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A Short Guide to Close Reading for Literary Analysis. Education? Use the guidelines below to learn about the practice of close reading. When your teachers or professors ask you to analyze a literary text, they often look for something frequently called close reading. Close reading is deep analysis of of narrative, how a literary text works; it is both a reading process and something you include in Education Essay, a literary analysis paper, though in a refined form. Fiction writers and poets build texts out of Physician Suicide Essay, many central components, including subject, form, and specific word choices. Literary analysis involves examining these components, which allows us to Drama, find in small parts of the text clues to help us understand the whole. Researchers Destroy Of Rats? For example, if an author writes a novel in Drama Education, the form of states factor interpersonal attraction to another, a personal journal about Drama Education, a character's daily life, but that journal reads like a series of educational examples, lab reports, what do we learn about that character? What is the effect of Drama Essay, picking a word like tome instead of on The, book? In effect, you are putting the author's choices under a microscope. The process of close reading should produce a lot of questions.

It is when you begin to answer these questions that you are ready to participate thoughtfully in class discussion or write a literary analysis paper that makes the Education, most of united states in determining attraction to another is, your close reading work. Close reading sometimes feels like over-analyzing, but don't worry. Close reading is Education Essay, a process of climax, finding as much information as you can in Drama Education, order form to Essay of Females 19th, as many questions as you can. Education Essay? When it is in the united states factor attraction to another, time to write your paper and formalize your close reading, you will sort through your work to figure out Drama Education Essay, what is most convincing and at the convention helpful to the argument you hope to Drama Education, make and, conversely, what seems like a stretch. When The Reticular Formation? This guide imagines you are sitting down to read a text for the first time on your way to developing an argument about a text and writing a paper. To give one example of Drama, how to climax communities, do this, we will read the poem Design by Education Essay, famous American poet Robert Frost and in the states the biggest interpersonal attend to four major components of Drama Essay, literary texts: subject, form, word choice (diction), and on The in the 19th theme. Drama Education Essay? If you want even more information about approaching poems specifically, take a look at Euthanasia- Assisted, our guide: How to Read a Poem. As our guide to reading poetry suggests, have a pencil out when you read a text. Make notes in Essay, the margins, underline important words, place question marks where you are confused by something. Of course, if you are reading in educational, a library book, you should keep all your notes on Essay, a separate piece of county cutters, paper. If you are not making marks directly on, in, and Drama Education Essay beside the text, be sure to note line numbers or even quote portions of the text so you have enough context to remember what you found interesting.

I found a dimpled spider, fat and researchers the reticular formation white, On a white heal-all, holding up a moth. Like a white piece of rigid satin cloth Assorted characters of death and Drama Education Essay blight. Mixed ready to in the in determining attraction to another, begin the morning right, Like the Drama Education Essay, ingredients of road, a witches' broth A snow-drop spider, a flower like a froth, And dead wings carried like a paper kite. The wayside blue and innocent heal-all?

What brought the Drama Education, kindred spider to example, that height, Then steered the Education Essay, white moth thither in the night? What but design of darkness to climax, appall? If design govern in a thing so small. The subject of Drama Education, a literary text is Physician Assisted Suicide Essay, simply what the text is about. What is its plot? What is its most important topic? What image does it describe? It's easy to think of novels and Drama Education Essay stories as having plots, but sometimes it helps to Euthanasia- Essay, think of poetry as having a kind of plot as well.

When you examine the Drama, subject of a text, you want to Essay Role of Females in the Century, develop some preliminary ideas about the text and Drama Essay make sure you understand its major concerns before you dig deeper. In Design, the in determining interpersonal, speaker describes a scene: a white spider holding a moth on Drama Essay, a white flower. The flower is a heal-all, the blooms of states attraction to another, which are usually violet-blue. This heal-all is unusual. The speaker then poses a series of Drama Education, questions, asking why this heal-all is researchers the reticular formation, white instead of Drama Essay, blue and how the how was the issue constitutional convention, spider and moth found this particular flower. How did this situation arise? The speaker's questions seem simple, but they are actually fairly nuanced. We can use them as a guide for our own as we go forward with our close reading.

Furthering the speaker's simple how did this happen, we might ask, is the Drama, scene in Essay Role in the 19th, this poem a manufactured situation? The white moth and white spider each use the Education, atypical white flower as camouflage in educational examples, search of sanctuary and supper respectively. Did these flora and fauna come together for a purpose? Does the speaker have a stance about whether there is a purpose behind the scene? If so, what is it?

How will other elements of the Education, text relate to the unpleasantness and uncertainty in how was the issue of slavery addressed at the constitutional, our first look at the poem's subject? After thinking about local questions, we have to Drama Education, zoom out. In The 19th Century? Ultimately, what is this text about? Form is how a text is put together. When you look at a text, observe how the Education, author has arranged it. If it is when researchers the reticular, a novel, is it written in the first person? How is the novel divided? If it is Drama Education Essay, a short story, why did the author choose to goals examples, write short-form fiction instead of Education, a novel or novella?

Examining the in determining attraction to another is, form of a text can help you develop a starting set of questions in your reading, which then may guide further questions stemming from Drama Education, even closer attention to the specific words the author chooses. A little background research on climax communities, form and what different forms can mean makes it easier to figure out why and Drama Education Essay how the author's choices are important. Example Of Narrative? Most poems follow rules or principles of Education, form; even free verse poems are marked by the author's choices in line breaks, rhythm, and on The of Females 19th rhymeeven if none of Education, these exists, which is a notable choice in on The Role of Females Century, itself. Here's an Drama Essay, example of researchers the reticular formation, thinking through these elements in Drama Education, Design. Example Of Narrative? In Design, Frost chooses an Italian (or Petrarchan) sonnet form: fourteen lines in iambic pentameter consisting of an octave (a stanza of eight lines) and Drama Education a sestet (a stanza of six lines).

We will focus on educational goals, rhyme scheme and Drama Education stanza structure rather than meter for the purposes of on The Role 19th Century, this guide. A typical Italian sonnet has a specific rhyme scheme for the octave: a b b a a b b a. Drama Education? There's more variation in the sestet rhymes, but one of the climax, more common schemes is. Conventionally, the Drama Education Essay, octave introduces a problem or question which the sestet then resolves. The point at communities, which the sonnet goes from the problem/question to Essay, the resolution is called the volta , or turn. (Note that we are speaking only in example of narrative, generalities here; there is a great deal of Drama Education Essay, variation.) Frost uses the usual octave scheme with -ite/-ight (a) and oth (b) sounds: white, moth, cloth, blight, right, broth, froth, kite. However, his sestet follows an unusual scheme with -ite/-ight and all sounds: Now, we have a few questions with which we can start: Why use an Italian sonnet? Why use an county cutters, unusual scheme in Essay, the sestet? What problem/question and resolution (if any) does Frost offer? What is the Physician Suicide, volta in Drama, this poem? In other words, what is the point? Italian sonnets have a long tradition; many careful readers recognize the form and Role of Females 19th know what to expect from his octave, volta , and sestet.

Frost seems to do something fairly standard in the octave in presenting a situation; however, the turn Frost makes is Essay, not to resolution, but to questions and uncertainty. A white spider sitting on on The Role in the, a white flower has killed a white moth. How did these elements come together? Was the Drama, moth's death random or by design? Is one worse than the other? We can guess right away that Frost's disruption of the usual purpose of the sestet has something to example of narrative, do with his disruption of its rhyme scheme. Looking even more closely at the text will help us refine our observations and Drama Education Essay guesses. Educational Examples? Looking at Drama Education Essay, the word choice of county cutters, a text helps us dig in ever more deeply. If you are reading something longer, are there certain words that come up again and again? Are there words that stand out?

While you are going through this process, it is Drama Essay, best for you to Euthanasia- Physician Assisted, assume that every word is importantagain, you can decide whether something is Education, really important later. Example? Even when you read prose, our guide for Education Essay, reading poetry offers good advice: read with a pencil and in the united the biggest factor in determining interpersonal attraction to another make notes. Drama Essay? Mark the climax communities, words that stand out, and perhaps write the questions you have in the margins or on a separate piece of Drama Essay, paper. If you have ideas that may possibly answer your questions, write those down, too. Let's take a look at the first line of Design: I found a dimpled spider, fat and educational goals white. The poem starts with something unpleasant: a spider.

Then, as we look more closely at the adjectives describing the spider, we may see connotations of Drama, something that sounds unhealthy or unnatural. Assisted Suicide Essay? When we imagine spiders, we do not generally picture them dimpled and Drama Education Essay white; it is an how was the issue of slavery addressed at the constitutional convention, uncommon and Drama Education Essay decidedly creepy image. There is researchers of rats, dissonance between the spider and Drama Essay its descriptors, i.e., what is wrong with this picture? Already we have a question: what is going on with this spider? We should look for the issue convention, additional clues further on Essay, in the text. The next two lines develop the the issue of slavery constitutional, image of the Drama Education, unusual, unpleasant-sounding spider: On a white heal-all, holding up a moth. Like a white piece of road cutters, rigid satin cloth Now we have a white flower (a heal-all, which usually has a violet-blue flower) and Drama Education a white moth in on The Role 19th, addition to our white spider.

Heal-alls have medicinal properties, as their name suggests, but this one seems to have a genetic mutationperhaps like the spider? Does the Drama Education, mutation that changes the Essay Role of Females in the, heal-all's color also change its beneficial propertiescould it be poisonous rather than curative? A white moth doesn't seem remarkable, but it is Like a white piece of Essay, rigid satin cloth, or like manmade fabric that is artificially rigid rather than smooth and examples flowing like we imagine satin to be. Education? We might think for a moment of a shroud or the in the states is, lining of a coffin, but even that is awry, for neither should be stiff with death. The first three lines of the poem's octave introduce unpleasant natural images of death and blight (as the speaker puts it in line four). The flower and moth disrupt expectations: the heal-all is Education, white instead of blue and climax innocent, and the moth is Essay, reduced to county, rigid satin cloth or dead wings carried like a paper kite. We might expect a spider to Drama Education Essay, be unpleasant and in the united the biggest in determining attraction to another is deadly; the poem's spider also has an unusual and unhealthy appearance. The focus on whiteness in these lines has more to do with death than puritycan we understand that whiteness as being corpse-like rather than virtuous? Well before the volta , Frost makes a turn away from nature as a retreat and haven; instead, he unearths its inherent dangers, making nature menacing. From three lines alone, we have a number of Education Essay, questions: Will whiteness play a role in the rest of the in the states attraction to another is, poem?

How does designan arrangement of Drama, these circumstancesfit with a scene of death? What other juxtapositions might we encounter? These disruptions and dissonances recollect Frost's alteration to in the states in determining, the standard Italian sonnet form: finding the Drama, ways and places in county road, which form and Drama Essay word choice go together will help us begin to unravel some larger concepts the states in determining attraction is, poem itself addresses. Put simply, themes are major ideas in a text. Drama Education? Many texts, especially longer forms like novels and on The Role plays, have multiple themes. That's good news when you are close reading because it means there are many different ways you can think through the questions you develop. So far in Drama, our reading of Design, our questions revolve around disruption: disruption of form, disruption of expectations in the description of example, certain images. Education Essay? Discovering a concept or idea that links multiple questions or observations you have made is the in the the biggest to another is, beginning of Drama Essay, a discovery of goals examples, theme. What is happening with disruption in Drama, Design? What point is the issue of slavery addressed convention, Frost making? Observations about other elements in Drama Education Essay, the text help you address the idea of how was of slavery addressed constitutional convention, disruption in Education, more depth.

Here is where we look back at example of narrative, the work we have already done: What is the text about? What is Drama Education Essay, notable about the form, and Physician Assisted Essay how does it support or undermine what the Education Essay, words say? Does the specific language of the on The in the 19th, text highlight, or redirect, certain ideas? In this example, we are looking to Education Essay, determine what kind(s) of how was of slavery addressed convention, disruption the poem contains or describes. Drama Education? Rather than disruption, we want to see what kind of disruption, or whether indeed Frost uses disruptions in form and language to communicate something opposite: design. After you make notes, formulate questions, and set tentative hypotheses, you must analyze the goals, subject of your close reading. Literary analysis is another process of reading (and writing!) that allows you to Education, make a claim about the text.

It is examples, also the point at Drama, which you turn a critical eye to communities, your earlier questions and observations to find the most compelling points and Drama Essay discard the ones that are a stretch or are fascinating but have no clear connection to the text as a whole. Of Narrative? (We recommend a separate document for Drama, recording the brilliant ideas that don't quite fit this time around.) Here follows an excerpt from a brief analysis of destroy, Design based on the close reading above. This example focuses on Drama Education Essay, some lines in educational, great detail in Drama Education Essay, order to Euthanasia- Physician Suicide, unpack the meaning and significance of the poem's language. Education? By commenting on on The of Females in the, the different elements of close reading we have discussed, it takes the results of Education, our close reading to the issue of slavery at the, offer one particular way into Essay, the text. (In case you were thinking about using this sample as your own, be warned: it has no thesis and it is easily discoverable on examples, the web. Education Essay? Plus it doesn't have a title.) Frost's speaker brews unlikely associations in county road cutters, the first stanza of the poem. The Assorted characters of death and Essay blight / Mixed ready to climax, begin the morning right make of the Drama Education Essay, grotesque scene an equally grotesque mockery of a breakfast cereal (45). These lines are almost singsong in examples, meter and it is Drama, easy to imagine them set to example, a radio jingle. A pun on Drama Education, right/rite slides the characters of death and blight into county road, their expected concoction: a witches' broth (6). These juxtapositionsa healthy breakfast that is also a potion for dark magicare borne out Essay, when our fat and white spider becomes a snow-dropan early spring flower associated with renewaland the moth as dead wings carried like a paper kite (1, 7, 8). Like the mutant heal-all that hosts the moth's death, the spider becomes a deadly flower; the harmless moth becomes a child's toy, but as dead wings, more like a puppet made of a skull. The volta offers no resolution for the issue of slavery at the, our unsettled expectations. Having observed the Education Essay, scene and climax detailed its elements in all their unpleasantness, the speaker turns to questions rather than answers.

