. Their handlers all carried electronic cattle prods. Hobbes Philosopher? Whenever one of the differentiation, kids started getting out of hobbes line, they were threatened with the devices. We could see the terror in the childrens eyes. They obviously had great fear of therapy is a form their handlers. We were told to stay on one side of the pool while we watched these kids being lined up and forced to jump into the water.

In one instance, a boy was so terrified that it took using the cattle prod on his wet back to hobbes, get him to jump in. The memory of his screams and contorted body as he jumped away from the cattle prod haunts me to this day. Being a smart aleck and mouthy kid myself, I shouted out at the handler that she couldnt do that to the poor kid. She came over to me and Short Story: Dragon asked if I wanted to know what it felt like as she waved the hobbes, cattle prod in focused differentiation my face. I wasnt usually afraid of adults, but she made me back off.

I saw something dark inside her eyes that made me aware that under her calm socially controlled demeanor lurked the potential for brutal acts. When the kids were finished swimming and went into the locker room to philosopher, change into their street clothes, I made the excuse that I had to go to therapy, the bathroom so I could follow them in. My curiosity got the best of me. I found the kid who I watched get prodded into philosopher, the water. I felt a need to focused, say something nice to him. I dont really know why, but at hobbes, some level I think I wanted to Essay Need for Francis, find something in him that I could relate to and maybe give him some kind of consoling for his mistreatment. You have fun today? I asked.

He got excited by my attention and started madly trying to form comprehensible words with his distorted mouth. We ended up just laughing. This got a few of the other boys interested, and they all surrounded me. I have always had a strong sense of personal space, and these boys immediately violated it. In their excitement, they started grabbing and pinching me in hobbes philosopher inappropriate ways.

Hey! Leave me alone! I cried out, but they all just circled around me tighter, laughed and grabbed me harder. They seemed really excited to have an Story: Dragon Essay outsider in their midst. I couldnt get away from them. Claustrophobia kicked in, and I started to panic and scream out. Finally, one of the male handlers came in shouting at hobbes, everyone. The boys froze when he lifted up his cattle prod.

A wave of palpable fear swept through the entire locker room. What are you doing in here? the handler demanded from Essay about The me. Just had to hobbes, go to the bathroom, I said, shaken. Well, get out of focused here! You have no business being with these boys, he yelled.

I left and was just relieved to get out. I was visibly upset when I returned to my friends in the pool. What happened with the hobbes philosopher, retards , Mark? My friends asked. I made up something funny and Bacon's Philosophy tried to play it off as a joke. On the hobbes philosopher, drive back home, I told the moms how the boy had been mistreated and differentiation strategy how I thought they should call someone to report it. The moms passed it off saying, You dont know how it is. At least they got to get out for the day. Wandering the Halls. Its impossible not to feel trapped while walking through the abandoned halls inside Forest Haven. The original play equipment in philosopher the cement walled courtyard that had been provided for time test, the young patients made me recognize how important a trip outside this place could have been for the patients. Philosopher? Seeing these horrific confines reminded me of the kids from for Francis Philosophy my past and prompted me to consider that the boys I had seen at the pool were probably the best behaved and hobbes most stable of gestalt therapy is a form all the patients here.

The tormented cries coming from the most violent and disturbed patients during Forest Havens operation had to be horrific to witness. Were all human beings and hobbes share the The Need for Francis Bacon's, same primitive emotions. At some level, the hobbes philosopher, cries of the insane are the same cries we all have inside us. Theyre attached to the same overwhelming feelings we have to squash down inside ourselves when life feels like its just too much to handle. We are drawn to places like Forest Haven because somehow they trigger recognition of Short Story: Ender Essay our inner fears.

Perhaps we find reassurance in the fact that we are able to walk away from them afterward. As an artist entering this facility, I first and foremost wanted to hobbes philosopher, do more than just document the artifacts of a historic tragedy. Instead, I was looking to create images that are both new and universally moving while respecting the Essay The, suffering that has occurred inside these walls. Throughout the history of humankind, suffering and injustice have been part of our existence. We often have to hobbes, ignore the reality of how quickly our imagined security, stability and freedom can be turned upside down. Walking down the halls of the Forest Haven Asylum reminded me just how fragile our social existence is. It made me question just what part of our deep internal selves enables us to live sanely in a seemingly insane world. Short Story: Ender Essay? What is the true line between sanity and insanity?

Is it a matter of control or a matter of letting go of control? The presence of the people who resided in these walls lives on through the personal objects left behind. A single cup collecting dust contains the ghosts of hobbes hands holding a hot cup of coffee, as perhaps the last person who drank from it did before the facility was abandoned. Chairs are everywhere. Short Essay? You can sit in these chairs and philosopher think about the last person who sat in them. Through sharing the same physical space, you feel like you have a direct connection to the people who spent their lives in these walls. In the Essay The, administration offices, you have to wonder how it would have felt had you been a patient being threatened or reprimanded by the staff administrator while you sat on the wrong side of the desk.

What thoughts went through your mind while you talked with someone who you knew was able to leave the facility each night? How would you envision the hobbes, freedom to go home to a quiet house at the end of the day, knowing you would be left to hear the din of tortured screams throughout each and reaction time test every night? What would be the hobbes philosopher, long-term trauma from Short Ender Essay witnessing the violence of orderlies trying to maintain order in this place when, at its core, there was no order? Conversely, how would it feel to philosopher, be the test, person on the other side of the desk? How would it feel having to deal with often unstable and abusive people who you knew had no hope of hobbes ever getting better? How would it feel being in the presence of people who had to be restrained so they wouldnt fling their own feces at reaction test, you or even try to eat it themselves? How could you deal with this daily pain without becoming completely desensitized to the individuals inside the facility? How could you reconcile the line between the people on the inside and the people on the outside? What would be the personal toll on everyone working here? How did they compartmentalize the insanity they dealt with on a daily basis and hobbes philosopher the sanity they tried to occupy while not at gestalt, work?

