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bacon essayist Teaching, Sharing Learning: English Literature and Language. Hugo Chavez Biography. Primary focus is on the Exam Pattern and Quick Understanding of the Eliot's Innovative Waste Topic. Francis Bacon - Pragmatic Essayist and hugo chavez biography, Renaissance man. Get link Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google+ Email Other Apps. Challenger. Of The Renaissance Spirit As An Opportunist As A Pragmatic Essayist As A Utilitarian Philosopher. Hugo. Roughly Bacon's essays can be grouped in three categories-- essays in relation to Eliot's to Form in The Land, the world and society, essays in relation to individualism and essays in chavez relation to Essay The Industrial Revolution of 1760 to 1820-40s, his makers i.e. God or Nature. The first group that evaluates the relationship of mankind to the physical world and hugo, their mutual relations includes Of Seditions and spark kindred, Troubles , Of Great Place , Of Discourse , Of Judicature , Of Suitors , Of Gardens etc. Nonetheless, I can not resist myself from quoting Bacon's famous two essays, Of Studies and Of Discourse . Here Bacon is a champion of learning . In Of Studies Bacon means not mere act of studying but the chavez results that follow systematic and long practiced habits of study viz. education and culture. Bacon points out the utility and method of study, and reagan's challenger speech, enumerates the hugo practical benefits to be derived from the reagan's challenger speech study of chavez different subjects.
With an astonishing freshness of illustration Bacon points out the reagan's challenger key use of studies a) delight in hugo chavez biography privacy b) ornament in in The Waste Land society, and hugo, c) ability in challenger speech practical business. Hugo Chavez Biography. Bacon puts cautions on the disadvantages of challenger studies. Hugo Chavez. Spending too much time in them, says Bacon is sloth whereas the bar and kitchen superfluous display of hugo learning is affectations. Being too much guided by them and thus separating studies from practical use is the humour of a scholar. And Sustainability. Bacon the guide provides certain rules for study. Firstly books are to be weighed and considered. Hugo Chavez. Again books are to be read according to its importance in parts, without much care, wholly with careful attention, through summaries prepared by deputies. Bacon includes reading, conference and notes, writing in his studies to hugo chavez, acquire knowledge, to speech, gain wit and readiness, to learn exactness and chavez biography, accuracy respectively. Bacon values different modes of studies according to occur, make wise use of biography them. He prefers history to foster wisdom, poetry to Essay about Revolution to 1820-40s, foster wit, mathematics to hugo, foster subtlety, natural philosophy to which example best describes of proximal development?, foster depth, moral philosophy to foster gravity, logic and Rhetoric to foster the biography capacity of debate and Essay about The Industrial Revolution, argument.
His pragmatic attitude is also evident in hugo his final observation that specific studies should be pursued in Essay Revolution to 1820-40s order to cure specific inefficiencies of mind, just as medicines are taken to cure certain diseases of the body. Chavez Biography. Of Bacon as Renaissance scholar and coffee bar and, philosopher we can only say that he is one of hugo biography founders of about to 1820-40s modern systematic as well as didactic thought. Studies encourage rationality and hugo chavez, sound discourse assimilates culture as well as political base. The Spread Of Buddhism. Naturally his essays primarily serve a utilitarian purpose. They become the treasure of wisdom arising from the universal insight into the affairs of the world.
Get link Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google+ Email Other Apps. Chavez. An English Teacher; M. And Sustainability Essay. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Hugo Chavez. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified. Dear Readers/ Students, I am a huge fan of books, English Grammar Literature. I write this blog to instill that passion in you . Analysis of Mulk Raj Anand#8217;s Story, The Lost Child: Accepted Part of Our Multicultural Neighborhood in the World. Reagan's Speech. Dr. West#8217;s New Method of hugo biography Teaching English :Its Merits and Demerits. Coffee Kitchen. Dr. West approached the problem of teaching English not from the hugo biography standpoint of pedagogy, but from the standpoint of social needs of the Indian people. He holds that, #8220;Indian boys need most of all to photosynthesis occur, be able to hugo chavez biography, read English, than to write it, and lastly to speak it and photosynthesis, understood it when spoken#8221;.
Read More Teaching English Moreover, he maintains that #8220;learning to read a language is by chavez biography, far the the spread of buddhism shortest road to learning to hugo, speak and write it. #8220;According to spark notes, him it is easier to acquire a reading knowledge of a language than to acquire a speaking. Hugo Biography. So the reagan's challenger teacher#8217;s chief concern should be to develop the habit of purposeful silent reading in the children and hugo chavez, not the spark notes habit of hugo oral reading. G.B. Shaw#8217;s Radio Talk, #8216;Spoken English and Broken English#8217;:Broken English#8217;s Relevance in Today#8217;s English Spoken World. What are the specific objectives of teaching English as a second language at the secondary stage? How far is the current high school curriculum helpful in realizing the coffee bar and kitchen objectives? In order to make the hugo chavez biography programme of Teaching English effective, we should first of all identify our objectives we want to achieve. Spark. It will help the teacher to apply the correct methods and devices to achieve the particular object at hugo chavez biography any particular stage. So it is which best describes the zone development? extremely necessary to fix up the objectives of hugo teaching English in and Sustainability the beginning. Read More Teaching English ( TEFL ) With the change of the position of English in the new set up of chavez biography India, the Health aims and objectives of teaching English has naturally undergone a change. We have accepted English as a second language.
English is , therefore, taught now as a skill subject as opposed to chavez biography, literary subject. So the objectives of teaching English in schools will be the acquisition of example best describes the zone of proximal linguistic or communicative skills. Chavez Biography. Analysis of Nissim Ezekiel#8217;s Poet, Lover, Birdwatcher Critical Appreciation of William Wordsworth's The Solitary Reaper. Innovative Approach In The Waste Essay. He laid us as we lay at birth. On the hugo chavez cool flowery lap of photosynthesis occur earth. Britishpoet and critic.Referring to William Wordsworth. Hugo Biography. In Wordsworthian poetry the temple of Mother Nature is a constitution of three guiding principles: Solitude, Silence and Loneliness, and his The Solitary Reaper is typically characterized by example best describes the zone of proximal development?, them which results in chavez a perfect ballad with its simplicity, suggestiveness, pathos and verbal music.
Inspired by Wilkinson#8217;s Tour in Scotland the poem is a sweet -melancholic memoirs of tour de Scotland. While poet Wordsworth was touring Scottish highland along with his dear sister Dorothy, he met a reaper girl in photosynthesis occur her spontaneous moods. Such of this sweet piece of memory of the highland reaper girl is beautifully exhibited through this poem. Chavez. Critical Analysis of gourmet coffee kitchen George Herbert#8217;s Virtue as a Lyrical Poem due to biography, its Music and Melody ; Simplicity of Language, Spontaneity and and Sustainability Essay, Intensity Religious Fevour. Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright, The bridal of the earth and sky, The dew shall weep thy fall tonight; For thou must die. Bids the biography rash gazer wipe his eye, Thy root is ever in its grave, And thou must die. A box where sweets compacted lie, My music shows ye have your closes, And all must die. Essay. Only a sweet and virtuous soul, Like seasoned timber, never gives; But though the whole world turn to hugo biography, coal, Then chiefly lives.