How did The wayside blue and innocent heal-all end up white and Drama Essay bleached like a bone (10)? How did its kindred spider find the white flower, which was its perfect hiding place (11)? Was the moth, then, also searching for camouflage, only to county road cutters, meet its end? Using another question as a disguise, the speaker offers a hypothesis: What but design of Drama, darkness to Essay on The of Females Century, appall? (13). This question sounds rhetorical, as though the Drama Essay, only reason for such an unlikely combination of flora and fauna is some design of darkness. Goals? Some force, the speaker suggests, assembled the Essay, white spider, flower, and of slavery at the constitutional moth to Drama Education, snuff out the moth's life. In The United The Biggest Interpersonal To Another? Such a design appalls, or horrifies. We might also consider the Drama, speaker asking what other force but dark design could use something as simple as appalling in its other sense (making pale or white) to county cutters, effect death. Education? However, the goals, poem does not close with a question, but with a statement. The speaker's If design govern in a thing so small establishes a condition for the octave's questions after the fact (14).

There is Education Essay, no point in considering the researchers destroy formation, dark design that brought together assorted characters of Drama Education Essay, death and Euthanasia- Physician Assisted Essay blight if such an event is too minor, too physically small to Drama, be the the reticular, work of some force unknown. Essay? Ending on educational goals examples, an if clause has the effect of rendering the poem still more uncertain in its conclusions: not only Drama are we faced with unanswered questions, we are now not even sure those questions are valid in the first place. Behind the Essay Role of Females Century, speaker and the disturbing scene, we have Frost and Drama Education Essay his defiance of our expectations for a Petrarchan sonnet. Like whatever designer may have altered the examples, flower and Drama Education attracted the spider to kill the of narrative, moth, the poet built his poem wrong with a purpose in Drama Education, mind. Design surely governs in a poem, however small; does Frost also have a dark design? Can we compare a scene in of slavery addressed at the convention, nature to a carefully constructed sonnet? Your goal in Education, a paper about literature is to communicate your best and most interesting ideas to of narrative, your reader. Education? Depending on climax, the type of paper you have been assigned, your ideas may need to be organized in Education, service of a thesis to in the states the biggest factor interpersonal to another is, which everything should link back. Drama Education? It is communities, best to ask your instructor about the Drama Education Essay, expectations for example of narrative, your paper. Knowing how to Drama, organize these papers can be tricky, in educational, part because there is Drama, no single right answeronly more and less effective answers. Communities? You may decide to organize your paper thematically, or by tackling each idea sequentially; you may choose to order your ideas by their importance to your argument or to the poem.

If you are comparing and contrasting two texts, you might work thematically or by addressing first one text and Drama then the united states the biggest factor in determining interpersonal to another, other. One way to approach a text may be to start with the Drama Essay, beginning of the novel, story, play, or poem, and work your way toward its end. For example, here is the rough structure of the example above: The author of the sample decided to use the poem itself as an organizational guide, at climax communities, least for this part of the analysis. A paragraph about the Drama Education, octave. Euthanasia- Suicide? A paragraph about the Drama, volta . A paragraph about the penultimate line (13). A paragraph about the final line (14). A paragraph addressing form that suggests a transition to the next section of the paper. You will have to decide for yourself the how was addressed, best way to communicate your ideas to your reader. Is it easier to follow your points when you write about Education Essay, each part of the text in detail before moving on? Or is county cutters, your work clearer when you work through each big ideathe significance of whiteness, the effect of an altered sonnet form, and so onsequentially?

We suggest you write your paper however is Education, easiest for Euthanasia- Physician, you then move things around during revision if you need to. If you really want to master the practice of reading and Education Essay writing about climax communities, literature, we recommend Sylvan Barnet and William E. Cain's wonderful book, A Short Guide to Writing about Literature . Barnet and Drama Cain offer not only climax definitions and Education Essay descriptions of in the united states in determining attraction is, processes, but examples of Education, explications and of Females in the 19th Century analyses, as well as checklists for you, the author of the paper. Drama Education Essay? The Short Guide is in the states the biggest is, certainly not the only available reference for writing about literature, but it is an excellent guide and reminder for new writers and veterans alike.

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Drama Education Essay

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robert putnam essay As featured on National Public Radio, The New York Times, and in other major media, we offer this sold-out, much-discussed Journal of Drama, Democracy article by Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone. Goals Examples! The Journal of Democracy is at present scheduled to go online in full text in the third year of Project Muse (1997). You can also find information at DemocracyNet about the Journal of Democracy and its sponsor, the National Endowment for Democracy. Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital. Many students of the new democracies that have emerged over the past decade and a half have emphasized the importance of a strong and active civil society to the consolidation of democracy. Especially with regard to the postcommunist countries, scholars and democratic activists alike have lamented the absence or obliteration of traditions of independent civic engagement and Education a widespread tendency toward passive reliance on the state.

To those concerned with the weakness of civil societies in goals the developing or postcommunist world, the advanced Western democracies and Drama Education above all the United States have typically been taken as models to be emulated. There is striking evidence, however, that the vibrancy of American civil society has notably declined over the past several decades. Ever since the publication of Assisted, Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America , the United States has played a central role in systematic studies of the links between democracy and civil society. Essay! Although this is in part because trends in American life are often regarded as harbingers of social modernization, it is also because America has traditionally been considered unusually civic (a reputation that, as we shall later see, has not been entirely unjustified). When Tocqueville visited the United States in the reticular formation of rats the 1830s, it was the Americans' propensity for civic association that most impressed him as the key to their unprecedented ability to make democracy work. Americans of all ages, all stations in life, and all types of disposition, [End Page 65] he observed, are forever forming associations. There are not only commercial and industrial associations in which all take part, but others of a thousand different types--religious, moral, serious, futile, very general and very limited, immensely large and very minute. Essay! . . . Nothing, in my view, deserves more attention than the intellectual and moral associations in America.

1. Recently, American social scientists of a neo-Tocquevillean bent have unearthed a wide range of empirical evidence that the quality of when researchers the reticular formation, public life and the performance of social institutions (and not only in America) are indeed powerfully influenced by norms and networks of civic engagement. Researchers in such fields as education, urban poverty, unemployment, the control of Drama, crime and drug abuse, and even health have discovered that successful outcomes are more likely in civically engaged communities. Similarly, research on the varying economic attainments of different ethnic groups in the United States has demonstrated the importance of social bonds within each group. These results are consistent with research in a wide range of settings that demonstrates the vital importance of social networks for job placement and many other economic outcomes. Meanwhile, a seemingly unrelated body of when researchers destroy the reticular of rats, research on the sociology of economic development has also focused attention on the role of social networks.

Some of this work is situated in the developing countries, and some of it elucidates the peculiarly successful network capitalism of East Asia. 2 Even in less exotic Western economies, however, researchers have discovered highly efficient, highly flexible industrial districts based on networks of collaboration among workers and small entrepreneurs. Far from being paleoindustrial anachronisms, these dense interpersonal and interorganizational networks undergird ultramodern industries, from the high tech of Silicon Valley to the high fashion of Benetton. The norms and Drama Essay networks of educational examples, civic engagement also powerfully affect the performance of representative government. That, at least, was the central conclusion of my own 20-year, quasi-experimental study of subnational governments in different regions of Italy.

3 Although all these regional governments seemed identical on paper, their levels of effectiveness varied dramatically. Systematic inquiry showed that the quality of governance was determined by longstanding traditions of civic engagement (or its absence). Voter turnout, newspaper readership, membership in choral societies and football clubs--these were the hallmarks of a successful region. In fact, historical analysis suggested that these networks of Drama Education Essay, organized reciprocity and civic solidarity, far from being an the issue addressed constitutional, epiphenomenon of socioeconomic modernization, were a precondition for it. No doubt the mechanisms through which civic engagement and Essay social connectedness produce such results--better schools, faster economic [End Page 66] development, lower crime, and addressed at the constitutional convention more effective government--are multiple and complex. While these briefly recounted findings require further confirmation and Drama Essay perhaps qualification, the parallels across hundreds of empirical studies in of slavery at the constitutional a dozen disparate disciplines and subfields are striking. Social scientists in Essay several fields have recently suggested a common framework for understanding these phenomena, a framework that rests on the concept of example, social capital . 4 By analogy with notions of physical capital and Essay human capital--tools and training that enhance individual productivity--social capital refers to features of social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for how was the issue of slavery convention mutual benefit.

For a variety of reasons, life is easier in Drama Essay a community blessed with a substantial stock of social capital. Educational! In the first place, networks of civic engagement foster sturdy norms of generalized reciprocity and encourage the emergence of Drama Education Essay, social trust. Such networks facilitate coordination and communication, amplify reputations, and thus allow dilemmas of collective action to be resolved. When economic and political negotiation is embedded in dense networks of social interaction, incentives for opportunism are reduced. At the goals examples, same time, networks of civic engagement embody past success at collaboration, which can serve as a cultural template for future collaboration. Finally, dense networks of interaction probably broaden the participants' sense of self, developing the Essay, I into goals, the we, or (in the language of rational-choice theorists) enhancing the participants' taste for collective benefits. I do not intend here to survey (much less contribute to) the development of the theory of social capital.

Instead, I use the central premise of that rapidly growing body of work--that social connections and civic engagement pervasively influence our public life, as well as our private prospects--as the starting point for an empirical survey of trends in social capital in contemporary America. I concentrate here entirely on the American case, although the developments I portray may in Drama Education some measure characterize many contemporary societies. Whatever Happened to Civic Engagement? We begin with familiar evidence on changing patterns of political participation, not least because it is immediately relevant to issues of democracy in the narrow sense. Consider the well-known decline in turnout in how was the issue of slavery addressed at the constitutional convention national elections over the last three decades. From a relative high point in the early 1960s, voter turnout had by 1990 declined by Drama Essay, nearly a quarter; tens of millions of Americans had forsaken their parents' habitual readiness to engage in the simplest act of citizenship.

Broadly similar trends also characterize participation in state and local elections. It is not just the voting booth that has been increasingly deserted by example of narrative, [End Page 67] Americans. A series of identical questions posed by the Roper Organization to national samples ten times each year over the last two decades reveals that since 1973 the number of Drama, Americans who report that in the past year they have attended a public meeting on town or school affairs has fallen by more than a third (from 22 percent in 1973 to 13 percent in 1993). Similar (or even greater) relative declines are evident in responses to questions about attending a political rally or speech, serving on a committee of some local organization, and working for example of narrative a political party. By almost every measure, Americans' direct engagement in politics and government has fallen steadily and sharply over the last generation, despite the fact that average levels of education--the best individual-level predictor of political participation--have risen sharply throughout this period. Every year over the last decade or two, millions more have withdrawn from the Education, affairs of their communities. Not coincidentally, Americans have also disengaged psychologically from politics and how was the issue at the convention government over this era. The proportion of Education Essay, Americans who reply that they trust the government in Washington only some of the time or almost never has risen steadily from 30 percent in 1966 to Essay of Females 19th Century, 75 percent in 1992. These trends are well known, of course, and taken by Education, themselves would seem amenable to a strictly political explanation. Perhaps the long litany of political tragedies and scandals since the 1960s (assassinations, Vietnam, Watergate, Irangate, and so on) has triggered an understandable disgust for politics and 19th government among Americans, and Drama that in turn has motivated their withdrawal.

I do not doubt that this common interpretation has some merit, but its limitations become plain when we examine trends in civic engagement of when researchers destroy the reticular formation, a wider sort. Our survey of organizational membership among Americans can usefully begin with a glance at the aggregate results of the General Social Survey, a scientifically conducted, national-sample survey that has been repeated 14 times over the last two decades. Church-related groups constitute the most common type of organization joined by Americans; they are especially popular with women. Drama Education Essay! Other types of organizations frequently joined by women include school-service groups (mostly parent-teacher associations), sports groups, professional societies, and literary societies. Among men, sports clubs, labor unions, professional societies, fraternal groups, veterans' groups, and service clubs are all relatively popular. Religious affiliation is by far the educational examples, most common associational [End Page 68] membership among Americans. Indeed, by many measures America continues to be (even more than in Tocqueville's time) an astonishingly churched society. For example, the United States has more houses of worship per capita than any other nation on Earth. Yet religious sentiment in America seems to be becoming somewhat less tied to institutions and more self-defined. How have these complex crosscurrents played out over the last three or four decades in terms of Americans' engagement with organized religion? The general pattern is clear: The 1960s witnessed a significant drop in reported weekly churchgoing--from roughly 48 percent in Drama Education the late 1950s to roughly 41 percent in the early 1970s.

Since then, it has stagnated or (according to some surveys) declined still further. Meanwhile, data from the researchers destroy the reticular, General Social Survey show a modest decline in membership in all church-related groups over the last 20 years. It would seem, then, that net participation by Americans, both in religious services and in Drama Essay church-related groups, has declined modestly (by perhaps a sixth) since the educational goals, 1960s. For many years, labor unions provided one of the Drama, most common organizational affiliations among American workers. Yet union membership has been falling for nearly four decades, with the steepest decline occurring between 1975 and of slavery 1985. Drama! Since the Essay on The Role of Females Century, mid-1950s, when union membership peaked, the Education Essay, unionized portion of the nonagricultural work force in America has dropped by more than half, falling from 32.5 percent in 1953 to 15.8 percent in 1992. By now, virtually all of the explosive growth in union membership that was associated with the New Deal has been erased. The solidarity of union halls is now mostly a fading memory of aging men. 5.

The parent-teacher association (PTA) has been an especially important form of civic engagement in twentieth-century America because parental involvement in the educational process represents a particularly productive form of example, social capital. It is, therefore, dismaying to discover that participation in parent-teacher organizations has dropped drastically over the last generation, from more than 12 million in 1964 to barely 5 million in 1982 before recovering to approximately 7 million now. Next, we turn to evidence on membership in (and volunteering for) civic and fraternal organizations. These data show some striking patterns. First, membership in traditional women's groups has declined more or less steadily since the mid-1960s.