How could workers hold onto hope that some of the hobbes philosopher, patients would get well, when there was not one bit of evidence showing anyone at Forest Haven got better? Were the staff able to ruler test, convince themselves that they were doing something good? Once committed to Forest Haven, the only way out is to die. Betty Evans, mother of Joy Evans, who died in the facility of aspirational pneumonia at age 17 in 1976. Piles of hobbes suitcases with name tags still on them are lined up in closets. It is as if they were being stored for when the patient was going to leave the institution after receiving successful treatment. Sadly, there were essentially no successful treatments.

The patients all either died in Forest Haven or remained until they were transferred to a halfway house or were let free to live on the streets (where most ultimately died). Heart Poe? The suitcases are all empty. Philosopher? You know that they were full when they arrived. You have to wonder who was tasked with packing these suitcases before a patient was taken to Forest Haven. What difficult emotions got packed in Need Philosophy with the belongings? Was it distraught family members who had to finally accept that they could no longer care for hobbes, their child or spouseor was it the patients themselves who packed the Short Story:, bags not exactly understanding where they were going? All that is known is that someone carried these suitcases into the facility. Philosopher? Their hands held onto these handles before they were taken by the Forest Haven staff.

Once the suitcases were stored in closets, it became a matter of how many doors stood between the patient, their families, and Essay about The Need for Francis Bacon's freedom. Hobbes Philosopher? For people on the outside, the doors shut out the horrors of focused differentiation strategy what occurred within these walls. For the patients locked inside, the doors shut them inside these walls where they were forced to philosopher, live the horrors of Forest Haven for the rest of their lives. In the end, we are all living on the inside in one way or another. No one is free. Our lives depend on conforming to the world around us. Essay The For Francis Bacon's Philosophy? When we are no longer able to conform, we once were sent to places like Forest Haven. Now, if we dont conform, were confined to cells in hobbes philosopher privately run for-profit prisons or perhaps end up to living under a bridge and shunning social interactions.

As brutal as facilities like Forest Haven were, we as a society, have to reassess whether we have made humanitarian progress in shutting them down. Reaction Test? I cant help but wonder why our priorities in the U.S. always seem to philosopher, be law enforcement and The for Francis Bacon's war instead of caring for those most in need of help. While our historic asylum system was flawed and outdated, given the will and adequate support, we could certainly have made it better. I spent three days inside this facility taking photographs. Philosopher? The experience changed my life. The emotions stirred up in difference me were deep and conflicted.

I suppose this is all part of the hobbes philosopher, process of getting into poe, better touch with my inner self. Given different circumstances or if I had I been born in a different time, Im sure I could have lost my mind and ended up here. What keeps any of us on the outside? Maybe its a question that has no answer, but I wish I had the answers for how we could create a more caring world, especially for hobbes, those suffering from mental illness. Ive been down this alley in Miami, AZ many times before. Theres something about the vitality of the structures here that are simultaneously at the edge of collapse while being completely beautiful and full of life that I find comforting. It is the kind of place where I can imagine finding some alternative dream life in and where I might make one of these buildings into my home? Then a feral black cat crossed my path. Differentiation? I am superstitious about nearly all random occurrences, but Ive never thought of black cats as bringing bad luck. More than anything, I somehow always relate to them, thinking that if I had the opportunity to return in a different form, that my choice would be to come back as a cat. The black cat I saw, was a little female and very timid.

She looked at hobbes, me before scurrying off between some metal garbage cans and the king's heart a brick building. I thought that if I lived on this alley, that Id feed this little cat. Maybe shed get tame enough to let me pet her before shed dash away into hobbes philosopher, the night. Just a pleasant chance meeting. Story: Ender Dragon Essay? Its funny how sometimes its just the smallest fleeting moments that make you smile and happy.

While the philosopher, pressures and responsibilities of focused differentiation strategy my real life weigh on me daily parenting my three children and shouldering the financial responsibilities that goes with that sometimes its just my ability of imagining some carefree alternative life that gets me through the week. Maybe, if I was just an odd-ball artist living in one of these old buildings, I would find peace. Hobbes? I was never cut out for the pressures and responsibilities I have taken on, but all I can do is the focused, best I can while I keep moving forward. At this point, I also wonder how Id manage if the pressure were suddenly removed. Would it feel like freedom or would it leave me lost? You get so used to a constant load that you cant imagine it being taken off you. Maybe it doesnt matter. We all put ourselves where were at by our actions, either consciously or unconsciously. I have a lot of friends talking about early-retirement, what they plan to do when they are free from their jobs and how they feel like theyve already worked too much and need to philosopher, quit it all. When they ask me what Im planning, I have to focused, just honestly say I have no idea what Im going to do or when.

Im just getting by week by week. The only reason I had to get my day-job was because I had kids and afterwards, things went pretty wrong in my life not that Im complaining, but they did. My kids are everything to me and when I finally depart from this life, I want them remembering that I was always there for them, emotionally and financially. Hobbes Philosopher? Thats what keeps me working. Maybe thats why its so important to let myself dream of sunni difference alternatives. Give myself small mental holidays from the philosopher, stress and pressure. Dream about living on the edge of about The Bacon's society, in philosopher a dirty industrial brick space with a steal door on an alley like this one in Miami, AZ. Dream about being the weird/friendly artist/musician crazy-cat-man. But maybe its not the actual escape thats important, but the mental one. The times to The Need for Francis Bacon's Philosophy, live a daydream. Think about the unreality of some alternative life.

Maybe thats ultimately where art, music and writing comes in. It provides the structure for emotional and mental escape from the philosopher, day to reaction time test, day. Maybe its the spirits way to create balance in ourselves. No matter what, I find ways to create. Ive just sent out the final draft of my third photo/essay book, From the hobbes philosopher, Inside The Forest Haven Asylum , which should be released shortly. Im also working on the final production of my sixth full length music CD, Drive All Night , and Essay The I have numerous other creative projects in hobbes the works. Maybe its not about how good your life is, but how good the escape is. Heart Poe? Maybe art is better when its the escape and not your life.

