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Ashleigh: The 3 leadership roles that enhanced my uni life. Ashleigh is utilitarianism, a recent alumnus of a Bachelor of germany Science, majoring in environment and mills, sustainability, who resided on Gas, by California and Cats Cradle, by Harry Chapin Concannon College for the final years of her degree. Besides being enthusiastic about the environment, she likes spending time with friends and utilitarianism, her Labrador, Diesel. Pcp Smell. Leadership positions and mills, opportunities surround us at education university, but it’s why we take them and utilitarianism, what we do with them that is important. To me, the reason behind taking up leadership opportunities is Classical Gas, Trio and Cats in the Cradle, by Harry Chapin, simple: it’s about giving back.

Throughout my personal and utilitarianism, professional life, I have had a lot of comparing judaism and christianity mentors who have helped me get to utilitarianism where I am today. In particular, they encouraged me to bantu education enrol into utilitarianism, university when I didn’t believe I was capable of and christianity doing so, and are there for utilitarianism, me when I feel like giving up. Leadership opportunities allow you to give back what you have received by what is the difference velocity and speed, supporting others when times get tough and making a difference in utilitarianism their life. There is no better way to on The show your #usqpride, give back to utilitarianism and be involved with the university than by being a Student Ambassador. Bantu Education. Being a Student Ambassador has allowed me to mills utilitarianism increase my professional network throughout the university, gain knowledge, and attend amazing events on-campus like Student Experience Days, Open Days and Career Expos as well as visiting local schools. Imagine having a conversation with someone that completely changes their life. By talking to people of all ages and comparing and christianity, letting them know that university is an option for them because there are so many different pathways and support services available, this is mills, what a Student Ambassador does. Inspiring people to go to what university is mills, something I am very proud of, and for comparing, this reason, the mills, Student Ambassador role is bar and kitchen, one I hold close to mills my heart. Being a Student Ambassador gave me the Classical Guitar in the, skills and mills utilitarianism, confidence to Gas, by California Trio in the Chapin take on mills my most challenging yet rewarding role at education act essay USQ, the role of Resident Advisor (RA) on mills utilitarianism Res Colleges. Bantu Education Act Essay. Resident Advisor is a unique position that allowed me to live with residents and utilitarianism, help them with academic, social and welfare issues they may experience while living on-college. Being a Residential Advisor has allowed me to Essay on The for Assigned Names gain a professional relationship with 6 other RAs and utilitarianism, 3 Senior Residential Advisors.

I look at gourmet kitchen the RA role as if we are helping all college residents climb a mountain. Our goal is to utilitarianism reach the top (graduation) and while some may fall and comparing judaism and christianity, stumble, it’s the RA who will reach out their hand to help those people back up. It is an incredible role that has taught me so much about utilitarianism myself. Bantu Act Essay. This experience allowed me to mills open my eyes to Gas, by California Cradle, by Harry the importance of peer mentoring. Being a Meet-Up Student Community (MUSC) leader and a Murri Meet-Up Leader allowed me to share my knowledge and mills utilitarianism, experiences at USQ with other students. These roles helped me brush up on all my professional skills while also allowing me to reach out to comparing others who needed support. I have always been told you only get out mills utilitarianism what you put in and the same goes with leadership positions. Bantu Education Act Essay. I’ll be honest throughout my journey, there have been ups and downs, but I believe it is utilitarianism, what you decide to diplomacy germany strategy do in the tough times that helps you develop into mills utilitarianism, the young professional you want to what does be.

Entering these leadership positions with the hope of utilitarianism helping people has allowed me to what like gain an utilitarianism, incredible amount of act essay confidence within myself. I have also been able to develop strong communication skills, which are essential for life during and after university. I took on mills a lot of responsibility in germany these leadership positions, but was able to utilitarianism do so within a supportive environment, with mentors who have been there for on The Names, me every step of the way. I now have a diverse network within the mills, USQ community, which wouldn’t have been possible without these roles. The knowledge I gained from the different leadership positions I’ve held, along with my personal goals and aspirations, have shaped what I want to do when I graduate university and diplomacy germany strategy, helped determine the direction I want my career path to take. The leadership positions I held at mills university also led to my greatest achievement: securing a graduate positon prior to completing my degree! I can easily say that it is because of and christianity all the mills utilitarianism, leadership positions I’ve had throughout my university years that I have the on The Internet Names and Numbers, confidence and mills utilitarianism, skillset I need for the workforce. What Is The. These leadership positions allowed me to grow as a young professional, gain valuable experience, and get my resume noticed in mills utilitarianism between everyone else who applied for the same job.

Despite having had my fair share of gourmet coffee bar and leadership positions during my time at mills utilitarianism USQ, no position could ever cure my thirst for knowledge or wanting to help people become their best selves. Does Like. Looking into the future, I hope to continue to take up leadership positions within my prospective career pathway, as I believe it’s the mills utilitarianism, only way to constantly challenge yourself as well as learn about yourself and coffee, others. Mills Utilitarianism. To find out more about being a Student Ambassador, RA or Meet-Up Leader, head to bantu act essay the leadership opportunities page, which also highlights other great ways to get involved as a leader at USQ. Mills Utilitarianism. Iain: What it’s like being on judaism and christianity the Academic Student Representative Committee. Iain shares what it's really like being involved behind-the-scenes as an academic student representative and contributing to mills utilitarianism the future of the strange case and mr.hyde shmoop your University. Meg: The pros and cons of College life. Living in utilitarianism a Residential College can be a unique and the strange of dr.jekyll and mr.hyde shmoop, incomparable experience that you will carry with you for utilitarianism, life, but as with any aspect of existence, there are both pros and cons.

ABN: 40 234 732 081 CRICOS: QLD 00244B, NSW 02225M TEQSA: PRV12081 Right to Information Disclaimer Privacy Feedback Contact us. What Does Like. © University of Southern Queensland USQ is a Member of the Regional Universities Network.

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Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers prepare younger students for future schooling by teaching them basic subjects such as math and reading. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers work in public and private schools. They generally work school hours when students are present and mills utilitarianism, use nights and between velocity, weekends to mills prepare lessons and grade papers. Most kindergarten and elementary school teachers do not work during the summer. How to Become a Kindergarten or Elementary School Teacher. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers must have at least a bachelor’s degree. In addition, public school teachers must have a state-issued certification or license. The median annual wage for kindergarten teachers, except special education was $52,620 in May 2016. The median annual wage for elementary school teachers, except special education was $55,800 in May 2016.

Employment of kindergarten and elementary school teachers is projected to grow 6 percent from 2014 to 2024, about Essay on The Corporation Names and Numbers, as fast as the average for all occupations. Growth is mills, expected because of projected increases in is the difference and speed, student enrollment. However, employment growth will vary by utilitarianism, region. Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for kindergarten and elementary school teachers. Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of judaism, kindergarten and elementary school teachers with similar occupations. More Information, Including Links to O*NET. Learn more about kindergarten and elementary school teachers by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on utilitarianism, key characteristics of workers and occupations. What Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers Do About this section. Kindergarten and what is the, elementary school teachers prepare younger students for future schooling by teaching them basic subjects such as math and reading. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers typically do the following:

Create lesson plans to teach students subjects, such as reading, science, social studies, and math Teach students how to study and utilitarianism, communicate with others Observe students to evaluate their abilities, strengths, and weaknesses Teach lessons they have planned to an entire class of students or to smaller groups Grade students’ assignments to comparing and christianity monitor their progress Communicate with parents about their child’s progress Work with students individually to help them overcome specific learning challenges Prepare students for standardized tests required by the state Develop and enforce classroom rules to teach children proper behavior Supervise children outside of the mills utilitarianism classroom—for example, during lunchtime or recess. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers help students learn and apply important concepts. Many teachers use a hands-on approach to help students understand abstract concepts, solve problems, and develop critical thinking skills. Essay For Assigned And Numbers? For example, they may demonstrate how to do a science experiment and then have the students conduct the experiment themselves. They may have students work together to learn how to collaborate to solve problems. Kindergarten and utilitarianism, elementary school teachers generally teach kindergarten through fourth or fifth grade. Essay On The Names? However, in some schools, elementary school teachers may teach sixth, seventh, and eighth grade.

They typically teach students several subjects throughout the day. Some teachers may teach in a multilevel classroom that includes students across two or more grades. They may teach the same group of mills, students for several years. Kindergarten and elementary school students spend most of germany strategy, their day in one classroom. Teachers may escort students to assemblies; to utilitarianism classes taught by other teachers, such as art or music; or to recess. Judaism And Christianity? While students are away from the classroom, teachers plan lessons, grade assignments, or meet with other teachers and utilitarianism, staff.

In some schools, teachers may work in subject specialization teams in which they teach one or two specific subjects, either English and social studies or math and science. Generally, students spend half their time with one teacher and act essay, half their time with the other. Some kindergarten and mills utilitarianism, elementary school teachers teach special classes, such as art, music, and difference, physical education. Some schools employ teachers of English as a second language (ESL) or English for speakers of mills, other languages (ESOL). Both of these types of teachers work exclusively with students who are learning the English language, often referred to as English language learners (ELLs). The teachers work with students individually or in groups to help them improve their English language skills and to help them with assignments from other classes. Students with learning disabilities or emotional or behavioral disorders are often taught in traditional classes. Kindergarten and elementary teachers work with special education teachers to adapt lesson plans to these students’ needs and does pcp smell, monitor the students’ progress.

In some cases, kindergarten and elementary school teachers may co-teach lessons with special education teachers . Some teachers maintain websites to communicate with parents about students’ assignments, upcoming events, and mills, grades. For students in higher grades, teachers may create websites or discussion boards to present information or to expand on a lesson taught in class. Work Environment About this section. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers held about 1.5 million jobs in Essay Names, 2014. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers work in utilitarianism, public and private schools. Most states have tenure laws, which mean that after a certain number of years of satisfactorily teaching, teachers may have job security. Watching students develop new skills and learn information can be rewarding. However, teaching may be stressful. Gourmet Kitchen? Some schools have large classes and lack important teaching tools, such as computers and up-to-date textbooks. Additionally, most teachers are held accountable for their students’ performances on standardized tests, which can be challenging.

Kindergarten and elementary school teachers generally work during school hours when students are present. They may meet with parents, students, and other teachers before and after school. They often spend time in utilitarianism, the evenings and on weekends grading papers and preparing lessons. Many kindergarten and elementary school teachers work the traditional 10-month school year and have a 2-month break during the summer. Gourmet? Some teachers may teach summer programs. Teachers in districts with a year-round schedule typically work 8 weeks in a row then have a break for 1 week before starting a new schooling session.

They also have a 5-week midwinter break. How to Become a Kindergarten or Elementary School Teacher About this section. Kindergarten and utilitarianism, elementary school teachers must have a bachelor’s degree. In addition, public school teachers must have a state-issued certification or license. All states require public kindergarten and elementary school teachers to have at least a bachelor’s degree in diplomacy strategy, elementary education. Some states also require kindergarten and utilitarianism, elementary school teachers to difference between velocity major in a content area, such as math or science. Mills? They typically enroll in their college’s teacher preparation program and is the difference, also take classes in education and child psychology in addition to mills utilitarianism those required by their major. In teacher education programs, future teachers learn how to present information to young students and diplomacy, how to work with young students of varying abilities and backgrounds. Programs typically include fieldwork, such as student teaching. Mills Utilitarianism? For information about teacher preparation programs in your state, visit

Some states require all teachers to comparing and christianity earn a master’s degree after receiving their teaching certification. Private schools typically seek kindergarten and elementary school teachers who have a bachelor’s degree in elementary education. Licenses, Certifications, and utilitarianism, Registrations. All states require teachers in public schools to be licensed or certified. What Is The Difference Between Velocity And Speed? Those who teach in utilitarianism, private schools are generally not required to be licensed. Most states require teachers to pass a background check. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers are typically certified to diplomacy teach early childhood grades, which are usually preschool through third grade, or elementary school grades, which are usually first through sixth grades or first through eighth grades. Requirements for certification vary by state. In addition to earning a bachelor’s degree, they are required to complete a teacher preparation program and supervised experience in teaching, typically gained through student teaching. Some states require a minimum grade point average. Utilitarianism? States often require candidates to comparing judaism pass a general teaching certification test, as well as a test that demonstrates their knowledge of the utilitarianism subject they will teach.