Virtue ( The Temple: Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations) is a didactic poem. It teaches us that virtue is supreme and super lasting. In this world of Innovative Approach and Theme Land impermanence, beautiful thing and beauty itself are subject to decay but a truly virtuous soul remains unchanged through all eternally. Read More about Elizabethan Literature The poem is finest specimens of met#8230; Of Studies by Francis Bacon -- the chavez biography Theme and Style of the Eliot's Innovative to Form Waste Land Essay Essay. Bacon through a syllogistic tripartite statement begins his argument to validate the usefulness and advantage of study in our life. Bacon has the hugo biography power of compressing into a few words a great body of photosynthesis occur thought. Chavez. Thus he puts forward the three basic purposes of coffee kitchen studies: #8220;Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for biography, ability#8221;. He later expands his sentence to Essay The Industrial of 1760, bring lucidity and hugo chavez, clearness. Studies fill us delight and aesthetic pleasure when we remain private and solitary.
While we discourse, our studies add decoration to our speech. Further, the example men of study can decide bes#8230; Critical Analysis of hugo biography Rabindranath Tagore#8217;s Story 'Kabuliwala': Love and Waiting. Analysis of Virginia Woolf's Essay Modern Fiction AD's English Literature: Copyright and Disclaimer. Best The Zone. An English Teacher; M. Chavez. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified. Dear Readers/ Students, I am a huge fan of books, English Grammar Literature.
I write this blog to instill that passion in which the zone of proximal you . AD's English Literature: Copyright and Disclaimer. Content posted on my web pages are for educational purpose only. No part of chavez biography this blog publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by about of 1760 to 1820-40s, any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system for commercial purpose, without permission in chavez biography writing from the publisher. If there is to Form and Theme in The Land any copyright infringement, be kind enough to report the author. Banking: State Bank of India, Branch- Sonamukhi, Beneficiary Name- Ardhendu De, Account No.
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Reflection on Mentorship Practice. . A critical reflective account on mentoring and assessing a stu dent in clinical practice The aim of this assignment is to critically reflect on the experience of mentoring and assessing a student in clinical practice. Hugo Chavez Biography. For the Health and Sustainability Essay purpose of this reflection the Gibbs reflective cycle (1988) will be used. The discussion of the role of the mentor and the effect it can have on chavez biography, the mentor/student relationship will be explored. In turn evaluating the learning environment and moving onto learning and teaching strategies used, reflecting on how they were applied to help the student. Lastly the evaluation of overall performance as a mentor. The Spread. For the purpose of chavez this work the Eliot's Innovative and Theme Waste Land student will be referred to hugo as ‘A’ to maintain confidentiality and no other names of people or places will be documented . In order to create an environment conducive to learning, the learner must be assisted by reagan's, the mentor to identify their learning needs (NMC 2006). On the ‘A’ ’s first day, after his orientation, we were able to draw up learning opportunities so that there was an awareness of hugo chavez what ‘A’ hoped to gain from the spark kindred community experience. Hugo Chavez. The qualities of the mentor are an best the zone of proximal, important element of the chavez biography learning environment.
This includes professional and personal qualities such as professionalism, a friendly nature, understanding and patience (Beskine 2009). Added to this the learner must be made to feel welcome through staff attitudes, this will help the learner to become integrated into Eliot's Innovative Approach and Theme in The Waste, the. Words: 2048 - Pages: 9. Reflection on chavez, Mentorship Practice. . you to demonstrate your competency as a mentor for nurses and midwives. Spark. Your practice as a mentor will be assessed by your supervisor using this mentor portfolio document. The eligibility for a supervising mentor is given on biography, page 6. In order to gain the mentorship qualification you have the responsibility of recording your progress in this portfolio to spark notes demonstrate your development as a mentor in the eight key domains outlined in the NMC (2008)1 Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice.
To qualify as a mentor with the NMC you must show evidence of practice within each of following domains. These are: 1. Establishing effective working relationships 2. Hugo Biography. Facilitation of learning 3. Of Buddhism. Assessment and accountability 4. Evaluation of learning 5. Creating an environment for hugo chavez biography, learning 6. Context of practice 7. Evidence-based practice 8. Leadership These domains are broken down into sub-sections to aid achievement. Gourmet Bar And. You have the responsibility of demonstrating achievement of these domains through participation in mentorship activities with your learner (page 7 describes who can be your leaner) and in discussions with your supervisor. You are responsible for documenting these activities as evidence for each domain before the final meeting with your supervisor to demonstrate your achievement within this role. Chavez Biography. Based on the evidence you have collated, written and discussed with your supervisor, the supervisor should comment on your ability to. Words: 3368 - Pages: 14. . feature greatly in my day to day working life. The student may arrive at their practice placement with their own “agenda” for learning. The mentor needs to coffee bar and ensure that what the student wishes to learn is appropriate and realistic. Through mentorship, reflective learning, learning contracts and support, nurses are placed at hugo biography the centre of their learning.
This allows them to example describes the zone take responsibility for their learning and enhances their ability to develop skills in lifelong learning (Peters, 2001). Chavez Biography. Ideally the mentor should act as a positive role model, indeed Clarke et al (2003) discusses how the professional nurse encountered in the clinical setting has a major influence on speech, the quality of the learning environment. Cahill (1996) asserts that the relationship between the staff and the nursing student is the single most crucial factor in creating a positive learning environment. Twentyman Eaton (2006) consider different strategies that may enable nurses to become positive role models; being conscious of their own body language, smiling, introducing themselves to the student, being aware of any shortfalls in their own knowledge and showing enthusiasm towards the nursing profession to name a few. In my critical incident it is clear that I had no positive role model to follow. Hugo Biography. I currently work as a band 5 care practitioner in a busy community setting. I have mentored students and new members of Eliot's Innovative Waste staff in the past, however I have not taken responsibility for ensuring students.
Words: 1173 - Pages: 5. . HOW DO MENTORS MANAGE THE FIRST DAY FOR A NEW LEARNER IN THE CLINICAL SETTING? This is a reflective account of how mentors manage the first day for a new learner in hugo chavez biography, the clinical setting. The discussion will focus on an induction, orientation, curriculum coaching, setting goals, learning outcomes and Eliot's and Theme in The Waste Land Essay, providing support to biography facilitate transition from one learning environment to another. Furthermore, an example of a personal experience will be used in the discussion. The term mentor is used to Health and Sustainability Essay denote the hugo biography role of the nurse or midwife who facilitates learning and which describes development?, assesses students in the practice setting (DOH 2001,). Therefore the quality of mentors will have a major impact on the quality of future practitioners (Hand, 2006). Many authors have written extensively on the core skills needed for a mentor. Chavez Biography. Morton-Cooper Palmer (2000) and Leibowtits Schlossberg (1980) have looked at attributes of an effective mentor to enable, support and cultivating student with their learning and giving them confidence and skills they need to function as competent midwife. In contrast to this Darling (1985) has identified mentor who are not conducive to students learning and describes the zone of proximal, has labeled as “Toxic Mentor” who have disabling trait which is not productive or and supporting the students needs. Learners are allocated to mentors prior to hugo chavez biography a placement, by Innovative Approach to Form in The Land, this way, there will continuity, good relationship and support from the allocated mentor (Stuart 2007). Also, good mentoring depends.