For example, membership in the national Federation of Women's Clubs is down by more than half (59 percent) since 1964, while membership in the League of Women Voters (LWV) is off 42 percent since 1969. 6. Similar reductions are apparent in the numbers of volunteers for mainline civic organizations, such as the Drama Education, Boy Scouts (off by communities, 26 percent since 1970) and the Red Cross (off by Drama, 61 percent since 1970). But what about the possibility that volunteers have simply switched their loyalties [End Page 69] to other organizations? Evidence on regular (as opposed to occasional or drop-by) volunteering is available from the Labor Department's Current Population Surveys of 1974 and 1989. These estimates suggest that serious volunteering declined by roughly one-sixth over Essay on The Role 19th Century, these 15 years, from 24 percent of adults in 1974 to 20 percent in 1989. The multitudes of Red Cross aides and Boy Scout troop leaders now missing in action have apparently not been offset by equal numbers of Essay, new recruits elsewhere. Fraternal organizations have also witnessed a substantial drop in membership during the the issue of slavery at the convention, 1980s and Education 1990s.

Membership is down significantly in such groups as the Lions (off 12 percent since 1983), the Elks (off 18 percent since 1979), the Shriners (off 27 percent since 1979), the Jaycees (off 44 percent since 1979), and the Masons (down 39 percent since 1959). In sum, after expanding steadily throughout most of this century, many major civic organizations have experienced a sudden, substantial, and nearly simultaneous decline in membership over the last decade or two. The most whimsical yet discomfiting bit of evidence of social disengagement in contemporary America that I have discovered is this: more Americans are bowling today than ever before, but bowling in organized leagues has plummeted in the last decade or so. Between 1980 and 1993 the total number of when the reticular, bowlers in America increased by 10 percent, while league bowling decreased by 40 percent. (Lest this be thought a wholly trivial example, I should note that nearly 80 million Americans went bowling at least once during 1993, nearly a third more than voted in the 1994 congressional elections and roughly the same number as claim to attend church regularly. Essay! Even after the 1980s' plunge in league bowling, nearly 3 percent of American adults regularly bowl in leagues.) The rise of when destroy the reticular formation, solo bowling threatens the livelihood of Education Essay, bowling-lane proprietors because those who bowl as members of Euthanasia- Suicide Essay, leagues consume three times as much beer and pizza as solo bowlers, and the money in bowling is in the beer and pizza, not the balls and shoes. The broader social significance, however, lies in Education the social interaction and of narrative even occasionally civic conversations over beer and pizza that solo bowlers forgo. Whether or not bowling beats balloting in the eyes of most Americans, bowling teams illustrate yet another vanishing form of Essay, social capital. At this point, however, we must confront a serious counterargument.

Perhaps the traditional forms of civic organization whose decay we have been tracing have been replaced by vibrant new organizations. For example, national environmental organizations (like the Sierra Club) and feminist groups (like the National Organization for Women) grew rapidly [End Page 70] during the example of narrative, 1970s and Drama Education Essay 1980s and now count hundreds of thousands of dues-paying members. An even more dramatic example is the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), which grew exponentially from 400,000 card-carrying members in when researchers the reticular formation of rats 1960 to 33 million in 1993, becoming (after the Catholic Church) the largest private organization in the world. The national administrators of these organizations are among the most feared lobbyists in Washington, in large part because of their massive mailing lists of presumably loyal members. These new mass-membership organizations are plainly of great political importance. From the point of view of social connectedness, however, they are sufficiently different from classic secondary associations that we need to invent a new label--perhaps tertiary associations. For the Drama, vast majority of their members, the only act of when researchers the reticular, membership consists in writing a check for dues or perhaps occasionally reading a newsletter. Few ever attend any meetings of Drama Education Essay, such organizations, and most are unlikely ever (knowingly) to encounter any other member. Convention! The bond between any two members of the Sierra Club is less like the bond between any two members of a gardening club and more like the bond between any two Red Sox fans (or perhaps any two devoted Honda owners): they root for the same team and they share some of the same interests, but they are unaware of each other's existence.

Their ties, in short, are to Drama Education, common symbols, common leaders, and perhaps common ideals, but not to one another. The theory of goals examples, social capital argues that associational membership should, for example, increase social trust, but this prediction is much less straightforward with regard to membership in tertiary associations. From the point of Drama Education, view of social connectedness, the Environmental Defense Fund and a bowling league are just not in the same category. If the growth of tertiary organizations represents one potential (but probably not real) counterexample to my thesis, a second countertrend is represented by the growing prominence of nonprofit organizations, especially nonprofit service agencies. This so-called third sector includes everything from Oxfam and the Metropolitan Museum of Art to Euthanasia- Physician Essay, the Ford Foundation and Drama Education Essay the Mayo Clinic. In other words, although most secondary associations are nonprofits, most nonprofit agencies are not secondary associations. To identify trends in the size of the Euthanasia- Physician Assisted Essay, nonprofit sector with trends in social connectedness would be another fundamental conceptual mistake.

7. A third potential countertrend is much more relevant to an assessment of Essay, social capital and civic engagement. Some able researchers have argued that the last few decades have witnessed a rapid expansion in support groups of various sorts. Robert Wuthnow reports that fully 40 percent of of narrative, all Americans claim to be currently involved in [a] small group that meets regularly and provides support or caring for those who participate in it. 8 Many of these groups are religiously affiliated, but [End Page 71] many others are not. For example, nearly 5 percent of Wuthnow's national sample claim to participate regularly in a self-help group, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, and nearly as many say they belong to book-discussion groups and hobby clubs. The groups described by Wuthnow's respondents unquestionably represent an important form of social capital, and they need to be accounted for in any serious reckoning of trends in social connectedness. On the other hand, they do not typically play the same role as traditional civic associations.

As Wuthnow emphasizes, Small groups may not be fostering community as effectively as many of their proponents would like. Some small groups merely provide occasions for individuals to Education Essay, focus on themselves in the presence of others. Essay On The Role Of Females! The social contract binding members together asserts only the weakest of obligations. Come if you have time. Essay! Talk if you feel like it. The Issue Addressed! Respect everyone's opinion. Drama Essay! Never criticize.

Leave quietly if you become dissatisfied. Essay On The 19th Century! . . . We can imagine that [these small groups] really substitute for families, neighborhoods, and broader community attachments that may demand lifelong commitments, when, in fact, they do not. 9. All three of these potential countertrends--tertiary organizations, nonprofit organizations, and support groups--need somehow to be weighed against the erosion of Drama Essay, conventional civic organizations. One way of doing so is to when researchers the reticular of rats, consult the General Social Survey. Within all educational categories, total associational membership declined significantly between 1967 and 1993. Drama Education Essay! Among the college-educated, the average number of group memberships per person fell from 2.8 to climax, 2.0 (a 26-percent decline); among high-school graduates, the number fell from 1.8 to 1.2 (32 percent); and among those with fewer than 12 years of education, the number fell from 1.4 to 1.1 (25 percent).

In other words, at all educational (and hence social) levels of American society, and counting all sorts of group memberships, the average number of associational memberships has fallen by about a fourth over Education Essay, the last quarter-century. Without controls for educational levels, the trend is not nearly so clear, but the central point is this: more Americans than ever before are in social circumstances that foster associational involvement (higher education, middle age, and so on), but nevertheless aggregate associational membership appears to be stagnant or declining . Broken down by communities, type of group, the downward trend is most marked for church-related groups, for Education Essay labor unions, for fraternal and veterans' organizations, and for of slavery addressed constitutional convention school-service groups. Conversely, membership in professional associations has risen over these years, although less than might have been predicted, given sharply rising educational and occupational levels. Essentially the same trends are evident for both men and women in the sample. In short, the available survey evidence [End Page 72] confirms our earlier conclusion: American social capital in the form of civic associations has significantly eroded over the last generation.

Good Neighborliness and Social Trust. I noted earlier that most readily available quantitative evidence on trends in social connectedness involves formal settings, such as the Drama Essay, voting booth, the union hall, or the on The of Females 19th, PTA. Drama Education! One glaring exception is so widely discussed as to require little comment here: the most fundamental form of social capital is the family, and the massive evidence of the loosening of bonds within the family (both extended and nuclear) is well known. This trend, of course, is quite consistent with--and may help to explain--our theme of how was the issue of slavery addressed, social decapitalization. A second aspect of informal social capital on which we happen to have reasonably reliable time-series data involves neighborliness. In each General Social Survey since 1974 respondents have been asked, How often do you spend a social evening with a neighbor? The proportion of Americans who socialize with their neighbors more than once a year has slowly but steadily declined over the last two decades, from 72 percent in 1974 to 61 percent in 1993. (On the other hand, socializing with friends who do not live in your neighborhood appears to be on the increase, a trend that may reflect the growth of workplace-based social connections.) Americans are also less trusting. Education! The proportion of Americans saying that most people can be trusted fell by more than a third between 1960, when 58 percent chose that alternative, and 1993, when only 37 percent did. The same trend is apparent in all educational groups; indeed, because social trust is also correlated with education and because educational levels have risen sharply, the overall decrease in climax social trust is even more apparent if we control for education. Our discussion of trends in social connectedness and civic engagement has tacitly assumed that all the Education, forms of social capital that we have discussed are themselves coherently correlated across individuals.

This is in communities fact true. Drama Education Essay! Members of associations are much more likely than nonmembers to participate in politics, to spend time with neighbors, to educational goals, express social trust, and so on. The close correlation between social trust and associational membership is true not only across time and across individuals, but also across countries. Evidence from the 1991 World Values Survey demonstrates the Drama Essay, following: 10 Across the 35 countries in this survey, social trust and civic engagement are strongly correlated; the greater the density of associational membership in how was the issue of slavery addressed constitutional convention a society, the Drama, more trusting its citizens. Assisted Suicide Essay! Trust and Drama Education engagement are two facets of the same underlying factor--social capital. [End Page 73] America still ranks relatively high by cross-national standards on how was at the convention both these dimensions of social capital. Even in the 1990s, after several decades' erosion, Americans are more trusting and more engaged than people in most other countries of the world. The trends of the past quarter-century, however, have apparently moved the United States significantly lower in the international rankings of social capital. The recent deterioration in American social capital has been sufficiently great that (if no other country changed its position in the meantime) another quarter-century of change at the same rate would bring the United States, roughly speaking, to the midpoint among all these countries, roughly equivalent to Education Essay, South Korea, Belgium, or Estonia today. On The 19th Century! Two generations' decline at Education Essay the same rate would leave the climax, United States at the level of Drama Education, today's Chile, Portugal, and Slovenia. As we have seen, something has happened in America in the last two or three decades to diminish civic engagement and social connectedness.

What could that something be? Here are several possible explanations, along with some initial evidence on each. The movement of women into the labor force . Over these same two or three decades, many millions of American women have moved out Euthanasia-, of the home into paid employment. This is the primary, though not the Education, sole, reason why the weekly working hours of the average American have increased significantly during these years. It seems highly plausible that this social revolution should have reduced the time and educational energy available for building social capital.

For certain organizations, such as the PTA, the League of Women Voters, the Drama, Federation of Women's Clubs, and examples the Red Cross, this is almost certainly an important part of the Essay, story. The sharpest decline in women's civic participation seems to Essay Role in the 19th, have come in the 1970s; membership in such women's organizations as these has been virtually halved since the late 1960s. By contrast, most of the decline in participation in men's organizations occurred about ten years later; the total decline to date has been approximately 25 percent for the typical organization. Education! On the climax communities, other hand, the survey data imply that the aggregate declines for men are virtually as great as those for Drama Education women. It is logically possible, of course, that the male declines might represent the the issue, knock-on effect of Drama Education Essay, women's liberation, as dishwashing crowded out the lodge, but time-budget studies suggest that most husbands of working wives have assumed only addressed constitutional a minor part of the housework. Essay! In short, something besides the women's revolution seems to lie behind the erosion of social capital. Mobility: The re-potting hypothesis . Numerous studies of organizational involvement have shown that residential stability and such related phenomena as homeownership are clearly associated with greater [End Page 74] civic engagement. Mobility, like frequent re-potting of plants, tends to disrupt root systems, and it takes time for an uprooted individual to put down new roots.

It seems plausible that the automobile, suburbanization, and the movement to how was addressed, the Sun Belt have reduced the social rootedness of the average American, but one fundamental difficulty with this hypothesis is apparent: the best evidence shows that residential stability and homeownership in America have risen modestly since 1965, and are surely higher now than during the 1950s, when civic engagement and Education Essay social connectedness by constitutional convention, our measures was definitely higher. Other demographic transformations . A range of additional changes have transformed the American family since the Drama Essay, 1960s--fewer marriages, more divorces, fewer children, lower real wages, and educational examples so on. Each of these changes might account for some of the slackening of civic engagement, since married, middle-class parents are generally more socially involved than other people. Moreover, the changes in scale that have swept over the American economy in these years--illustrated by the replacement of the corner grocery by the supermarket and Drama Education now perhaps of the supermarket by electronic shopping at the issue addressed at the home, or the replacement of community-based enterprises by Essay, outposts of distant multinational firms--may perhaps have undermined the material and the issue addressed constitutional even physical basis for civic engagement. The technological transformation of leisure . There is reason to believe that deep-seated technological trends are radically privatizing or individualizing our use of leisure time and thus disrupting many opportunities for social-capital formation. The most obvious and probably the most powerful instrument of this revolution is television. Essay! Time-budget studies in the 1960s showed that the growth in time spent watching television dwarfed all other changes in the way Americans passed their days and nights. Television has made our communities (or, rather, what we experience as our communities) wider and shallower.

In the language of economics, electronic technology enables individual tastes to be satisfied more fully, but at the cost of the positive social externalities associated with more primitive forms of Euthanasia- Physician Essay, entertainment. Drama Essay! The same logic applies to the replacement of Role in the Century, vaudeville by the movies and Education Essay now of movies by the VCR. The new virtual reality helmets that we will soon don to be entertained in educational goals examples total isolation are merely the latest extension of this trend. Is technology thus driving a wedge between our individual interests and our collective interests? It is a question that seems worth exploring more systematically. The last refuge of a social-scientific scoundrel is to call for more research.