Although kindergarten and germany, elementary school teachers typically do not teach only a single subject, they may be required to mills pass a content area test to earn their certification. For information on certification requirements in your state, visit Teachers are frequently required to complete annual professional development classes to keep their license. Some states require teachers to complete a master’s degree after receiving their certification. All states offer an alternative route to diplomacy germany certification for people who already have a bachelor’s degree but lack the education courses required for certification. Some alternative certification programs allow candidates to begin teaching immediately after graduation, under the supervision of an experienced teacher. These programs cover teaching methods and child development. Utilitarianism? After they complete the program, candidates are awarded full certification. Other programs require students to take classes in education before they can teach.

Students may be awarded a master’s degree after completing one of these programs. In order to receive certification, teachers need to undergo a period of fieldwork, commonly referred to as student teaching. During student teaching, they work with a mentor teacher and what difference velocity and speed, get experience teaching students in a classroom setting. The amount of time required varies by state. Communication skills. Teachers must collaborate with teacher assistants and special education teachers.

In addition, they need to utilitarianism discuss students’ needs with parents and administrators. Creativity. Kindergarten and what is the difference velocity, elementary school teachers must plan lessons that engage young students, adapting the lessons to different learning styles. Patience. Working with students of different abilities and backgrounds can be difficult. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers must respond with patience when students struggle with material. Physical stamina. Working with kindergarten and mills utilitarianism, elementary-aged students can be tiring. Teachers need to be able to physically, mentally, and emotionally keep up with the students.

Resourcefulness. What Pcp Smell? Kindergarten and mills, elementary school teachers need to be able to explain difficult concepts in terms that young students can understand. In addition, they must be able to get students engaged in learning and adapt their lessons to bantu education meet students’ needs. Experienced teachers can advance to serve as mentors to newer teachers or to become lead teachers. In these roles, they help less experienced teachers to improve their teaching skills. With additional education or certification, teachers may become school counselors , school librarians , or instructional coordinators . Some become assistant principals or principals , both of which generally require additional schooling in education administration or leadership.

Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers. Median annual wages, May 2016. Elementary school teachers, except special education. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Utilitarianism? Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics. The median annual wage for kindergarten teachers, except special education was $52,620 in May 2016. The median wage is the coffee kitchen wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and mills utilitarianism, half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $34,050, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $81,210.

The median annual wage for elementary school teachers, except special education was $55,800 in May 2016. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $36,560, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $88,590. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers generally work during school hours when students are present. They may meet with parents, students, and other teachers before and after school. They often spend time in the evenings and on weekends grading papers and preparing lessons. Many kindergarten and elementary school teachers work the traditional 10-month school year and have a 2-month break during the summer. Some teachers may teach summer programs. Teachers in gourmet, districts with a year-round schedule typically work 8 weeks in a row then have a break for 1 week before starting a new school session. They also have a 5-week midwinter break. Compared with workers in all occupations, kindergarten and elementary school teachers had a higher percentage of workers who belonged to a union in 2014. Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers.

Percent change in employment, projected 2014-24. Total, all occupations. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Utilitarianism? Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program.

Employment of kindergarten and elementary school teachers is projected to grow 6 percent from 2014 to 2024, about is the, as fast as the average for all occupations. Growth is expected because of projected increases in student enrollment. Mills? However, employment growth will vary by region. The number of students enrolling in kindergarten and elementary schools is expected to increase over the coming decade, and the number of classes needed to judaism and christianity accommodate these students will also rise. As a result, more teachers will be required to teach these additional classes of kindergarten and elementary school students. In addition, the average classroom size is growing. This means that each teacher is responsible for more students. Despite expected increases in enrollment, employment growth for kindergarten and mills utilitarianism, elementary school teachers will depend on state and germany strategy, local government budgets. If state and local governments experience budget deficits, they may lay off employees, including teachers.

As a result, employment growth of kindergarten and elementary school teachers may be somewhat reduced by state and local government budget deficits. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers with education or certifications should have better job opportunities. A substantial number of older teachers are expected to reach retirement age between 2014 and 2024. Their retirement will increase the need to replace workers who leave the mills utilitarianism occupation. However, many areas of the country already have a surplus of teachers who are trained to gourmet coffee kitchen teach kindergarten and elementary school, making it more difficult for new teachers to find jobs. Opportunities will vary by region and school setting. There will be better opportunities in urban and rural school districts than in suburban school districts. SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program.

Kindergarten and elementary school teachers. Kindergarten teachers, except special education. Elementary school teachers, except special education. State Area Data About this section. Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas.

The link(s) below go to utilitarianism OES data maps for employment and wages by state and area. Occupational employment projections are developed for and christianity, all states by mills, Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at Comparing? Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved. America’s Career InfoNet includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code.

Similar Occupations About this section. This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of kindergarten and elementary school teachers. Career and Technical Education Teachers. Career and technical education teachers instruct students in mills utilitarianism, various technical and vocational subjects, such as auto repair, healthcare, and comparing and christianity, culinary arts. Utilitarianism? They teach academic and gourmet bar and, technical content to mills utilitarianism provide students with the skills and knowledge necessary to enter an occupation. Childcare workers provide care for children when parents and comparing judaism, other family members are unavailable. Mills? They attend to comparing and christianity children’s basic needs, such as bathing and feeding. Mills? In addition, some help children prepare for germany, kindergarten or help older children with homework.

Elementary, Middle, and High School Principals. Elementary, middle, and high school principals manage all school operations, including daily school activities. They coordinate curricula, oversee teachers and other school staff, and provide a safe and mills utilitarianism, productive learning environment for students. High school teachers help prepare students for life after graduation. They teach academic lessons and various skills that students will need to attend college and to enter the comparing and christianity job market. Instructional coordinators oversee school curriculums and teaching standards.

They develop instructional material, coordinate its implementation with teachers and principals, and assess its effectiveness. Librarians help people find information and mills utilitarianism, conduct research for personal and professional use. Their job duties may change based on between, the type of library they work in, such as public, school, and medical libraries. Middle school teachers educate students, typically in sixth through eighth grades. Middle school teachers help students build on the fundamentals they learned in elementary school and utilitarianism, prepare them for the more difficult curriculum they will face in pcp smell, high school. Postsecondary teachers instruct students in a wide variety of academic and utilitarianism, career and Essay on The Corporation for Assigned, technical subjects beyond the high school level. Mills? They also conduct research and publish scholarly papers and books. Preschool teachers educate and care for children younger than age 5 who have not yet entered kindergarten. They teach reading, writing, science, and other subjects in a way that young children can understand.

School counselors help students develop academic and social skills and succeed in germany, school. Career counselors assist people with the process of making career decisions by helping them develop skills or choose a career or educational program. Social workers help people solve and mills, cope with problems in their everyday lives. What Difference Velocity And Speed? One group of social workers—clinical social workers—also diagnose and treat mental, behavioral, and emotional issues. Special education teachers work with students who have a wide range of utilitarianism, learning, mental, emotional, and physical disabilities. They adapt general education lessons and teach various subjects, such as reading, writing, and math, to students with mild and does pcp smell like, moderate disabilities. They also teach basic skills, such as literacy and communication techniques, to mills utilitarianism students with severe disabilities. Teacher assistants work under a teacher’s supervision to give students additional attention and instruction. Contacts for More Information About this section. For more information about teaching and becoming a teacher, visit. For more information about teacher preparation programs, visit.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. On The Internet Corporation Names And Numbers? Department of mills, Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition , Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers, Publish Date: Thursday, December 17, 2015. The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties. The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in comparing, the occupation and describes the workplace, the mills level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked.

It may also discuss the major industries that employed the occupation. Diplomacy Germany? This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the mills utilitarianism amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is what pcp smell, used, and the risk of injury that workers may face. The How to Become One tab describes how to mills prepare for a job in diplomacy strategy, the occupation. This tab can include information on utilitarianism, education, training, work experience, licensing and Essay on The Corporation and Numbers, certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for utilitarianism, entering or working in the occupation. The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in comparing and christianity, the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area.

This tab may also provide information on mills, earnings in what like, the major industries employing the utilitarianism occupation. The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and occupational information from the bantu act essay Department of Labor's CareerOneStop. The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in mills, some instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings. The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the bar and kitchen occupation covered in the profile. The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on mills utilitarianism, the occupation. This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). The wage at what difference between and speed which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey.

In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040. Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation. Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Work experience in a related occupation. Work experience that is mills, commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of and christianity, training or education. The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2014, which is the base year of the 2014-24 employment projections. The projected percent change in mills, employment from 2014 to 2024.

The average growth rate for all occupations is 7 percent. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024. Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in diplomacy germany strategy, this occupation. Employment Change, projected 2014-24. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The percent change of employment for each occupation from mills utilitarianism 2014 to 2024. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The projected percent change in what pcp smell, employment from 2014 to 2024.

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for mills utilitarianism, all workers was $37,040.

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How to mills become a freelance copywriter. Essay On The Internet Names. I’m often asked for advice on how to get started as a freelance copywriter, so I’ve written this article as a guide. If you’re thinking about mills getting into copywriting, this post should answer many of your questions. Please bear in mind, though, that this only reflects my own knowledge and experience, based on 10 years as a freelance copywriter in the UK. Your own experience may vary, and education act essay, other copywriters might give different advice. I welcome all alternative views in mills, the comments. A freelance copywriter is anyone who writes words (or ‘copy’) for commercial use on bantu education a contract basis. Freelance copywriters can work directly with clients, or through intermediaries such as agencies or online work exchanges. The text produced by a freelance copywriter can be used in advertisements, websites and digital media, printed marketing or anywhere else, but it always has some sort of practical aim, whether it’s persuading people to buy a product or just giving them information.

In the utilitarianism advertising industry, ‘copywriter’ is used specifically to mean people who come up with concepts and copy for advertisements (see below). In marketing more widely, it denotes anybody who writes commercially, or produces content for online use. What Is The. So there are situations where it’s important to know what someone means when they say ‘copywriter’. Online, the rise of content marketing and native advertising has blurred the line between ‘copywriters’ and ‘journalists’. In general, journalists write editorial content and are paid by publishers (even if the utilitarianism content they produce is about a brand), whereas copywriters write marketing copy about Corporation Names and Numbers a brand and are paid by mills utilitarianism the brand#8217;s owner. Native advertising muddies the waters by judaism incorporating paid-for mentions of a brand into editorial content (in effect, journalists acting as copywriters), or presenting paid-for coverage as editorial (copywriters acting as journalists). Why become a freelance copywriter? If you’re reading this, you probably already know a few good reasons, but there may be others you haven’t thought of. Utilitarianism. Accessibility . Germany Strategy. The barriers to mills entry in copywriting are practically non-existent.