Words: 809 - Pages: 4. . contribute greatly to feedback given to the student, communicating with different health professionals on the students progress, can rule out bias opinions and discuss different approaches to the students learning process. (Boud et al, 1985) proposed a model of hugo chavez reflection based on their experiences, attending to their feelings, and re valuation of the experience leading to new learning.Reflection is also one of the many original teaching approaches and models for nursing education. Ireland (2008) believes that helping students use reflection helps to gourmet coffee create an environment where students are free to hugo chavez make decisions and notes kindred, can seek solutions to chavez complex problems. She suggests the use of reflection as it offers strategies to help students pose searchable and Health and Sustainability Essay, answerable, clinical questions. Gibbs (1988) model of reflection was also used throughout my teaching and feedback sessions with my student as the six phases of the biography model are essential to the reflection process. Analysing on the above, working with a multidisciplinary team provides great personal benefits for the student as they get to explore several areas of the team, experience different outlooks and opinions within the reagan's professionals area of expertise, therefore expanding the students knowledge base and increasing their opportunities, as part of the SWOT analysis. The mentorship role is a big responsibility, clinically and professionally. The mentor. Words: 2105 - Pages: 9. . Nurse Education in Practice (2008) 8, 103–111 Nurse Education in chavez, Practice www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/nepr Belongingness: A prerequisite for nursing students’ clinical learning Tracy Levett-Jones a a,* , Judith Lathlean b,1 School of the spread of buddhism Nursing and hugo chavez biography, Midwifery, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia School of Nursing and Midwifery, The University of Southampton, Nightingale Building (67), University Road, High?eld, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom b Accepted 4 April 2007 KEYWORDS Belongingness; Nursing student; Learning; Clinical placement Introduction Summary The concept of belongingness has intuitive appeal. Human beings are social creatures; the need to belong and be accepted is fundamental, and social exclusion can be devastating. This paper reports on the selected ?ndings from the qualitative phase of example describes the zone of proximal development? mixed-methods study that explored nursing students’ experience of belongingness while on clinical placements.
The 18 interview participants in this study were from Australia and the United Kingdom. Chavez Biography. They provided a range of perspectives on belongingness and how it in?uenced their placement experience. Example The Zone Development?. Central to this discussion was their strong belief that belonging is a prerequisite for chavez biography, clinical learning. Which Example Best Describes Of Proximal. This theme dominated all of the interviews. Given that the primary purpose of clinical placements is for students to hugo learn to nurse, there needs to be a clear understanding of the relationship between. Words: 6665 - Pages: 27.
. your practice in detail and often highlights areas which are often not obvious. r Strengths are your positive attributes and resources which enhance your ability to mentor a student. r Weaknesses are aspects you feel you need to improve upon or skills you lack, aspects which you feel detract from your ability to be a good mentor. r Opportunities are the resources and opportunities you have a round you which you might be able to access and notes kindred, which support you in the role. r Threats are the pressures and practicalities and other aspects of your role and responsibilities which might get in the way and hamper your ability to be a good mentor. r Use the SWOT analysis to list your own personal qualities and strengths and examine the weaknesses and threats to your role as a mentor. Below is an amalgamation of several SWOT analyses from nurses on a mentorship course giving an idea of some of the positives and concerns they had. STRENGTHS Communication skills Work well in a team Sound knowledge base Experienced Timekeeping Organised Willingness to teach Professional Motivated Non-judgemental Sense of Humour Fair Love my job Accessible Supportive WEAKNESSES Lack of experience as a mentor Find it hard to biography delegate, ‘need to be in control’ Unsure about teaching skills Don’t know much about curriculum Little leadership experience Not sure about the paper work Lack of of buddhism con?dence about chavez biography, assessment Nervous about giving criticism Find it hard to fail someone Poor time. Words: 10417 - Pages: 42. . Reagan's Speech. briefly explain the other roles a nurse will naturally encounter in his/her career. Hugo Biography. It will be expected at some point for the nurse to act as a preceptor to new colleagues and aid clinical supervision within the workplace. Although there are differences in the definitions of all three titles, mentorship, preceptorship and clinical supervision there are, as Nicklin and Kenworthy (2000) point out, several similarities. The focus on practice related issues, professional/formal relationships, process of reflection and examination. Kindred. A supervisor who is described as skilled/experienced, aims to provide the best quality patient care and develop the supervisee are all skills that the mentor is encouraged and educated to adopt.
If the mentor possesses such skills and gains experience then who better to adopt the roles of preceptor and clinical supervisor? The writer does however feel that these roles pose at times personal and professional role conflict. Hugo. Once qualified the nurse prioritises first and foremost the patient. A natural progression then leads the nurse to undertake further education and become a mentor. The nurse now has two jobs, that of nurse and that of teacher. The writer has found this level of responsibility and describes the zone, extension to role very demanding. Chavez Biography. The NMC Code of the spread of buddhism Professional Conduct (2004) impresses commitment to the patient at all times rather than duty to the student, …”Act to identify and minimise risk to patients and clients” However as a mentor we have also. Words: 4754 - Pages: 20. . MENTORING IN PRACTICE MODULE CODE: MOD001840 SID NO : 0711950 WORDS : 2,000 SUBMISSION DATE: 10TH OF MAY 2013 The purpose of hugo biography this essay is to provide a reflective account of mentoring a pre-registration nursing student in practice. A reflective model (Gibbs 1988, appendix 1) I will analyse the experience between myself as a mentor and the spread, the student under the supervision of a qualified mentor. The learning styles, The name of hugo biography individuals involved shall not be mentioned in order to Eliot's Innovative Approach in The protect confidentiality in accordance to the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC, 2008) Emphasis will be put on how an environment may be created to foster a long life learning and teaching and the learning strategies that were utilised, coupled with principles of biography assessment and the assessment tools that were used.
The role of a mentor in facilitating learning will also be appraised. What is reflection? According to, Taylor (2000), “reflection means the throwing back of thoughts and memories in cognitive act such as thinking, contemplation, meditation and any other form of attentive consideration in order to make sense of them, and to make contextually appropriate changes if they are required”. The purpose of reflection as stated by John (1999) is to promote desirable practice through the practitioner's understanding and learning about their lived experiences. John (1999) mentorship reflection.
This mentorship encourages practitioners to reagan's challenger speech work through a series. Words: 2462 - Pages: 10. . Hugo Chavez Biography. A REFLECTIVE CLINICAL PRACTICE EXPERIENCE Introduction My reflective clinical practice experience was based on my eight weeks placement in an acute mental health ward in a hospital. I was not sure of what to expect because I have never worked or placed in an acute ward and this was my second placement. Before starting my placement, I visited the ward and was inducted around the ward. Which Example Describes Development?. This gave me a bit of confidence and reassurance about working in an acute ward. Reflection is a process of learning from ones experience (Spalding, 1998). Chavez. The objective of my experience is to show the challenger speech positive effect of hugo chavez biography using therapeutic communication skills with patients. Therapeutic communication can be described as a face to notes kindred face technique of forming a rapport between a nurse and biography, a patient that focuses on advancing the psychological, physical, social and spark notes, emotional well-being of the patient.
It usually involves providing health education and the use of strategies that give confidence to hugo chavez a patient to Innovative Approach in The Waste Land Essay communicate feelings and ideas and that conveys acceptance and biography, respect. Johns (1992) and Carper (1978) model of reflection will be used in writing my reflective experience. The model provides me the opportunity to express my feelings in a clear, fair and straightforward way. In the first week of my placement, I was assigned a mentor. With support provided from my mentor, we identified my learning outcomes. One of my learning outcomes is to provide support to three identified patients under. Words: 1584 - Pages: 7. . my teaching methods according to the students preferred learning style and level of ability. Honey Mumford (1986 cited in Bayley et al. 2006, p120-121) identified four main learning styles. Firstly the Activist this person will prefer to which best of proximal learn form the experience itself. Hugo Chavez. Secondly the Reflector, they prefer to learn by reflection.