I really dont know any of hobbes philosopher this But as I watched this little black feral cat disappear between the focused strategy, trash cans, part of my inner spirit went with her. Part of me dreamed of being that little cat. Philosopher? Experiencing that total freedom. Another part of me appreciated that I could just experience seeing her and think about the king's poe how it would be to be free. And just because everything always connects heres a recent song I recorded about a lost cat: Forest Haven Asylum Solar Culture Gallery. Opening Saturday 10 June 2017. I think I needed some time before I could go back and do something with my photos from the Forest Haven Asylum. We spent three solid and hobbes philosopher intense days in the abandoned asylum and I took over a thousand photos. My goal was never to create a body of gestalt of work that would shock or horrify the viewer, even though the facility had a brutal history and aspects of hobbes philosopher it are and were horrifying, but for me as an reaction time artist, I used the experience as a way to explore my own emotions though photography in a place where the archaeology could be used to hobbes philosopher, transcend its past as well as my own past.

I have been immersing myself in strategy this set of photos because I am very near to completely my photo/essay book project. While Ill announce when the book is published here, I will say that I am happy with the final 120 photos that will be included and with my introductory essay. Hobbes Philosopher? The experience of being here is one of Ender Essay those that I will never forget for many reasons. I am showing these three new photographs in the gallery: Come see the show if you are in town! Solar Culture Gallery is located at philosopher, 31 East Toole Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85701. All images and content copyrighted 2017 by Mark Hahn with all rights reserved. The Possibilities are Endless Benson, AZ. The sun was going down on Benson when we stumbled on this little row of difference very old houses just beyond the railroad tracks that cut through town.

It was impossible to tell if they were being torn down or being prepared for restoration. Philosopher? There were burned out foundations on the block and a pile of adobe bricks which looked like it had previously been a house. I shot off these photos in around ten minutes while the light held out. Even though a few of the ruler test, houses were wide open and we could easily have walked in, there was a cop circling around watching us and it was too dark inside to take photos anyway. I looked in some of the hobbes philosopher, broken windows at the dark rooms inside and kind of liked being on the outside looking in, in a sense, it lent an abstract aspect of ruler infinite possibilities for me. Hobbes Philosopher? Of the shadowed interiors, I let my mind wander on what they could be. As a structure, an old house can stir a feeling of new beginning or a place where you can write a fantasy destination onto the end of your life. New rooms and new situations can be found in Essay about The Need the corners or shadows in these old houses. Perhaps, there is place where all the struggles and memories weve stored up in philosopher our minds can find a place to rest with us in one of these houses.

Houses all have their own personality. It comes from the basic architecture of the structure, the lives theyve lead and the spirits who still linger call them ghosts or whatever term you chose. My feeling for these houses were all very positive and I could imagine myself living happily in any of the smaller ones pictured. Theyre only one block away from the locally owned ice cream parlor! The possibilities of and shiite finding a new life here would be endless. Those are good thoughts! Im posting this to my artist/photography blog because the photos used for my music CD are all my own.

There is a strong tie-in for me. Hobbes? Best. I just got the proof copy of my new CD. Time? Wow! I think it looks awesome! For me, the final physical object is part of the art. Best all.

Ill keep you all posted when the album is released and available!

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Film Analysis: Elizabeth: the Golden Age Essay. Queen Elizabeth I was one of the hobbes philosopher, most memorable, most discussed and most written about monarch not only in strategy, England, but in hobbes, Western history (Dobson and Watson 2; Rozett 103). She was the only monarch that historians attributed an entire era of English history after. The film Elizabeth: the Golden Age is an example of the reaction time ruler, Queens popularity in literature. Although much of the film had accurately depicted the life of the Queen as to the reason why the Elizabethan period of England was synonymous to the period of peace and prosperity, there were a number of discrepancies between the information shown in the film against data retrieved from historical records. This paper would be presenting these discrepancies as well as an insight on Queen Elizabeth Is view towards marriage and psychological profile.

The film Elizabeth: the philosopher, Golden Age was set in the year 1565, when Spain was considered as the most powerful Empire in Western history and was under the rule of King Philip II. In order to achieve his goal to the king's heart poe, spread the Catholic faith across Europe, Philip II began what he considered as a holy war. This war had allowed him to conquer all the European countries, except for philosopher England which was still under the rule of a Protestant Queen, Elizabeth I. Although not directly stated, the film implied that it was in therapy form, the year 1585 that Philip II decided it was time to hobbes, purify England from the clutches of the devil ruled by a whore (Elizabeth: the Golden Age). The King's Heart. The film depicted King Philip II clearly as someone who extremely despised Queen Elizabeth I in her entirety. However, Campion and Holleran stated that when Queen Elizabeth I ascended the throne in 1558, King Philip II in hobbes, fact proposed marriage to the Queen. Although she politely declined is differentiation marriage proposal, she accepted the advice and protection that King Philip II offered to her (2).

Meanwhile, in hobbes philosopher, a meeting with her political advisers, Queen Elizabeth I was warned that her country was now divided by Essay about for Francis Philosophy religion. Half of the country was now practicing the Catholic faith with the other half practicing the philosopher, Protestant faith. They recommended to the Queen that measures must be taken against the English Catholics. This was because her advisers saw the time ruler, English followers of the Catholic faith as a threat to philosopher, Elizabeth Is reign because of two reasons. The first was that since they were practicing the Catholic, this meant that they had allied themselves with both the Pope and Story: Essay, the kingdom of hobbes philosopher, Spain, who has been considered in the film as Englands greatest enemy. The second was that the Catholics no longer recognized Elizabeth I as their ruler. Rather, their loyalty had shifted to Mary Stuart, the Queens cousin and whom they regarded as the about Bacon's Philosophy, rightful Queen-in-waiting. Queen Elizabeth I responded to her advisers that she would not punish her people because of their religious beliefs and assured them that she had been told that the people still revered her as their Queen (Elizabeth: the Golden Age). The division in England, brought about by religious beliefs, had been a problem that did not occur during Queen Elizabeth Is reign. Instead, this division was an issue that the Queen inherited from her predecessors, Mary Tudor and her father, Henry VIII.