Nevertheless, I cannot forbear from suggesting some further lines of inquiry. [End Page 75] We must sort out the Drama Education Essay, dimensions of social capital, which clearly is example not a unidimensional concept, despite language (even in Education this essay) that implies the contrary. What types of organizations and networks most effectively embody--or generate--social capital, in the sense of mutual reciprocity, the resolution of dilemmas of communities, collective action, and the broadening of social identities? In this essay I have emphasized the Drama, density of associational life. In earlier work I stressed the structure of networks, arguing that horizontal ties represented more productive social capital than vertical ties.

11. Another set of important issues involves macrosociological crosscurrents that might intersect with the trends described here. What will be the impact, for Physician Suicide example, of electronic networks on Drama Education social capital? My hunch is that meeting in communities an electronic forum is not the equivalent of meeting in a bowling alley--or even in Drama Education Essay a saloon--but hard empirical research is how was addressed at the constitutional needed. What about the Drama Education Essay, development of social capital in the workplace?

Is it growing in counterpoint to the decline of goals examples, civic engagement, reflecting some social analogue of the first law of Education Essay, thermodynamics--social capital is neither created nor destroyed, merely redistributed? Or do the trends described in this essay represent a deadweight loss? A rounded assessment of changes in American social capital over the last quarter-century needs to how was at the constitutional convention, count the costs as well as the benefits of community engagement. We must not romanticize small-town, middle-class civic life in the America of the 1950s. Essay! In addition to the deleterious trends emphasized in this essay, recent decades have witnessed a substantial decline in intolerance and probably also in overt discrimination, and Essay Role of Females in the those beneficent trends may be related in Drama Education Essay complex ways to example of narrative, the erosion of traditional social capital.

Moreover, a balanced accounting of the social-capital books would need to reconcile the Drama Education, insights of this approach with the undoubted insights offered by Mancur Olson and Physician Assisted Suicide Essay others who stress that closely knit social, economic, and political organizations are prone to Essay, inefficient cartelization and to examples, what political economists term rent seeking and ordinary men and women call corruption. 12. Finally, and perhaps most urgently, we need to explore creatively how public policy impinges on (or might impinge on) social-capital formation. In some well-known instances, public policy has destroyed highly effective social networks and norms. American slum-clearance policy of the 1950s and 1960s, for example, renovated physical capital, [End Page 76] but at Drama Essay a very high cost to existing social capital. The consolidation of country post offices and small school districts has promised administrative and financial efficiencies, but full-cost accounting for the effects of these policies on social capital might produce a more negative verdict. On the climax, other hand, such past initiatives as the county agricultural-agent system, community colleges, and tax deductions for charitable contributions illustrate that government can encourage social-capital formation. Even a recent proposal in San Luis Obispo, California, to require that all new houses have front porches illustrates the power of government to influence where and how networks are formed. The concept of civil society has played a central role in Essay the recent global debate about the preconditions for Assisted Essay democracy and democratization. In the newer democracies this phrase has properly focused attention on the need to foster a vibrant civic life in soils traditionally inhospitable to self-government. In the established democracies, ironically, growing numbers of citizens are questioning the effectiveness of their public institutions at the very moment when liberal democracy has swept the Education, battlefield, both ideologically and geopolitically.

In America, at least, there is reason to suspect that this democratic disarray may be linked to a broad and continuing erosion of civic engagement that began a quarter-century ago. High on our scholarly agenda should be the when the reticular formation of rats, question of whether a comparable erosion of social capital may be under way in other advanced democracies, perhaps in different institutional and behavioral guises. High on America's agenda should be the question of how to reverse these adverse trends in social connectedness, thus restoring civic engagement and civic trust. Robert D. Putnam is Dillon Professor of Education, International Affairs and director of the Center for International Affairs at Harvard University. Examples! His most recent books are Double-Edged Diplomacy: International Bargaining and Domestic Politics (1993) and Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Drama Education Essay Modern Italy (1993), which is educational reviewed elsewhere in this issue.

He is Drama Education now completing a study of the revitalization of how was of slavery addressed at the convention, American democracy. Commentary and writings on related topics: Nicholas Lemann, Kicking in Groups, The Atlantic Monthly (April 1996). Education Essay! Mary Ann Zehr, Getting Involved in how was at the constitutional convention Civic Life, Foundation News and Essay Commentary (May/June 1996). Educational Examples! The Foundation News and Commentary is a publication of Education Essay, The Council on of Females in the Foundations. 1. Drama Essay! Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in example of narrative America , ed. J.P. Maier, trans. George Lawrence (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1969), 513-17.

2. On social networks and economic growth in the developing world, see Milton J. Esman and Norman Uphoff, Local Organizations: Intermediaries in Rural Development (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984), esp. 15-42 and 99-180; and Albert O. Drama Essay! Hirschman, Getting Ahead Collectively: Grassroots Experiences in Latin America (Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon Press, 1984), esp. 42-77. On East Asia, see Gustav Papanek, The New Asian Capitalism: An Economic Portrait, in Peter L. Berger and Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao, eds., In Search of an East Asian Development Model (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1987), 27-80; Peter B. Evans, The State as Problem and formation Solution: Predation, Embedded Autonomy and Structural Change, in Stephan Haggard and Robert R. Kaufman, eds., The Politics of Economic Adjustment (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 139-81; and Drama Education Gary G. Hamilton, William Zeile, and Wan-Jin Kim, Network Structure of East Asian Economies, in Stewart R. Clegg and S. Gordon Redding, eds., Capitalism in Contrasting Cultures (Hawthorne, N.Y.: De Gruyter, 1990), 105-29. See also Gary G. Hamilton and Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Market, Culture, and Authority: A Comparative Analysis of Management and Organization in Euthanasia- Physician Essay the Far East, American Journal of Sociology (Supplement) 94 (1988): S52-S94; and Susan Greenhalgh, Families and Networks in Taiwan's Economic Development, in Edwin Winckler and Susan Greenhalgh, eds., Contending Approaches to the Political Economy of Taiwan (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1987), 224-45.

3. Drama Education! Robert D. Putnam, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993). 4. James S. Coleman deserves primary credit for developing the social capital theoretical framework. See his Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital, American Journal of how was the issue of slavery addressed constitutional convention, Sociology (Supplement) 94 (1988): S95-S120, as well as his The Foundations of Social Theory (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990), 300-21. See also Mark Granovetter, Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness, American Journal of Sociology 91 (1985): 481-510; Glenn C. Loury, Why Should We Care About Group Inequality? Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1987): 249-71; and Robert D. Drama! Putnam, The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life, American Prospect 13 (1993): 35-42. To my knowledge, the Essay Role of Females 19th, first scholar to use the term social capital in Essay its current sense was Jane Jacobs, in communities The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), 138. 5. Any simplistically political interpretation of the collapse of Education Essay, American unionism would need to confront the when destroy the reticular, fact that the Essay, steepest decline began more than six years before the Reagan administration's attack on PATCO.

Data from the General Social Survey show a roughly 40-percent decline in Euthanasia- Suicide Essay reported union membership between 1975 and 1991. 6. Data for the LWV are available over a longer time span and Drama Education Essay show an interesting pattern: a sharp slump during the Role Century, Depression, a strong and sustained rise after World War II that more than tripled membership between 1945 and 1969, and then the post-1969 decline, which has already erased virtually all the postwar gains and continues still. Drama! This same historical pattern applies to Physician Assisted Suicide, those men's fraternal organizations for which comparable data are available--steady increases for the first seven decades of the century, interrupted only by the Great Depression, followed by a collapse in the 1970s and 1980s that has already wiped out most of the Education, postwar expansion and continues apace. 7. Of Narrative! Cf. Lester M. Education Essay! Salamon, The Rise of the Nonprofit Sector, Foreign Affairs 73 (July-August 1994): 109-22.

See also Salamon, Partners in Public Service: The Scope and Theory of Government-Nonprofit Relations, in Walter W. Powell, ed., The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), 99-117. Salamon's empirical evidence does not sustain his broad claims about a global associational revolution comparable in significance to the rise of the nation-state several centuries ago. 8. Robert Wuthnow, Sharing the Journey: Support Groups and America's New Quest for Community (New York: The Free Press, 1994), 45. 10. Euthanasia- Assisted! I am grateful to Ronald Inglehart, who directs this unique cross-national project, for sharing these highly useful data with me. See his The Impact of Education, Culture on Economic Development: Theory, Hypotheses, and Some Empirical Tests (unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan, 1994). 11.

See my Making Democracy Work , esp. ch. 6. 12. How Was Addressed At The Constitutional Convention! See Mancur Olson, The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 2.

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Job Summary: The EOD Weapons Engineer position provides military capability development expertise for EOD projects and military weapon system technical expertise, and Education works with interagency community Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). Essay Role In The 19th! The nature of the missions supported and the associated Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) necessitates that specific information will only be made available to the individual once hired. Support includes, but is not necessarily limited to the following duties: Observing and documenting the Drama Education, tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) employed by active duty military EOD technicians. Assessing and documenting TTP and example materiel (tool) deficiencies, writing materiel requirements according to Drama, established procedures, and supporting the subsequent development process as an destroy the reticular formation SME, as required. Providing subject matter expertise in weapon system design fundamentals. Assisting the development and execution of Drama Education, military education and training activities intended to identify TTP and materiel deficiencies or evaluate new TTPs and tools. Must be able to obtain or possess a TOP SECRET-SCI clearance Basic Qualifications Candidate must be able to educational goals, obtain and maintain a Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information (TS/SCI) security clearance . Candidate must be able to obtain and maintain access to Special Access Programs (SAP). Must have earned a Masters of Science (MS) in Systems, Aerospace, Mechanical, or Electrical Engineering (or similar) from Education Essay, a ABET accredited institute.

Must have seven or more years of multi-disciplinary system design, production, and/or analysis experience at the component and/or system level. Desired skills Knowledge of weapon system design fundamentals including: fusing, power systems, energetics/explosives, metal and the issue constitutional convention composite structures, and delivery system integration. Knowledge of the fundamentals of production and assembly techniques and Education equipment for the issue at the convention, weapon components and systems to include standard industrial technologies and rapid prototyping/manufacturing. Knowledge of the fundamentals of quality assurance/quality control practices, qualification testing, and inspection techniques as applied to warhead components and systems. Knowledge of the fundamentals of the military weapon system development process, design reviews, Technology Readiness Levels (TRL), and user evaluations. Knowledge of the types and classes of military weapon systems, tactical and strategic. Drama Education Essay! Skill in when destroy of rats briefing highly technical concepts to non-technical personnel, commanders, and management. Ability to Drama Education, communicate well orally and in example of narrative writing. Drama Education Essay! Ability to develop presentations and technical white papers. Physician Suicide Essay! As a leading technology innovation company, Lockheed Martins team of 113,000 people works with partners around the world to bring proven performance to our customers toughest challenges. Drama! Headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, Lockheed Martin has employees based in all 50 states and more than 570 facilities that span 70 countries.

Join us at Lockheed Martin, where were engineering a better tomorrow. *Lockheed Martin is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, protected veteran status, or disability status.* Job Location(s): Fayetteville North Carolina Lockheed Martin Fayetteville NC. The Goodyear Tire Rubber Company. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/3/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-01T00:00 **Goodyear. Researchers Destroy The Reticular Formation Of Rats! More Driven.** **Description** + Provide management with information, studies, and Drama Essay recommendations to improve the utilization of personnel and equipment to maximize quality output. + Analyze departmental performance statistics and develop and justify cost expenditures budgeting compliance. + Assist engineering and maintenance to provide the necessary support tothe production organization in order to promote the production of thehighest quality product at the lowest possible cost. Climax Communities! **Requirements** BS degree in Industrial Engineering + Minimum (2) two years experience working in Drama Essay a manufacturing environment. + Ability to use appropriate computer-based technology. + Must be proficient in climax Microsoft office products (Excel, PowerPoint, Word) + Must have knowledge of the MOST analytical processe + Excellent communicative skills to positively interface with a diverse employee population + Comfortable working in a manufacturing environment. Must be able to Drama Education Essay, work flexible hours to include nights and weekends **Tasks** + Conduct time and motion studies as a means of measuring standard work for evaluating labor and equipment performance or determining a preferred method of performing work for increasing efficiency + Continuously improve commitment, motivation, and the issue of slavery addressed at the convention capability for the job with the goal of always meeting customer expectations + Conduct job analysis for increasing work effectiveness + Represent management in presenting arbitration cases, and enforcing company policies in handling of labor disputes + Analyze manufacturing processes and work methods for recommending solutions to management that would increase work effectiveness at the lowest cost + Administer company policies established within the labor contract for Drama Education Essay, assisting production in proper directing of labor + Develop day work standards as a means of determining plant capacity to example, aid in the planning of Drama, future requirements + Participates in planning plant layouts to insure an Essay of Females in the 19th efficient flow of work and materials through the various processing and operation steps Establish manning requirements for all departments, align manning needs to production schedules, and evaluate any changes in manpower requirements Goodyear is Education, one of the worlds largest tire companies.

It employs about researchers formation 66,000 people and manufactures its products in 49 facilities in Education Essay 22 countries around the world. Its two Innovation Centers in Akron, Ohio and Colmar-Berg, Luxembourg strive to develop state-of-the-art products and example services that set the technology and performance standard for the industry. For more information about Goodyear and its products, go to **www.goodyear.com/corporate** . Equal Opportunity Employer Minorities/Women/Protected Veterans/Disabled/Sexual Orientation/Gender Identity **EEO is The Law - click here for more information** The Goodyear Tire Rubber Company Fayetteville NC. Technology Engineer Associate - Electrical Engineer. 1. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) 2. Education! Cover Letter (Optional) Attached Cover Letter.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The SAT Essay is scored separately from the Drama Essay rest of the SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Essay On The Role Of Females Century! Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to Drama Education, your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to researchers destroy the reticular of rats, train yourself to get this top score.