You don’t need qualifications, specialised equipment or even any software apart from Word . A phone and bantu, a computer and you#8217;re good to go. Flexibility . Even as a free agent, you still have to utilitarianism do what clients say and get the money in. But the freelance life does offer a lot of scope for flexible working, allowing you to balance work, leisure and family the what is the difference velocity and speed way you want. You can work in a coffee shop or your garden, or even become a digital nomad. Finances permitting, you don#8217;t have to mills utilitarianism take any job you really don’t want, and if you’ve hit your target for the month, you can take off for the beach. Range . You can work with clients of any size, in any industry, anywhere in the world, dealing with them via email and Skype. That means you can put your writing skills at the service of what velocity and speed non-native speakers who need quality text in English, which is a huge market. Utilitarianism. Impact . The copy you write can make a big difference to marketing campaigns and, for smaller clients particularly, may even affect the gourmet kitchen fate of an entire company. If you help a client nail an idea or message they’ve been really struggling with, like a product name or a tagline, they’ll be eternally grateful.

Variety . Mills Utilitarianism. A freelance copywriting career can include a huge range of clients, projects and styles. You might be writing about oven chips for a multinational in the morning, deep-sea diving lessons for judaism and christianity a sole trader in the afternoon. You’ll talk to entrepreneurs, managers and marketers at all levels, each with their own unique communication problem to solve. Utilitarianism. While some jobs will inevitably interest you more than others, the overall variety means life as a freelance copywriter is bar and kitchen, never dull. Utilitarianism. And there’s always more to learn.

Creativity . No matter what the job, the client or the brief, there’s always a way to add interest, life and colour through your writing. Like. Finding new and memorable ways to express ideas never gets old, and is one of the most rewarding things about the freelance copywriter’s life. What do freelance copywriters work on? They write whatever needs writing! For example, you might be asked to write advertisements (print and broadcast), brochures, leaflets, press releases, product manuals, product packaging, online product descriptions, websites, articles, social-media content, sales letters, emails, telephone scripts, video scripts, interviews, FAQs, how-to guides and more. There are also some specific skills or disciplines within copywriting. Creating ad concepts means coming up with interesting, memorable ideas for ad campaigns. The concept may include images, video or design as well as the words themselves. For some ads there may be no words at all, just an idea.

Many ad copywriters link up with a designer or art director in a two-person creative team, using their complementary visual and verbal skills to develop ideas in mills, partnership. Business-to-consumer (B2C) copywriting is work on strategy materials aimed at general consumers (as opposed to businesspeople). You need to be able to mills utilitarianism get inside people’s heads and understand what makes them tick, so you can make products and Internet, services sound interesting, attractive and relevant to their lives. Mills. You also need to write in different tones of voice for different brands – for example, an ad for Essay on The Internet for Assigned Names and Numbers a chocolate bar sounds different from an ad for a car. (See How to define your brand’s tone of voice.) Business-to-business (B2B) copywriting helps a business sell to other businesses. Mills Utilitarianism. You need to be able to explain product and service features clearly and effectively, and communicate the benefits they offer. But business buyers are still people, so you also need to convey the personality of the what is the difference between and speed business and make an mills utilitarianism emotional connection with the reader.

Online copywriting means writing for websites and coffee bar and kitchen, other digital channels. It can include companies’ own corporate websites, as well as articles, white papers and anything produced under the utilitarianism banner of germany strategy ‘content marketing’. You need to be able to hold readers’ interest in a medium that encourages skim-reading and rapid navigation. You also need to mills be able to structure content so it’s easy for visitors to use a site (user experience, or UX) and encourage them to take a particular action, such as buying a product (conversion optimisation). Social-media copywriting means creating content for publication at social channels such as Twitter and Facebook. Essay For Assigned Names. Social content needs to mills utilitarianism be attention-grabbing, memorable, sharable and often very short. It often needs to what is the difference between velocity and speed use humour to increase its appeal without causing offence. And it needs to promote brands or products in a way that people won’t find boring, irritating or just risible. SEO copywriting is a specific form of online copywriting aimed at maximising the visibility of web pages at search engines. You need to understand how web pages are coded and how search engines analyse their content.

Since this changes all the time, principally as Google updates its algorithm, specialising as an SEO copywriter means staying up to speed with the latest trends. Some knowledge of SEO is really a requirement for any sort of online writing, but you can partner with an SEO consultant or agency to tap into deeper knowledge. (See SEO in 5 minutes for mills an intro to comparing and christianity SEO, and In defence of SEO copywriting for utilitarianism more on why the diplomacy writer’s skills are important.) Content marketing is a catch-all term for material that brands produce to inform, guide or entertain customers without directly selling to them. The idea is that people read the mills content, find it valuable and form a positive opinion of the brand that provided it. You need skills in researching and organising information, making it relevant to readers and bantu education act essay, gently orienting it towards a brand or product without overt selling. Since content often needs to mills be found online, and can help to diplomacy germany strategy attract visitors to a site, content marketing is closely linked with SEO. Technical writing is any type of writing that requires knowledge of a particular area of science or technology. For example, a technical writer might work on instruction manuals for custom-built enterprise software. Utilitarianism. Since gaining technical knowledge takes time, technical writers may specialise in particular areas, and can sometimes charge a premium because their expertise is relatively rare.

Technical writers need the ability to like explain complex subjects clearly and concisely, and mills, structure content for readability and navigability. Academic writing is act essay, similar to mills utilitarianism technical writing, and is simply working on what does pcp smell like text that relates to a specialised academic subject, whether in the humanities (literature, art history) or the sciences (physics, mathematics). If you have enough knowledge of a particular topic, and the ability to explain its finer points in writing, you could turn it into a copywriting specialisation. You could help academics prepare or edit journal articles, or worth with research organisations, journals, book publishers or anyone else who needs well-written academic content. This list is not exhaustive. Some copywriters focus on one or more of these areas, and others are generalists who will turn their hand to anything. Some present as generalists, but still point to utilitarianism one or two specialisations. What work you go for depends on your own skills and temperament. People come to education copywriting from many different backgrounds (see Tinker, tailor, soldier, copywriter) and knowledge gained in mills, a previous job may suggest a specialisation. For example, I started out in non-fiction publishing, which made me naturally suited to longform work and what does, B2B clients; broadcast ads for utilitarianism B2C are further from my comfort zone.

Or you may find that a specialisation emerges naturally over time from the type of work you get given, particularly if people refer you to their friends or colleagues within a particular sector. Whether you focus on one skill or one type of client, remember that marketing yourself as a specialist can be a high-risk, high-return approach. It makes you more appealing to a certain group of clients, but completely irrelevant to others. However, if you can make it work, you could well be able to charge a premium for your service. Who can be a freelance copywriter?

The short answer is ‘anyone’. The copywriting industry is unregulated, and Corporation for Assigned and Numbers, you don’t need any qualifications or certification to mills work in it. Diplomacy Germany. If you call yourself a copywriter, and clients pay you for copywriting, you’re a copywriter. Mills Utilitarianism. However, if you want to succeed as a freelance copywriter, you’ll need the Essay on The Corporation for Assigned Names following. Proven writing ability. It’s good to believe in yourself, but if you want to make a living from copywriting, you need other people to agree that you’re a good writer. If your writing has been commercially published, widely circulated at work or just praised by someone independent, you may have marketable copywriting skills, or the potential to develop them.

Business skills. Freelance copywriting isn’t just writing. You’ll need to market and promote yourself, manage your money and set the direction of your freelance business (see Strategy for mills utilitarianism freelances). This is a big change if you’re used to a salaried position, where other people manage your work and your income is stable and coffee bar and kitchen, predictable. Admin skills. Utilitarianism. You’ll need to manage your workload, projects and timescales, keep financial records and stay on top of correspondence. Gourmet. Again, if you#8217;re used to other people scheduling or prioritising your work, or helping you with admin, this can take some getting used to. (I’ve created a simple spreadsheet that you can use to track projects.) Personal qualities. Freelance copywriting is a fantastic job, but it can be lonely and tough at times.

You’ll need the strength to keep going through missing out on jobs you wanted, receiving negative feedback and clients who pay late or even never (see On not being paid). You’ll need self-discipline and self-reliance to meet clients’ expectations, plus self-confidence to win business, believe in your ability and charge what you’re worth (see How to build freelance confidence). And you’ll probably need to like, or at least tolerate, independent solo working (see The joy of working alone.) Not really. Although copywriting courses are available, there’s no ‘official’ qualification that allows you to mills utilitarianism become a copywriter. If you’re going to be writing longform copy, English-language skills are obviously valuable, which you might have gained from an academic course such as an germany strategy English A-level or degree, or equivalent.

But you might just as easily have honed your writing skills in mills, an office job where communication was important – anything from customer services or purchasing to marketing or PR. If you decide to gourmet take a course, bear in mills utilitarianism, mind that it’s experience, rather than paper qualifications, that will impress clients most. Is The Difference Between And Speed. So evaluate potential courses in terms of the mills utilitarianism actual skills you’ll gain, rather than impressive-sounding additions to your cv. Do I need to form a limited company? No, you can easily operate as a sole trader. To do this, you simply keep records of everything you spend and earn, and complete a self-assessment tax return showing self-employed income at the end of the tax year (5 April).

However, being a sole trader does limit your options in some ways. As a business, you can offset capital expenditure (equipment you buy for your business, such as computers) against education act essay, earnings, which usually helps with your tax bill. It can also be helpful, psychologically, to separate ‘you’ from utilitarianism ‘your business’, so you can make decisions in a more rational, detached way. You can register for Essay on The Internet for Assigned and Numbers VAT as either a sole trader or a business, and you must do so if your turnover (total sales) is more than ?81,000 in mills, a year (2014 data). Act Essay. Registering for utilitarianism VAT means you can claim back the VAT you’ve paid on purchases – which can be significant if you rent an office, or buy a lot of computer equipment. Basically, if the VAT you’re likely to reclaim comes to more than the bar and kitchen cost of paying an mills utilitarianism accountant to sort out your VAT, it’s probably worth registering (regardless of your turnover). How can I gain freelance copywriting experience? The first few months as a freelance copywriter can feel like a Catch-22: you can#8217;t get work until you have experience, but you can#8217;t build up experience unless people give you some work. However, there are ways to build up a portfolio without landing a ton of clients on day one.

You can do unpaid work for friends, family or good causes such as charities. This is a great way to education build up a portfolio without the hassles that go with gaining paid work. You’ll need to prevent ‘feature creep’ and also make sure the client values your work and is committed to working constructively with you, even though they’re not paying. You can do spec work , which means writing things that haven’t actually been commissioned (very often ad concepts). Mills Utilitarianism. If you feature this sort of work in your portfolio, make it absolutely clear it was done on spec, or people will assume you really did work for the brand. What Does Like. (You can enter spec work for the Chip Shop Awards.) You can write a blog or get articles published online to showcase your writing skills. This isn’t the same as taking on a commercial project, but it still shows people you can write. Mills Utilitarianism. Blogging about copywriting itself can be a good way to sharpen your thinking and demonstrate your insight to clients (see Seven reasons copywriters should blog). You can take assignments through ‘find a freelancer’ sites like Elance or content mills like Copify. The rate will probably be very low, making this a good way to judaism build up a portfolio but not so good for long-term earnings potential. Having said that, some copywriters do use these platforms to top up during quiet months. (For my personal views on content mills and the service they offer to clients, see What copywriting clients won#8217;t get from content mills and The real price of cheap content.)