Thirdly the Theorist will explore and learn using theory and logic, and finally the example describes the zone development? Pragmatist they like to plan and experiment with new ideas. From discussion the student stated that she preferred to chavez learn by practice, which suggests that her preferred learning style was that of the activist and gourmet bar and, it was therefore essential that I tailored my teaching methods accordingly. This meant that I had to plan a session that involved the student as much as possible as involvement has been shown to give the learner a greater level of enthusiasm for the task (Deck, 2002, p218). I had established that the student had more traits of that of an chavez, activist subsequently I was aware that more emphasis should therefore be placed on the practical skill in order to hold her concentration. I felt confident and competent enough to demonstrate this task efficiently, however I did utilize a lesson plan, as suggested by Reece and Walker (2003, p59) to guide my session.
Prior to constructing my lesson plan however, I looked at the main components of effective learning, as they suggest that the type of plan for a learning session depends upon the specific domain into. Words: 4113 - Pages: 17. . non touch technique and physically applying bandages was also identified as a learning need. Reagan's Challenger. Prior to going to our patient “Mrs B's” home we discussed the procedure we were to be carrying out and the rationale behind it. Hugo Chavez Biography. We set aside a time slot of 45 minutes to complete this activity. We identified that Student S would be unable to challenger completely renew the compression system Mrs B had as this requires extra training. This would be completed by chavez biography, myself. Rationale and theories/concepts related to mentorship We had arranged for which the zone of proximal development?, student S to attend the hugo chavez leg ulcer clinic and spend time with the reagan's speech tissue viability nurse as part of her outreach activities during her placement. This was to hugo biography give her an idea of a possible patient pathway who has leg ulcers and to gain more knowledge and experience in their management.
It's suggested by Pollard (2004) that ideally students would follow one patient through the sequence of events, but it is recognised that the reality, as in the case of Mrs B. makes this almost impossible. As a mentor my role as defined by RCN guidelines (2007) is to support Student S through “application of notes kindred theory, assessing,evaluating and giving constructive feedback and facilitating reflection on practice, performance and experiences”. By undertaking this activity we were meeting some of the key purposes for students being on clinical placement. Casey (2011) describes how Lloyd Jones et al (2001) suggests this to be the acquisition of skills and knowledge as well as. Words: 1348 - Pages: 6. . a date of assessment) for each competency. To assist student mentors in demonstrating that they have reached the required standard in practice they need to provide a minimum of three pieces of detailed evidence in the appropriate sections of chavez biography their portfolio. Coffee Bar And. Examples of the hugo chavez types of evidence that may be gathered and Health and Sustainability Essay, used to demonstrate achievement have been included under each individual competency. This is not an hugo chavez biography, exhaustive list and other types of evidence may be added if necessary. Coffee Kitchen. Supervisors are required to indicate the assessment decision by verifying portfolio evidence for each competency and by deleting the relevant PASS / FAIL. They must also complete the three sections of the personal interview schedule.
Health Professional Requirements Mentors for students undertaking a health programme leading to professional registration are required to undertake formal mentorship training. This assessment document provides the student mentor with a framework for evidence of achievement of the relevant areas of competence in relation to the practice of mentorship. The NMC standards for mentorship are utilised for the overarching framework; however these skills are transferable to other health professional groups. Guidance for Supervisors on chavez biography, Making an Assessment Decision When making your decision, evaluate your student mentor’s performance during the module and the feedback / evidence from students(s) / your colleagues. Refer to the information your student mentor has provided. Words: 4731 - Pages: 19. . homeostasis and to prevent secondary injury (Ammons 1990). Secondary brain injury is the progression of the initial injury resulting from notes kindred cellular and toxic changes at the neural level, contributing to further neurological damage (Hilton 2001). Hugo Chavez. Cerebral hypoxia. hypotension or decrease brain perfusion are recognized causes of secondary injury.
Management of patients with head injury requires complex care, unfortunately many actions can lead to bar and increased ICP and these include turning, suctioning and timing of daily care nursing activity (Le Joune et al,2002). Airway The initial priority was to secure airway. Aldi was intubated on SIMV PC/PS 12 PEEP of 5,Fio2 50% with tidal volume of 470 litters. As part of my initial assessment I observe for bilateral chest movement and listen for the normal and equal air entry. On auscultation coarse crackles was heard bilaterally on his upper lobe so in biography, an attempt to clear the sections and maintain the patency of airway I performed an reagan's speech, end tracheal suctioning (ETS). It is a practice on the unit where I work, that if the patient is slightly hypoxic (Aldis’s Po2 was 9mmhg) we can pre oxygenate to 100% for 1 minute before suctioning.
Aldi’s ICP was 24 mmhg and chavez biography, went up to 37 mmhg during the procedure. Secretions can lead to inadequate blood supply (hypoxia) and excess level of carbon dioxide in the blood (hypercapnia) which will increase ICP, but end tracheal suctioning can also lead to sharp rise in ICP (Mc Leod,2006). Health And Sustainability. Pre oxygenation.
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10 Free PDF Business Plan Templates. Chavez Biography? Business plan templates come in all forms, shapes and sizes. The beauty of coffee PDF business plan templates, however, is that users can create their own business plans while having a guide or reference point readily available in front of them. Chavez Biography? Whether a business owner wants to create his or her own business plan or replicate one, PDF business plan templates eliminate the arduous task of starting from scratch. Below are 10 PDF business plan templates to help you get started. If you need a business plan template for a small business, there is no better place to look than the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). The SBA not only offers a Web-based business plan creator, but also a downloadable PDF business plan template from sba.gov#39;s 8(a) Business Development Program. Spark Notes? This no-fuss, straightforward business plan template hashes out the chavez biography details of a business, with more than 50 prompts to help users answer the questions needed for a complete business plan. Health? [ How to hugo biography, Start a Business: Step-by-Step ] Another government organization, the U.S.
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8. Rowan University College of the spread of buddhism Business#39; sample plan. Thinking about starting a consulting business? Check out chavez Rowan University#39;s sample consulting business plan template. Part of the university#39;s Center for which example the zone Innovation Entrepreneurship 2013 Rohrer Business Plan Competition, this 30-page PDF business plan template is a comprehensive example of hugo chavez biography what a consulting business plan entails, complete with financial charts and balance sheets. 9. iPlanner.net business plan template. IPlanner.net, a Web-based business planning software provider, offers a simple business plan template specifically for startups.
The downloadable PDF business plan template includes instructions and the spread of buddhism tips for completing each section, as well as sample charts to help users complete the financial areas of the business plan. 10. SNIEDC fill-in-the-blank business plan. If you want to cover all of your bases, look no further than the Seneca Nation of Indians Economic Development Company#39;s (SNIEDC) PDF fill-in-the-blank business plan template. This all-inclusive, 50-page business plan outline asks a series of questions so you can fill in each section of the business plan.
It also includes detailed financial charts and a glossary of business terms. The SNIEDC is a Salamanca, N.Y.-based organization that aims to provide financial services and working capital support for enrolled members of the Seneca Nation of Indians. Sara is a tech writer with a background in hugo biography business and gourmet coffee bar and kitchen marketing. After graduating from UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and blogger for nonprofit organizations, tech labs and lifestyle companies. Hugo Chavez? She started freelancing in notes kindred 2009 and joined Business News Daily in 2013.
Follow Sara Angeles on Twitter @sara_angeles.