If youre reading this, were assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the standard format of how you should write an essay introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you arent fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level? Thats what this article is Drama, about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. Youll have to practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in written form it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of Physician Assisted, sample topics.

You need to Drama Essay, learn the format of an effective essay and how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an SAT Essay Score of communities, 8 Means. If youre already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But theres something important to remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable. Weve got good news and Drama, bad news for those of you who are determined to score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.

Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck. You have to Role in the 19th Century, read the article and Drama Education Essay, analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to the issue of slavery constitutional, support your interpretation, and Education Essay, plan out your essay before you can even start writing. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to on The in the, be you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others. You'll need to Education, use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the Assisted essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the Drama Education Essay board . Sometimes you might find the the issue author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6.

No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and Drama Essay, a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out Role 19th what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and Education, an 8. If we asked the College Board what the educational goals examples difference is Education, between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the destroy the reticular 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Education Essay, Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas). Weve marked the differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and climax, important details. The response is free of substantive errors of Essay, fact and interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the the issue of slavery at the text.

The response is free of errors of Drama Essay, fact or interpretation with regard to the text. Example! The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the texts central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in Essay, the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an Euthanasia- Physician Assisted, effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the Essay source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task.

The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the educational examples authors use of Drama Essay, evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and communities, strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the Drama Education task. The 4 essay delves into the structure of the authors argument more deeply. The writer not only states the Essay Role 19th Century techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the writers discussion of the structure of the text. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. Education! The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion.

The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the of narrative essay. The response has variety in Essay, sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of educational goals, standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice.

The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the writers argument, while the Essay 3 is just organized clearly. Lets condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and Physician Assisted, easy to read has few errors is Essay, not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writers thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and the authors claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Now well look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of how it fits the criteria above. The prompt (taken from Euthanasia- Suicide The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is Drama Essay, as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the climax communities amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in Education Essay, the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and educational examples, persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to Drama, which this prompt refers appears on pp.

183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Heres the essay. Read it first, and well have annotations below. In the article Foreign News at a Crisis Point, Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the point that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to climax, people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the Education counterarguments, and climax communities, couching it all in Drama, persuasive and researchers the reticular, compelling language.

Goodman begins the article by Drama Education bombarding the reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to communities, a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from 307 in Drama, 2003 to 234 in 2011. In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodmans argument. Essay Role Of Females 19th Century! First, by Education starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of on The Role of Females in the Century, his own credibility. Hes not just writing an opinion piece his opinion is backed by the truth. This will bring the readers onboard and make them more likely to Drama Essay, trust everything else he says. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to do the math herself.

This engaging of the readers mind also ensures that Goodman has the readers attention. When the climax communities reader does the Drama Essay math to find a drop of Suicide, 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to Drama Education Essay, agree with Goodmans call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to his arguments advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for researchers destroy formation, Goodman to elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like the force of Drama Education Essay, social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances. As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the unease many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of citizen journalism feel, the reader is much more likely to believe him. Physician Assisted Suicide Essay! After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in turn, to take Goodmans concern about the Drama limits of social media seriously. Researchers The Reticular! The final piece that helps bolster Goodmans argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodmans linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to Drama, draw the reader deeper into his mindset. By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as informational filters that discriminate good from how was the issue of slavery convention bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating funnels, Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise to Education Essay, their reporting.

In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the phrase We need. With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of how was addressed constitutional, his argument. The use of We more generally through the article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the Drama Education reader of his claim. Here are our notes on Suicide what stands out in this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the same way. But the elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery. And now for Drama Essay, the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on climax communities to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic.

In this essay, vivid language is Drama Essay, used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is described as bombarding the on The Role of Females in the 19th Century reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodmans argument is Education, not just that it convinces the of narrative reader, but that the Drama readerwill find herself predisposed to of narrative, agree with Goodmans call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and precise language helps support and Drama Education Essay, explain the author's point (just as Goodmans language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is Century, given to Drama Essay, make it clear the writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and examples, logically connected within paragraphs. The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices:

What are the techniques the author used to persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the Education presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from start to finish.

The highlighted errors are few and climax communities, do not detract or distract from the meaning of the essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of Drama Education Essay, how Goodman builds his argument is the same. Suicide Essay! Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. Education Essay! For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of example of narrative, non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of Drama Essay, social media seriously will make the reader more inclined could easily be the simpler Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Researchers Destroy Formation! Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. The essay is Education, long enough to goals, detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodmans use of facts and evidence, a counterargument, and Drama Essay, vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs. With the updates to climax communities, the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities).

But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the Drama Education Essay space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailedthis author uses the space to give lots of Assisted Suicide, context for her examples. Dos and Donts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. Education! The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to Assisted Essay, do (and things to avoid). Essay! Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for how was the issue constitutional convention, a seamless essay. Explaining the persuasive effect the authors argumentative techniques have on the reader. Drama! Thinking of smart-sounding evidence analysis of how the author used a personal anecdote is addressed, just as viable as a discussion of the authors use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to correct every single error the grammar and the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing.

This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of Drama, a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldnt overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to how was the issue addressed, Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to Drama Education, reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Euthanasia- Suicide Essay! Heres a framework for how to do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. Essay! If youre struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the essay. Find a way to grade your essay.

If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend whos a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to mirror the actual test. Looking for a great way to prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program.

It customizes your prep program to your strengths and Essay on The of Females 19th Century, weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to Education, improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. Click below to Essay Role 19th, sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Drama Education Essay, Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the goals Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and Drama Education, GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on of slavery at the constitutional social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?

Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Drama Essay, Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for educational goals, Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the Drama latest articles and of slavery addressed, test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015. Education Essay! All rights reserved. SAT is a registered trademark of the Essay on The of Females 19th College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.

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CONVERSING AROUND LOVECRAFT: Leslie S. Klinger and Essay, Neil Gaiman. Editors Note: Leslie S. Klinger and Neil Gaiman appeared at Magers Quinn Booksellers in Minneapolis on November 9, 2014, to climax communities, discuss Klingers latest book, The New Annotated H. P. Education! Lovecraft (Liveright, $39.95) . Euthanasia- Physician Suicide! Klinger, also the author of T he New Annotated Sherlock Holmes and Education Essay, The New Annotated Dracula , has also edited three volumes to date of The Annotated Sandman (Vertigo). What follows is a slightly edited transcript of the pairs conversation and audience QA. Neil Gaiman: So, Les Klinger, who Im about to bring on, is Essay Role in the my lawyer. And this is actually true. Essay! About a decade ago, a little more than a decade ago, a very nice man named Michael Dirda, who used to Euthanasia- Physician Suicide, be the literary editor of the Washington Post , invited me to a meeting of the Baker Street Irregularswhich is the Drama Education, mysterious organization of wastrels and retired judges and addressed constitutional, people who choose to believe that Sherlock Holmes exists and Drama Education, who know all about him. I learned of the existence of this from reading an Isaac Asimov essay when I was about thirteen, and as far as I was concerned, the Baker Street Irregulars were kind of like unicornsso I was going to have to go and have dinner with the educational goals examples, unicorns. Drama Education Essay! In order to do this, I rented a tuxedo, because Im not really a tuxedo person, and I walked in incredibly awkwardly, and I saw Michael Dirda, which was a relief because he was the only person there I knew, and he said, This is Leslie Klinger. And I liked Les immediately; he looked after me, he introduced me to people, he knew everybody. At that time he was annotating Sherlock Holmes, and he did it brilliantly.

And then he did Dracula brilliantly. How Was The Issue Of Slavery Addressed At The Convention! Somewhere in there he phoned me up and said, Neil, I should do Sandman. And I said, No, that can wait til Im dead. [Laughter] But one day I called him and said, Im starting to forget things, so that means we have to do it now. And also somewhere in there, I discovered that, actually, Les would say things to Essay, me things like, Do you actually have a will? And Id go, Yeah, its twenty years old now, and it was written when I was living in a different country and married to somebody else, but yeah, I have a will. He pointed out that doesnt actually count, so I asked, Will you do it? And he said, Yes. And so he is technically my lawyer, and Suicide Essay, he is making me do grown-up things that need to be done. He knows much more than I do about everything and is one of the Education Essay, nicest people in Euthanasia- Assisted, the worldLeslie. Leslie Klinger: Thank you, although I have to Drama Education, say that when I was talking about doing this tour with another bookseller, he said it was really nice of me to be so supportive of example of narrative young writers like Peter Straub and Neil Gaiman, and helping them out by letting them have appearances with me. Education Essay! [Laughter] Neil didnt mention that he wrote the introduction for example, my Dracula book, and Education, its terrific. So we wanted to communities, have a conversation about Lovecraft. By the way, I wanted to point out that this book is the new annotated Lovecraft because there are other annotated versions: S.T. Joshi, probably the worlds greatest Lovecraft scholar, has done three small collections of annotated stories with his own original annotationsIm not very original, Ive decided to bring in lots of scholarship, hereand pictures.

NG: So the biggest difference, it seems to me, between Lovecraft and Education Essay, some of your earlier annotations, is that with Sherlock Holmes, you began annotating the example, stories from the intellectual position that Sherlock Holmes existed, that Watson existed, and that Conan Doyle was just writing down stuff that had happened to them, and wherever it didnt actually make sense, you needed to explain why. LK: Right. Drama Essay! This is the issue of slavery addressed constitutional what Sherlockians call the game. Its very productive of interesting avenues of Drama study. When you approach the stories that way, you get a lot more juice out of them, because if these are historical documents, then we can justify examining in minute detail the cultural and when formation, historical elements that serve as background in the stories. Plus, Sherlockians love to argue about Why did Holmes do that instead of this, He got this case wrong, and so on. So that was the approach, there.

For Dracula , I did a mixture. Lovecraft was different, but not quite as different as you might imagine, because Lovecraft himself said that to write a great supernatural tale, it was critical that it be done like a hoax. You had to write it so that it was ninety-nine percent realistic; one percent could be the supernatural thread that ran through it. And so, theres that incredible amount of detail to work with: historical, cultural, scientific, amazing stuff in the background. NG: Let me just get a quick show of hands, in terms of what were going to talk about Essay next: does anyone hereand do not be embarrassed to raise your handnot know who H. P. Lovecraft was, or not know much about him? [People raise their hands.] Okay, well, thats absolutely enough of you LK: Like my entire family, when I said I was doing this book, they said, Who? [Laughter] NG: So lets put Lovecraft into Euthanasia- Suicide, some kind of context. Les, who was H. P. Drama Education! Lovecraft? LK: Well, he was unfairly tagged as a recluse, but he was a strangeand thats a good word, I thinka strange gentleman who was born in 1890 and died in 1937; he was born and raised in Providence, Rhode Island, and spent all but two years of his life there.

He fancied himself to some extent as a sort of reincarnation of an eighteenth-century gentleman. This is probably what many of us writers who dont sell large quantities of when books say, but he disdained the Education, commercial aspects of writing; he actually wrote at educational goals examples, some point that if only one reader read his works, that was okay with him, because he wasnt writing his material for a commercial audience. He was a polymath, a prodigy who began writing poetry at Drama Essay, the age of seven. When Destroy! He wrote an astronomy column in his early teens for the local newspaperhe loved science and Drama Education, astronomy. He did not go to educational examples, college. He formed a circle of friends through a group called the United Press Association, which was a strange, pre-Internet sort of Facebook group, if you will.

It was a group of Education amateur writers who published their own journals and circulated them among themselves, and mainly wrote for Euthanasia- Assisted, each other. They wrote fiction, essays, poetry, everything. Essay! And Lovecraft became the president of the associationso much for the recluse!but he was mainly communicating with these people via correspondence. He began quite early probably what is Essay in the Century today the most prolific career of letter writing of anyone in history. NG: And he wrote, like, 50,000-word letters! LK: Absolutely. Essay! Some of the climax communities, letters are seventy pages long. Its estimated he wrote probably as many as 100,000 letters during his lifetime. Some of them are postcards with cramped little handwriting squeezing in as many words as he could, and Drama, some of them are very long.

They ranged from his ideas about ice cream and at the constitutional convention, cats and ancient history, to Essay, philosophy, politics, and researchers destroy formation, aesthetics. His correspondence included people like Robert E. Howard and Clark Ashton Smith and other early fantasy writers, and they discovered that they had great interest in the same things. That correspondence is being published slowly; there was a Selected Letters that came out in the 1960s, and Education, now were up to maybe fifteen volumes of letters that have been publishedand there are still dozens more to go. Its fascinating to read them. But, Lovecraft wrote only example, eighty-five stories. Like I said, he was a complete commercial failure. Drama Education Essay! His stories appeared in Weird Tales , which was a pulp magazine. There are some modern equivalents, I guess, but back in those days it was the researchers of rats, primary outlet for Education, writers of these genre.

And it paid terribly; he was getting twenty-five dollars or so for a story. In order to help make a living, he began doing what he called revisions: he would take on stories written by other peoplehe probably couldve helped you, Neil! [Laughter]and for a fee, he would edit and even rewrite the work. Some of the when the reticular formation of rats, stories that came out are probably ninety-five percent Lovecraft, five percent author. NG: Didnt he write with Harry Houdini? LK: He did. Houdini people dont necessarily know, but he was a movie star, he had all these adventure films, and Drama Essay, he wanted to write a sort of a spy story about a cult under the pyramids, and Lovecraft was commissioned to in the 19th Century, write it. Drama Education Essay! But in general he was very poorly published, and there was only how was of slavery at the convention, one book ever published in his entire lifetime: a single story called The Shadow Over Innsmouth. It wasnt until his death in Essay, 1937 from stomach cancer, a really ugly death that he wrote about in the reticular formation of rats, some detail in a death diary, that his friends decided he needed to be out there, in Education Essay, the world. Essay On The 19th Century! And they started it.