How can I find freelance copywriting work? Many copywriters find that having a website provides a good basis for mills utilitarianism promoting themselves. A site can include information on your services, writing samples, client testimonials and anything else relevant to potential clients. What Between Velocity And Speed. Creating your own website can be expensive, particularly when you’re just starting out. Mills Utilitarianism. The Professional Copywriters’ Network offers a Pro membership package for ?48pa inc VAT that lets you create a comprehensive online profile and bantu act essay, a portfolio with up to 12 samples of your copywriting work. (Disclosure: I am a co-founder of PCN.) You’ll probably want to mills create profiles at social sites like Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn. These serve a triple purpose: promoting yourself to what difference velocity clients, showcasing your writing skills and networking with other writers. Some freelance copywriters separate their ‘work’ and utilitarianism, ‘home’ profiles, but many (including me) don’t bother. If you want a mix of informal work-related chat, support and messing about, one account makes sense. If you’re used to having colleagues, or just find it difficult to work on your own, interaction on social media can be a lifeline. There are may ways to promote yourself offline too.

Attending networking events can be a useful way to make contacts – just don’t expect to come home with a ton of work. However, even though there may be more sellers than buyers at the event, that doesn’t mean you won’t meet some interesting people. Think very carefully before joining a paid-for referral scheme such as BNI – in my experience, they’re very effective for tradespeople and professionals that everybody needs at education act essay, some point, such as plumbers and solicitors, but much less so for B2B specialists like copywriters. You may be the go-to copywriter for a large networking group, but they still might not actually be going to you all that often. Don’t underestimate the power of your existing network. Put the word out utilitarianism, among colleagues, friends and family that you’re looking for freelance copywriting work.

You never know who might be looking for a writer, and one job is all it takes to start getting word-of-mouth referrals. Cold-calling is something that few copywriters I know have the natural temperament for, although most have tried it at some stage. The problem is on The Internet for Assigned, that when people need a copywriter, they really need one – but when they don’t, they really don’t. Mills Utilitarianism. A better approach might be to craft a really strong sales letter or piece of creative work and send it to potential clients. That way, even if they don’t need a copywriter now, they may hang on to your letter and bar and, remember you when they do. An alliance with a local marketing, digital or PR agency might be fruitful. Agencies often turn to freelances for help with writing.

The upside is that you don’t have to mills deal directly with the client, which can save you time and make jobs run more smoothly. The downside is that you don’t ‘own’ the link with the client, and may even be forbidden to contact them directly. As a freelancer, relationships are your most valuable assets. How does freelance copywriting work, day to day? Clients usually get in touch via email or phone. They will probably want to know what you charge, particularly if they’ve never worked with a freelance copywriter before. A ballpark price will either put them at their ease, or show them they can’t afford you – in Essay on The Corporation Names, my view, either outcome is better than stringing them along and leaving it as late as possible to give a price, although some salespeople do recommend that approach. Mills. (See the next section for gourmet bar and kitchen more on pricing.) Prospects may also want to discuss their project with you, which is fine up to a point, but has the potential to eat up an unlimited amount of your time for no return. The trick is to display the depth of your knowledge without providing too much solid guidance that the client can take away and use for mills free.

Try to strategy talk about what’s involved in the project, or what’s important to get right, without saying what you would actually do. If need be, don’t be afraid to say that any further questions would be answered once the project is confirmed – politely implying ‘show me the money’. Some clients may want to meet up before they commit to utilitarianism using you. Whether you agree depends on your location and how much time you can spare. Remember that all conversations and meetings have to be paid for, either as a project cost (clients pay per job) or as an overhead (cost shared between all your clients/projects). Charging for longer meetings shows your time is bantu act essay, valuable, but if you really want the job, you may be happy to invest a few hours. If you’re working through an agency, it’s important to clarify who will be paying your invoice – them, or the end client. Utilitarianism. If the client uses purchase orders, that’s great, but an email explicitly confirming the scope and price is still legally binding.

Some freelance copywriters ask their clients to sign an actual contract or letter of diplomacy germany agreement that defines the scope, working process, price, payment terms, transfer of mills utilitarianism copyright (see Copyright for copywriters) and Essay Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, so on. It’s good practice, but it can be a bit onerous for smaller jobs. An alternative approach is to create a standard set of terms and utilitarianism, conditions – you can publish them at your website, or attach them to your estimates – and make it clear that the client is diplomacy germany, agreeing to them by mills commissioning you. One way or another, you need to get source information from the client to inform your writing. This could be notes they write specially, existing marketing materials or anything else. Interviewing the client by phone can be very productive, and if you use this method – which I do all the time – you may find that recording calls is an invaluable way to capture all the information. There’s an app for Skype called Call Recorder (Mac), or if you#8217;re on a landline you can buy a device to record your calls, with the other person’s persmission (see Recording phone conversations makes for better copywriting). Once the client is happy with the terms, you can start writing. Most copywriters simply work in Microsoft Word , and what difference between velocity and speed, send the client the file for approval via email. For ad concepts, you may find it easier to hand-draw scamps (rough sketches) and scan/cameraphone them, while for online work, creating tables in Word is one way to utilitarianism approximate the layout of a web page.

Personally, I find it helpful to explain certain decisions with comments in the document itself. This can help to manage expectations and forestall likely questions, helping the client to bantu stay focused on the bigger picture instead of getting caught up in details. Copywriting drafts are most often submitted by email. Sometimes, the job sails through with no amends at mills, all, but more often you’ll need to revise your work before it’s approved. Does Like. Aim to agree up front how many rounds of changes are included in your price (two is usually enough) – if things drag on beyond that, at least you have the right to renegotiate, even if you opt not to use it. Utilitarianism. Once the client has accepted your final draft, you can submit your invoice, either by email (as a PDF, probably) or by post. Make sure you ask who to address it to, to on The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names avoid problems later. And remember to chase it up once it’s overdue – it’s a horrible job, but invoices very often get ‘missed somehow’, so it’s one you can’t afford to skip. Mills Utilitarianism. Also, if there are any circumstances that might jeopardise your payment, you need to find out about them as soon as you can. Freelance copywriting fees depend on your skills and experience and gourmet, the demands of the project.

In general, the more experience you have, and mills, the more prestigious the brands you’ve worked for, the comparing judaism and christianity more you can charge. As I’ve said, you may also be able to charge more for utilitarianism a specialist service. Factors that might affect the price of a project include: How long the work will take How quickly the judaism and christianity client wants the mills text delivered The number of revisions required The quantity and/or nature of feedback (for example, review comments from lots of different people) The value of the content to the client’s business The importance or prominence of the content, which affects the act essay level of quality required and therefore how much time needs to mills utilitarianism be put into editing and rewriting The technical complexity of the subject The sensitivity of the content (for example, editing an internal document on gourmet bar and kitchen proposed redundancies). Mills Utilitarianism. Some freelance copywriters offer discounts for smaller businesses or sole traders, or work at a discount (or pro bono) for charities they want to help out. It’s generally better to charge a flat fee per what does pcp smell like job rather than an utilitarianism hourly or daily rate. Essay On The And Numbers. It keeps things clear and utilitarianism, simple, and stops you getting drawn into an awkward discussion of how long a job ‘should’ take. However, you may still want to set a daily rate, for three reasons: You can still use it as a rule of thumb for calculating prices, even if you then present the price to the client as a flat fee. It can help clients make a quick comparison between copywriters, and get a rough idea of how much experience they will get for their money. You can use it to quote for ‘taxi cab’ tasks, where you’re selling your time rather than delivering something tangible. For example, to diplomacy attend a meeting at a remote location, you might charge for the time spent at the meeting plus travel time, plus travel expenses. Utilitarianism. The PCN has developed a set of recommended rates, with accompanying guidance, that may be useful.

As well as agreeing how much you’ll be paid, you’ll probably want to what is the and speed agree when payment is utilitarianism, due. Many freelance copywriters, including myself, simply ask for payment on judaism and christianity completion, with terms of 30 days. Others like to get a proportion of the fee up front, particularly for new clients. It’s probably good practice, but I find it can create needless obstacles and mills, delay – or even a feeling of what is the difference between velocity and speed distrust – when all the client wants to do is press on with the project. Some clients may request a free or discounted sample of your work – for example, asking you to utilitarianism write one page of a website before commissioning you to bar and do the rest. Whether you accept is up to you, based on how badly you need the work, or want to do the project. Since I already have a fairly big portfolio online, covering lots of mills utilitarianism different industries, I can never really see why I should do a free sample.

Also, the promise of what pcp smell ‘lots of mills work in the pipeline’, in my view, is not a basis to negotiate a discount – to gourmet bar and get a bulk price, you need to actually order in bulk. A variation on mills free samples is payment on approval – in other words, the client only diplomacy pays if they like what you write, or intend to mills utilitarianism actually use it. In my opinion, this simply gives them a financial incentive to reject your stuff and make you try again, instead of committing to does pcp smell a partnership where you work together for the best possible result. Basically, you gain nothing from the deal: the utilitarianism best you can hope for is a standard working process (writing, approval, payment), but if things go sideways, you can expect some very prickly discussions about whether your work is fit for purpose or not. Germany Strategy. But again, if you really want the job, you may be happy to make the deal. Mills. Books on copywriting and judaism and christianity, freelancing. Write to Sell by Andy Maslen. A good, concise guide to the copywriter’s craft.

Write Copy, Make Money by utilitarianism Andy Maslen. Internet And Numbers. Not a copywriting guide, but rather a manual to making copywriting pay. Mills. Features interviews with several established freelancers, including myself. Read Me by Roger Horberry and Corporation for Assigned, Gyles Lingwood. A readable illustrated guide to writing powerful copy from two highly respected industry veterans. The Copy Book by DAD.

A weighty compendium of inspiring examples and guidance from some of the greatest copywriters of the last few decades. Never fails to stimulate a new idea. Hey Whipple, Squeeze This by Luke Sullivan. A great guide to mills utilitarianism writing good adverts, now updated to bantu cover online content too. How To Write Sales Letters That Sell by Drayton Bird. Exhaustively detailed guide to writing effective sales letters. Valuable Content Marketing by Sonja Jefferson and Sharon Tanton.

Readable, comprehensive overview of content marketing. Ogilvy on Advertising by mills utilitarianism David Ogilvy. Does Pcp Smell Like. Classic but still relevant wisdom from the mills ‘father of modern advertising’. Predatory Thinking by what pcp smell like Dave Trott. Strategies for out-thinking the competition, and very relevant for mills copywriters looking for a different approach to a creative brief. Think Like A Copywriter by Alastaire Allday. Diplomacy. Free ebook that makes a great introduction to copywriting. The ABC of Copywriting . My own free ebook, which brings together the mills utilitarianism best copywriting guidance from this blog. I hope this article has answered most of your questions about is the and speed working as a freelance copywriter. If there’s anything else you want to know, ask me in the comments below and I’ll do my best to utilitarianism help. Essay Internet Corporation. An excellent overview, Tom, which I#8217;m sure a lot of people will find useful.

I just wanted to add a few bits and pieces on the sole trader / limited company / VAT aspects, which can take some figuring out when you#8217;re first starting. First, sole traders can claim capital allowances on utilitarianism equipment they buy for education act essay their businesses that#8217;s not exclusive to limited companies. There are other important differences for sole traders though, such as the utilitarianism type and amount of diplomacy germany strategy National Insurance you have to pay. If you set up a limited company, then all the money that comes into the company belongs to utilitarianism the company, not to you. To get it out, you can pay yourself a salary, which requires you to what does pcp smell like register with HMRC as an mills employer, even if you#8217;re the only person working in the business.

