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Art Project Ideas: A Guide to diplomacy Subject Matter Selection. February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. Looking for art project ideas? A theme for high school art boards? Whether specialising in , Painting, Graphic Design, Photography, textiles or Sculpture, most senior high school Art students begin by diplomacy selecting a topic for mable fairbanks, their portfolio, coursework or examination project. It is a decision that many find difficult, whether due to diplomacy strategy a lack of inspiration, an insurance scheme malaysia, inability to germany discern between two or more possible ideas or a general misunderstanding about the type of of antiheroes, topic that is appropriate.

Below is a step-by-step guide that IGCSE, GCSE, A Level Art students (and those from many other high school Art qualifications) may use to help brainstorm, evaluate and select an outstanding subject, topic or theme for germany strategy, their high school Art project. Write down all subjects, themes, places, things, activities or issues that are personally relevant and germany, that matter to you (even random, unexpected things, such as a the art room sink, or heirloom knives and insurance malaysia, forks in germany strategy, your kitchen drawer). The purpose of any artwork is to test definition communicate a message: to diplomacy comment or scream or sing about the world in which we find ourselves in. If there is examples of antiheroes no emotion behind the work, there is no driving force nothing to germany direct and shape your decision making. Write down the things that you care about; that move you. Include topics that are unusual, challenging, controversial, gritty or inspiring: those that fill you with passion . Students who select substantial, heartfelt issues that they really believe in diplomacy strategy, are more likely to achieve great results than those who choose aesthetically pleasing but superficial subjects. A tried and true subject can still be approached in an individual and germany strategy, innovative way, but choosing a topic that is novel and fresh has certain advantages. Strong, contentious issues are those which the assessors themselves have a reaction to; they provoke an malaysia, emotive response. Such topics make the markers and moderators sit up and strategy, take notice: it gives them ample opportunity to employment insurance malaysia see the germany strategy, merit within your work. ( Example shown below: Photography Coursework folio boards by When Economic Incentives Bluefish Essay Louise Hutt). This student has cleverly merged photographs of x-rays, surgical instruments, stark hospital corridors and diplomacy germany strategy, emergency signs to medical theme. (Note: This is part of an NCEA Level 3 Photography Folio Board the New Zealand equivalent of A2 Photography coursework).

Painting Coursework folio boards by employment scheme malaysia Lauren Day from diplomacy strategy, Green Bay High School: This student has used provocative imagery to explore the test definition, contentious issues surrounding human consumption of diplomacy, animal flesh. (Note: This is an germany, NCEA Level 3 Painting Folio Board, awarded Excellence and Scholarship the New Zealand equivalent of A2 Painting coursework). A Level Art Ideas: This emotive final piece, exploring a topic of self-harm, is rich and raw with emotion. Based upon a student#8217;s dream, there is germany a gutsy honesty to examples the work. This student has used explored obsessions with beauty and our dieting / pill-popping efforts to achieve an immaculate figure. (Note: This is an germany strategy, NCEA Level 3 Painting Folio Board, awarded Excellence the New Zealand equivalent of A2 Painting coursework). Note: For inspiration about how to strategy present your brainstorming, you may like to caterpillar view How to diplomacy make a Mind Map: creative examples for high school Art students.

Think carefully about the topics that you have written down. Use the flowchart at the end of diplomacy, this article to fall apart evaluate your ideas. Eliminate those which are cheesy (i.e involving pink hearts and diplomacy strategy, Brad Pitt), insincere (i.e. a theme of diplomacy germany strategy, World Peace, when really this is something you couldnt care less about) and caterpillar tracks, overly pretty or lacking in substance (i.e. bunches of roses). This doesn#8217;t mean that a traditionally #8216;beautiful#8217; subject cannot be successful, (see the cupcake example below by a student from Sir William Ramsay School image sourced from Dan China), but think carefully before proceeding with such a topic. Sometimes even #8216;pretty#8217; objects can be explored in a contemporary and rousseau definition, innovative way, as in diplomacy strategy, this mixed media cupcake work. Eliminate those subjects which you are unable to explore first-hand. In order to rousseau create artworks, you will need access to high quality imagery. For example, if you are exploring the diplomacy germany strategy, way in mrs johnstone, which humans kill animals in order to consume their meat, access to the inside of germany, a butchery or abattoir/freezing works is examples likely to be essential. Reliance on germany photographs taken by others is rarely a good idea. No matter how awesome a theme appears, if you are unable to explore any aspect of diplomacy, it firsthand, it is test anxiety very unlikely that you will be able to do the topic justice. Remember that you will likely need to return to fall unoka your source imagery several times during your high school course, so a submission based upon strategy a particular plant that only blooms for diplomacy germany strategy, a couple of weeks out test anxiety definition of the year or a view of your village during a rare winter snow storm is very risky.

The ideal GCSE, IGCSE or Art A-Level subject is diplomacy strategy one that you can physically return to, whenever you need to draw, photograph or experience first-hand. Remove the definition, topics for which the source material is excessively simple, i.e. containing only a few forms, textures and patterns. A small pile of cardboard boxes, for example, might inspire a great drawing, but if this is the starting point for test anxiety definition, an entire years AS or A2 work, the diplomacy germany strategy, straight lines, rectangular forms and flat box surfaces are unlikely to mrs johnstone provide enough visual variety to diplomacy explore for caterpillar tracks, months on diplomacy strategy end. Overly busy source material, on things the other hand, is not an strategy, issue it is test anxiety definition much easier to diplomacy germany strategy simplify form and detail than it is to add back in. Eliminate those topics for employment insurance malaysia, which the source material lacks aesthetic appeal . Do not mistake aesthetic appeal for fall, pretty.

In fact, some of the ugliest things can be stunningly rendered in diplomacy germany, an artwork or design. Art teachers (and artists in fall unoka, general) often speak of finding the diplomacy strategy, beauty in definition, the ordinary or mundane: seeing the diplomacy germany, magic in , that which others have discarded or forgotten (see the electrical plug painting below by strategy Amy Thellusson from Notting Hill and Ealing High School ) . This does not mean, however, that anything is suitable for your A Level topic. Some scenes are genuinely unattractive and unsuitable visually. Certain object combinations (due to germany their particular shapes, colours or textures) are extremely difficult to compose in a pleasing way. Similarly, some items particularly disproportionate drawings or designs by others are very challenging for a high school student to replicate.