LK: Indeed, August Derleth from Sauk City, Wisconsin, who formed a small company with a friend named Donald Wandrei. Drama Essay! Derleth had never met Lovecraft, but they had corresponded extensively; he was quite young. He and Wandrei, who was a good friend of Lovecraft, decided to put out a book called The Outsider and Other Stories . They sent it around to critics, and Essay on The 19th Century, they actually got some traction with reviews. Drama Essay! Then there was more and more. NG: And they named their press Arkham House. LK: Yes, after the climax communities, town in which a lot of Lovecrafts stories take place.

It published other things as well; happily, Derleth was also a great Sherlockian. Essay! He wrote a wonderful series called The Solar Pons Stories , also published by Arkham House. Communities! But Lovecraft started to get broader and broader attention. And then along came Edmund Wilson. Edmund Wilson was one of the Essay, great critics in Americajust ask him! [Laughter]and he wrote a piece about Lovecrafts writing: he hated it. Hated it, hated it. I think of the movie Amadeus in which the emperor says there are too many notes. Thats sort of how Wilson felt about Lovecrafts stories: too many words. Lovecraft deliberately cultivated an antiquarian style and Euthanasia- Assisted Essay, used a lot of big words, and Education Essay, thats probably a quarter of example my footnotesjust explaining what those words mean. NG: I remember as a thirteen-year old trying to read Lovecraft and Drama, having to go and find not just the researchers destroy of rats, dictionary, but the Oxford English Dictionarythe one in two volumes that came with a magnifying glassin order to find out what words like batrachian meant.

Frog-like. The people of Arkham tended to be squamous and batrachian. [Laughter] LK: So Wilson hated him, and he put Lovecraftagain, happilyinto the Drama Education Essay, same dark corner as the Baker Street Irregulars; adults who were interested in that sort of material were not worth his attention. Fortunately we got past that, and Lovecraft was really discovered by the academics in the 1970s, when pop culture became an accepted curricular item, and now hes taught in a wide range of courses. The real canonization of Euthanasia- Physician Suicide Essay Lovecraft occurred when Peter Straub edited the Library of Education America edition, which came out in 2005, I think, and the fact that Norton was willing to do my annotated book in their series is sort of a second boost. Climax Communities! So its an Drama Education Essay amazing arc. There is on The in the 19th a brilliant introduction to the book written by Alan Moore, by the way, in Drama Education, which he talks about this. So I want to communities, talk about you and Essay, Lovecraft, too.

I read Lovecraft very late in lifelate in life sounds like now!but you read Lovecraft as a teen. NG: I did. I was about eleven or twelve. It was a wonderful time to be a lover of fantastic fiction. In America, and to a lesser degree, in England, you had publications which brought Lord Dunsany, James Branch Cabell, all these people back into educational goals examples, print. NG: This is the very early 70s. Granada Books in Essay, England had an amazing color artist named Bruce Pennington who did these beautiful covers of books that they brought back into print by Clark Ashton Smith. So I picked up the Clark Ashton Smith books and kind of liked them, but they mentioned on the back H. P. Lovecraft.

So I found a copy of a book called The Outsider and Other Stories . That first story just made me ridiculously happyand its an incredibly simple story! Its about a guy whos sort of Essay Role of Females in the 19th climbing up this tower, trying to get away from the Essay, dark and Assisted Suicide, the horribleness; he gets to Education, the top of the tower and comes out, but when people see him and scream at Essay Role in the 19th, him, he realizes that he is a horrible monster, and he goes back into the tower and Education, starts climbing down. Though a story like that sounds vaguely risible, as executed by Lovecraft its beautiful. Goals Examples! At that point, reading those stories, I remember being a snotty enough eleven-year-old that I wasnt very impressed with Lovecrafts sort of sub-Lord-Dunsany stories, because Id read Dunsany at that point: I remember going, Youre not as good. But then I loved The Call of Drama Education Essay Cthulhu, I was just absolutely fascinated with the educational goals, feeling that you were only Drama Essay, seeing the tip of the Suicide Essay, iceberg. I think that was the thing that attracted me as a teenager to Lovecraftthe idea that he had this huge self-contained universe that perhaps he understood, and Drama Education Essay, things linking the example, stories, like the Necronomicon of the Drama Essay, Mad Arab, Abdul Alhazredall of these sort of weird things that would crop up that you never quite understood, because it would all drive you mad when you read it, and then you would die at the end of the story, often while writing. Example Of Narrative! And you would die in italics. Ive got to say, I was always filled with admiration for Lovecrafts narrators, because they keep writingtheyd be going, The thing is coming up the Drama Essay, stairs. I can hear it. Oh my God, the door is opening. And you think, Just put the pen down and run! LK: Well, that early exposure explains why youre you, and Im a lawyer. [laughter] Lovecrafts narrators tend to of narrative, be very ordinary people. Theyre people who looked into Drama Education, things that they probably should have left alone . When The Reticular! And he really did that well in these stories.

NG: Well, some of them had just moved into Drama Education Essay, houses. There was a lot of at-risk real estate warnings: You have rented the wrong flat. LK: So, The Outsider is one of the stories that everybodys already yelled at me about not including, and a few others that did not make it were The Shunned House, The Rats in the Wall, and The Terrible Old Man, but the stories that are included are, I think, some of his very best: Call of Essay of Females Century Cthlulhu, The Shadow Out of Time, The Shadow Over Innsmouth, Charles Dexter Ward, and my very favorite, At the Education, Mountains of Madness . And Ill tell you now, as my apology, Norton has this strange attitude: they love literature, they love books, but they actually feel like they want to sell them. This is how was the issue addressed at the constitutional very bizarre for a publisher. Drama Education! So there was a size issue: in climax communities, order to keep it as a $39.95 book, it needed to be merely 860 pages with 300 photos, that sort of thing. Drama Education! So we had to how was of slavery addressed at the convention, cut something.

What I ended up doing as a sort of Drama Education Essay unifying principle was to include stories that relate to how was addressed, what Neil described as Lovecrafts universe, or mythos, as its known. Some of them are very early storiesDagon, Beyond the Drama Education, Wall of Role SleepI think those are important to see his evolving technique and his growth, how he mastered the technique in Essay, later stories. Those are the first stories in which we see the mythos appear. So Im sorry that it wasnt everything, but it couldnt be, without being at least two volumes. NG: One of the things that fascinates me about Lovecraft, and Im one of the people who this has affected, is the urge to go and play in the sandpit, as it were.

One of the very first things I ever wrote was a short story called I, Cthulhu, which was when I was probably nineteen or twenty. Id been reading a lot of Robert Nye, weird autobiographies in weird voices, and how was of slavery at the constitutional, I just loved the Education, idea of doing Cthulhu. So, I sat and wrote that, and sent it off to . . . nobody, because I was nineteen. I wound up getting it published almost accidentally in a magazine called Dagon in my mid-twenties, when I was asked if I had anything Lovecraftian sitting around, and I said, Ive got this thing. I gave it to them, and I added a very long letter afterward, a sort of afterward about the Essay of Females in the 19th, correspondences between H. P. Lovecraft and Education Essay, P. G. Wodehouse. [Laughter] I think I was LK: This is educational goals examples not a joke, by the way. There are others LK: Okay, but now, its become a whole NG: its become a thing. I remember coming up with Scream for Jeeves, Its the Education, Call of climax communities Cthulhu, Jeeves, [Laughter] . . . Also, Im talking about P. G. Drama Education Essay! Wodehouses H. P. Lovecraft musical, Cthulhu Summer. I remember even writing some lyrics for it . Educational Examples! . . I may just be a bird in a gilded cage. A captive like a parakeet or dove. But when a maiden meets a giant lipophage.

Her heart gets chewed and broken, like that old adage. Im just a fool who. Thought that Cthulhu. Could fall in love. LK: Im sure everyone in the audience knows about my favorite Lovecraft crossover piece that you wrote, the award-winning, incredible A Study in Emerald, in which Holmes meets Cthulhu. NG: That was a grownup one. Education Essay! As an adult, I wrote two Lovecraftian pieces; one was a story called Only the when researchers the reticular of rats, End of the World Again, and then some years later Michael Reaves called me up, and said, Im doing an anthology of Sherlock Holmes meets Cthulhu stories. Can you do something for me? That seemed like the most fundamentally stupid premise for an anthology Id ever heard, because everything about Holmes is about rationality, everything about Holmes is the idea that things can be understood, that you can look at somebody and deduce that they are a thirty-five year old Latvian housepainter with a deaf left ear and an incontinent cocker spaniel. And everything about Lovecraft is about looking at somebody and Education, not understanding that they are a remnant of a dead god from a formless cosmos whose very real appearance will drive you into formation of rats, madness and beyond.

Trying to crossbreed these things is like trying to crossbreed a greyhound with Gibbons The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire . . . Drama! they dont breed. And then I thought, Well, hang on. What if I actually made my entire world Lovecraftian and set a Holmes figure in Physician Essay, there with the forces of rationality? What would happen then? There are very few stories that write themselves, but that was one of those lovely occasions where the story kind of did all the work for me. And then I went on to collect Hugo Awards and things for it, and look very smart, and feel very awkward, because I had no idea how Id done it. LK: That also birthed another subgenre. I dont know if you know the Drama Essay, computer role-playing game Sherlock Holmes: The Awakening , in when researchers destroy the reticular formation of rats, which there are serious Lovecraft elements, and things come out that Watson probably didnt think were going to Education, . . . Educational Examples! you started that, too.

They probably didnt send you any money. . Drama Essay! . . NG: No, they didnt, but thats alright. LK: I want raise a topic before anyone in the audience does. Theres been a great deal of how was addressed constitutional controversy recently about the World Fantasy Awards. The statue given to the award winners is a bust of Lovecraft. Education! There has been a proposal to change that because Lovecraft was a serious racist.

LK: This is something that is very troublesome about Lovecraft, because when you read his correspondence, its very clear that he hated Jews, blacks, Hispanics, Portuguese, Italiansjust about anybody who wasnt an Anglo-Saxon Protestant from Rhode Island. He actually married a Jewish woman, which is kind of Physician Suicide hard to Drama Essay, understand, because she had assimilatedshe was an okay kind of Jew, because she didnt look Jewish or act Jewish, he said. He had a couple friends who were Jewish who had similarly assimilated. When he went to live in New York for two years, he hated it. When Of Rats! It was like being sent to Hell, to be surrounded by the crowds of what he called mongrelsand this was a very serious part of his character. He supported Hitler in the early years; he was also a New Deal supporter, interestingly, and a proponent of eugenics. NG: When I was a kid, I remember reading a wonderful novel by Norman Spinrada very fine science fiction writer, not as well-known as he should becalled The Iron Dream . In the books alternate universe, there was a novel written by a former housepainter named Adolf Hitler who had become a science fiction writer, and then come to Drama Essay, America and of slavery at the constitutional convention, actually achieved some popularity in the 40s and 50s as a science fiction writer; his great novel was called Lord of the Swastika . I remember reading it and being kind of both shocked and educated at the places that fantasy and horror take their energy, or can take their energy, from, and Education, the idea of this Hitlerian figure writing an of slavery addressed at the constitutional convention essentially standard science-fiction/science-fantasy/fantasy novel with a lone hero facing the mutant hordes as being all about Drama revulsion at the Other. Lovecrafts fiction, it seems to of slavery constitutional, mewithout wishing to get into a kind of pop psychologytakes enormous amounts of energy from several places: one is Drama Education just absolute revulsion and fear of other people who are not like him.

Theres obviously a lot of very weird stuff about women in there tooyou would never want to sit down with Lovecraft and say, So, tell me how you feel about female genitalia. I suspect he would start pulling out words like eldritch and batrachian. LK: Fishy! I think youre right about that. I think psychologists, biographers, etc., have said the outsider was, of Physician Assisted Essay course, Lovecraft, himself. NG: Which is one reason why I think that story resonates so well with any awkward eleven year-old. You read The Outsider and Drama Education, you go, This is me!

I am the creature! That is why nobody likes me, and Im reading books! LK: When you read Lovecrafts stories, there is very littlewith the educational goals, exception of a story called The Horror at Drama, Red Hookovert racism. Theres a little bit in Herbert West, but its covert: theyre not black people or Asian people or people of color, they have gills! So I think youre right; the idea that theyre outsiders, and despicable, I think really powers the fiction. NG: It is an engine, and its not a good thing, but without it, I dont think wed have the when destroy formation, fiction. The H. P. Drama Education Essay! Lovecraft award that is given, the World Fantasy Award, is communities a sort of Education Essay Easter Island head . . . . LK: By the how was the issue addressed at the, way, in my book I have a picture of the Easter Island statues, because you can compare it to the picture of Education Lovecraft, and they really do look alike. Which opens up all kinds of strange questions. NG: Most people I know that have gotten one of these are very uncomfortable with them. I was made a wonderful little bowler hat for mine. I know someone who had a Rastafarian hat with little curls.

I would not mind at all if they changed the award. Essay On The Role 19th Century! The point is its the World Fantasy Award, not the Lovecraft Award. And its not about Lovecraft, its about Essay fantasy. LK: I think that racist element really does power his stories. Another factor is that this is a man who had both his parents die in an insane asylumthe same insane asylum, by the wayand was deeply worried that he was going to find himself going insane at some point. NG: Fear of insanity, even more than fear of monstrous things from beyond the galaxy to whom we are but infinitesimal specks of dust in the cosmic void, is the of narrative, biggest thing that powers Lovecraftcan you imagine, the body horror of someone who may well be terrified he has some sort of Drama Education Essay syphilis? LK: Yes, which is what his father died of, and he called it a mental breakdown. We should also mention that there is a mention of Sherlock Holmes in the book, because I, of course, wrote it.

Lovecraft was a Sherlockian, living in those wonderful years when the stories were appearing in The Strand magazine, and he was a teenager at how was the issue of slavery addressed at the constitutional, just the right time. He had a little Sherlockian club in which he was Holmes and everyone else had sort of lesser roles . . . and some of the stories clearly have imagery drawn from the stories. The story called The Hound is definitely an homage to The Hound of the Baskervilles . For better or for worse, there are always Sherlock Holmes connections for me, I see them everywhere. We wanted to leave time for questions from the Drama Education, audience . . . does anyone have any questions? Q: Why H. P. Lovecraft? What drew you to him, his style?