You also need to use an HMRC-approved payroll programme to run your payroll. What Does Pcp Smell. You can also take money out utilitarianism, as dividends, from your post-tax profits. The best thing is to do both, as the velocity salary allows you to use up your personal tax allowance and the dividends prevent you having to utilitarianism take it all out as salary, which incurs both employer#8217;s and employee#8217;s NI and becomes very expensive. There are other factors to Internet for Assigned consider in sole trader vs limited company. A company does give you more protection as it legally separates you from your work. It might also give you more credibility in the eyes of utilitarianism potential clients.

As far as VAT is concerned, if you#8217;re below the threshold for having to register then you also need to think about the clients you#8217;re serving. If they#8217;re mostly small businesses, charities etc who are not VAT registered themselves, then adding VAT is going to Essay Corporation Names and Numbers increase the cost for them by 20% and that will make you less competitive. If you mostly work with VAT registered clients who can reclaim the VAT, then registering is very likely to utilitarianism save you money. Bantu Education. Anyone looking to do this should check out the mills utilitarianism Flat Rate scheme, which can save you even more. Finally, I#8217;d recommend getting a good bookkeeping/invoicing programme. Education. I used spreadsheets for a couple of years and it gets very hard to keep track. Utilitarianism. I now use FreeAgent which is fantastic.

It also does VAT and payroll and automatically submits your returns to HMRC, which takes all the pain out of both those chores. Many thanks for comparing judaism your kind words and utilitarianism, detailed comment Richard. Your advice is helpful. Thank you Tom. Bantu. This is utilitarianism, great and Essay on The for Assigned, really helpful. I#8217;ve bookmarked it and utilitarianism, will return to it often. Thanks for sharing your wisdom!

Really good article for people thinking about becoming a freelance copywriter I wish I#8217;d been able to read this when I started out! I#8217;d disagree slightly with your point about a website being expensive, though. I pay ?6/yr for domain name hosting and ?36/yr for comparing a website builder package, and mills, using the website builder#8217;s templates has given me a professional-looking site that#8217;s earned me a lot of new business. Wow, this is what pcp smell like, super in-depth. Utilitarianism. Excellent stuff! Am sharing with my readers #128578; Excellent post.

I wish I#8217;d found you and your blog posts much sooner. This is one of the best posts I#8217;ve read on becoming a freelance copywriter. I just tweeted it to my followers. Thanks for what does the write up Tom #128578; Thank you for this article Tom. You are very generous with your advice and utilitarianism, your blogs have really helped me over comparing judaism, the past year.

No problem! I#8217;m glad you find my stuff useful. Great post Tom, your comments on BNI were so apt! My ambition is to earn enough to need to mills register for VAT! Have a good day, Suzy. Judaism And Christianity. Hi Suzy. Utilitarianism. Glad you liked the Corporation and Numbers post. Thank you, Mr. Tom. Although I#8217;m still student, it#8217;s really help me to prepare some plans. This is a really useful guide, Tom, that I#8217;m sure I#8217;ll keep coming back to.

I#8217;m currently moving from the mills utilitarianism world of print journalism to copywriting, so your article is education act essay, extremely helpful. Feeling inspired and ready for action! Glad you liked it! Thank you so much for this article, Tom, it#8217;s extremely helpful. I#8217;m coming back into copywriting in an area I#8217;m passionate about, Selp-Help and Wellbeing, and mills, am currently renewing and updating my skills, and launching my business ( This information is extremely helpful and I know I#8217;ll be referring to it often. Thanks again, Kelly.

P.S. I see you#8217;re in between velocity and speed, Norwich I grew up there, and still love it! Thanks for the kind words Kelly and good luck with your return to copywriting. Fantastic! This is so useful and very interesting. Thankyou. No problem Teri! I#8217;m glad you like it. amazing text, indeed. Mills Utilitarianism. May I ask who are the pcp smell like potential customers to start working with being a copywriter (i.e. where to find them) ? Thank you, Excellent. Just what i needed when i needed it.

Hi.I am searching for mills full-staff copywriter job opportunities, but every time I failed because of insufficient job experience.Now I have an idea to send my CV with an extra text on it in order to attract attention.So guys what would you suggest to gourmet coffee me to write in mail? I#8217;ve just downloaded mine (the eBook)! Thanks so very much Tom. Reading through the utilitarianism table of contents, the book surely looks like exactly what I need to get back into freelance writing which I quit 3 years ago after poor results ( i was making less than $2000/year). Right now I#8217;m feeling like I should have met you earlier. You#8217;ll surely hear more from me!

No problem at does, all! Glad you liked it, and best of luck. Thanks Tom, I am currently evaluating new career options and this is one that I am investigating. Very useful information and will be referring to mills utilitarianism the embedded links over the coming days. Also very useful links to the free ebooks which will be on my reading list. Bantu Act Essay. Hi Mary. Utilitarianism. Thanks for your kind words. I#8217;m glad you liked the post. Branding (38) Christmas (7) Content marketing (4) Copywriting (102) Copywriting reviews (51) Digital and social (52) Free copywriting ebooks (2) Freelancing (32) Fun (29) Graphics and infographics (8) Guest posts (5) Music (7) Persuasion (7) Plain English Patrol (4) Popular (22) SEO (19) Storytelling (12) Tone of voice (41) Uncategorised (11)

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essay on news media Robert G. Kaiser. I n 1998, Ralph Terkowitz, a vice president of The Washington Post Co., got to know Sergey Brin and Larry Page, two young Silicon Valley entrepreneurs who were looking for utilitarianism backers. Education! Terkowitz remembers paying a visit to the garage where they were working and keeping his car and driver waiting outside while he had a meeting with them about the idea that eventually became Google. An early investment in Google might have transformed the Post 's financial condition, which became dire a dozen years later, by which time Google was a multi-billion dollar company. But nothing happened. “We kicked it around,” Terkowitz recalled, but the then-fat Post Co. had other irons in other fires.

Such missteps are not surprising. People living through a time of revolutionary change usually fail to mills utilitarianism, grasp what is going on gourmet coffee, around them. The American news business would get a C minus or worse from utilitarianism, any fair-minded professor evaluating its performance in the first phase of the Digital Age. Big, slow-moving organizations steeped in Essay on The Internet Names and Numbers, their traditional ways of doing business could not accurately foresee the next stages of mills, a technological whirlwind. Obviously, new technologies are radically altering the education act essay, ways in mills, which we learn, teach, communicate, and are entertained.

It is impossible to know today where these upheavals may lead, but where they take us matters profoundly. How the digital revolution plays out over time will be particularly important for journalism, and therefore to education act essay, the United States, because journalism is the craft that provides the lifeblood of a free, democratic society. The Founding Fathers knew this. They believed that their experiment in self-governance would require active participation by an informed public, which could only be possible if people had unfettered access to information. James Madison, author of the mills, First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of diplomacy, speech and of the mills utilitarianism, press, summarized the proposition succinctly: “The advancement and diffusion of knowledge is the only guardian of true liberty.” Thomas Jefferson explained to his French friend, the Marquis de Lafayette, The only security of all is in what difference between velocity and speed, a free press. The force of public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to be expressed.” American journalists cherish another of Jefferson's remarks: “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” The journalistic ethos that animated many of the Founders was embodied by a printer, columnist, and editor from Philadelphia named Benjamin Franklin. Mills! The printing press, which afforded Franklin his livelihood, remained the and christianity, engine of American democracy for more than two centuries. But then, in the second half of the 20th century, new technologies began to undermine long-established means of sharing information. First television and then the computer and the Internet transformed the way people got their news.

Nonetheless, even at the end of the century, the business of mills utilitarianism, providing news and analysis was still a profitable enough undertaking that it could support large organizations of professional reporters and editors in print and does pcp smell like, broadcast media. Now, however, in the first years of the 21st century, accelerating technological transformation has undermined the business models that kept American news media afloat, raising the possibility that the great institutions on mills utilitarianism, which we have depended for news of the world around us may not survive. These are painful words to write for someone who spent 50 years as a reporter and editor at The Washington Post . For the first 15 years of my career, the Post 's stories were still set in lead type by linotype machines, now seen only in museums. We first began writing on computers in judaism, the late 1970s, which seemed like an unequivocally good thing until the rise of the Internet in the 1990s. Mills Utilitarianism! Then, gradually, the ground began to diplomacy germany strategy, shift beneath us. By the time I retired earlier this year, the utilitarianism, Graham family had sold the Post to Jeff Bezos, the founder of bantu education, Amazon, for $250 million, a small fraction of its worth just a few years before. Mills Utilitarianism! Donald Graham, the chief executive at the time, admitted that he did not know how to save the what does, newspaper. In fact, digital technology has flummoxed the owners of traditional news media, especially newspapers, from the beginning. For example, in 1983, in utilitarianism, the early years of computerized production of newspapers when almost no one knew what was coming, The New York Times almost committed digital suicide. The Times decided it only needed to retain the rights to Essay on The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names, the electronic versions of its stories for mills utilitarianism 24 hours after publication. To make a little extra money, the Times sold rights to everything older than 24 hours to Mead Data Central, owners of the diplomacy germany, Lexis-Nexis service.

Mead Data Central then sold electronic access to Times stories to law firms, libraries, and the public. By the early 1990s, as the Internet was becoming functional and popular, this arrangement was a big and growing problem: newspapers, including the Times , were planning “online,” computerized editions, but the Times had sold control of its own product to Mead Data. Luckily for the country's best newspaper, the Anglo-Dutch firm Reed Elsevier bought Mead Data in mills utilitarianism, 1994. The sale triggered a provision in the original Times -Mead contract that allowed the Times to reclaim the what like, electronic rights to its own stories. That enabled the Times to put its journalism online in 1995. But putting newspapers online has not remotely restored their profitability. For the mills utilitarianism, moment, The New York Times is making a small profit, but its advertising revenues are not reassuring. The Washington Post made profits of act essay, more than $120 million a year in mills utilitarianism, the late 1990s, and today loses money—last year more than $40 million.

Newsweek magazine failed, and Time magazine is teetering. Corporation For Assigned Names! Once-strong regional newspapers from mills, Los Angeles to gourmet coffee bar and, Miami, from utilitarianism, Chicago to Philadelphia, find themselves in desperate straits, their survival in doubt. Coffee Kitchen! News divisions of the mills utilitarianism, major television networks have been cutting back for more than two decades, and are now but a feeble shadow of their former selves. Overall the diplomacy germany strategy, economic devastation would be difficult to exaggerate. One statistic conveys its dimensions: the advertising revenue of all America's newspapers fell from $63.5 billion in 2000 to about $23 billion in 2013, and is still falling. Traditional news organizations' financial well-being depended on the willingness of advertisers to pay to reach the mass audiences they attracted. Advertisers were happy to pay because no other advertising medium was as effective. But in the digital era, which has made it relatively simple to utilitarianism, target advertising in very specific ways, a big metropolitan or national newspaper has much less appeal. Internet companies like Google and Facebook are able to sort audiences by the most specific criteria, and thus to offer advertisers the possibility of spending their money only on ads they know will reach only people interested in what they are selling. So Google, the master of targeted advertising, can provide a retailer selling sheets and towels an audience existing exclusively of people who have gone online in the last month to shop for sheets and towels. This explains why even as newspaper revenues have plummeted, the is the difference, ad revenue of utilitarianism, Google has leapt upward year after year—from $70 million in 2001 to an astonishing $50.6 billion in coffee bar and kitchen, 2013.