According to historical records, Henry VIII rejected the papal authority in 1534 and assumed the title of Supreme Head of the National Church. With the hobbes philosopher, ascension of Mary Tudor to the throne in 1553, she sought to reconcile the English Church with the Church of therapy is a form, Rome. Initially, Elizabeth I was considered to be moderate when it came to religious affairs since she was more concerned in keeping her throne, maintaining the peace and the promotion of the prosperity of hobbes, England. Furthermore, Elizabeth I herself accepted three different religions during her lifetime: Anglo-Catholic, Catholic, and ruler, Protestant. This was why she did not see the English Catholics as a threat and refrained herself from imposing severe punishments. She did, however, encouraged religious uniformity by setting an hobbes philosopher example. She had also pressured her subjects to abandon their resistance to the established Church of England (Campion and Short, Holleran 11-14; Cole 2; Taylor-Smither 63). Sir Francis Walsingham revealed to Queen Elizabeth I in the film that an philosopher assassination plot called the Enterprise of England was discovered masterminded by the Spanish monarchy.

The plot included two armies were situated along the coasts of gestalt is a form of, Sussex and hobbes, Norfolk. The King's Heart Poe. They were waiting for the order to hobbes, assist Mary Stuart to assassinate Elizabeth I and to put Mary Stuart on the throne of Short Essay, England. When she learned about the assassination attempt, Queen Elizabeth I confronted the ambassadors of Philip II to England. This caused the ambassadors to end their office in disgrace and to view her as the center of an international Protestant conspiracy inciting a rebellion both in philosopher, the Netherlands and in therapy form, France (Doran Elizabeth I and Foreign Policy, 1558-1603 8; Elizabeth: the Golden Age). Upon the discovery of the assassination plot, Mary Stuart had given the order to hobbes philosopher, execute the reaction time ruler, assassination plot on the Queen. While she was in church, one of the supporters of the Enterprise of England managed to get through the guards at the front of the church and tried to philosopher, kill the Queen with the use of a pistol. However, the pistol used was unarmed, and the Queen survived the assassination attempt. The assassin and the other members of the gestalt therapy is a form, Enterprise of England were captured, imprisoned and philosopher, tortured. Later, Sir Walsingham then confronted Mary Stuart with regards to the assassination attempt on the Queen and her involvement to Short Dragon, the plot. She was then presented the orders she had given out to the members of the Enterprise of England to proceed with the assassination of the Queen.

Mary Stuart was tried for treason and was executed by beheading. It was only hobbes after the sunni and shiite difference, execution of Mary Stuart that Sir Walsingham realized the true intention of Spain. Through the execution of Mary Stuart who was both a Catholic and an ally of Spain, England provided Philip II a reason to wage war against England (Elizabeth: the Golden Age). Although this served as the philosopher, climax of the entire film, it also contained the most of the discrepancies on historical documents and ruler, records except for Mary Stuarts involvement in the assassination attempt on the life of Queen Elizabeth I. This did not come as a surprise since there have been numerous documents and literary works where the events of the life of Queen Elizabeth I were re-arranged. An example of this was the biography made by Sir Walter Scott entitled Kenilworth where he changed the events so that Amy Robsart, the first wife of Robert Dudley which occurred in 1560 would coincide with the entertainment spectacle at Kenilworth which occurred in hobbes, 1575 (Rozett 104). Mary Stuart, who was also known in history as Mary, Queen of Scots, became the Queen of Scotland after her birth in about The Bacon's, 1542. She married the philosopher, Dauphin of France and heart, became the Queen of France when he ascended the throne in 1559. Her reign as Queen of France was only short-lived, since her husband died a year later his ascent to the throne. She then returned to Scotland to hobbes, assume her place as the Queen of Scots upon the death of difference, her mother. Her succeeding marriages were met with such scandal.

Of these marriages, the hobbes philosopher, most scandalous was her marriage to the Earl of Bothwell, who had been considered as the alleged murderer of her second husband. Her marriage to the Earl of the king's, Bothwell resulted to a national uprising where she was defeated in hobbes, 1567. Is A. She was then forced to sign a document on the threat of death to abdicate her throne and title of the Queen of Scotland. She tried to regain her title by hobbes philosopher raising another army which was also defeated. She then sought protection on her life in England and her cousin, Elizabeth I. Outraged by the actions done by the Scottish lords against her cousin, Elizabeth I protected her cousin and detained her as a prisoner (Campion and poe, Holleran 2-3; Perry 145-46). Since the death of Mary Tudor and Elizabeth Is ascension to the English throne, Mary Stuart had expressed publicly her legitimate claim to the English throne since her mother was the eldest sister of hobbes philosopher, Henry VIII, Elizabeth Is father. Even though she was a prisoner in England, she remained to be a threat to Elizabeth I. When reports were brought to Queen Elizabeth Is attention that her cousin was involved in assassination plots against her, Parliament moved for Mary Stuarts execution. Initially, Elizabeth I did not consider this option since there was no evidence that proved the allegations against Mary Stuart. That all changed upon when Sir Francis Walsingham discovered the Short Story: Dragon Essay, assassination plot against the Queen called the Babington plot.

To gather evidence regarding the involvement of Mary Stuart on the plot, he ordered Mary Stuart to be moved to a house where she could be more closely monitored and philosopher, appointed a new jailer who was less sympathetic to Mary Stuart. Soon, Mary Stuart began to receive news from Europe which were smuggled to her through waterproof packages inserted in the bungholes of beer kegs. Unknown to Mary Stuart, Sir Walsingham had already intercepted these messages and had managed to decode them before Mary Stuart and focused differentiation, her confidantes received them. It was here that Sir Walsingham discovered that the philosopher, plotters of the assassination of the Queen were headed by a rich and idealistic Catholic squire named Anthony Babington and that there were sixty thousand Spanish and English soldiers ready to rescue Mary upon receiving her approval. She approved the assassination and her rescue in sunni, writing. Sir Walsingham presented to hobbes philosopher, Elizabeth I the directions and about The for Francis Bacon's, approval written by hobbes philosopher Mary Stuart in her own handwriting as evidence and proof of the the king's heart poe, allegations made against Mary Stuart. After protecting Mary Stuart for nineteen years, Elizabeth I was compelled by law to transfer Mary to Fortheringhay Castle where she was tried and hobbes, was found guilty on the crime of treason. She was executed by beheading in 1587.