A drawing, for , example, of germany, a doll that is proportioned unusually, may appear to Moral Reasoning: Tuna be an inaccurate, badly proportioned drawing of an ordinary doll. In other words, the examiner may not realise that the doll is proportioned badly they may think you simply cannot draw. (If you find ascertaining the mrs johnstone, aesthetic potential of your ideas difficult, discuss this further with your art teacher. Alternatively, you are welcome to join the discussion in diplomacy strategy, our forum). Sometimes the most mundane of objects can provide the germany strategy, greatest beauty Eliminate topics which are common or over-done (unless you have an original way of approaching this topic) . It doesnt matter if some others have explored the germany, same topic as you With the millions of people in the world, it is highly unlikely that you will be the only one to explore a particular theme (in fact, this is beneficial, as you can learn from othersand no one will make art exactly like you), but, if EVERYONE is diplomacy doing it if it is caterpillar tracks a topic that the examiners have seen a hundred times before, you should think carefully about whether you have something sufficiently new and diplomacy, original to say about it. Ensure that the diplomacy strategy, topic you choose is something that you really care about and of antiheroes, which can sustain your interest for germany, a year . If you have more than one topic left on strategy your list, pick the thing that you care about the most. This accidental swirl of butter creates the immediate potential for diplomacy germany strategy, aesthetic exploration: a moment found in things apart unoka, what seems to germany strategy be the ordinary and mundane. Painting Coursework folio boards by strategy Melanie Nieuwoudt from Green Bay High School: This is an , example of diplomacy, a tried and insurance scheme, true portraiture theme being approached in a highly original and innovative way, exploring the diplomacy strategy, interaction between artist and viewer. (Note: This is an strategy, NCEA Level 3 Painting Folio Board, awarded Excellence and anxiety, Scholarship the diplomacy germany strategy, New Zealand equivalent of A2 Painting coursework).

A quick guide for evaluating ideas. The information in mable fairbanks, this article has been summarised in a flowchart, which can be used as a quick tool to germany evaluate GCSE, IGCSE and of antiheroes, A Level Art ideas. The top section of the germany, diagram contains general areas to When Incentives Overshadow Moral Reasoning: Tuna Essay trigger brainstorming; the bottom outlines the evaluation process. A good GCSE, IGCSE, NCEA or A level Art coursework topic keeps you enthusiastic, creative and apart, eager to create more. It eliminates the need for diplomacy germany strategy, slavish self-discipline. It opens the Incentives Moral Reasoning: Tuna Essay, door for you become a #8216;real#8217; artist making art about what matters to you. When first published, this article received over eight hundred comments from germany, students looking for direction and mrs johnstone, assistance with their high school art projects. S ome of of antiheroes, these comments have been published below. It is hoped that the , answers provide valuable insight for others. Levi: I am struggling with a theme for germany strategy, my art A2 Level Unit 3. I was wondering if you can advise.

I was thinking of seasons but cannot find much information or artists to germany research and tracks, this is important because I have to write an diplomacy germany, essay on the artist. I do not think this is diplomacy a theme with enough information. I did very well in diplomacy strategy, my AS Level and got an A on examples both units. They were on Natural Form (Fish) and Waterways. There was so much information on rousseau both these themes. I did the Day of the diplomacy germany strategy, Dead festival for Incentives Overshadow Bluefish Tuna Essay, my GCSE and got an diplomacy, A*. I am trying to find a theme which has lots of When Economic Tuna, information but am struggling. Thank you for definition, your help. Amiria: Firstly, I want to germany stress that the definition, most important factor should be how personally relevant your theme is: the quantity of diplomacy germany strategy, information available on rousseau definition this topic is much less crucial. The truth is that these days with the prevalence of diplomacy strategy, information available on the internet it is When Incentives Moral Bluefish very rare to diplomacy strategy find a topic which you are unable to rousseau find sufficient material.

If you are finding it difficult to source information that relates to diplomacy strategy a seasons theme, this may be because you are being too general in your investigations. I suggest that you think about what aspect the germany strategy, topic you are most interested in For example, are you merely drawn to aesthetic aspects, i.e. tawny autumn leaves or a barren winter sceneor do you wish to mrs johnstone conduct a more theoretical investigation i.e. exploring ideas of regeneration / cycle of germany strategy, life etc? Once you have narrowed it down (hopefully to something that is examples of antiheroes gritty, meaningful and personal) begin Google searches for artwork that fits this specific subject. Hopefully this will provide you with more results. If you would like to abandon the seasons theme altogether, and diplomacy strategy, wish to start with something new, it is difficult for me to make suggestions as I dont know your interests and the possibilities are endless! If you are really stuck, take something ordinary and do something unusual to it. For example, one of my most recent students took fruit, waited until it rotted and , decayedand then strung them up on the classroom wall using nails and diplomacy germany, string.

She then took savage and beautiful photographs of these, and began the most intricate and When Economic Incentives Overshadow, detailed drawings and paintings. There were many painters of diplomacy strategy, fruit whose work was helpful to caterpillar tracks her. There was also an strategy, endless supply of test definition, crazy, contemporary modern artists whose exploratory use of media was of germany strategy, relevance. Forget about quantity of information. If you care enough about something, you will be able to write an mrs johnstone, outstanding essay with ease.

What moves you? What matters to you most in diplomacy germany, the world? SOPHIA: Im about to begin my AS Art and we have been asked to rousseau produce work over strategy, the summer on the topic they have given us. Although I won the germany strategy, art prize last year I am struggling with ideas for our theme which is Manmade. I like fine art and employment scheme, my previous works have been detailed forms of nature including horses, plants etc. To start with I have been looking at germany, Leonardo da Vinci and have been inspired by his sketches of human anatomy, but I dont know how to develop this into my own ideas keeping within the mable fairbanks, Manmade topic. Also after reading your tips I realise it has to convey emotion. Help! AMIRIA: Hi Sophia, thanks for your question. Your enjoyment of drawing natural forms, horses, plants and human anatomy drawings suggests you particularly like curving, organic forms perhaps with a preference (at this stage) for diplomacy germany, realistic depiction. There are plenty of diplomacy strategy, Manmade items that also fit into anxiety this category, i.e. curving architectural forms; ornate utensils / kitchenware (old kettles etc); woven baskets; intricate jewellery pieces If you do a Google image search on diplomacy strategy curving organic form you get a good idea of the mable fairbanks, huge range of diplomacy germany strategy, beautiful man made forms that fit into the aesthetic you seem to definition like which could thus form the germany strategy, basis of an AS portfolio.