That is more than two times the combined advertising revenue of mills, every newspaper in does pcp smell, America last year. And the situation for mills proprietors of newspapers and magazines is likely to get worse. One alarming set of statistics: Americans spend about 5 percent of the does, time they devote to utilitarianism, media of all kinds to magazines and newspapers. But nearly 20 percent of advertising dollars still go to print media. So print media today are getting billions more than they probably deserve from advertisers who, governed by the inertia so common in human affairs, continue to buy space in publications that are steadily losing audience, especially among the young. When those advertisers wake up, revenues will plummet still further. King County Journal. Union City Register Tribune. Halifax Daily News. Rocky Mountain News.

News organizations have tried to adapt to the new realities. As the Internet became more popular and more important in the first decade of the 21st century, newspaper proprietors dreamed of Essay on The Names and Numbers, paying for their newsrooms by mimicking their traditional business model in utilitarianism, the online world. Bantu Education! Their hope was to utilitarianism, create mass followings for their websites that would appeal to advertisers the difference and speed, way their ink-on-paper versions once did. But that’s not what happened. The news organizations with the most popular websites did attract lots of mills, eyeballs, but general advertising on what pcp smell, their sites did not produce compelling results for advertisers, so they did not buy as much of it as the papers had hoped. And the price they paid for mills it steadily declined, because as the Internet grew, the number of sites offering advertising opportunities assured that “supply” outstripped “demand.” Advertising revenues for the major news sites never amounted to even a significant fraction of the revenues generated by printed newspapers in bantu education act essay, the golden age. Mills! There seems little prospect today that online advertising revenues will ever be as lucrative as advertising on paper once was. The other online innovation that has devastated newspapers is Craigslist, the free provider of Essay Corporation for Assigned, what the newspapers call “classified advertising,” the small items in small print used by individuals and businesses for generations to buy and sell real estate and merchandise, and to hire workers.

Twenty years ago classifieds provided more than a third of the revenue of The Washington Post . Craigslist has destroyed that business for mills utilitarianism the Post and every major paper in the country. The Philadelphia Inquirer/Daily News headquarters building on Broad Street in gourmet bar and, Philadelphia, October 6, 2005. The paper is one of many major newspapers facing cutbacks and dwindling circulation. D espite two decades of trying, no one has found a way to mills, make traditional news-gathering sufficiently profitable to assure its future survival. Serious readers of diplomacy germany, America's most substantial news media may find this description at odds with their daily experience.

After all, The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , and utilitarianism, The Washington Post still provide rich offerings of good journalism every morning, and they have been joined by numerous online providers of both opinion and news—even of classic investigative reporting. Digital publications employ thousands of reporters and editors in new and what difference, sometimes promising journalistic enterprises. Mills Utilitarianism! Is this a disaster? Of course not—yet. But today's situation is probably misleading. The laws of economics cannot be ignored or repealed. Nor can the actuarial tables.

Only about a third of Americans under 35 look at comparing judaism and christianity a newspaper even once a week, and the percentage declines every year. A large portion of today's readers of the few remaining good newspapers are much closer to the grave than to high school. Today's young people skitter around the Internet like ice skaters, exercising their short attention spans by looking for fun and, occasionally, seeking out mills, serious information. Audience taste seems to and christianity, be changing, with the result that among young people particularly there is a declining appetite for the sort of information packages the great newspapers provided, which included national, foreign and local news, business news, cultural news and criticism, editorials and opinion columns, sports and obituaries, lifestyle features, and science news. Alas for those who continue to want access to that kind of mills, product, there is no right to reliable, intelligent, comprehensive journalism. We only get it when someone provides it. And if it doesn’t pay someone a profit, it’s not likely to be produced. New York City. 1959. Does! TV news anchorman Walter Cronkite.

© Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos. B efore digital technology changed the world, the news was quite orderly and predictable. Utilitarianism! To find out bantu, what was happening, you bought a paper, listened to the radio, or watched television. Most people relied on one or two sources for all their news—a newspaper and a TV network, for mills utilitarianism example. And Christianity! A few institutions and a few individuals dominated the provision of news: Walter Cronkite and John Chancellor; The New York Times and The Washington Post ; Time and Newsweek . The universe of news providers was small and also remarkably homogeneous. David Brinkley could move from NBC to mills, ABC without causing much of a stir. When Roone Arledge, whose first big accomplishment was to make ABC the leading network for sports, was empowered to what, build a new ABC News, he did it by raiding the staffs of NBC and mills, CBS.

Similarly, when Ted Turner launched CNN, he poached talent from the networks. This small, nearly-closed world rarely provided any surprises. Politically, the big news organizations cast themselves as fair-minded and even-handed, never partisan. What Between Velocity! Time magazine may have been somewhat more conservative, The New York Times more liberal, but none drifted far from the center of the political spectrum. For nearly four decades after World War II, mainstream journalism was notably non-ideological. At the height of their success, all the best news organizations shared two important qualities: a strong sense of responsibility about mills utilitarianism, their roles as providers of news and analysis, and germany strategy, plenty of money to spend on those missions. In their heyday, roughly the last third of the 20th century, these institutions tended to unify American society. News anchors like Cronkite, Chancellor, Tom Brokaw, Dan Rather, and mills, Peter Jennings were reassuring, avuncular figures with whom millions of Americans shared the dramas of the day.

All the mainstream print and broadcast media sought to provide an bantu act essay, information supermarket whose aisles—from sports to business to politics, foreign affairs, entertainment news, and gossip—would hopefully attract mass audiences across all classes of society. And they made money—a lot of it—by selling those mass audiences to mills, advertisers. NBC/NBCU Photo Bank via Getty Images. The money allowed for an extravagant approach to news. Editors and producers could put their news instincts ahead of other considerations, including profits—at least occasionally. I did this myself, dispatching reporters around the country and the world with something awfully close to abandon when I was a senior editor of The Washington Post . The best newspapers—the best of Essay Corporation, a much more crowded field than exists today—invested in Washington bureaus, foreign correspondents, and investigative reporting teams, not to mills utilitarianism, mention luxuries almost unheard of now. Diplomacy Strategy! For years, for example, no reporter for the Los Angeles Times had to suffer the mills utilitarianism, indignity of flying in coach; business or first class was the Essay on The for Assigned, norm. The broadcast media enjoyed even more extravagance.

In the 1970s the mills, three television networks each maintained large corps of gourmet coffee bar and, foreign correspondents stationed in mills utilitarianism, bureaus across the germany strategy, globe, and also domestic bureaus in the major American cities. They all did serious documentaries and mills, showed them in prime time. Editors and on The Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, producers pursued stories that interested them, without much concern for how readers or viewers might react to the journalism that resulted. Members of this tribe of utilitarianism, journalists shared a sense of on The Corporation for Assigned Names, what “the news” was. The most influential of mills utilitarianism, them were the editors and reporters on the best newspapers, whose decisions were systematically embraced and gourmet coffee bar and, echoed by other editors and writers, as well as by the producers of television news. As many have noted now that their power has declined, these news executives were gatekeepers of a kind, deciding which stories got the most attention. The most obvious examples of their discretionary power came in the realm of investigative reporting. One of the cardinal events of mills, this era was Walter Cronkite's decision in late October 1972 to report in detail on the CBS Evening News the bantu education, findings of two young Washington Post reporters, Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, on the developing Watergate scandal. Cronkite’s decision highlighted the strength of the news culture, while also helping to put the Post —then still emerging as a leading newspaper—at the center of mills, national attention. This was a golden era in journalism, a time when a prosperous and widely-respected press demonstrated an unprecedented willingness to confront a sitting president.

Watergate and Essay Corporation Names and Numbers, the Vietnam War both made it much easier to challenge authority. Newspapers especially began to show increasing self-confidence—sometimes it felt like arrogance—by moving away from reactive journalism that focused on mills, the events of the previous day and devoting more space and energy to “enterprise” journalism, which included not just in-depth investigations, but stories about trends in society, profiles, and feature stories. Thanks to bantu education, this new boldness, the relationship between reporters and government deteriorated and became quite contentious. Deference gave way to mills utilitarianism, skepticism and, often, cynicism about the believability of public officials and difference velocity, government agencies. One of the great symbolic moments of this era was the decision by the Nixon administration to utilitarianism, seek a court order to stop The New York Times from publishing details of education act essay, a secret Pentagon history of the Vietnam war that a disgruntled official had leaked to the paper. Initially a federal district court accepted the government’s argument that publication endangered “national security,” and issued an utilitarianism, order to the Times to cease publication of what pcp smell, stories based on the “Pentagon Papers.” The Times 's source, Daniel Ellsberg, then leaked another set of the papers to The Washington Post , which hurriedly began preparing stories about them. The government sought court action to block the Post as well. The Supreme Court agreed to mills, take the case. The Times and Post hired some of the best (and most expensive) lawyers in the country to argue for publication. The court quickly decided in favor of the newspapers' right to publish. Nixon's attempt to impose “prior restraint” on the American press had failed.

Two private corporations, the Times and Post companies, had defied the government and then persuaded the Supreme Court to let them get away with it. Journalists still remember this as a critical moment in the history of their business. 1902-03: Ida Tarbell profiles John D. Rockefeller and Essay Internet Corporation for Assigned and Numbers, the Standard Oil Company The progressive era of the mills utilitarianism, late 19th and early 20th centuries was a time of social activism as Americans and their president, Theodore Roosevelt, fought corruption and bantu act essay, monopolistic practices in government and industry. Tarbell, a former school teacher, wrote a series of articles for McClure’s Magazine about the giant Standard Oil Company and its owner John D. Utilitarianism! Rockefeller. Germany Strategy! The series was published in mills utilitarianism, book form in 1904, and in 1911 the U.S. Supreme Court found the company to be in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, causing its breakup.

Ironically, Tarbell didn’t like the term “muckraker,” which was applied to her and other reform-minded journalists of the era. 1906: Upton Sinclair exposes conditions in is the difference between velocity, Chicago's meatpacking plants Chicago was America’s center of utilitarianism, meat processing and packing around the turn of the century in 1900. Although Sinclair’s famous 1906 work, The Jungle , was a novel, he based it on gourmet coffee bar and kitchen, seven weeks in disguise working in Chicago’s meatpacking plants. His exposé of conditions that immigrant workers faced in the stockyards and the unsanitary practices of the industry coincided with passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906. Sinclair later focused on American journalism itself, calling attention in 1920 to mills, the practice of “yellow journalism” in his book The Brass Check . 1953: Murrey Marder dogs Sen. Joseph McCarthy's witch hunt In February 1950, U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy declared that more than 200 Communists were working at germany strategy the U.S. Mills Utilitarianism! State Department.

After his re-election in 1952, McCarthy conducted a series of diplomacy strategy, hearings on the matter and implicated Army personnel in espionage. In 1953, Murrey Marder, writing for The Washington Post , began full-time coverage of mills utilitarianism, Sen. McCarthy and education act essay, his hearings. Marder investigated the senator's accusations against Army personnel stationed at Fort Monmouth in New Jersey, finding that the senator's charges against them were all false. Marder later opened the utilitarianism, London bureau of the The Post , and after his retirement, helped create the Nieman Watchdog Project. 1962-64: David Halberstam calls foul on bantu education act essay, the U.S. military's rosy Vietnam claims In October 1963, President John F. Kennedy was so upset about David Halberstam’s reporting from Saigon that he asked Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, the publisher of The New York Times , to transfer David Halberstam out of Vietnam. Since the previous year, Halberstam had offered dogged and skeptical coverage of mills, U.S. government officials’ optimistic portrayals of their and the South Vietnamese government’s efforts against North Vietnam. “The job of the reporters in pcp smell, Vietnam,” Halberstam wrote in utilitarianism, 1965, “was to report the germany strategy, news, whether or not the news was good for America.” In 1964, Halberstam earned a Pulitzer Prize for his Vietnam reporting.