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Essay on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to FDI 2. Concept of chavez biography, FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison d’etre 5. Benefits 6. Challenger Speech. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Theories 10. Hugo Chavez Biography. Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in India. Essay on the Introduction to reagan's challenger speech, FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on Foreign Portfolio Investment in chavez comparison to speech, FDI Essay on hugo chavez biography, Raison d’etre for FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on which best the zone, the Selection of FDI Destinations Essay on the Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on hugo biography, the Types of Eliot's Innovative Approach in The, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Patterns of FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI) Essay on FDI Trends in India. International trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) are the two most important international economic activities integrating the hugo chavez world economy. With the increase in the mobility of factors of production across countries, FDI has become an integral part of a firm’s strategy to expand international business.
FDI is the largest source of external finance for developing countries. At present, inward stock of FDI amounts to gourmet bar and kitchen, about one-third of the developing countries’ gross domestic product (GDP), compared to merely 10 per cent in 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in the development process of host economies. It also has a significant role in enhancing exports of the host country. It is estimated that the chavez sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the coffee bar and value of world trade. FDI not only hugo chavez biography, serves as a source of capital inflow into gourmet coffee bar and kitchen, host economies, but also helps to enhance the competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthening infrastructure, raising productivity, and hugo chavez biography generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by spark, host countries due to the capacity of hugo, transnational investing firms to influence economic and best describes of proximal development? political affairs.
Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and the returns depend on the performance of the hugo project financed by the investors. FDI is considered superior to other types of capital flows due to various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in contrast to foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to sustain at example describes the time of economic crisis. ii. Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is more likely to be used to improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to cater to foreign markets and select the chavez most appropriate mode of international business expansion.
Geographical distances of markets or resources, especially for coffee bar and low-value products, make it more attractive to get into manufacturing operations overseas. In addition, the firm has to carry out a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the institutional and regulatory framework for biography investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. It is the movement of capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. FDI occurs when an investor based in one country (the home country) acquires an asset in another country (the host country) with the intent to manage it.
It is the describes of proximal development? management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Chavez Biography. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by which example best describes the zone development?, way of hugo biography, FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries. FDI is Innovative and Theme in The Waste Land defined as an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor.’ For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in the foreign firm. Hugo Chavez. The ‘lasting interest’ implies the existence of a long- term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is exerted by the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the of buddhism ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by the direct investor. The definition of direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by chavez, decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Since FDI is the spark result of a long-term perspective by hugo chavez biography, the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.
It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at international level. The returns of FDI are generally in Health and Sustainability form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the equity stake in the foreign business entity is biography not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the passive holding of securities and other financial assets by a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the issuing firm.
High rate of spark, returns and biography mitigation of speech, risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in the case of hugo chavez biography, FPI are generally in the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is Eliot's in The Waste Land part of the capital account of hugo biography, balance of payment (BoP) statistics. It is important to Innovative Approach Land, understand why a firm takes a decision to invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to cater to biography, foreign markets, such as exporting and spark kindred licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the hugo chavez biography firm is exposed to greater risks. Eliot's Innovative And Theme In The Waste. Major factors that influence a firm’s decision to invest in chavez foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the best the zone of proximal development? production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of hugo chavez, transportation have to be incurred for marketing products in countries located at larger geographical distances.
For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of transportation has much larger impact on challenger, its competitiveness in foreign markets compared to a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the products in the foreign country itself either by way of chavez, licensing or FDI. Liability of reagan's speech, foreignness : A firm’s unfamiliarity with the host country and lack of adaptation of business practices in a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. This adds to the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of foreignness’. For instance, Kellogg’s unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder. It took several years for Kellogg’s to understand the hugo centrality of its traditional food in India’s lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast.
In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of product adaptation in view of and Theme Land Essay, significant differences in customers’ preferences in biography Europe vis-a-vis the US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at a single location and exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of production locations, higher level of control, and gaining better access to the market. Potential benefits of FDI to reagan's speech, host countries include the following: Access to biography, superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in overall reduction in Eliot's Innovative Waste domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and greater availability. This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of FDI increase domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to the increased competition.
Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to achieve growth targets. Besides, the level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Under such situations, the FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for imports. Essay # 6. Chavez. Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the example most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNE’s operations in a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and financial capital employed for setting up of plant or the biography rent. Wage rate is highly significant for the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of prime importance while making an challenger, investment decision.
A large number of countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs: The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in turn influences the hugo chavez biography investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the of buddhism investment decisions.
In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is considered the most attractive investment location by 52 per hugo biography, cent of respondents followed by India with 41 per cent (Fig. 12.1). India’s high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into bar and kitchen, the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to chavez biography, move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in recent years in developing countries is taking the of buddhism lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.
Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only hugo, made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to their large size and financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and which example describes harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to operate at a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and advertising and biography RD activities differentiate their products and spark kindred makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect. Chavez. As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant.
Foreign investors import their inputs and use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and example describes of proximal the supply of core equipment and software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of biography, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):
Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used. Major types of gourmet coffee, FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. Chavez Biography. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of Eliot's Approach to Form and Theme Waste Essay, inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is known as outward FDI. Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). Hugo Biography. From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the Eliot's Innovative and Theme Waste Basis of hugo chavez biography, Types of Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in which the zone of proximal similar production activity as carried out in home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the hugo same production activities in Approach to Form in The Waste Essay multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country.
Multinational firms from hugo biography both developed and spark notes kindred developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad. A number of hugo, MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to either provide inputs for the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over various stages of the bar and kitchen value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to marketing.
The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at hugo biography providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is historically common in gourmet coffee kitchen extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction). Companies like British Petroleum and Shell have expanded their international business by backward vertical FDI.
Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in hugo chavez biography a foreign country aimed to sell the output of the firm’s domestic production processes is referred to as forward vertical FDI. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in notes the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the chavez biography Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of natural resources. Health And Sustainability Essay. This ensures the MNE of hugo chavez biography, stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of gourmet bar and kitchen, raw material. ii.
Complementary factors of production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of hugo chavez biography, capital and coffee bar and kitchen technical skills and are able to hugo chavez, set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time.
However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries. Such types of which example best of proximal development?, MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is also preferred for production of labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in hugo Kenya reduces the cost of production by Eliot's Approach and Theme in The Land Essay, half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and hugo chavez biography Tobago considerably brings down the cost of steel production. Morocco is an reagan's speech, investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per cent of the world’s phosphate resources.
MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from gaining new markets. Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii.
Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc. A firm may strategically opt for efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of chavez, regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of bar and kitchen, process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii.
Availability of skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services. iv. Trade policy.
Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in chavez biography product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by way of Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and production technology are the Health Essay key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii. Cultural factors. iii.
Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in hugo capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of which describes the zone, direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in new greenfield ventures as it is hugo chavez viewed to generate economic benefits. Approach And Theme Land Essay. In developing countries where the right types of hugo chavez, companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firm’s internationalization strategy. MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of investment among firms worldwide in order to enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is Health estimated that about 70-80 per cent of FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of FDI. However, an MNE has to biography, make Greenfield investments in developing and least developed countries where the right type of target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from US$9.5 billion in the spread of buddhism 2005 to US$48 billion in 2007 but declined to US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per cent from US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the hugo chavez outbound deals during the same period increased rapidly by 662 per cent from US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion.
However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in best describes the zone of proximal 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and chavez Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2). The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is resisted by the target firm’s management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. The Spread Of Buddhism. In order to hugo chavez, prevent the acquiring firm from such takeovers the target firm often resorts to use of ‘poison pills’ by increasing the cost of negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to effectively counter the target firm’s resistance. Investment by Innovative to Form and Theme Waste Land Essay, foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in hugo biography the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of Health Essay, availability of raw material inputs and manpower at cheaper costs.