The possibilities, however, are endless, so it is caterpillar tracks better to strategy ask yourself what things really matter to caterpillar tracks you what do you want to communicate to the world? Your work is often best driven not just by an emotion, but by a message (which will then provoke an diplomacy, emotional response in you and definition, viewers). What bothers you? What enrages you? Once you have an germany, idea, you can then start to When Economic Overshadow Reasoning: Bluefish Essay think about ways of mrs johnstone, exploring this aesthetically ABIGAIL: Hi!

I am really struggling to find ideas for germany strategy, my theme of landscape this year. Last year I received an Excellence for my NCEA Art board which was to scheme do with humans and diplomacy germany, birds. My art often surrounds humans and animals but I cannot do that with the diplomacy germany, theme this year so I am really stuck! I was thinking of doing Rural vs Urban but as I am in love with Venice and insurance scheme, other historical buildings that I feel the germany, need to paint them for my art board!! I dont know how I could incorporate these ideas (rural, urban, historical buildings) or if you have any other ideas for the theme of rousseau definition, Landscape it would be MUCH appreciated! Thank you! AMIRIA: What particular aspect of diplomacy germany strategy, a Rural vs Urban theme would you focus on? The encroachment of urban sprawl on the rural environment? Conflict at employment insurance scheme, the boundary where the two meet? It is possible that historical buildings could play a part in diplomacy strategy, an urban/rural theme if you looked at, for apart unoka, example, vines/creepers crawling over decrepit buildings / nature taking back a manmade structure etc.

However, such interpretations are reasonably common and dont seem to be that personal i.e. historical buildings seem to be something a teenager might like aesthetically, but dont appear to fall apart unoka have much personal relevance (correct me if I am wrong). When thinking about a landscape theme, remember that the word landscape can be interpreted quite widelyi.e. it doesnt necessarily limit you to pretty outdoor scenes, but could involve digital/virtual landscapes and strategy, how these interact with the When Economic Incentives Bluefish Essay, physical worldor perhaps human despair / disenchantment manifested in dirty, graffiti-filled urban alleyways. Whatever the case, as suggested in mrs johnstone, my responses to the above two questions, you need to begin by germany identifying issues that really matter to you and diplomacy strategy, using these as the starting point for exploring landscape. For example (this is just a random idea, to illustrate the strategy, point), you might be disenchanted with the rousseau, rigidity of school life and how the education system has been reduced to spoon feeding students with small capsules of germany, information. You could then begin to explore this idea through the depiction of schoolyard landscapes focusing perhaps on things fall apart unoka grid-like patterns (repetition of rectangular classroom windows etc) in dreary disconnected architecture. As your work progress, you might end up abstracting the architectural forms in an effort to better represent/communicate/express your ideas.

If you find it easier to caterpillar start with a physical subject and let the ideas flow from germany, there, then select something unusual and interesting. Not a pretty building or a valley containing flowers but perhaps a cattle carcass decaying in unoka, long grass or a smashed up car abandoned on diplomacy germany a verge. Its not the macabre is necessarily more appropriate than pleasant imagery, but that the world is already filled with a million depictions of pretty landscapes. Unless you are an absolutely amazing artist,you are doing yourself a disservice by selecting a common, pretty subject. And even if you are absolutely amazing, it can be far more exciting to things fall pick something unusual and crazy! HAYA: Hey! Im having a problem choosing a topic with my five page (AS Level) portfolio. I prefer natural over germany, manmade. Any idea as to what I can base my five pages on?

So far Ive been working on different postures of the human body wrapped with drapery in an attempt to symbolise repression a characteristic well known to tracks myself as Im a repressive person. Throughout my work, the true identity of the model is hidden. I was wondering if my topic needs to be developed any further? Also, I was thinking of basing my work on something manmade#8230;but I dont know what I could possibly do under manmade. Your site is strategy absolutely awesome. Thank you for of antiheroes, all your help! AMIRIA: I really like your repression theme.

It has a lot of potential. You could explore such things as the results of diplomacy germany, repression and whether this damages you / makes you withdraw or put up facades / conceal your true personality etc. The theme may lend itself to germany using acrylic gel mediums etc to achieve transparency and translucent layersexploring what is seen / what is employment insurance malaysia not seen / what is diplomacy strategy hidden etc. It is diplomacy difficult to say whether your topic needs to rousseau definition be developed further without seeing your work but the germany strategy, body of test, work as a whole should show developmentfrom a starting point towards a resolved work. If your project seems to be simply repeating the same subject from mable fairbanks, a different angle etc it is time for ideas / compositional strategies to be resolved. Looking to other artists for inspiration is often the best way to move forward if you are stuck.

You might like to select manmade items that are connected to both fabric and ideas of repression i.e. metal buckles on mrs johnstone clothing and germany, stitched ties / cords / zips etc all of which invoke ideas such as tying shut / restraining / confining etc. These objects have more structure and rigidity than merely draped fabric and diplomacy, the human form (and would thus provide you with some welcome variety) but also can be tied in Economic Reasoning:, nicely with your earlier themes. Good luck! ASHLEIGH: For my AS Art I am doing Urban Decay. It has to have some kind of employment scheme, story developing through to germany the end but I cannot think of rousseau definition, anything. Amiria: There are many possibilities Literal interpretations, such as an mrs johnstone, area of germany, town that is physically falling into things apart unoka disrepair and has some sort of history or story attached to iti.e. perhaps a thriving industrial area that became disused for germany, some reason and examples of antiheroes, then became overtaken by diplomacy germany graffiti / vandalism etc. Alternatively you could explore notions of communities being dispersed due to diplomacy strategy computers i.e. the desertion (decay) of examples of antiheroes, traditional urban social centres (i.e. malls / movie theatres) due to strategy people favouring internet-based interactions from the test, warmth of their own homes Perhaps you could zoom right and strategy, look at Economic Incentives Moral Reasoning: Bluefish Tuna Essay, things on a near molecular levelextreme close-ups, visually analysing, for example, the diplomacy germany, rust and erosion that creeps across metallic surfaces or mites that eat into timber.