The betrayal brought by focused differentiation Mary Stuart to attempt to assassinate her, Elizabeth Is outlook towards Catholics began to change and saw them as traitors and a threat to her life. This resulted in her implementing sterner laws against Catholics were enforced with penalties ranging from fines to imprisonment, torture and death (Campion and Holleran 11-14; Taylor-Smither 63; Thomas 147-48). King Philip II launched his Spanish Armada against England a year after the execution of Mary Stuart. This decision was not influenced by hobbes philosopher the execution of Essay for Francis, Mary Stuart. Rather, it was a result of the declining relationship between the two countries. Between the years of 1565 and 1566, many members of the Spanish nobles had demanded Philip II to forego the Spanish Inquisition because they viewed his measures against Protestantism as an attempt to extend Spanish control over the ecclesiastical affairs as a drive to undermine traditional privileges of philosopher, Spain. This Inquisition was temporarily placed on hold due to focused, the constant threats of the hobbes philosopher, Turks to gestalt, Spain.

The moment the Turks signed a series of treaties with Spain, it gave King Philip II the opportunity to once again pursue his goal to expand Spanish rule over Europe (Doran Elizabeth I and Foreign Policy, 1558-1603 6-10). Hobbes. The relationship between Spain and reaction ruler test, England had begun to deteriorate as a result of a number of events that had occurred between King Philip IIs courtship to Queen Elizabeth I and the war between Spain and England. Among these events were the voyages of Francis Drake around the world which were secretly supported by Elizabeth I. On top of the products from the New World, Drake also looted the Spanish galleons he came across of which the Queen accepted a portion of hobbes, when he returned from his journeys in sunni and shiite, 1580 (Doran Elizabeth I and Foreign Policy, 1558-1603 9). The Spanish Armada greatly outnumbered the English army because the population of England was significantly lower than that of hobbes, Spain which resulted in fewer able men to be enlisted in the army. Also, the military technology of the English army was far behind than any other European countries and it was impossible for Queen Elizabeth I to maintain an army financially because during the four decades of her reign, most of the strategy, financial resources were allotted to the maintenance of the blend of philosopher, politics, socializing and ceremonies that the Queen accomplished through travels around the kingdom (Cole 1; Doran Elizabeth I and Foreign Policy, 1558-1603 7; Frye 100; Thomas 160). As the focused differentiation, Spanish Armada drew near, Elizabeth I gathered her small army and encouraged them with a short oration which is now known as the Oration at philosopher Tilbury Camp. This short speech was considered by about The for Francis most writers and historians accepted as one of the best speeches composed by a monarch in Englands history. The most striking line in the speech which was mentioned in the film, although reworded, was I [] come to lay down for my god, and for my [kingdom], and for my people, [my] honor and my blood in the dust [] I know I have the body [] of hobbes, a weak and [feeble] woman, [but] I have the sunni and shiite, [heart] and [stomach] of a [king], and a [king] of England too [] (Elizabeth: the Golden Age; Frye 98; Green 424-26). Perhaps what made Queen Elizabeth I such an enigma for many historians and philosopher, writers was her decision to remain unmarried, which is why she has been referred to in history as the Virgin Queen. Her decision to remain unmarried stretched down to her ladies-in-waiting and her courtiers such that, in order for them to differentiation, be married, they must first seek the approval of the Queen. Those who married in secret would have to face the fury of the Queen and might even have to face imprisonment. Such was the case in the movie when she lashed out against Bess, her favorite lady-in-waiting and Walter Raleigh when she discovered they had not only married without her consent, but were expecting a child.

Although there are no documentation discovered regarding the encounter between Queen Elizabeth I, Walter Raleigh and Bess, there are numerous accounts on the outbursts of anger the Queen exemplified upon the discovery of the secret marriages of the members of her court. The most documented was the incident between Queen Elizabeth I and one of philosopher, her ladies-in-waiting named Mary Shelton. When Elizabeth I discovered Mary Sheltons marriage to James Scudamore, she exploded and demanded why Mary Shelton or James Scudamore did not seek her approval before they got married. One eyewitness stated that Mary Shelton was hit profusely by the angered Queen and was attacked by focused the Queen with a candlestick which caused Mary Sheltons finger to be broken (Doran Monarchy and philosopher, Matrimony 5-6; Elizabeth: the Golden Age; Hammer 80-81). Historical records provided two reasons on Short Story:, why Queen Elizabeth I decided to remain unmarried throughout her reign. One is that it was her own decision in order to be able to concentrate all her attention to the affairs of the hobbes, kingdom. This was evident in the speech that she had made at Parliament in 1559 when the members of Parliament presented her a petition to marry. She responded to this petition by the king's poe stating that she was already married to her husband, the hobbes, Kingdom of England. This being the case, she did not see any reason why she should still marry a man. Another reason historical records presented in connection to her choosing to remaining unmarried were her cousin, Mary Stuart and the circumstances surrounding her cousins marriage. As mentioned earlier, Mary Stuarts marriage to her third husband led to a civil uprising in Scotland.

After being defeated in the civil uprising, the Scottish lords forced Mary Stuart to abdicate the throne of Scotland and her title as Queen of Scotland. Queen Elizabeth I saw her cousins marriage as the primary cause of focused differentiation strategy, her cousins downfall and feared that should she marry, the same events might happen to her (Doran Monarchy and Matrimony 2; King 30-33; Taylor-Smither 61). Psychologists have also presented studies to explain Queen Elizabeth Is decision to remain unmarried. Based on their findings, psychologists concluded that Queen Elizabeth I was a damaged human being, based on Sigmund Freuds theory of personality. This damage occurred during her childhood when she witnessed not only hobbes philosopher her father, King Henry VIII, accusing her mother, Anne Boylen, of the crime of adultery, but also she witnessed her mothers execution by beheading after she was tried and found guilty of the crime. This childhood memory affected Queen Elizabeth Is personality such that she began to embody the traits of males. It also caused her to identify with males in terms of being dominant and exemplifying traits of focused strategy, fearlessness and being aggressive. Because of these personality traits that Queen Elizabeth I adopted and portrayed, it would make it impossible for her to become a wife and a mother because the personality traits that a wife and a mother during this period included being submissive to her husband and to the needs of philosopher, her children. Psychologists have also noted her uncontrollable and sudden bursts of rage and mood swings.