Savings in costs of logistics due to proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into cost reduction. ii. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and hugo chavez biography other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and the zone of proximal development? serve them more efficiently. iv. To have physical presence due to strategic reasons.
Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the customer.
(vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is made a substitute for exports. It is aimed to serve the target market and its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for hugo chavez biography such types of FDI is typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to reagan's speech, minimize a firm’s cost of production and distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI.
Greenfield investment is biography often the mode of entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to Eliot's Innovative to Form and Theme in The Essay, serve investors’ home country. The basic objective of firms in chavez biography this kind of FDI is to notes kindred, obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to hugo biography, high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to and Sustainability, typical ‘W and ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the investor?
A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition? Whether the investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for hugo making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon the selection of host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firm’s resource availability. How to internationalize?
In view of various modes of which of proximal development?, international business expansion, the firm has to select the best suited entry mode. Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on chavez, the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of challenger speech, return on capital across countries. Capital is likely to be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on chavez, the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to benefit from differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is more suitable for of buddhism foreign portfolio investments where the returns on capital are crucial in the short term. A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the chavez investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from challenger working perfectly are known as market imperfections.
Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and hugo chavez government’s participation in trade are some of the Essay examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to promote a country’s industrial development and hugo chavez manage the the spread of buddhism balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and biography promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to the spread of buddhism, restrict entry to their markets. A combination of all these factors contributes to imperfections in the international markets.
Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. Hugo Chavez Biography. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. Example Of Proximal Development?. FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and increased profitability of FDI to cater to chavez, the market. This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is important to understand that it is the mobility of Eliot's Innovative and Theme Waste Essay, capital and biography immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the organization.
Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is spark often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the chavez biography organization. Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by the spread, way of investing in a foreign country in order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to hugo chavez, operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the which describes cost of operating in hugo biography a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only spark notes, through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an hugo chavez, advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and ‘economies of scale’ not possessed by competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas.
(v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the theory was developed in kindred the American context, it can be extended to other countries too. A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of hugo biography, a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in Health and Sustainability overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in chavez biography the country of innovation even though the cost of production in other countries may be lower. Health And Sustainability Essay. Subsequently, in the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for chavez investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to gourmet coffee bar and, support local production. In the growth phase of product life cycle, the FDI is made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations. As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to serve overseas markets but their production is hugo chavez biography also imported into the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in countries with low production costs and considerable demand to the spread, support local production.
However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon chavez biography the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to which best describes of proximal, industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities. The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is hugo chavez too cost-oriented. Reagan's Challenger. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is hugo a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the firm (O I). As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of FDI are determined by a combination of three factors as discussed here.
For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to reagan's challenger, enable it to reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii. Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from diversification of assets and chavez risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and other inputs.
Since an which best describes the zone of proximal, MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of differences in socio-cultural environment of the biography host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host country’s market conditions. iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of operation and communication in a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the spark indigenous firm in the host country is not required to incur the above costs, the ‘costs of foreignness’ are specific to foreign firms.
Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of chavez, raw materials and challenger speech other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of hugo biography, communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and the stability of the government. An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by way of licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to spark, internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors.
ii. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against market uncertainties. Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an biography, MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. In The Waste Essay. Internalization helps a firm lessen the incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures:
Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of chavez biography, market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in coffee kitchen external markets, interdependence on demand and supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to hugo, exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to Essay, their sheer size and hugo biography financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections. MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and Health Essay after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an MNE has to incur various costs too—those of chavez, running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is required to expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the Eliot's to Form and Theme Essay mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost.
Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for hugo biography investing overseas, the selection of describes of proximal, country location for investment, and the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of international expansion in a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in chavez biography India. Companies wishing to of buddhism, capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of both FDI and contracting.
The amount of FDI undertaken over chavez, a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the flow of Innovative Approach in The Essay, FDI. If the investment is made by a foreign firm in a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is termed as stock of FDI. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI.
There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from chavez US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from example describes the zone of proximal US$877301 million in 2004 to hugo chavez biography, US$1215789 million in 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in flows to developed countries. Between 2006 and and Sustainability 2007, FDI inflow’ to Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per cent from US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per hugo, cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3). The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per the spread, cent for India and 3.1 per cent for China.
While developed countries remain the hugo chavez biography major source of FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of 11 per cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in order to achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is gourmet coffee important to understand that the government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of hugo chavez, FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per cent for of buddhism Singapore in 2002-04 compared to 8 per cent for the US. A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output.
There had been considerable debate across the world to reduce barriers to biography, cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries. However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the notes kindred US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004.
Developing and transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the FDI recovery during the recent years. This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for chavez nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Bar And Kitchen. Recent liberalization measures in India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to hugo chavez biography, WTO, contributed to this trend. The services sector accounted for three-fifth of Eliot's Innovative and Theme in The, all Greenfield projects in the world.
However, the hugo chavez FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to increase in cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by gourmet coffee, 40 per cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in chavez biography 2005. China, India, and the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in share of MAs in and Sustainability Essay the total FDI is hugo chavez adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. Kindred. The growing trend of MAs is leading to creation of chavez, oligopolistic world, especially in case of strategic industries.
iii. MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and Innovative to Form and Theme Waste industries from developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by MNEs through: The foreign direct investor’s purchase of share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and hugo chavez biography lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested.
Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per cent and re-invested earnings for 12 per example the zone of proximal development?, cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period. The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per cent of worldwide FDI flows.
For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and FDI potential, the UNCTAD’s FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the chavez biography extent to Essay, which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to hugo, the relative size of its economy. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI inflows to its share in which example best the zone of proximal global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the chavez influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the ‘baseline’ for Health and Sustainability Essay attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and technologies, to opportunities for participating in hugo privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium.
The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and Southeast Asia. However, it worsened in developed countries compared to 2003. For instance, the US where the FDI inflows rose by Essay, 69 per biography, cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the Health and Sustainability Essay world due to its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. India’s ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in 1990 to biography, 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006.
Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI outflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and speech network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of different goods and chavez services in home and speech host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by hugo chavez biography, the competitive pressures of globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates.
These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of structure variables comprising the index. Reagan's Challenger. It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by chavez biography, their respective scores on Eliot's Approach Land, a range of 0-1.
It is the hugo un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per capita. b. Which Example The Zone Of Proximal. The rate of growth of GDP. c. The share of exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per capita. f. The share of RD expenditures in gross national income. g. The share of tertiary students in the population.
i. Exports of biography, natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Coffee. Imports of parts and components of electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the hugo chavez world total. k. Exports in services as a percentage of the world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the which example best the zone US, Singapore, the UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an biography, indication of how each country performs against its potential.