These could lend themselves to diplomacy germany beautiful abstract works. The story in insurance scheme, this case might be to diplomacy germany do with the mrs johnstone, circle of life and how physical forms are transient and illusory with no clear boundariesthe ebb and germany strategy, flow of atoms etc Another option might be the examples of antiheroes, beauty in decay? Discovering something that has rotted away only to strategy expose something beautiful INAPICKLE: Hi! I have to rousseau COMPLETELY rethink my original idea for diplomacy, my folio board (NCEA Level 3) and malaysia, Im really struggling for conceptual ideas.

At the moment my new idea is the loss of diplomacy germany strategy, innocence/complete mental destruction and changed perception of the world through the experiences of rousseau, war, told from diplomacy, a third person point of view with a solider as the anxiety, main character (like a narrative). Also weaved into diplomacy that idea is the idea of things unoka, being so easily manipulated/brainwashed by the government into strategy being merely a playing piece/slaughtered in their game of , war. Help! I need your advice, am I on the right track? Or am I completely off?? I fear that the , idea is germany way too cliche AND Im also unable to take photos of the subject matter first hand#8230; AMIRIA: Your ideas are not new, as such, in that others have explored them before, but I dont think they are clichA. There is examples a slight risk that they could be presented in an obvious, literal this is diplomacy strategy what I am saying type way, but this applies to most topics.

In terms of , firsthand subject matter, I would be hesitant about only using 3rd party images and Economic Incentives Overshadow Bluefish Tuna, would be particularly careful if they are just commonly available photographs (i.e. those off the , internet). You should use first hand subject matter if at all possible. For example, do you have relatives who were in insurance scheme, a war? Can you get hold of strategy, any of insurance malaysia, their old memorabilia? Perhaps you could take photographs at a museum or an old bunker? If you were thinking more along the germany, lines of things fall unoka, Americans in strategy, Iraq etc, then newspaper clippings / magazine articles perhaps televisions or computer screens with online news stories could be used as physical objects in themselves (i.e. with you initially creating a pile of photographs or pinning articles to a walland then drawing them, with all the mrs johnstone, creases / shadows / three-dimensional elements). You could even take images and germany, digitally superimpose them onto mable fairbanks other surfaces (i.e. find a demolished building or something that appears to germany be some war scene ruin type thingphotograph it beautifully, then digitally superimpose other war based images over the top of examples, it#8230; There are some instances where third party source material is diplomacy appropriate (usually when the malaysia, resulting work is a far departure from the diplomacy germany strategy, initial images)but I would be hesitant.

Discuss it carefully with your teacher. They will know your work and diplomacy germany strategy, whether it will work for your situation. KIMIKO: Ive recently started my NCEA Level 3 Painting board and Im very confused and muddled with ideas. Im worried that my theme may be too superficial or not easy for others to mable fairbanks understand, to the point where Im thinking of germany, redoing my boards. My theme right now is When Economic Incentives Overshadow Moral Reasoning: Tuna Essay Arizona (desert), which was inspired by a dream I had of an open road journey. The paintings that I have already done have a lot of vast open spaces to show freedom, buffalo skulls and examples of antiheroes, dark colours which depict death of the diplomacy strategy, land, a main character (a girl), her tattoos and an old school car. I plan on malaysia making my second board more surreal and reintroducing this coyote as a spirit guide (maybe this would create the strategy, more dreamlike qualities Im trying to show)?

I am also worried that I might be trying to cram too many themes or ideas into one making it complicated. Any ideas or pointers would be such a life saver. AMIRIA: Hi Kimiko. Your theme sounds cool and diplomacy, crazy (in a good way), but it seems to caterpillar tracks bring together a whole range of elements and strategy, ideas, so it doesnt surprise me that you are floundering a little. Firstly, I just want to things fall unoka check whether you have (or have had) firsthand access to any of your subject matter? Have you been to the Arizona desert? Have you seen and germany, photographed real buffalo skulls?

Is the car a real one that you have access to? Is the girl you? Even if these things are ultimately depicted in mrs johnstone, way that is stylised and germany strategy, surrealistic, it helps immensely to have quality source material the , beginning. Could you substitute cow skulls for buffalo skulls (your school science dept should have some)? You want the germany, examiners to believe that this is something personal to of antiheroes you you dont want them to diplomacy germany strategy suspect you have produced the mable fairbanks, whole thing from germany strategy, second hand imagery sourced off the internet. There have been some good folios based on test second hand imagery i.e. pictures from diplomacy strategy, comic books but these are rare, and in , these cases the students cleverly manipulate the image to germany make them their own. The second thing that concerns me a little is the large range of objects/scenes within your work. For most students, becoming proficient with the germany, representation of things apart, just one or two items within a years work is strategy enough of , a challenge, let alone trying to diplomacy strategy become competent at insurance scheme malaysia, drawing landscapes, bones, human figures, cars, and diplomacy germany, (now possibly) animals all at the same time.

I would probably refrain from introducing a coyote, especially if this is something that has not appeared anywhere elsewhere in your board for this reasonbut it is difficult to employment insurance say without seeing your work. If you are a strong drawer and diplomacy germany strategy, can cope with a wide range of tracks, forms, it might be appropriate, as long as it could be integrated seamlessly within your board. What does your teacher think? The real issue at hand, however, is whether you have established what your work is diplomacy actually about. If it is hard for diplomacy, others to understand, it may be because you have not fully defined yourself what you are trying to say.

You mention that you are trying to depict a dreamlike state, and test, also freedom and death of the land, but how are these things connected? Your art needs to be more than a simple depiction of a landscape you dreamed about, with hinted emotion. It needs to germany strategy have a real message and When Economic Reasoning: Bluefish, purpose. What was the germany, dream really about? What is the , purpose of the landscape? What is the artwork trying to diplomacy say? Once you have established this, it should be easier to know how to mable fairbanks proceed with your work. For example, if you are trying to communicate the thrill and fearful freedom that might follow an diplomacy, apocalyptic catastrophe (that is the caterpillar, result of humanitys careless attitude towards protecting our planet, for example), with the germany strategy, earth is wiped clean and mable fairbanks, the landscape as we know it gone, leaving humans free of the shackles of diplomacy strategy, modern society and Economic Moral Essay, eking out a primitive existence etc then little details in the desert sand could give hints at what happened and strategy, what has been lost perhaps collaged littered remnants of mrs johnstone, society The expressions, clothing and diplomacy, tattoos on the girl could also all contain clues about what has happened JADE: Im having a little difficulty deciding on a project for my A2 Fine Art project. I begin this project in germany strategy, September but we have been advised to tracks start brainstorming ideas and collecting relevant sources during the summer holidays to germany strategy contribute to the development and apart, stability of my project. This project is basically a personal experimentation project, so I can literally do anything for this project which is germany strategy why Im struggling slightly to find an tracks, idea.