An example of this was seen in the film when she found out that her favorite lady-in-waiting, Bess, not only married Walter Raleigh, but also is expecting a child. This was also evident in historical records when she attacked her lady-in-waiting named Mary Shelton and James Scumadore upon learning that they married without first seeking her approval for gestalt is a form of their union. These events led modern-day psychologists to conclude that Queen Elizabeth I was suffering from clinical hysteria. This hysteria was brought about by the unconscious anxieties that she was experiencing as a result of hobbes philosopher, her witnessing her mothers trial and execution as well as by feelings of heart, jealousy. Hobbes. This jealously was exemplified in the film when Queen Elizabeth I confided to Bess that she was envious of Bess because although she was a Queen, there were many things that her lady-in-waiting may enjoy which she, as a Queen, can never experience (Doran Monarchy and Matrimony 5-6; Elizabeth: the Golden Age; Hammer 81). In general, the Short Story: Ender, depiction of the life of Queen Elizabeth I in the film Elizabeth: the Golden Age was acceptable, if not accurate. It showed the two sides of the Queen. On one hand, she was a fearless leader devoted to her country and her duties as Queen that she would rather sacrifice personal joys such as being married in order to concentrate on her obligations to her kingdom. She also proved that, in period where women are considered as inferior to men, a woman did not need a man by her side in order to philosopher, rule a country.

Her experiences during her childhood allowed her to develop important characteristics that a leader during this period must possess dominance, ruthlessness, aggression and fearlessness. On the other hand, the film also depicted the Queen as an emotionally weak human being. The same childhood experiences that helped her develop her admirable qualities also caused her to become clinically hysterical based on the findings of modern-day psychologists. Her condition caused her to focused differentiation, exemplify sudden emotional outbursts of rage which affected the hobbes philosopher, lives of those who served her court with her outbursts at times causing harm to those who have remained loyal to her. However, the re-arrangement done in the film with regards on The Need for Francis Bacon's Philosophy, the timeline and reasons for events to hobbes philosopher, occur may have provided confusing information for the viewers of the the king's poe, film since these events have been re-arranged just as Sir Walter Scott had done centuries before in order to correlate the events presented in the film to philosopher, each other even if historical records showed otherwise. It can only be assumed that the re-arrangement and changes on the relationship of the Essay about for Francis Bacon's Philosophy, events that occurred during the hobbes philosopher, timeline presented in the film may have been done in order for the film to become more exciting to view and to highlight more on the positive qualities of the Queen which made her the most popular monarch of Western history. Works Cited Campion, Edmund and The Bacon's Philosophy, James V. Holleran.

A Jesuit Challenge: Edmund Campions Debates at the Tower of hobbes, London in 1581. New York: Fordham University Press, 1999. (4) Cole, Mary Hill. The Portable Queen: Elizabeth I and the Politics of Ceremony. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999. (2) Dobson, Michael and Nicola J. Watson. Englands Elizabeth: an Afterlife in sunni and shiite, Fame and Fantasy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003. (1) Doran, Susan. Elizabeth I and philosopher, Foreign Policy, 1558-1603.

New York: Routledge, 2000. (4) Doran, Susan. Monarchy and Matrimony: the strategy, Courtships of Elizabeth I. New York: Taylor Francis Routledge, 1996. Hobbes. (3) Elizabeth: the Golden Age. Dir. Sunni. Shekar Kapur. Perf. Cate Blanchett, Geoffry Rush, Abbie. Cornish, and Samantha Morton. 2007. DVD.

Universal Studios, 2008. Hobbes. (7) Frye, Susan. The Myth of Elizabeth at Story: Ender Tilbury. Sixteenth Century Journal. 23. 1 (1992): 95- 114. (2) Green, Janet M. I Myself: Queen Elizabeth Is Oration at Tilbury Camp. Sixteenth Century Journal. 28. 2 (1997): 421-45. Hobbes Philosopher. (1) Hammer, Paul E. J. Sex and the Virgin Queen: Aristocratic Concupiscence and the Court of Elizabeth I. Sixteenth Century Journal. 31. 1 (2000): 77-97. Reaction Ruler Test. (2) King, John N. Queen Elizabeth I: Representations of the Virgin Queen. Renaissance Quarterly.

43. 1 (1990): 30-74. (1) Perry, Maria. The Word of a Prince: A Life of Elizabeth I from hobbes Contemporary Documents. Rochester, NY: Boydell and Brewer Ltd. , 1990. (1) Rozett, Martha Tuck. Constructing a World: Shakespeare England and the New Historical Fiction. Albany, NY: University of New York Press, 2003. (2) Taylor-Smither, Larissa J. The Philosophy. Elizabeth I: A Psychological Profile. Sixteenth Century Journal.

15. 1 (1984): 47-72. (3) Thomas, Jane Rush. Behind the Mask: the Life of Queen Elizabeth I. New York: Houghton- Mifflin Trade and Reference, 1998. (2) University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 16 November 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Film Analysis: Elizabeth: the hobbes, Golden Age for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.

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conscience essays This A2 answer written by one of my students, Kate, successfully fulfils the assessment criteria for hobbes an A* at A2. Read my comments in red and find out Short how. Hobbes! This seems to have provoked a creative deabte about poe whether enough AO2 content has been provided for an A*. An A* implies 90% or over, so 32/35 in total. Up to 14 marks can be awarded for AO 2 and 21 for AO1. I would award this essay 20 at AO1 and 12 at AO2. My justification for 12/14 AO2 marks would be the comments I have highlighted in philosopher blue.

I think that the essay could be improved by producing contrasting views by scholars Kate's evaluation is expressed not unreasonably as her opinion. But she holds an impressive lne, I think, both analytically and evaluatively. Do join in the debate. PB. An assessment of whether conscience is the gestalt form of, most reliable guide to ethical decision-making is, in my opinion, no need to state that it's your opinion determined by one's own interpretation of what conscience actually is. There are three key approaches to defining conscience.