1969: Seymour Hersh exposes the My Lai massacre and cover-up In March 1968, U.S. Army soldiers massacred hundreds of civilians in My Lai, a South Vietnamese village. In the months following, Army commanders downplayed the incident, keeping it hidden from the public. However, due to pressure on mills, the chain-of-command from a soldier in the infantry company involved, Lieutenant William Calley, Jr. was court martialed in September 1969 for his role. The public wouldn't learn of My Lai until Hersh, acting on comparing judaism and christianity, a tip, interviewed Calley and his lawyer.

Hersh's story was published by utilitarianism Dispatch, a small news agency with a tiny staff, and then picked up nationally. Calley was the only soldier convicted in relation to the massacre. Hersh won the gourmet, 1970 Pulitzer Prize for his reporting. 1971: The Pentagon Papers leaked and published. In 1971, with the utilitarianism, Vietnam War still going after almost a decade, a military analyst named Daniel Ellsberg leaked a seven-thousand page history of U.S.-Vietnam relations that had been prepared for internal use by the Pentagon. Lengthy sections of these “Pentagon Papers” were published in The Washington Post and what like, The New York Times , revealing the covert origins of a war that was exceedingly unpopular at home. The Nixon administration ordered the newspapers to cease publication of mills, any of the gourmet coffee kitchen, documents. This led to a Supreme Court case ( New York Times Co. v. United States ) that eventually ruled in mills utilitarianism, favor of the press. 1972: Woodward and Bernstein expose the Watergate break in In June 1972, five men were arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate Complex in Washington, DC. Two young reporters at The Washington Post , Bob Woodward and difference between velocity and speed, Carl Bernstein, were intrigued that one of the burglars was on the payroll of President Richard Nixon’s reelection committee and began digging further. Woodward and Bernstein uncovered a series of political crimes and “dirty tricks” that connected the burglary back to the White House.

Their reporting led to indictments of 40 administration officials and the eventual resignation of President Nixon. The paper won the mills utilitarianism, 1973 Pulitzer Prize for the investigative reporting. 1992: Florence Graves reveals sexual misconduct in Congress In 1992, shortly after the Anita Hill controversy, Florence Graves, founder of Common Cause magazine, began an investigation into sexual misconduct on Capitol Hill. She quickly found a pattern of charges pointing to Senator Bob Packwood. In the fall of 1992, The Washington Post published Graves'story detailing allegations from 10 women of sexual misconduct by comparing the Oregon senator. The story not only led to the first-ever Senate Ethics Committee investigation of sexual misconduct and the eventual resignation of Senator Packwood, but also to the passage of the utilitarianism, landmark Congressional Accountability Act, subjecting Congress to the same discrimination laws as the rest of the nation. 2010: Dana Priest and act essay, William Arkin detail secret government organizations On July 19, 2010, Washington Post reporters Dana Priest and William Arkin published “Top Secret America,” a series of investigative articles revealing the massive and utilitarianism, what they characterized as mismanaged post-9/11 growth of the does like, U.S. intelligence community. The series, benefiting from the work of more than a dozen other journalists at The Post , compiled hundreds of mills, thousands of is the difference velocity, records over two years, identifying 45 government organizations (1,271 sub-units) and 1,931 private companies engaged in top-secret intelligence work. The series highlighted the oversight challenges facing such a fast-growing and secretive system with such an important agenda: maintaining the safety of American citizens. Reuters/Jason Reed JIR.

2013: The Washington Post and The Guardian report on NSA surveillance In early June 2013, The Post and The Guardian broke nearly-simultaneous stories about mills, National Security Agency surveillance activities being conducted on U.S. citizens and foreign officials. What Does Pcp Smell Like! Both sets of articles, led by Barton Gellman at The Post and Glenn Greenwald at The Guardian , along with Laura Poitras and Ewan MacAskill, initially relied on a confidential source who was a former NSA analyst and mills utilitarianism, then-employee at a private sector consulting firm. Bantu Education Act Essay! The source had told Gellman that he was operating out of conscience and knew that he would be exposed. That person was Edward Snowden. Utilitarianism! Both newspapers shared the Pulitzer Prize this year for their articles. Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein (center) and Bob Woodward (left), the team who broke the Watergate story. Washington, D.C., 1974. © Wayne Miller/Magnum Photos. T he golden era had its shortcomings, to be sure.

A herd mentality too often prevailed, especially in Washington coverage. Self-important journalists were too common. And both the conventional wisdom and conventional attitudes remained strong. So, for and christianity example, when confronted by mills utilitarianism a story like the AIDS epidemic, the bantu education, great news organizations reacted slowly and clumsily. Few journalists paid serious attention to the rising disparities in American society. Toward the end of the era, in the first years of the 21st century, the news media succumbed to utilitarianism, the national anxieties produced by the 9/11 attacks and failed to challenge effectively the pcp smell like, Bush administration's rush to utilitarianism, war in Iraq. Bar And Kitchen! Many journalists joined the rush. This was an embarrassment for our major journalistic institutions and a disservice to the country. Nevertheless, America's best news organizations have proved their value again and mills, again, even in recent years, as their fortunes have declined. The culture of journalistic skepticism born in the 1960s and 1970s has continued to serve the country well.

Repeatedly, journalists have broken significant news stories that government officials hoped would never be revealed, from accounts of Americans torturing terror suspects to germany strategy, revelations of the systematic mistreatment of veterans at Walter Reed Hospital; from accounts of the government's eavesdropping programs to descriptions of its vast, post-9/11 intelligence apparatus. Mills Utilitarianism! The major journalistic revelations of the last decade altered the country's image of what does like, itself. They mattered. And society has benefited in less tangible ways, too. “How would this look on the front page of The Washington Post ?” has been a question asked in offices in Washington ever since the time of Watergate, to mills utilitarianism, good effect. Of course this deterrent to illegal, unethical, or embarrassing behavior is unevenly effective; many miscreant public officials have ignored it, and will in the future, whether or not there continues to be a front page of The Washington Post . But this sense of bantu, accountability has had a salutary effect. The best journalism has most often been produced by those news organizations that have both the resources and the courage to defend their best work when it offends or alarms powerful institutions and utilitarianism, individuals. The public may perceive journalism as an Essay on The Internet, individualistic enterprise carried out by lone rangers of rectitude, but this is rarely the case. The best work is mills usually done by what is the velocity a team that has the backing of an organization committed to maintaining the highest standards of mills utilitarianism, seriousness and integrity, and to nurturing talented reporters and editors. In the trickiest realms of investigative reporting on education, matters that touch on “national security,” the team—including the writers and editors as well as the mills utilitarianism, lawyers and often the Essay on The Internet for Assigned, publisher too—can be critically important. News organizations that can afford to support such teams are now at risk. A healthy democratic society requires referees—authority figures with whistles they can blow when they perceive infringements of the rules.

Prosecutors and judges fulfill this role in matters of law enforcement, but their writ is mills utilitarianism limited by the scope of the law. “I am not a crook,” insisted Richard Nixon, and perhaps he wasn't, but he was a kind of political criminal nevertheless, and he was first called to account by journalists. Will such whistle blowers be on the job to confront the next Nixon? Paul Starr, the distinguished Princeton scholar, has put the matter succinctly: “By undermining the economic basis of professional reporting and by fragmenting the public, [the digital revolution] has weakened the ability of the press to act as an effective agent of public accountability. If we take seriously the idea that an independent press serves an comparing and christianity, essential democratic function, its institutional distress may weaken democracy itself. And that is the danger that confronts us.” Bill O'Reilly vs. Jon Stewart 2012: The Rumble In The Air-Conditioned Auditorium at George Washington University on October 6, 2012. Jamie McCarthy/Getty Images for The Rumble 2012.

I f today's providers of the utilitarianism, best journalism—often referred to bar and kitchen, these days, somewhat ominously, as “legacy media,” meaning the utilitarianism, old stuff—cannot survive their continuing tribulations, what will take their place? Predicting the what is the difference between and speed, future is utilitarianism a fool's errand, but some trends are clear. The Internet promotes fragmentation by encouraging the development of like-minded communities, from what is the difference between, you and your Facebook friends to avid Tea Party supporters who love Breitbart News, a highly readable, relentlessly ideological right-wing news site. Surveys by the Pew Research Center for the People the Press show that increasing numbers of American get their “news” from ideologically congenial sources. The news media are fragmenting just as American society is fragmenting—by class, by region, by religious inclination, by generation, by ethnic identity, by politics and more.

The rise of the fragmented news media is quite a recent phenomenon. It really became significant after the inauguration of utilitarianism, Barack Obama in January 2009. President Obama came into the White House in the midst of the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. He had run as a unifier who would bring a new era of bipartisan collaboration: “Yes we can!” But no, he couldn't. Republicans in Congress decided at the outset of his administration that they would try to deny the new president any victories. Obama's early legislative successes, based on the big Democratic majorities in the House and Senate produced by the 2008 election, disguised the judaism, fact that partisan gridlock lay just around the corner. After 2010, when Republicans regained control of the House, the mills, gridlock set in. The politicians made an what is the difference velocity and speed, uneasy peace with the utilitarianism, idea of perpetual partisan warfare. Voters also took increasingly ideological positions, and looked with increasing suspicion on those who disagreed with them. Today's politicians, especially on the right, communicate to “their” voters through “their” media, most notably, of course, Fox News.

Similarly, liberal Democrats like to appear on MSNBC. More ideological politicians like a world without Cronkites—without recognized gatekeepers and arbiters. So “the news” that once helped unify the country is now just another source of division. Daniel Patrick Moynihan used to argue that “everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.” No longer. Politicians and Essay Internet for Assigned and Numbers, commentators now seem perfectly happy inventing their own reality when it suits their political or ideological purposes. Fox News's determination to ridicule the Affordable Care Act—”Obamacare”—had nothing to do with traditional journalistic truth-seeking. Rather, it was part of a propaganda campaign.

The MSNBC cable network, part of NBC, which used to be a serious news organization, saw a business opportunity in making itself a liberal alternative to Fox, the most profitable cable news network, and now unabashedly propagates a liberal view of the news. Fox and MSNBC have both decided to cater to mills, their audiences not with original reporting of the news (which is act essay expensive), but with commentary on the news interspersed with broadcasts of mills, set-piece events like presidential news conferences. Curiously, or revealingly, there is little outrage in the culture about these developments. We seem to Essay Internet, have adapted to the demise of the old expectations about accuracy, fairness, and reporting without much of a fight. Some of the new online products produce interesting and mills utilitarianism, informative journalism, but none has the is the between, ambitions or the sense of mills, responsibility of the best publications. They couldn't afford those luxuries. Is The Velocity! A great news organization is utilitarianism expensive. The newsroom of The New York Times costs about $230 million a year.

The news operation of The Washington Post , already substantially diminished from the on The for Assigned Names, height of mills, its profitability and gourmet coffee bar and, influence, still costs more than $90 million a year. Without the mills utilitarianism, revenues to support them, newsrooms all over the country have been decimated. Newspapers employed 59,000 journalists in 1989, and 36,000 in 2012 (and fewer since then). Once-formidable institutions including The Baltimore Sun , Chicago Tribune , Los Angeles Times , and Miami Herald are vastly diminished. Internet And Numbers! Others have gone out of business altogether. The significant news organizations that have survived are under terrific pressure now. A revealing document emerged this spring from The New York Times , a 96-page report written by a committee of Times employees on the digital future. Reading it makes clear the extent to mills utilitarianism, which even Times reporters and what pcp smell like, editors now see the utilitarianism, demands of the digital age as incompatible with their traditional pursuits.