I am generally quite an diplomacy germany, indecisive person unfortunately! So when I think of an idea, it has to be one in which I feel I will not ever get bored of and a project that essentially can be broadened. In my previous projects, Ive always had trouble with keeping with projects consistently flowing. I tend to eventually run out of different ideas! I have been thinking about doing the seven deadly sins as a project, and diplomacy germany, Ive done some research on this topic.

Personally, I think this could be an interesting theme to explore. However, my concern is diplomacy germany strategy that my own research and gathering of sources (i.e. original images) may be limited. If you have any suggestions I would be very grateful. If you also have any other suggestions for me going in a different direction or topic, I would also much appreciate any ideas. I enjoy painting, sketching, chalk and test, I love mixed media work. Id like to germany strategy find a project in caterpillar tracks, which I can incorporate all mediums. Thank you for your time, im sorry this post is so long! I find this site very helpful and Economic Moral Reasoning: Bluefish Tuna, encouraging, so thanks.

AMIRIA: Well done for beginning your preparation early your teacher will be very happy! My feeling is that the seven deadly sins is a very broad topic. Even just one of the sins would be sufficient for germany, an A2 theme. It is much better to have a narrow, well executed body of When Incentives Overshadow Tuna Essay, work, rather than a broad project that is diplomacy scattered and incoherent. The key to picking a topic is to strategy find one that is test anxiety really important to you (on an germany, emotional level, not just an Economic Overshadow Reasoning: Bluefish Tuna Essay, intellectual level). For example, you could pick gluttony if you (or someone you are close to) struggles with dieting/eating/weight; or greed if people you are close to strategy work themselves into examples of antiheroes the ground in chase of money, whilst sacrificing other aspects of their lives (i.e. a father who is strategy always at When Incentives Reasoning: Bluefish Essay, the office and germany, doesnt spend time with his family); or envy if there is things something you desperately long foror someone who you see is germany strategy being destroyed by envy etc In other words, be driven by When Economic Incentives an issue that is strategy really relevant in your life. In terms of caterpillar, your desire to use many mediums this is germany a great idea for caterpillar, all topics. Experimentation and diplomacy germany, trialling a range of test, mediums is diplomacy strategy beneficial for all topics, so dont let this worry or influence your topic selection. Please note that we are no longer able to diplomacy strategy provide detailed assistance with queries, due to the expansion of this site and things apart, the number of queries that are received. If you know others who would benefit from caterpillar tracks, this article, please share using the diplomacy germany strategy, social media buttons below!

This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of diplomacy germany, Art Design and of antiheroes, a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and diplomacy, assessment of mable fairbanks, Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of diplomacy, Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is germany strategy a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Overshadow Moral Reasoning: Pinterest. Join over definition, 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter. You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and germany strategy, advice from mrs johnstone, experienced teachers.

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Functional Classification and Safety Statistics. Which types of urban roadways are the most dangerous? Major arterial or minor arterial? Freeway or local street? The field of motor-vehicle safety statistics is diplomacy germany, more than a century old. Rousseau? One would expect such a mature field to have settled the diplomacy basic question of the best way to report fatality risk.

But thats not the case, and whats more, the employment scheme malaysia most common method of reporting risk may be mathematically invalid. We may be getting an incorrect understanding of the types of roadways that have the highest fatality risk. Engineers and traffic officials often say freeways are the safest roadways and local streets are the most dangerous. Germany Strategy? That fits the view of mainstream engineering, which points out that local streets have the closest spacing of driveways and intersections, and therefore the densest occurrence of conflict points where crashes can happen. Freeways and expressways have strictly controlled access in order to eliminate intersections and driveways. That view of safety is one of the main justifications for the mandated federal policy called functional classification . The goal of functional classification is to channel a large percentage of traffic onto a small percentage of roadways, specifically freeways, highways, and arterial roads. Those roadway types are the most elaborate and designed to carry high volumes of fast traffic, often with full or partial access control. Functional classification has been very successful at , achieving its basic goal of channeling and concentrating traffic.

Chart 1: Distribution of urban traffic and urban roadway miles. The chart shows the United States skewed pattern of travel, which is largely the strategy product of hierarchical and dendritic roadway layouts supported by functional classification. Chart 1 shows how functional classification sorts roadways into a range of types. The nations skewed distribution of traffic is apparent. Seventy-seven percent of traffic is carried by eighteen percent of roadways by the so-called higher-class freeways, expressways, and major arterials. Traffic in the official statistics is reported as vehicle miles traveled (VMT).

National VMT is the sum of annual state estimates, which are based on gasoline consumption, traffic counters, personal travel questionnaires, and other methods. To compare the safety of roadways, engineers and administrators adjust the raw statistics to account for exposure. The Federal Highway Administration (and indeed the entire mainstream traffic engineering field) does that by dividing the number of fatalities by examples of antiheroes, VMT. In other words, they use travel mileage as the measure of risk exposure. The chart based on that metric looks like this: Chart 2: Fatalities per VMT by functional class. Chart 2 confirms the diplomacy germany strategy mainstream view. Interstates are the safest facilities and local streets are the unoka most dangerous. But is that view truthful? Actually, the official statistics contain a critical logical flaw.

VMT (that is, travel distance) is the product of speed and time. Therefore speed is fundamentally intertwined in the fatalities-per-VMT metric. The way the variables are related produces the following outcome. For any time span, and assuming identical roads and drivers, the fatalities-per-VMT metric will always report that faster speed is safer (see Appendix 1). But thats opposite to basic physics and everything we know from traffic safety research. Fall Unoka? Faster speed is more dangerous on diplomacy germany most roadways, and its certainly more dangerous on definition full-access urban streets and arterials. Does a better metric exist?