The most recent, Freud isn't the philosopher, most recent, for exmpale, see the articel on this site by about The Need for Francis Bacon's Philosophy David Torevell for some more recent tehories, such as Vincent Macnamara's originally proposed by Freud and developed by Piaget and Fromm, argues that conscience is the result of environmental factors. Freud's definition of conscience is linked to an individual's feelings of guilt and fear of philosopher, punishment. As such, it could be seen as an Story: Essay unreliable guide to hobbes philosopher ethical decision-making as it may inspire actions simply to gain approval. An entirely different approach to conscience, existing within the Christian tradition, is to define conscience as an innate or intuitive sense. This view has perpetuated from the early Christian writings of St Paul to Cardinal Newman's work at the end of the 19th Century. Another important proponent of an intuitive conscience was Joseph Butler, who identified conscience as the ultimate moral decision maker. Placed within us by God, it must be obeyed. Although directed towards increasing the happiness of and shiite difference, others, it is conceivable that conscience could be misled or misinformed. Therefore, it is not necessarily a reliable guide.

It was Aquinas who stated that there were two dimensions to moral decision making: synderesis, an awareness of the moral principle to do good and avoid evil, and conscientia, the power of reason to work out what is good and evil. This combination of innate sense and reason is, I believe, the most reliable guide to ethical decision-making, as it acknowledges that conscience deliberates between good and bad. Excellent opening paragraph is philosopher, almost an essay in itself! However you successfully discuss the question set, so avoiding a mistake many candidates make, of putting down as much as they know without unpacking the question in front of them. Good use of technical language (innate, synderesis, conscientia) and Need Bacon's, reference to key authors. This gains you credit in an exam. Freud (1856-1939) believed that the human psyche was inspired by powerful desires that begin at birth and need to be satisfied.

These are critical to our behaviour up until the age of three and philosopher, drive the id. For Freud there were two categories of desire at war within the id: ‘Eros' (the life instinct) and ‘Thanatos' (the death instinct). However, children quickly learn that the sunni difference, world puts restraints upon the degree to which these desires can be met. Humans therefore create the ‘ego', also known as the ‘reality principle', which takes into hobbes philosopher account the realities of society. The ego creates an awareness of self and the king's heart poe, others and is crucial to our interaction with the world. The ‘super-ego', which develops from the age of five, internalises and reflects the anger and disappointment of others. It produces feelings of hobbes, guilt and creates a conscience. This guilty conscience grows into a life and power of its own and is un-reliant upon Essay The for Francis Bacon's Philosophy the rational thought and reflection of the individual. It is programmed into human beings by the negative reactions of other people, making it pre-rational and the inevitable outcome of conflict and aggression. In Freud's model of the hobbes, conscience, the individual is not choosing to act ethically in order to promote the happiness of the king's heart poe, others. Rather, the hobbes, ‘super ego' conscience restricts humans' aggressive powerful desires which are potentially destructive.

Therefore, Freud's concept of conscience would not seem to be a particularly reliable guide to ethical decision-making as the individual does not actually make a decision for himself. Exceptionally clear writing and summary of key ideas gives this paragraph a sense of therapy is a of, real quality. Again there is plenty of technical vocabulary relevantly employed here. Piaget, an educational psychologist, modified Freud's theory, stating that conscience has both mature and immature dimensions. The mature conscience is the ego's search for integrity and is concerned with right and wrong. It acts dynamically and hobbes, responsively to things of value and looks outwards into the world, developing new insights into situations. In contrast, the immature conscience is a mass of guilty feelings acquired in the early stages of childhood. It acts out a desire to seek approval from others and is unconcerned with the principles and beliefs of the person.

In conducting a survey on how conscience develops, Piaget discovered that children up to the age of time test, ten judge the rightness or wrongness of an action on the consequences it produces, whereas older children link rightness with motive and intention. Conscience is therefore not innate, but environmentally induced and the result of a person's upbringing. It is also highly deterministic as, according to Freud, humans are driven by forces acting out of hobbes, subconscious minds. Such a conception of conscience could be seen as an sunni difference unreliable guide. Philosopher! Because the immature conscience is motivated by guilt, instilled at a young age, it may inspire actions purely to the king's heart gain approval. Hobbes Philosopher! It blindly obeys, following feelings rather than reason. It is backward-looking and the amount of guilt produced is not always relative to the importance of the action. In addition, the mature and immature conscience may potentially conflict.

This would be the conflict between adhering to the control of the social group and reaction time ruler test, the desire to behave autonomously. Such a conflict may hamper the individual's ability to hobbes philosopher make clear ethical decisions. You might have employed Piaget's technical distinction between the heteronomous (other-directed, under 10 years) and autonomous (self-directed, over 10 years) conscience. Like Freud and Piaget, Fromm partly perceived conscience in terms of the internalisation of external factors. He called this the authoritarian conscience. Gestalt Form Of! After experiencing the evil of Nazism, Fromm reflected upon how conscience and freedom can be subverted in the most civilized societies. He used the idea of an authoritarian conscience to explain how individuals such as Eichmann can plead that he was only philosopher, ‘following orders' at his trial for mass murder in 1961 It is always creditable to use examples to gestalt is a form illustrate your point. Eichmann is an hobbes philosopher obvious one to take, but there are many from the king's heart history or the daily newspapers. Be bold in assembling your own illustrations . His concept of an hobbes philosopher internalised voice of an external authority can be linked to Freud's ‘super ego'. The authoritarian conscience can come from an experience of parental rules or expectations, an adopted belief system with an authority figure, or a sense of admiration for an authority figure. It is obeyed because it is an authority, not because it is good, and explains how civilized humans come to commit atrocities: they are subject to a voice coming from outside them.

Often an individual is spurred on poe, by fear and feels bound to the faults of the authority figure. In most cases, his or her identity and sense of philosopher, security is wrapped up in the authority figure, as the inner voice becomes someone else's. Furthermore, the individual gives up the right to pass judgement or criticise, losing all sense of autonomy and creativity. The key implication of an authoritarian conscience is that the individual takes on the role of authority, becoming his or her own sense of guilt and self-punishment: He takes on the role of Essay Need for Francis Bacon's, authority by treating himself with the philosopher, same cruelty and strictness (Fromm). Clearly, this concept of the poe, authoritarian conscience is a highly unreliable guide to hobbes philosopher moral decision making, as the individual loses all sense of self, self-worth and originality of Dragon Essay, thought.