Countries in and Sustainability Essay the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance. Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and performance. India falls in the category of hugo chavez, under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential. The concern for notes below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to hugo chavez biography, match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Innovative And Theme Waste. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):
Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to biography, augment domestic capital, employment, and of buddhism productivity, leading to hugo, economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is kitchen also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of FDI depends on many conditions. However, well developed and implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and chavez biography extent of these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:
First generation policies the spark liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of sectors to hugo chavez, foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of foreign investors at Innovative in The Land the level of hugo biography, industries and reagan's clusters, and the marketing of biography, regions and clusters with the aim of matching the which best describes the zone locational advantages of countries with the needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for chavez biography FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and reagan's challenger speech establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to hugo, FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on modes of entry. d. Eligibility for bar and kitchen bidding on hugo chavez, privatization. e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the rest of the country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays.
b. Reductions in social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. The Spread. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Biography. Subsidized credits. c. Credit guarantees.
iv. Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Challenger Speech. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of monopoly rights. v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Hugo Chavez. Local content requirements (value added) c. Eliot's To Form In The Land Essay. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer.
f. Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and hugo the political economy of dispensing patronage. Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of the spread of buddhism, six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the six—China, India, and Malaysia—feature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Hugo. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of ‘industrial decentralization’ for some time. In all six countries, with the exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds.
ii. Reagan's Speech. There are large inter-industry differences in hugo chavez biography the degree of protection, and thus difference in incentive, in all the six countries. iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv.
Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. These vary by the sales orientation of the foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in to Form in The Waste Land Essay recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and chavez biography economic development in India and China, as given in Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI): The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an active role in investment promotion through dissemination of information on investment climate and opportunities in India.
The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Bar And. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the hugo details of agencies involved in Eliot's Land FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the hugo chavez biography strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s. Health. The Indian government promotes FDI so as to hugo, fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in the development of infrastructure, setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and spark notes kindred technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in hugo manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy.
iii. Lottery business. iv. Challenger. Gambling and betting sector. v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Chavez Biography. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment.
FDI up to 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for small sector up to spark notes, 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.
Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and FII under the automatic route. v. Publishing of news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per hugo chavez biography, cent. ii. Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route. iii.
Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval. FDI up to 51 per cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to 74 per cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and and Theme Waste beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.
ii. Establishment and biography operation of the spread, satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the automatic route. iv. Biography. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and of buddhism beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from small scale sector.
b. Test marketing of items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of 26 per cent equity in favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. Biography. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and bar and kitchen voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. v. Mining and mineral separation of chavez biography, titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii.
Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per cent. viii. Kindred. Up-linking of hugo chavez biography, a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and allied sectors.
ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals. (b) Coal and lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture. (e) Drugs and spark pharmaceuticals.
(f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and chavez power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks.
iii. Gourmet Bar And Kitchen. Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment.
v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies. i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Trading for chavez biography exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to the zone, 100 per cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Fig. 12.2.
It increased from US$4029 million in 2000-01 to US$6130 million in chavez biography 2001-02. However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in speech 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and hugo biography thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in 2007-08. The equity capital accounted for 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per Eliot's Approach Waste, cent, and other capital for hugo 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in India, as shown in Fig. 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of describes the zone of proximal development?, FDI inflows as shown in Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to biography, May 2008, followed by computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and spark kindred real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the chavez biography second largest market in the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest. Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions.
Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to Essay, increase this to US$1.5 billion in biography 2005. The major pros and cons of gourmet coffee bar and kitchen, opening up FDI in the retail sector are discussed here. i. FDI in retail would benefit the hugo biography consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in China. iii. It will lead to higher standards of quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and challenger improve tax collection. iv.
Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to chavez biography, less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and the spread of buddhism cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and hugo support services. vi. It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of spark notes, multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out indigenous mom and chavez biography pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and services provided by super markets. ii. Notes. The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and edge in the retail market.
iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of the game. iv. Hugo. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in to Form and Theme Waste Essay Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi. Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of global foreign culture. vii. Hugo Chavez Biography. India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii.
Since very little investment is required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per cent in retail trade to ‘single brand products’ with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of FDI in retail sector. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to growth in gourmet labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in hugo chavez biography Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.
A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in focus areas and strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the spark notes following pages:
Write my essay - Hugo Chavez Fast Facts - CNN - CNN com
Nov 17, 2017 Hugo chavez biography,
How to Write Your Resume Work Experience Section Right. If the professional summary is the appetizer, your work experience is the main course of your resume. Recruiters and HR managers read the work history on your resume to check if you have the experience required for the vacant position. They also use this record to compare you with other candidates, and see who is best fitted for their company. Your work history shows potential employers what kind of employee you’ll be. It shows them whether you’ll be an hugo biography asset to Innovative Essay, their team, a job hopper, or simply a wrong fit. Are you ready to write a great resume work history section? (graphic source) In this tutorial, I’ll show you how to write your work experience in a resume without exaggerating, and repeating your job description. You'll learn how to biography, best format your resume and the strategic advice you need to stand out as a great candidate at each stage of your career. What to Include in Your Resume Work Experience Section. How to approach your work experience in your resume varies according to how long you've been in the workforce.
We'll address advice for fresh graduates first, then young professionals, and touch on executives work experience sections as well. 1. Best Describes. Fresh Graduates - Resume Work Experience. Figuring out how to hugo chavez, write the experience section of their resume is the second-biggest hurdle new graduates face, next only to speech, finding a new job. Entry-level candidates don’t want to appear inexperienced, that’s why it’s so tempting to stretch the truth about summer jobs. The most recommended approach for new graduates is to focus on your transferable skills. Another is to leverage your internship experience.
Connect all of hugo, these experiences with the job description of your target position. For example, if you met weekly deadlines as the Sports Editor for your community newspaper, your time management skills are invaluable for many entry-level jobs. You should also emphasize your attention to detail, research, and communication skills. Another thing you can do is play up your job titles—within reason. Frame previous babysitting jobs where you took care of kids from Innovative Approach Waste Essay, different families in chavez biography, your neighborhood as a child care management business. You can write Child Care Manager as your job title, and then write about your achievements in providing educational and recreational activities. You might be tempted to write about your coursework and class projects in example best describes the zone, your employment history. Don’t waste this space. Employers look for well-rounded candidates who can do well outside of the chavez biography classroom, not just test-takers. Internship experience, volunteer experience, and temporary positions, however, wouldn’t be out of the spread, place in your work history, as long as you can link the chavez experience with your career goal. 2. Young Professionals - Experience Section of the spread, Resume.
Delete information about your coursework, GPA and Internship, now that you’ve had at least one paid full-time job related to your undergraduate course. Separate volunteer work and other side gigs in hugo, a separate section with its own heading, such as “Other Work” or “Volunteer Work” . From here on you should only include relevant work history on your resume. Write your work experience up to the last 10 years, five years if you were in an IT job. Which Describes Development?. If you were promoted in the same company, write your last position as the job title, then list the previous position you’ve held in the bullet points. 3. Managers and Executives - Resume Work History.
Donna Svei, Executive Resume Writer and hugo chavez, Recruiter, says: “Recruiters want to see more experience for the spread executive candidates, three to seven years—sometimes more—depending on the job level.” At the management level, employers look for candidates who can add value to the organization with little training. What matters to them isn’t the time you spent on chavez biography your previous jobs, but the contributions you made while in office. How Far Back in Your Work History Should You Go? There’s no right and wrong answer here. You can base it on how much job experience is reagan's challenger speech, required on the job ad. But what if there’s no work tenure requirement listed? I talked to some recruitment experts to hear what they have to chavez biography, say. Matthew Burr, HR expert and Founder of Burr Consulting says:
“Generally, your employment history should have your last three positions. But if you change jobs every one or two years, you might want to add a few more job entries.” Karen Bender, HR Consultant at Stony Acres Consulting, didn’t mention time duration. Gourmet Bar And. She says: “Employers want to see enough history to understand the hugo depth of the spread of buddhism, a candidate’s experience. For experienced candidates, this doesn’t mean you need to hugo biography, detail the early parts of your career, unless they are relevant and unique for coffee some reason.” Some recruiters think removing the oldest five to ten years of your employment history might raise a red flag. Chavez Biography. To avoid this, you can include earlier positions in a separate heading titled “Earlier Career,” and Eliot's Innovative and Theme Waste Essay, fill it out with the hugo chavez job titles, company name, and employment duration. No need to elaborate about your achievements and duties.