A Computerized Method to Judge Streetscape Quality. Architects and urban designers have debated streetscapes for many decades. Rousseau Definition? As early as 1889, the strategy Austrian architect Camillo Sitte wrote of the importance of continuous, connected building facades that lined streets and defined their form. Beautiful public spaces have a sense of enclosure, said Sitte; they feel like outdoor rooms. A few years later the German architect and planner Josef Stubben covered the height-to-width proportion of streets in germany his handbook of city planning. In the 1920s and 30s the architect Le Corbusier issued several emphatic rejections of such ideas. DEATH TO THE STREET, he thundered, decrying the traditional streetscape as dangerous, unhealthy, chaotic, and congested. The ideas promulgated by Corbusier and other modernist planners were in diplomacy strategy tune with the needs of the motor industry: dispersed towers, wide buffers, and large highways. The design of new highways and arterials in cities came to resemble the auto-oriented visions of modernist planners. The chorus of voices defending traditional streetscapes snowballed during the 1960s-1990s. Hundreds of new streetscapes were built based on examples of antiheroes traditional patterns. Infill development re-established traditional streetscapes in existing city districts.

Today one can find both patterns actively promoted in all cities of the world. The debate continues as vigorously, and sometimes as contentiously, as ever. One condition keeping the debate alive is the various arguments, theories, and polemics lack solid empirical support. Definition? Many designers and engineers have a gut feeling about the best way to design streetscapes but statistical evidence is thin. Several streetscape surveys have been developed, and researchers have used them to carry out a few studies. The surveys require teams that manually evaluate each street segment using checklists of tens or hundreds of factors. The process is laborious, slow, and expensive; and as a result, the studies to date have been limited and somewhat inconsistent.

Thats why a thesis by mable fairbanks, Chester W. Harvey titled Measuring Streetscape Design for Livability Using Spatial Data and Methods (2014) is an important advance in the urban design field. Germany? Harvey developed a computerized method to mable fairbanks evaluate the essential form of streetscapes. He tested the results against a survey of streetscape appeal and found significant relationships. Strategy? The theories and speculations of the past 125 years have finally been confirmed with a large sample set: streetscapes shaped like outdoor rooms are perceived to be safer and more attractive to employment scheme malaysia walk in. And that is diplomacy, only the beginning, as the method offers many other potential avenues of investigation. Sustainable Development and Mortgage Default. Multifamily properties with sustainability features have a significantly lower risk of mortgage default. Diplomacy Strategy? Thats the caterpillar conclusion of a May 2013 report by Professor Gary Pivo, which is available from Fannie Mae. The lengthy and self-explanatory title of the report is The Effect of Transportation, Location, and Affordability Related Sustainability Features on Mortgage Default Prediction and Risk in Multifamily Rental Housing . Professor Pivo was able to access Fannie Maes database of multifamily loans. The study looked at 37,385 loans that ranged in age from brand new to 30 years old; the average loan age was 6 years.

The default rate of properties in this study was a very low 0.86%. That means only a few hundred properties were in default. The average location on the urban-rural spectrum was metro city between the urban center and the urban outskirts. The average number of dwellings on each property was 95 (standard deviation was 125 dwellings) and the average construction date was 1968 (standard deviation was 26 years). Both of the latter two measurements had a large standard deviation, meaning the diplomacy germany data values were spread over a wide range. The study tested the rousseau portfolio of loans with seven sustainability variables. The variables were based on U.S. Diplomacy Germany? Census 2000 statistics for census tracts, census block groups, and other sources. Commute time: Commute time in minutes for apart unoka, those who work outside the home Rail commute: Do at diplomacy germany strategy, least 30% of the residents take a subway or elevated train to work? Walk commute: The percentage of residents who walk to work Retail presence: Are there at least 16 retail establishments nearby?

Affordability: Are some of the fall unoka units required to be affordable? Freeway presence: Is the property located within 1,000 feet of a freeway? Park presence: Is the property located within 1 mile of a protected area? Washington DC, like hundreds of other cities in the U.S., has a dirty water problem. The problem goes by the name of combined sewer overflow (CSO). CSO is germany, a fancy way of saying when it rains a lot, our shit and piss go straight into the river untreated.

This foul condition is caused by sewer systems that combine sewage flows (from toilets and drains) with stormwater flows (from lots and streets). Seven hundred and seventy-two cities in the U.S. have these antiquated systems that overflow when it rains a lot. Cities that were built after 1900-1910 solved the problem by building separate systems for sewage and stormwater. Washington DC is under a court order to fix the problem. The original court-ordered plan is a multidecade, multibillion-dollar program of installing giant water storage tunnels. It would reduce raw sewage discharges by definition, 98 percent and would be paid for germany, by doubling water bills over a 20-year period. In August 2011, the DC Water and Sewer Authority proposed a test of low-impact development (LID) in order to things reduce its costs and construction requirements. LID is strategy, a set of stormwater management practices that directs runoff to places where it can soak into the ground: swales, rain gardens, trenches, porous pavement, etc. If we put stormwater into the ground instead of sewer pipes, says DC Water, the pipes will overflow less often. But local environmental groups are wondering just how feasible the DC Water proposal is.

They are objecting to of antiheroes it in particular, the germany proposed eight-year delay in tunnel construction and potential reductions in tunnel capacity. While proven cleanup techniques are delayed, DC Water will experiment with LID techniques that may or may not provide significant reductions of stormwater runoff. ? Washington Post columnist Mike DeBonis describes the situation: New Urbanism and Congestion Reduction. A Wall Street Journal article, The Hidden Toll of Traffic Jams, covered several studies that linked vehicle exhaust with a variety of health impacts. Diplomacy Strategy? The WSJ spun this as a congestion problem, even though it mentioned only one study that investigated congestion (at a toll plaza on Interstate 95). The WSJ also called the redesign of Times Square a congestion reduction measure, but in examples of antiheroes reality the congestion impacts have been mixed and travel times have increased on some routes. The Times Square redesign primarily benefits livability and pedestrian safety and comfort. Maybe this goes without saying, but I think new urbanism has to be careful about the kind of congestion relief it advocates. There are some street network improvements that help increase the walkability and livability of an area. There are other types of construction that mostly help cars speed faster and increase sprawl.

The former can include a fine-grain mesh of small blocks, eliminating curb cuts for driveways, and intelligent systems like predictive navigation. The latter can include roadway widening, flyovers, and new freeways. There are also some measures that can go either way, like tunnels, intersection improvements, and traffic signal coordination. Depending on the design and context, these can contribute to livability or make a thoroughfare more pedestrian-hostile. Hybrid vehicles like the Prius turn the caterpillar congestion equation upside down: at lower speeds they rely more on electric propulsion, which reduces gas consumption, emissions, and health impacts.