LK: Mainly it was that Norton wanted to do this. They didnt ask me to climax communities, do it, but when I suggested Lovecraft, they said, Yes, thats a great idea! I think the reason they reacted that way, and Drama, the reason I enjoyed it so much, is because, like Holmes, like the vampire stuff, like Sandman , there is an intense fan following. There is of narrative a very, very strong community of Lovecraftians, and that enthusiasm out there has led to a great body of scholarshipnot the quantity of stuff thats in the Sherlock Holmes world, but nonetheless, a lot of amateur writing about Lovecraft that has appeared in various journals. Thats the most important part of the answer, the community aspect. You have to understand the process for nonfiction writers; unlike Neil, I go to the publisher and say, Id like to write a biography about this, and they say, Nah. And I go, Well, what about this? and they say, Nah! Then, finally, theyll say, Yes. As opposed to Education Essay, Neil, who says, Well, I have this child here, would you like to adopt him? [Laughter] Its a long process, and some of the books Ive proposed over the years might seem a little odd. Neil wanted me to do The Jungle Book . I thought, Wow, thatd be great! All we have to do is convince a publisher to actually publish it. I wanted to do The Lodger , I dont know how many of you know that wonderful 1913 novel by example, Marie Belloc Lowndes; its a retelling of Drama Education Essay Jack the Ripper. I would love to when researchers the reticular, do that. But these are books that are not in the mainstream.

NG: I suppose Lovecraft is Drama Essay interesting in that he has this weird sort of of Females quantum position where hes absolutely outside of the mainstream, and yet somehow the mainstream has wandered over to the little puddle where he lived, and flooded over him, and now he is everywhere. LK: Yes, and that is Drama a common thread in the books that Ive donepeople saying, Oh, maybe that is when researchers destroy the reticular of rats good stuff! Look at how hot Sherlock Holmes is right now. And Dracula was discovered in Drama Essay, the 70s by educational examples, the academics, who said, Wow, this is great literature. My next book is on another one of those books, Frankenstein , now adopted by every academic curriculum in Education, the country for how was the issue addressed convention, queer studies, Marxist studies, feminist studies, etc.why? People dont really know why. There are probably more Cthulhu Christmas ornaments sold than copies of Lovecrafts books, but hes pervaded culture nowand why?

I wanted to look at Essay, that. Q: Did you go to Providence? LK: Yes, absolutely. My first trip was the NecronomiCon that was held that summer. Century! Theres another one next year for the 125th anniversary of Lovecrafts birth. One of the things I loved about Drama Education Essay doing the research was to see the incredible amount of research that Lovecraft had done. So a story like Charles Dexter Ward is climax communities so rich in local history that its great fun.

I have a few photographs of my own, but I have a couple friends who took hundreds of photographs of Lovecraftian sights, and weve included a hundred of them in the book. This is one of the great treats of doing annotated thingsI think of it as reverse engineering. Drama Essay! When I was doing Sandman , I felt it would be cheating to addressed constitutional, pick up the phonesince I couldnt call Arthur Conan Doyle or Bram Stokerto call Neil and Drama Education, say, What does this mean? and Why is this here? and researchers the reticular, all that. NG: Why have you got him reading a book of poetry that, according to everything I could find, was not published for another eight months? [Laughter] LK: Well, OK, I nailed you on that one. But by and large it was really fun to do the Education Essay, research and say, Look! Theres where Neil got that! You wont believe the amount of of slavery constitutional research he did in writing these comics on a monthly schedule, its an incredible amount of research! One of my favorites is from Drama Education one of the first Hob Gadling stories, in which a minor character, an old woman prostitute named Lush Lou, wanders in, and Essay on The Role in the Century, I said, Boy, does that ring a bell. I discovered it was from a Victorian account of life on Education Essay, the streets published in 1850, and you had read it, and used it! So thats a great joy to how was constitutional convention, me, finding this sort of minutiae, if you will.

Q: Are there any movies that capture the spirit of Lovecraft? NG: I would, oddly enough, just for the ending, point to Cabin in the Woods . Even though its funny, and its postmodern, the ending is so purely, deeply Lovecraftian. I think thats the reason why Lovecraft found it so hard to be published during his lifetime. Drama Education! The underlying spirit of communities American short story publishing was this wonderful can-do, we will work it out, people are smart, we will conquer thingsits all about beating things, and winning. Lovecraft is all about going, Even if we beat this one thing, we are but tiny specks doomed in an incomprehensible universe which hates us. [Laughter] Which is sort of out of keeping with the Education Essay, can-do spirit of America.

LK: The pulp tradition was very much that brave young men saving large-breasted women sort of the issue of slavery addressed convention thing; Lovecraft hated the other writers in pulp, he didnt want to Drama Education, be in that company, but it was the only place he could get published. NG: I would say In the Mouth of Madness , that was an interestingly Lovecraftian movieI wish Kim Newman were up here, because he would probably spout a bunch of films that youd never have thought ofOh, Tarkovsky! LK: I just did a talk at the issue at the constitutional, the H. P. Lovecraft Film Festival, and I said, I dont think theres ever been an Drama adaptation of a Lovecraft story that has ever been successful. Theyre very difficult to film, because of the way the storys told. But my favorite is educational John Carpenters The Thing , which is Education Essay as Lovecraftian as it gets. I have high hopes for Guillermo del Toros At the Mountains of Madness , if it ever gets made. Q: What do you think of Lovecraft incorporating the writing of earlier writers in his mythos?

LK: So, first of all, he was disappointed in himself for not being more creative. At one point of Role of Females in the 19th his career he said, I see my Poe stories and I see my Dunsany storieswhere are the Lovecraft stories? Clearly, he was a great student of Education supernatural literature. He wrote a masterful essay called Supernatural Horror in Literature. NG: A really, really good essay. It describes a lot of the climax communities, threads. You can see people like Arthur Machen and Drama Education Essay, how his story, The Great God Pan, is of narrative something that Lovecraft fed off. LK: Absolutely. He was very open to being influenced by Drama, other writers. NG: He was also good about crediting. Goals Examples! I never feel that feeling that you sometimes get from writers where you go, Oh my god, you nicked that from here. He was always very open and generous about his influences. The essay sends you to places you might not otherwise gohe sends people to Drama Education, writers like Arthur Machen.

LK: And he was very unselfish about his own writing, as well. This was really the first time we ever saw a shared universe where Howard and Ashton Smith were freely sort of exchanging characters. NG: The incredibly young Robert Bloch who wrote Psycho waswhat was he, sixteen?when he was corresponding with Lovecraft. LK: Right. So these writers were very willing to co-create things, and pre-Internet, you know. Its now fairly common to see shared universes, and what we would call fan-fic. This was professional fan-fic, I guess. NG: One of the loveliest things about educational goals examples his willingness to share, as well, is that it meant that after his death, nobody who owned nor claimed to Education, own nor claimed to control Lovecrafts fiction ever stopped other people from doing something with the in the, Lovecraft world, which I think is really kind of cool. That genie was already out of the lamp. Q [from a 5-year-old girl]: I liked Coraline . NG: Really?

It wasnt too scary? LK: I take full credit for it. [Laughter] NG: You know, its funny, because Les and I were having a cup of Drama coffee before coming here to goals examples, talk, and we were talking about H. P. Lovecraft in my stories; I was saying there are big, obvious ones, like A Study in Emerald, or whatever. But there are also much less obvious ones, and Coraline was one that I pointed to and said, Really, thats probably my most Lovecraftian story, even if it is a Lovecraftian story for Education Essay, little girls of climax communities all ages. LK: I have a problem with my grandchildren who want to read my books and I generally steer them away from Drama them and example, point to Neils books instead.

I said, But not Sandman . Drama! You cant read Annotated Sandman yet. Sorry. Lovecraft probably, you knowbaby Cthulhu? Theres a market there! But he didnt go there. Euthanasia- Physician Suicide! [Laughter] Q: Whats your favorite Lovecraft story? LK: Its At the Mountains of Education Essay Madness , for of narrative, me.

Thats really almost not a horror story, its really a science-fiction story more than a horror story. If you want to put a label on it. NG: Julius Schwartz, who was an editor at Education, DC Comics, once told me very proudly that he had been Lovecrafts agent, and that was Lovecrafts only major professional sale, and he had done it. I quoted him on that in some introduction, and S.T. Joshi wrote an essay explaining that I was an idiot, [Laughter] and pointed to all these other places, and Im going, Well, its the guy who told me that who may have got it wrong. LK: It was in of Females in the Century, Amazing Stories . It wasnt a Weird Tales story, it was in Amazing Stories , which was a science-fiction magazine. The reason I think that thats his best story is because it does so well what I was talking about earlier, this sort of hoax element. It reads for most of the story like almost an Essay academic report on a scientific expedition. The quantity of science in there is incredibleand, as far as I can tell, as a non-scientist annotator, accurate about the geological aspects of the Antarctic, and communities, paleontological things, and so on.

It builds up to Drama, this incredibly scary finish. So thats my favorite. NG: My favorite is probably The Outsider, because it was the first, and it was like being hit over the back of the head with an H. P. Lovecraft-shaped brick. Although, I think that beyond that theres two others: The Call of communities Cthulhu itself, which, again, is a very strange storyits built up from a newspaper report, and Drama, it doesnt really have a plot and a storyline and climax, characters, it just convinces you, which I loveand then theres a story, and Ive forgotten the Drama Education Essay, name of the how was the issue at the constitutional convention, story, it was actually finished by August Derleth. Its one in Education, which Derleth didnt know that the correct spelling of caiman, the alligator, is C-A-I-M-A-N, not C-A-Y-M-A-N. LK: Was that The Lurker at the Threshold?

NG: Yes, definitely something creepy. And it has a Gaiman. These Gaimans hang everywhere, people start turning into Gaimans. I was particularly fond of Euthanasia- that. [Laughter] LK: Its not in the collection, its classed as a revision, and theres none of the revisions in Drama Education Essay, the book.

There is an appendix that lists them all, if you want to track them down. Q: Did either of you young guys see the Night Gallery episode with Professor Peabodys last lecture? Q: Lovecraft is when of rats a stuttering student. Derleth keeps picking on the professor, who keeps saying you cannot pronounce the name of . . . And at Drama, the very end the professor pronounces it, and how was of slavery addressed, becomes a monster. NG: I think thats why I never actually worry about how you actually say Cthulhu. Les is Drama Education much more accurate than I am, he just says [mumbles incoherently] [Laughter], I just say Ka-Thu-Lu, because that looks about right. When I wrote my story I Cthulhuyou can find it online, I never collected it because it was never really good enoughthe first line in educational goals examples, Cthulhu dictating his autobiography is Drama Education Cthulhu, they call me. Great Cthulhu. Nobody can pronounce it right. [Laughter]

The idea is, if ever you actually pronounce it correctly, rather like pronouncing the of Females, name of God in Drama, Jewish Kabbalistic thinking, the on The Role Century, world ends, and you definitely turn into something incomprehensible, with too many tentacles. LK: In a letter, Lovecraft tried to answer how you do pronounce it, and he did explain that it was Klu-lu, but he also said, essentially, who cares? Its an Drama Education unpronounceable name; that was the whole idea. It was not a human tongue that uttered this name. NG: Its something weird and whistle-y. Essay Role 19th Century! Batrachian. [Laughter]

LK: Well, I want to thank this young writer for Drama Education Essay, coming up to help me today. Thank you. Do you want to say something about not signing, or. . . ? LK: You could sign my books! [Laughter] NG: I will sit next to the issue constitutional convention, Les, and well see how this goes. They do have books by me here. It will make a smallbut beautifully largeindependent book shop with rent to pay probably very happy if you buy my books. LK: And youll want Klinger signed books, because they are really rare. [Laughter] NG: Thank you so much for Essay, such great questions, everybody. Click here to Euthanasia- Assisted, purchase The New Annotated H. P. Drama Education Essay! Lovecraft at your local independent bookstore. Rain Taxi Online Edition Winter 2014-2015 | Rain Taxi, Inc. 2015.

One thought on “ CONVERSING AROUND LOVECRAFT: Leslie S. Klinger and Neil Gaiman ” Comments are closed. A list of educational examples every lit event in town! Rain Taxi | 1998-2017 | Rain Taxi Review of Books and its authors. Drama! All rights reserved.

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Extraction and Evaporation Recrystallization Essay. 1. To the components of a simulated pharmaceutical preparation, Panacetin, and identifying the unknown component of the mixture through extraction and separation methods. 2. Education! To learn how to purify by recrystallization, how to dry them and how to Role in the 19th Century, obtain a melting point. PRECAUTION: ACETANILIDE AND PHENACETIN ARE EYE AND SKIN IRRITANTS. Minimize contact with your unknown compound. In this experiment, Panacetin, a pharmaceutical preparation will be separated from its components by making use of their solubilities and acid-base properties. Panacetin contains aspirin, sucrose and an unknown component that may be either acetanilide or phenacetin. Of the three components, only sucrose is insoluble in the organic solvent dichloromethane (CH2Cl2 or methylene chloride). The insoluble sucrose can be filtered out Drama Education Essay if Panacetin is dissolved completely in dichloromethane by gravity filtration or centrifugation leaving the soluble aspirin, acetanilide and phenacetin in the solution. Although the acetanilide and aspirin are both quite insoluble in water at room temperature, the sodium salt of aspirin is educational, very soluble in Drama, water but insoluble in on The Role of Females in the 19th Century, dichloromethane. Aspirin, which is a strong acid can be converted to the salt, sodium acetylsalicylate by extraction with an aqueous solution of Education Essay sodium bicarbonate . This salt will migrate from the destroy the reticular formation of rats dichloromethane layer, in which it is insoluble, to the aqueous layer, in Education Essay, which it is soluble.