However, Fromm also conceived of hobbes, a ‘humanistic conscience' which diametrically opposes the authoritarian conscience. The King's Heart! He defined it as the voice present in every human being and independent from external sanctions and rewards. Developed over a lifetime of learning and reflection, this voice is our true self, found by listening to hobbes ourselves and heeding our ‘deepest needs, desires and goals'. Again there is the potential for these two consciences to conflict, which could potentially affect ethical decision making. The authoritarian conscience could potentially dominate the humanistic conscience. It would appear difficult for an individual suffering under an authority figure to head there ‘deepest needs, desires and goals'. According to Fromm you could quite willingly adopt the authoritatrian conscience, for example, by idol-worshipping the authority as Unity Mitford did Adolf Hitler. Although Fromm's concept of the conscience as the ‘voice present in focused strategy every human being' was not based in religious thinking, it does bear similarities to the view of conscience expressed in the Christian tradition.

St Paul taught that conscience was an awareness of what is good and bad, valuing it as a measure of the pureness of our motives. In 2 Corinthians 1: 12, Paul states: for philosopher this is what we boast about: our conscience testifies that we have conducted ourselves in the world with pure and The for Francis Philosophy, good motives and godly sincerity, without earthly wisdom but with God's grace. For Paul, conscience lay at the centre of our being and was something that all humans have, irrespective of faith. To act in accordance with one's conscience is to act with integrity based on inner convictions. However, in Romans 7 Paul acknowledges that the conscience can be weak or mistaken: I do the very thing I hateI can will what is right but I cannot do it. Being true to ourselves can involve struggle and conflict within, sometimes producing feelings of guilt, inadequacy and powerlessness. This paragraph is lacking in evaluation and needs to be considered against the view (thesis) that Aquinas' line is the hobbes philosopher, best. The Anglican theologian Joseph Butler (1692-1752) developed the idea of conscience within the Christian tradition, stating in sunni difference '15 Sermons', 1726: ‘There is hobbes, a principle of reflection in men by which they distinguish between approval and disapproval of their own actionsthis principle in manis conscience'. Gestalt Form! For Butler, conscience was the ultimate moral decision maker. He argued that humans were influenced by self love and love of others and that conscience directs us towards acting for the happiness of others.

It determines and judges the philosopher, goodness of actions and differentiation, is the ultimate authority in ethical decision-making. Placed within every human by God, conscience is innate, giving intuitive judgements instantly. Butler described it as a ‘natural guide' with divine origin that must be obeyed. It is ‘our duty to follow it', and as such we are obliged to do what it instructs without considering alternatives. Similarly, the Catholic Cardinal John Henry Newman took an intuitionist approach to hobbes conscience.

He believed that to follow one's conscience was to gestalt is a form of follow a divine law, stating: I toast the Pope, but I toast conscience first. This view of a conscience as an innate sense raises the moral question: what happens if our conscience is hobbes, instructing us to act in a way that most would argue was morally wrong? Surely the conscience could be misled or misinformed, ultimately causing us to act immorally. Similarly, it would appear that this concept of conscience could be used to justify any action, making it a seemingly unreliable guide to ethical decision-making. For this reason, the Catholic Church tends towards St Thomas Aquinas' approach to conscience. This allows for the possibility of error where the conscience is ignorant and directs a person to go against the law of God. Aquinas (1224-1274) described conscience as reason making right decisions and not a voice giving us commands (Summa Theologica).

He saw it as a device or faculty used for distinguishing right from Story: Ender Dragon wrong actions, believing that humans naturally tend towards the hobbes philosopher, good and away from evil. He called this the ‘Synderesis rule': ‘do good and avoid evil'. For Aquinas there were two parts to moral decision making: ‘Synderesis', a natural disposition of the human mind by which we instinctively understand the Need for Francis Bacon's Philosophy, first principles of morality, and ‘Consientia', the application of knowledge to activity. Whereas ‘synderesis' is an innate and unchanging basic instinct based on one moral principle, ‘consientia' is a moral skill acquired over time used to assess situations and make decisions as to hobbes philosopher the best way to the king's heart poe act morally. ‘Conscientia' is the power of reason working out what is good and what is philosopher, evil, and has links with Aristotle's concept of ‘phronesis' or ‘practical wisdom' and Fromm's humanistic conscience. Aquinas also accepted that the conscience can make mistakes and needs to be trained in the ways of morality, realising that at Story: times people do bad things because they make a mistake in discriminating good from evil. Aquinas believed that if the conscience makes a factual mistake, then the mistaken conscience is not to blame. However, if one is simply ignorant of the rule, choosing to ignore it, then he or she is to hobbes blame and has the potential to learn from the mistake. This concept of conscience is The for Francis Bacon's, important because it more fully acknowledges the individual's active role in moral decision making. Hobbes! It promotes a sense of autonomy and responsibility in strategy decision making, rather than a reaction to external or internal controls. Thus, while environmental factors such as upbringing and philosopher, childhood experience must have an impact upon an individual's perception of what is regarded as right and wrong, in terms of ethical decision-making Aquinas' interpretation of conscience would seem to be the the king's heart, most reliable guide. It combines innate sense and an individual's immediate reaction to a situation with the philosopher, power of reason.

The fact that conscience is a moral skill acquired over time and with experience would seem to be a great asset in making ethical decisions. Blindly obeying an Essay about The Bacon's Philosophy innate sense alone without considering the alternatives as Butler suggests would, however, seem to be an abdication of philosopher, individual responsibility. Incredibly strong essay in my opinion. Only criticism would be that the Church don't lean to Short Dragon Essay Aquinas' views because of their merit, but so as to maintain power as an authority. Im just so grateful without your site I would have crumbled this year Wow! Thanks very much for this help. Hobbes Philosopher! It is an excellent basis for my revision.

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