Plug-in hybrids and battery electric cars do even better. From the point of view of street-level vehicle pollution, these cars are the best thing since unleaded gasoline. Entry limits for entire urban districts are the most direct way to reduce congestion, but outside of historic European city centers there doesnt seem to be much appetite for diplomacy, doing this. Congestion tolls/fees for urban districts can be effective, but they are regressive, and the political process gets hung up on the costs and discounts the strategy benefits. Other transportation demand measures can help, and the framework and metrics used to identify congestion are critical. Todd Litman writes: increased development density tends to of antiheroes increase congestion measured as roadway level-of-service or delay per vehicle trip, since more trips tend to be generated per acre. Diplomacy Germany? From this perspective, Smart Growth tends to be harmful and sprawl tends to be helpful for reducing congestion problems. However, higher density tends to increase land use Accessibility and Transportation Options, resulting in shorter trip distances and shifts to alternative modes such as walking and public transit. Although streets in higher density urban areas may experience more level-of-service E or F, implying serious congestion problems, urban residents spend less time delayed by congestion because they have closer destinations and better travel options. As a result, per diplomacy strategy capita (as opposed to per-vehicle trip or per-driver) congestion delay tends to be greater in lower-density, automobile-dependent suburban areas such as Los Angeles and Houston than in higher-density urban areas such as New York and San Francisco, because low-density areas have more per-capita vehicle mileage.

New urbanists have to be informed and nuanced when navigating the congestion debate, because it easily can be turned to favor sprawl. Below the fold: links about the rousseau level-of-service measure and its reform. Im very pleased to say The Language of Towns Cities: A Visual Dictionary has been published and is available for purchase. Diplomacy Strategy? The massive tome was written by Dhiru Thadani with more than fifty contributors. I was the editor of the book as well as a contributor. My leading observation is When Economic, that the title is a misnomer. Its not a visual dictionary, its a visual encyclopedia a combination of reference book and coffee table book. It represents about 15 years of creative production by When Bluefish, Dhiru, including his maps of urban spaces around the diplomacy strategy world and his insights from 30 years as an architect and town planner. Numbers also tell the tale: the book consists of 804 pages; more than 500 subject matter entries ranging from single paragraphs to full essays; and more than 2,500 diagrams, illustrations, and photographs. The book is physically heavy and bulky. Its dimensions are 10.4? x 10.4? x 2.75? and it weighs 9 pounds not what you would call a portable book.

Once it gets parked on a desk or coffee table, its not going to move far. The Language of Towns Cities is a fine example of the craft of bookmaking. Credit is strategy, due to Rizzoli Publications and the Chinese firm that manufactured the book. It is beautifully printed, with heavy coated paper stock that showcases the vibrant, lush photography. Things Fall Unoka? The binding is sturdy and lies flat at any page, which many books these days are not made to do. The authorial tone of the diplomacy germany book is accessible and straightforward, aiming for clarity rather than obfuscation by jargon. Indeed, The Language of Towns Cities is a work of anti-jargon, because it introduces concepts, defines terms, explores patterns, and reveals history.

Being an Economic Overshadow Moral encyclopedia, The Language of Towns Cities is arranged alphabetically. Rob Kriers review on describes his childhood joy at browsing reference works. Krier says that reading Language made him feel the When Economic Incentives Moral Bluefish Tuna same way. Each flip of the page brought a different subject into view, encouraging serendipitous exploration and discovery. To sum up, Language combines beautiful images, a wide variety of subject matter, accessible writing, and fine bookmaking.

I call it the ultimate browsing book on urban design. What follows is the dust jacket book description, list of contributors, and a sample from the book including the complete table of contents. Location, Transportation, and Urban Design in LEED 2012. The draft LEED 2012 rating systems were released for public comment today. The proposals contain new and revised credits that relate to the location, transportation options, and urban design of projects. Here Ill review the changes that are of greatest interest to new urbanism and smart growth advocates. The following proposals are in the Building Design #038; Construction document, which includes most of the When Moral Reasoning: Bluefish Essay LEED rating systems. LT stands for germany strategy, Location and Transportation , which is germany, a new category within LEED systems. Please note that LEED 2012 is my own personal shorthand for these draft proposals.

The more accurate and official term is proposed update to LEED with no year associated. LT Prerequisite: Bicycle Storage. LEED has been critiqued for a variety of flaws both real and alleged. But one thing you can always count on is a mention of the bike rack credit. Every critic or reporter has a sworn duty to point out that bike racks can earn a LEED credit point. Installing bike racks is cheap and easy compared to (for instance) making buildings more energy efficient, and may be worth the strategy same number of credit points. This has consistently been presented as an example of LEED illogic.

Worry no longer! Installing bike racks is now a prerequisite for employment insurance scheme malaysia, all LEED projects, except for diplomacy, those in totally unbikeable locations. The racks have to be safe and convenient no stashing behind garbage dumpsters. Residential projects provide additional bike storage for their residents. This prerequisite is both functional and symbolic, providing a visible signal that transportation mode choice is an diplomacy strategy essential aspect of LEED. Also, creating a bicycle storage prerequisite allows the bar to Incentives Moral Reasoning: be raised for performance in strategy the Bicycle Network, Storage and Changing Rooms credit. The Power of Intersection Density. Intersection density is the number of intersections in an area. Strategy? It corresponds closely to block size the greater the intersection density, the smaller the blocks. Things Fall Apart? Small blocks make a neighborhood walkable. This diagram shows three street layouts extremely walkable, moderately walkable, and unwalkable with their counts of intersections per square mile:

Intersection density makes surprising news in diplomacy germany a study by rousseau, the formidable academic duo of Reid Ewing and Robert Cervero. They have published Travel and the Built Environment: A Meta-Analysis in the Summer 2010 issue of the Journal of the American Planning Association . As the title notes, the study is a meta-analysis: a study of 50 other studies about travel and the built environment. The authors look at the results from each of the 50 studies, and then pool all of those results into ten built environment measurements, including intersection density. Their findings? Of all the built environment measurements, intersection density has the largest effect on walking more than population density, distance to a store, distance to a transit stop, or jobs within one mile.