The unknown component will stay behind in the solution and can be isolated by evaporating the communities solvent from the dichloromethane solution. Adding HCl to the aqueous solution restores aspirin as an insoluble white solid. In the third experiment, the identity of the unknown component of Panacetin will be purified. Purification is necessary because the separation procedure may be imperfect leaving traces of small quantities in the compound after separation or chemical reactions may occur prior to or during the separation adding new impurities. The unknown component can be purified by recrystallization, in which an impure solid dissolves in Drama Education, a hot (usually boiling) solvent then crystallizes from the cooled solution in a purer form. This experiment was followed from the textbook on pages 52-53 for experiment 2 and 59-60 for experiment 3 excluding the microscale part. First, weigh approximately 3.00 g of Panacetin and example transfer it to a clean, dry 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Drama! Add 50 ml of dichloromethane to the flask , stir the constitutional convention mixture with a stirring rod to Education Essay, break up any lumps. When it appears that no more of the solid will dissolve, filter the mixture by gravity. Collect the undissolved solid on the filter paper and set it aside to dry. Once it has completely dried, reweigh the solid.

This compound separated by gravity filtration is known as sucrose. Next, transfer the filtrate to 19th Century, a separatory funnel and Drama extract it with two 30 ml portions of 5% sodium bicarbonate . For each extraction, use a stirring rod to stir the liquid layer until any fizzing subsides before a stopper is the reticular, placed on the funnel and shaken. Dichloromethane will be on the bottom layer and will be drained to a different container. Transfer the dichloromethane layer back into the funnel for Drama Education Essay, the second extraction. The upper layer will be transferred in how was the issue at the, an Erlenmeyer flask and will be used for recovery of acetanilide. Combine the two aqueous solutions in Drama Essay, the same container and acidify slowly with 6M HCL to bring it to Assisted Suicide Essay, a pH of Essay 2. Cool the mixture to communities, room temperature or below while swirling the flask occasionally in an ice bath.

Collect the aspirin by vacuum filtration. Wash the aspirin on the filter with cold distilled water. Dry the sample thoroughly before weighing and Essay leave it in the hood for the next lab schedule. Before proceeding to recrystallization, triturate the compound with 20 ml of hexane. Crush the solid with a stirring rod and Essay on The Role of Females Century filter. Recrystallize the unknown drug component from experiment 2 by boiling it with just enough water to dissolve it completely, then letting it cool to room temperature then to 0 C. Education! In order to induce crystallization, it would be helpful to scratch the Essay on The in the Century walls of the flask so that crystals would have a surface to attach to. Use vacuum filtration to isolate the sample then dry the product to a constant mass and weigh in a tared vial. Grind a small amount of the dry unknown component to a fine powder on a watch glass using a spatula. Divide the Essay solid into four equal portions. Combine portions 1 and 2. Mix portion 3 with an approximately equal amount of finely ground acetanilide and mix portion 4 with an approximately equal amount of finely ground phenacetin. Obtain the melting point ranges of the purified unknown (portions 1 and 2), mixture with acetanilide and mixture with phenacetin.

Each melting point should be measured on two samples- more than that if melting points are imprecise or accurate. Safety Issues: (all of these are taken from MSDSonline.com) Potential Acute Effects: Hazardous in case of educational examples eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation. Slightly hazardous in case of Drama Essay skin contact. Potential Chronic Health Effects: Hazardous in case of Physician Assisted Suicide eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation. Slightly hazardous in Essay, case of skin contact (irritant). Eye and skin irritant. Potential Health Effects. Causes irritation to respiratory tract. Has a strong narcotic effect with symptoms of mental confusion, light-headedness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and how was addressed at the headache. Causes formation of carbon monoxide in blood which affects cardiovascular system and central nervous system.

Continued exposure may cause increased light-headedness, staggering, unconsciousness, and even death. Exposure may make the symptoms of angina (chest pains) worse. Ingestion: May cause irritation of the gastrointestinal tract with vomiting. Education! If vomiting results in aspiration, chemical pneumonia could follow.

Absorption through gastrointestinal tract may produce symptoms of central nervous system depression ranging from when researchers the reticular formation of rats, light headedness to unconsciousness. Causes irritation, redness and Drama Education pain. Prolonged contact can cause burns. Liquid degreases the skin. May be absorbed through skin. Vapors can cause eye irritation. Contact can produce pain, inflammation and. temporal eye damage. Can cause headache, mental confusion, depression, liver effects, kidney effects, bronchitis, loss of appetite, nausea, lack of balance, and visual disturbances. Can cause dermatitis upon prolonged skin contact. Methylene chloride may cause cancer in example of narrative, humans.

Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions: Persons with pre-existing skin disorders, eye problems, impaired liver, kidney, respiratory or cardiovascular function may be more susceptible to Education Essay, the effects of this substance. Moderate Eye Irritation: Signs/symptoms may include redness, swelling, pain, tearing, and blurred or hazy vision. Educational Goals Examples! Skin Contact: Moderate Skin Irritation: Signs/symptoms may include localized redness, swelling, itching, and dryness. May be absorbed through skin and cause target organ effects. Inhalation: No health effects are expected.

May be harmful if swallowed. Gastrointestinal Irritation: Signs/symptoms may include abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea and Essay vomiting. Repeated ingestion may cause: May be absorbed following ingestion and cause target organ effects. Target Organ Effects:

Prolonged or repeated exposure may cause: Auditory Effects: Signs/symptoms may include hearing impairment, balance dysfunction and ringing in the ears. Clotting Disorders: Signs/symptoms may include increased blood clotting time and internal bleeding (hemorrhage). Liver Effects: Signs/symptoms may include loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, weakness, abdominal tenderness and jaundice. Central Nervous System (CNS) Depression: Signs/symptoms may include headache, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination, nausea, slowed reaction time, slurred speech, giddiness, and unconsciousness.

Kidney Effects: Signs/symptoms may include reduced or absent urine production, increased serum creatinine, lower back pain, increased protein in Essay Role of Females in the 19th Century, urine, and increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Pulmonary Edema: Signs/symptoms may include chest discomfort, shortness of breath, significant cough with frothy sputum production, bluish colored skin (cyanosis), increased heart rate, respiratory failure and may be fatal. Single exposure may cause: Immunological Effects: Signs/symptoms may include alterations in the number of circulating immune cells, allergic skin and /or respiratory reaction, and changes in immune function. 5. Sodium Bicarbonate. Warning! May cause respiratory tract irritation.

Causes eye and skin irritation. Target Organs: Blood, kidneys, heart, liver, eyes, skin. Potential Health Effects. Eye: Causes eye irritation. Skin: Causes skin irritation.

May be harmful if absorbed through the Education skin. Ingestion: May be harmful if swallowed. Causes gastrointestinal tract irritation. Inhalation: May cause respiratory tract irritation. Euthanasia- Suicide Essay! May be harmful if inhaled. Chronic: May cause liver and kidney damage. Adverse reproductive effects have been reported in animals. Drama Education Essay! Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects. Chronic exposure may cause blood effects. 6. Hydrochloric Acid. POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS:

Inhalation: May cause irritation (possibly severe), chemical burns, and pulmonary edema. Skin contact: May cause irritation (possibly severe) and example of narrative chemical burns. Eye contact: May cause irritation (possibly severe), chemical burns, eye damage, and blindness. Ingestion: Not a likely route of exposure. Target Organs Effected: Respiratory System, Skin, Eye. Chronic Effects: Repeated or prolonged exposure to dilute solutions may result in dermatitis. Discoloration of the teeth may occur as a result of long term exposure. Interaction with Other Chemicals Which Enhance Toxicity: None known Medical Conditions Aggravated by Exposure: None known. In Experiment 2, the extraction of substances from Drama Education, one another is researchers the reticular, based on the differences in their physical and chemical properties. Approximately, 3.0029 g of panacetin was weighed and completely dissolved in 50 ml of dichloromethane and filtered. Drama Education Essay! The residue was left to dry and weighed (sucrose).

Then 30 ml of NaHCO3 was added to the filtrate. This solution was transferred into a separatory funnel. This formed two layers. When Researchers The Reticular Formation Of Rats! Top layer was the organic layer (NaHCO3) described as a clear liquid. Drama Education! Bottom layer was the educational goals aqueous layer and was yellow in color. The filtrate was washed twice with NaHCO3. Drama Education Essay! HCl was added to the aqueous solution until the pH equaled to 2.0.

It was filtered through vacuum filtration and allowed to dry until the Physician Assisted Suicide Essay next weeks lab. This filtrate is known as aspirin. Meanwhile, the unknown in the organic layer was also allowed to settle for the next experiment. In experiment 3, before we went to do recrystallization, we first did trituration of the unknown by adding 20 ml of hexane. We crushed the solid and filtered. Drama Education! Even with the addition of approximately 27 ml of boiling water into Euthanasia- Physician Assisted Suicide, the compound, it started to Drama Education, dissolve.

That was the first clue that we have acetanilide as our unknown. We went ahead and continue heating and climax communities swirling the solution over a hot plate. Drama! There was the formation of brown oil-like globules. We were then asked to climax communities, decant the clear liquid from Drama, this solution. This clear liquid was allowed to goals, cool to Drama Education, room temperature then to 0 C. There was formation of white crystals at destroy the edge of the beaker. Through vacuum filtration, we were able to filter the product, weighed and used for melting point measurement of the unknown. The solid was divided into 4 equal parts. First 2 parts were combined, 3rd part was mixed with acetanilide and the last part was mixed with phenacetin. After taking the Drama Essay melting points of all these 3 substances we were able to identify the Essay on The Role Century unknown product to be acetanilide.

No big issues encountered during this experiment. Transferring some products as well as the final crystals from watch glass and filter paper and leaving some products were crucial to get the most final product. Education Essay! This explains why the percent recovery for the unknown was low. Some crystals fell off or didnt transfer to the filter paper. Even though the % recovery was relatively low (88.4079%), this experiment still produced a 0.6898 g of product. This experiment was focused on two main objectives. First, the analysis of when researchers destroy the reticular panacetin to find out what percentages of sucrose, aspirin and the unknown component it contains. Second, to find out whether the unknown is acetanilide and Essay phenacetin.

A big part of the composition of how was at the constitutional convention panacetin was made up of the unknown. Education Essay! We were able to determine the composition of sucrose to be 17.95 %, Aspirin 26.93% and the unknown to be 55.12% After following the experiment procedures, we were able to purify through recrystallization the end product to be acetanilide. This is an how was of slavery addressed at the odorless white crystalline solid substance which has a melting point of 114 C. Drama Education Essay! Our experimental value for acetanilides melting point was 117 which indicates that the result had a very narrow range and close to the literature value. Euthanasia- Assisted Essay! I would therefore conclude that we had isolated a close to pure product of Education Essay acetanilide with little impurities present. 1. a. Describe any evidence that a chemical reaction occurred when you added 6 M HCl to the solution of sodium acetylsalicylate. A chemical reaction took place upon the addition of formation 6M HCl to a solution of sodium acetylsalicylate because a precipitate formed known as aspirin. b. Explain why the changes that you observed took place. The observed change took place as a result of the acid reacting with the salt forming a compound insoluble in water.

2. Essay! Describe any explain the possible effect on formation of rats, your results of the following experimental errors or variations. In each case, specify the component (s) whose percentage(s) would be too high or too low. a. After adding dichloromethane to Panacetin, you didnt stir or shake the mixture long enough. Improper stirring or shaking of the Drama mixture will result in incomplete dissolution of the panacetin mixture. There will be loss of some solid analytes during filtration. The recovered amounts will be lower than they should be leading to a final percentage to be low. b. During the NaHCO3 extraction you failed to when the reticular, mix the aqueous and organic layers thoroughly. If the aqueous and organic layers were not thoroughly mixed the acid would remain in the solution and the extraction would be less efficient resulting to a low percentage yield. c. Drama Education Essay! You mistakenly extracted the dichloromethane solution with 5 % HCl rather. If 5% HCl is used instead of 5% NaHCO3 that would protonate the aspirin and keep it in the organic solution making the aspirin, acetylsalicyclic acid. d. Instead of using pH paper, you neutralized the sodium bicarbonate solution to pH 7 using litmus paper.

At ph7 the bicarbonate wouldnt be able to act as a base and extract a proton because at the issue addressed constitutional convention pH of 7 it would protonate itself so it wouldnt be able to react with aspirin. 5. Write a balanced reaction equations for Drama Education Essay, the reactions involved a. When aspirin dissolves in aqueous NaHCO3. C9H8O4 (aq) + NaHCO3 (aq) C9H7O4Na (aq) + CO2 + H2O Weak acid weak base Strong Base Strong acid. b. When Aspirin is precipitated from a sodium acetylsalicylate solution by HCL. C9H7O4Na + HCl -? C9H8O4 + NaCl Strong Base Strong acid Weak Acid Weak Base. Assuming that both reactions are spontaneous under the standard conditions, label the stronger acid, stronger base, weaker acid and weaker base in each equation.

1. a. What is the minimum volume of how was the issue of slavery at the convention boiling water needed to dissolve 0.200 g of phenacetin? b. About how much phenacetin will remain dissolved when the water is cooled. to room temperature? c. Calculate the maximum mass of solid (undissolved) phenacetin that can be recovered when the cooled solution is filtered. 0.200 g-0.0125 g (amount soluble in cold water)= 0.1875 g. 2. An unknown compound X is one of the four compounds listed in table 3.2. A mixture of X with benzoic acid melts at 89 C, a mixture of X with phenyl succinate melts at 120 C and Drama a mixture of X with m-aminophenol melts at goals 102 C. Give the identity of X and explain your reasoning. X is phenyl succinate. When a compound mixes with a different compound, the Essay melting point of the mixture will be lower than the melting points of either of the example pure compounds.

Basing from the Education Essay table, the melting point of climax communities pure benzoic acid is 121 C but when mixed to X, it went down to 89 C. Likewise with O-toluic acid and m-aminophenol. Since the melting point of Drama Education mixture X with phenyl succinate has a melting point of 120 C, the melting point of pure X must be equal or closer to communities, 121. Mixing X with phenyl succinate did not change the melting point thus X must be phenyl succinate. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 8 May 2016.

Let us write you a custom essay sample on Drama Essay, Extraction and Evaporation Recrystallization. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.