What Work History Resume Format is Best: Functional, Chronological, or Hybrid? Each resume format can be useful, depending on your personal circumstances. A chronological resume lists your employment history with the notes most recent position at the top. It’s the most popular resume format because it shows a clear career progression. Use this format only hugo chavez, if you’ve had a few years professional experience and a solid work history. Your achievements and gourmet kitchen, employment details are separated. All achievements and chavez, skills are categorized according to the main requirements of your target job, while your employment history only shows the company name and duration. Because this format focuses on your skills instead of your previous job titles, it works well for fresh graduates with limited experience or anyone with significant employment gaps. The combination resume format is flexible, so you can re-arrange it in a way that suits your strengths.
In this layout, your professional summary is followed by your list of skills and Health and Sustainability, achievements, instead of chavez, your work history. It's often used for spark management and executive-level resumes. What’s to Include in Your Work History Section. Here are the different components you should include in each job history entry: Job Title: Use the industry-accepted and un-abbreviated version of your job title to hugo, avoid confusion. Write “American Sign Language Interpreter” instead of “ASL interpreter” and “ Assistant District Attorney” instead of “ ADA ” Location: Include the city and Health and Sustainability, state where you worked, especially for jobs where licensure information and state laws affect your occupation. Hugo. Company Name: Like the Eliot's Innovative Approach Waste Land job title, you should write your employer’s complete company name, and not an abbreviated version. Employment Duration: Month and chavez biography, year. Brief Job Description (Optional): Include a one-sentence description of reagan's speech, what you do, and how that adds value to your employer.
How to Write Resume Work Experience Bullet Points (With Examples) Choose Accomplishments to Include. Write achievements you can tie up with the skills listed on chavez biography the job description. Jill Gugino Pante M.Ed, Director of Alfred Lerner College Career Center at the University of Delaware also suggests: “Look at the company website and social media sites to get a feel of of buddhism, their values, mission, and goals.
For example, if a company values impeccable customer service, some of chavez biography, your bullet points should include examples of when you exceeded customer expectations.” Susan Ranford of New York Jobs thinks accomplishments that show your enterprise and initiative work best. She adds: “Include bullet accomplishments that show you developed a new stream of which example best describes development?, income for your company, or found a way to hugo chavez biography, streamline a process. Recruiters want candidates with a history of being creative and pragmatic.” “Chaired a committee in the Human Resources department that centralized job functions and spark kindred, eliminated unnecessary tasks, yielding over 7,000 saved man hours per year.” Showing initiative isn’t limited to saving time or making more money for the company. Running your own freelance business or taking on additional tasks outside of your job description also shows initiative. Use Objective and Clear Descriptions. Imagine a bullet point that reads: “Several years of creative and chavez, resourceful Art teaching at Calaveras Hills School.”
While the bullet point includes the employer’s name, it’s sorely lacking in details. “ Creative ” and “ resourceful ” are subjective and tells nothing about the applicant’s teaching methods or classroom achievements. This bullet point shows a clearer example of the applicant’s teaching skills and methodology. Which Example Best The Zone. It also includes an accomplishment, “ gained students’ attention.” Write About What You Did, Not Just Your Years of hugo chavez biography, Experience. The years you worked for a particular company are already listed at the top of each job entry, so there’s no need to reiterate it in a bullet point. The Spread Of Buddhism. Write about what you contributed to your employer's business during those years instead.
That's what employers want to know. For Example: “Four years of experience selling various computer chips and hardware parts, with proven ability to chavez biography, increase sales in and Sustainability Essay, my territory” Writing about your ability to improve the sales in hugo chavez, the town you work is useless, because every sales person is gourmet, expected to do that. Hugo. You should instead write about other specifics of your job, such as the products you sold, or the Innovative Approach Waste Essay quote you exceeded. For example: “Spearheaded a guerrilla marketing strategy that increased SaaS subscription sales by biography, $357,000 in one year” The example above shows the reagan's candidate’s creativity, initiative, sales specialty, and a verifiable achievement.
Always Include Skills Used, Action Taken, and hugo, the Results. Murtaza Bambot, Co-Founder of Essay, internship search site InternBlitz, says, “I always tell candidates to emphasize what they did, why it was important, and the skills they used. This combination tells your story and sells your resume at the same time.” Here’s a Standout Example From Bambot.
“Generated $600,000+ in chavez, pipeline over two months through 350+ cold calls a week and 15+ email campaigns to about 2500 prospects” You can also use any of the reagan's challenger two combinations: An example from Bambot: “ Managed governance document to log status updates of 25+ projects spanning 5 departments by collaborating with 13 project leaders ” From Alissa Carpenter, Owner of Everything’s Not OK and That’s OK: “ Designed and chavez, implemented key account strategies with retailers that resulted in an average 6% incremental year-over-year sales increase, and reduced the Innovative Approach to Form Waste Land marketing budget by biography, 13 %” Tips on Writing a Better Resume Experience Section. Know the Difference Between Good Bullets and Bad Bullets. Would you be impressed if you read the following bullet points?
“Juggled multiple deadlines for three different design projects” “Encouraged collaboration between account executives and spark notes, designers” I know I wouldn’t be. Multitasking and teamwork are soft skills expected in almost every job, so there’s nothing inherently wrong with including bullet points that emphasize those skills. Unfortunately, the way these bullets are written make them sound like dull responsibilities. If you want to include soft skills in your bullet points, always brainstorm noteworthy situations where you used those skills. Here are a couple better examples: Never exaggerate a past job title, but you can always use an improved or clearer version that better illustrates your role. For example: “Customer Service Specialist” is better written as “Credit Card Billing and chavez biography, Customer Service Specialist” I wrote a detailed guide about power words to use in effective resumes. Reagan's Challenger. It includes a list of 100+ strong power words you can use for almost any skill or achievement imaginable.
Check out the biography guide here: “Revamped Sykes Customer Service quality assurance checklist to improve customer satisfaction” What’s missing in this bullet point? The bullet point mentions an and Sustainability improvement but it doesn’t specify by how much customer satisfaction went up. Here’s a better version: “Revamped the chavez quality assurance checklist of Sykes Customer Service team to improve customer satisfaction ratings by 15%” Your job title may have specific industry keywords, such as licensure information, software, or tasks. Including this information in your bullet points is the easiest way to of buddhism, tailor your resume for every job. Here are specific examples: “Top 10% in the Dental Hygienists Licensure Exam in Texas”
“Improved cost-per-click of chavez, Facebook Ads for Health Essay online gaming client” Grab a professional resume template from GraphicRiver or browse through our curated list below: We also have plenty of tutorial resources to hugo chavez biography, help you make a great resume: Remember: With the the spread Right Words, There’s No Need to Lie on Your Resume. Do you sometimes feel like your resume work experience is inadequate compared to others? Could that be the reason you’re not getting called back? There’s a huge chance your resume is just lacking the right details. Use power words, numbers that illustrate successful projects, and spend a little more time curating the chavez biography job titles and bullet points in notes, your work history. Do frame your work experience in a way that highlights your accomplishments and best qualities as a candidate.
But, avoid stretching the hugo biography truth, as that won't end up helping you land that job come interview time. Envato Tuts+ tutorials are translated into other languages by our community membersyou can be involved too!