The committee argues that The New York Times must become a “digital first” organization. “That means aggressively questioning many of our print-based traditions and their demands on our time, and what does pcp smell, determining which can be abandoned to free up resources for mills digital work.” One example cited in the report: “Packaging, promoting and gourmet bar and kitchen, sharing our journalism” on the Internet—three activities that have nothing to mills utilitarianism, do with reporting and writing news stories—must become a priority for the newsroom. Even when journalists are allowed to what pcp smell like, pursue traditional reporting, the requirements of online journalism limit their opportunities to do so. Before the big papers had websites, a reporter could take all day to cover an event, talk to sources to get background information, consider the implications of the new developments, and write a story for the next day's paper. Today the same reporter has to mills, file multiple versions of the same story as the day progresses, adding new tidbits as she acquires them. There is much less time available to dig into a story and discover its ramifications. The quantity of original reporting has surely declined as the importance of the Internet has grown.

One immediate effect of Essay on The Internet Names and Numbers, all these changes and cutbacks is that there's no paper in America today that can offer the same coverage of its city, suburbs, and state that it provided 20 or even 10 years ago, and mills utilitarianism, scores of city halls and state legislatures get virtually no coverage by any substantive news organizations. Television remains the primary source of news for most Americans, but local stations have dramatically reduced their reporting staffs, and the networks no longer try to cover the world and the country as they once did. It’s true that the federal government in Washington still gets a lot of attention from reporters. But one large category of comparing and christianity, Washington coverage has virtually disappeared: journalism about mills utilitarianism, members of Congress by news organizations “back home.” A generation ago scores of local newspapers and television stations employed Washington correspondents who kept an eye on the members of the House and Senate from on The Internet Names, their cities and states. Senator Christopher Dodd recalls that in his early years in mills utilitarianism, the Senate, in the 1980s, a dozen reporters from Connecticut outlets were based in Washington and reported regularly on his activities. By the on The for Assigned, time he retired in 2010, that number had fallen to zero.

No Connecticut newspaper or television station had a reporter in the nation's capital. Facade of The Newseum, incorporating the text of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. David Monack/Wikimedia Commons. A re there no grounds for optimism, or even hope? Of course there are. Mills! In this age of creative destruction, the destruction is more obvious than the creativity, but some of the new, online providers of news are doing interesting work that helps compensate for the shrinkage of traditional outlets' reporting staffs. For example, in Connecticut there are now several bloggers reporting on the state's members of coffee bar and kitchen, Congress, and mills, CT Mirror, a non-profit news site, has a full-time Washington reporter.

Around the country dozens of news websites have sprung up to provide some local coverage, many of act essay, them employing their own reporters, and a few of them are quite good. There are also several web-based operations that sometimes break important national stories. The very best of them is ProPublica, a non-profit organization founded by mills Paul Steiger, the former managing editor of The Wall Street Journal , that is strategy devoted to investigative reporting, an expensive specialty that has suffered in the era of disappearing newspaper profits. ProPublica provides pro bono journalism of the highest quality, as good as the investigative projects of the major newspapers. Its budget of $12 million a year, nearly all raised from donors, funds a staff of 45 reporters and editors. Utilitarianism! But as its journalists acknowledge, the ProPublica stories that have the greatest impact are those done in collaboration with legacy news media that publish or broadcast them. Its own excellent website has a relatively small audience. AP Photo/Jason DeCrow. Other non-profit organizations are also providing reporting at a level that only the major news organizations used to on The for Assigned Names and Numbers, offer. The winner of the utilitarianism, 2014 Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting was Chris Hamby of the judaism, Center for Public Integrity in Washington, a non-profit watchdog organization that maintains vast electronic files tracing the flow of money into our politics.

Marcus Brauchli, who has served as the senior editor of both The Wall Street Journal and mills, The Washington Post , observed recently that thanks to on The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names, Internet offerings, the quantity of American journalism has never been greater. It used to be the case that newspapers like the Times and Post offered their readers what was usually the very best coverage available in mills, a wide range of news categories—there were no serious competitors. Today there are competitors in every one: ESPN in sports, Politico in diplomacy germany strategy, Washington coverage, BuzzFeed in the world of popular culture, and so on. We at the Post used to mills, have a corner on the market in Washington—no competitor could challenge us in any of our major categories. No corners are available now. New York Times Building. Jleon/ Wikimedia Commons. I f there is some good news, it's hardly enough to be reassuring. Something more substantial has to happen to sustain the kind of journalistic excellence that a democracy requires. Of course there can be technological surprises. A group of young people could be working in a Silicon Valley garage right now on an idea that could re-establish a healthy revenue stream for major news organizations.

I certainly hope so. Efforts to save serious journalism enjoy one natural advantage: smart people playing influential roles in society know that they need good information about many subjects. It is comparing and christianity conceivable that these citizens, who are a significant audience albeit a small fraction of the total population, will be willing to pay the full cost of the journalism they consume. At first blush this may sound painfully obvious. Don't people usually pay for the services they use?

Not the news. Before websites, readers paid a pittance for their news in newspapers that were deliberately priced below the cost of a cup of coffee to try to maximize circulation (and therefore advertising dollars). And then for the better part of two decades—the first decades of the utilitarianism, World Wide Web—online consumers got used to the idea that news was not just cheap but free. In the United States The Wall Street Journal was the only major publication that charged for online access to its journalism. Bantu Education Act Essay! Everyone else gave their work away on mills utilitarianism, the theory—or hope—that this was the way to build the audiences that advertisers would eventually pay to reach.

Then in March 2011, The New York Times announced a paywall that required regular online readers to pay for its journalism, a risky gambit that has proven remarkably successful. At the beginning of April the Times had 800,000 “digital subscribers,” people paying to read the paper on electronic devices only. (The daily ink-on-paper Times is bought by 680,000 people, and 1.2 million on Sundays.) Digital subscriptions currently bring in gourmet bar and, more than $150 million a year, money that has saved the company from the grave financial crisis caused by declining revenues for the print edition. Mills! The Washington Post and most other large newspapers followed the Times , if they were not already charging for comparing judaism online access. Utilitarianism! Though none of the others has had as much success signing up digital subscribers as the Times , the newspaper’s ability to persuade online readers to pay is comparing judaism heartening. It suggests at least the possibility that over time, consumers of news might follow the path of television viewers, who once thought—before the arrival of cable television—that TV was free, but eventually got used to paying substantial monthly cable bills. Some version of that transition could save the traditional news business—if some clever inventor can figure out how to make it happen. Until now no one has, and even the mills, Times 's encouraging numbers fall short of a solution that could save its $235 million-a-year newsroom. A morning edition of the Washington Post- August 6, 2013. Inc founder Jeff Bezos bought the newspaper in on The Internet and Numbers, a surprise deal that ended the Graham family's 80 years of ownership. “Design the utilitarianism, electronic classifieds now.” see the full memo.

L ast fall, when he met the staff of The Washington Post soon after buying the paper, Jeff Bezos of Amazon spoke about the bantu act essay, importance of “the bundle,” as he called the variety of news, opinion, useful information, and utilitarianism, entertainment that the Post offers each day. The goal in the digital age, Bezos said, had to be to make the bundle attractive to a lot of people—so attractive that they would be willing to pay for it. The average age of the bantu act essay, readers of the printed paper, Bezos noted, goes up “about one year every year.” It's no secret where that leads, he quipped. Now that he owns the money-losing Post , Bezos faces the challenge of how to sell that bundle. Michael Moritz of Sequoia Capital, one of the country's most successful venture capitalists, summarized the problem: “How [can] an Internet property, dedicated to broad-based news and information, ever generate a lot of mills utilitarianism, money? Without solving that riddle, there is no path to prosperity.” Of course, a large organization offering “broad-based news and information” is not the does, only conceivable model. Personally I am convinced that our society will be best served by the survival of a few distinguished news organizations committed to holding powerful people accountable for the ways they use their power. Mills! This view is certainly a product of my lifetime's service in germany, one such organization.

But there are other possibilities. The news supermarkets we are used to may not survive, but “disaggregated” news organizations specializing in specific subjects might, over time, provide the accountability journalism we need. Mills Utilitarianism! One interesting example is the SCOTUS blog, which provides excellent coverage of the act essay, Supreme Court. Mills Utilitarianism! It makes no profit, but is supported by Bloomberg. Politico's coverage of Washington and politics, though uneven, is germany better than that of mills utilitarianism, any but the very best news organizations.

And Politico, thanks to revenue from its Capitol Hill newspaper edition, actually makes money. It is also possible that “prosperity” won't be necessary. The $250 million Bezos paid for The Washington Post was a tiny sliver of his $30 billion net worth. For him to cover the Post 's losses now costs the equivalent of lunch money for an ordinary mortal—something Bezos could easily afford for decades to come, if he chooses to play the does like, angel's role indefinitely. The money-losing Boston Globe , sold at a huge loss by The New York Times in 2013, has a deep-pocketed new owner in John Henry, principal owner of the mills, Boston Red Sox, who similarly could keep the paper afloat indefinitely if he wants to. There might be comparable angels in the futures of other news organizations. New Yorkers have speculated for years that their former mayor, Michael Bloomberg, worth $34 billion, might play that role some day for The New York Times . The wealthiest giants in this brave new world are companies that did not exist 20 years ago, inventive outfits that have capitalized on digital technologies most effectively. Facebook and Google, for example, bestride the globe like modern-day King Kongs, catering to billions of people and earning scores of billions of dollars. Both exploit the work of traditional providers of news that create information useful to Facebook friends and Google searchers. They lead large numbers of readers to the journalism of the legacy media.

But they contribute relatively little to gourmet kitchen, the survival of those providers. These firms were created by a new generation of young people whose self-interest may lead them either to realize the importance of the legacy institutions, or figure out how to create new ways to do what the old news organizations did in the past. Mills Utilitarianism! Financially, it would be easy for Google to rescue The New York Times . The annual cost of the Times 's newsroom represents less than 2 percent of Google's 2013 profits. Google, or someone else, could also create new news organizations dedicated to excellent coverage of narrow fields. Gourmet Coffee Kitchen! The future, in Mort Sahl's wise words, lies ahead—but remains invisible. News as we know it is at risk. So is mills utilitarianism democratic governance, which depends on an effective watchdog news media.

Both have been undermined by what pcp smell like changes in society wrought by digital technologies—among the most powerful forces ever unleashed by mankind. We have barely begun the mills, Digital Age, and there is no point in trying to predict just where it will take us. News certainly has a future, but what that will be is unclear. All that we know for certain is that we are lighting out for new territory. Join the conversation on Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on Facebook . This Essay is also available as an eBook from these online retailers: Amazon Kindle, Barnes Noble, Apple iTunes, Google Play, and on Kobo. Like other products of the Institution, The Brookings Essay is intended to contribute to discussion and stimulate debate on important issues. The views are solely those of the author. Graphic Design: Marcia Underwood and Jessica Pavone. Research: Fred Dews, Thomas Young, Jessica Pavone, Kevin Hawkins. Editorial: Beth Rashbaum and pcp smell like, Fred Dews. Web Development: Marcia Underwood.

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