Intersection density also has large effects on transit use and the amount of driving. Mable Fairbanks? The authors comment, This is surprising, given the emphasis in strategy the qualitative literature on density and diversity, and the relatively limited attention paid to design. In other words, intersection density is the most important factor for walking and one of the rousseau most important factors for increasing transit use and reducing miles driven, but gets relatively little attention in research and in public policy. Dense and Beautiful Stormwater Management. Consider two views about sustainable cities.

Call one the Green City, and the other the Compact City. Green City: A sustainable city is diplomacy germany, a green city. It has lots of plants and trees that make the city more beautiful, provide habitat for wildlife, and help clean the air and water. It even has community gardens where people grow food and flowers. Compact City: A sustainable city is a compact city. It has lots of buildings and activities conveniently close together so people can walk, bike, and take transit. It even has paved squares and plazas where people gather and participate in markets, performances, free speech, and recreation. The Green City is strategy, popular as never before. Mable Fairbanks? Everyone wants more trees, more landscaping, more living green in diplomacy germany strategy their neighborhoods. Stormwater standards are shaping up to be the major vector by definition, which the Green City is diplomacy strategy, delivered even mandated, in many cases. What does this mean for the Compact City?

Is there a conflict between the tracks two views? In fact, both views are necessary. We have the germany strategy technical know-how to create neighborhoods that are both compact and green. But sometimes standards and regulations dont recognize this, particularly stormwater standards. Well-intentioned stormwater standards and regulations can put compact urban development at a disadvantage. They may have the unintended consequence of promoting sprawl, which hurts watersheds more than compact development. Unlike many barriers to compact development, this is diplomacy strategy, not a technical, social, financial, or even political problem. It is employment insurance malaysia, largely an administrative problem. Doing the right thing is simply more difficult for administrators.

This essay suggests four guidelines for stormwater management that support and encourage compact neighborhood development. These guidelines can help put regulations back on the right track, and may also help to make the job of administering stormwater more manageable: Recognize density as a best management practice Allow off-site mitigation, preferably in the neighborhood Plan according to the Transect (neighborhood context) Design according to the Transect (neighborhood context) Robert Charles Lesser #038; Co. Market Studies. In a September 2009 paper The Market for Smart Growth, market researchers at Robert Charles Lesser #038; Co. reported strong market demand for housing in new urban communities.

In a number of U.S. ? cities, their consumer surveys found at least one-third of the market prefers new urbanism, transit-oriented development, and urban and suburban infill communities: Proprietary consumer research conducted by Robert Charles Lesser #038; Co. LLC (RCLCo) in various U.S. real estate markets has consistently found that about diplomacy germany a third of respondents, given the option, would seriously consider New Urbanist communities and housing products in selecting a new home. Germany? The majority of the RCLCo studies were conducted for builders and developers as input to planning new smart growth developments. An examination of the survey evidence relative to consumer housing preferences in employment the context of demographic projections demonstrates that the size of the market for dense walkable communities is increasing . (emphasis added) An Introduction to LEED-ND for CNU Members. This summer, members of the Congress for the New Urbanism will vote on LEED for Neighborhood Development.

LEED-ND is a system for rating the sustainability of neighborhoods. The vote is strategy, a membership referendum on whether CNU endorses the release of LEED-ND in its present state. To encourage informed participation in caterpillar tracks the vote, the DC chapter of CNU has released An Introduction to LEED-ND for CNU Members. The six-page article covers the diplomacy essential points that CNU members should know as they consider their ballot. Topics include the rousseau definition background of LEED, how the system is administered, credits of special interest to new urbanism, what the system does and does not do, and the purpose and meaning of the vote. The article is strategy, written by Laurence Aurbach, CNU DC Chapter secretary and member of the LEED Location and Planning Technical Advisory Group. Towards a Functional Classification Replacement (Part Three) Part One of this essay covers the background, characteristics and drawbacks of functional classification, and evaluates some of the leading alternatives. Part Two continues by proposing a replacement, a sustainable transportation network classification, covering the mable fairbanks block-scale and neighborhood-scale relationships. Diplomacy Germany Strategy? Part Three concludes by covering the city-scale relationship and the congestion-related impacts of a sustainable network.

The ideal pattern of regional growth has been debated at least since the 19th century. In the 1960s and 70s the germany focus of the debate sharpened on efficiency and sustainability, and the Compact City was suggested to be the ideal. The Compact City redirects all growth into a single urban core, maximizing density while minimizing the consumption of farms, forests and agricultural land. It explicitly counteracted the germany dominant trend of decentralized suburban sprawl. Some of the benefits of the Compact City idea have been confirmed by diplomacy strategy, researchers. Cities with higher density and more compact form have much less per diplomacy strategy capita driving (Newman and Kenworthy, 1999). ? In existing cities, the trend of sprawling suburban growth causes an explosion in diplomacy strategy the amount of auto driving; a policy of refocusing growth, mixed use and transit in the urban core will halt that explosion and slightly reduce the amount of driving (Simmonds and Coombe, 2000). Analysis of city-scale development patterns shows that focusing growth on rousseau high-capacity transit nodes will have the greatest CO2 reduction effect.

Image credit: Eliot Allen, Cool Spots Towards a Functional Classification Replacement (Part Two) Part One of this essay covers the diplomacy strategy background, characteristics and drawbacks of functional classification, and evaluates some of the leading alternatives. Part Two continues by proposing a replacement, a sustainable transportation network classification, covering the block-scale and neighborhood-scale relationships. Part Three concludes by covering the city-scale relationship and the congestion-related impacts of a sustainable network. A sustainable network classification ideally will do several things. Actively encourage sustainability (as defined previously in the sustainable transport section); do not support unsustainable network patterns and operations.

Be concise, easy to remember and easy to explain. Address a range of scales, a range that is at least as wide as that covered by functional classification. Germany? Incorporate advanced knowledge about network function and best practices in network planning. To reach these goals, a sustainable network classification is employment insurance scheme malaysia, proposed. Germany Strategy? The classification has three primary relationships, each applying to a different scale. The three scales are block scale, neighborhood scale, and city scale.

This allows each relationship to focus on the factors most relevant to its scale, without unnecessarily confusing factors from fall apart different scales or combining them inappropriately. Towards a Functional Classification Replacement (Part One) Every field has its foundational working concepts and the field of traffic engineering is no exception. Diplomacy Strategy? It has a concept called functional classification , which is the core, guiding idea underlying the roadway system of the United States and many other nations. Functional classification is the conceptual foundation of the auto-dependent built environments where most Americans live. The primary vision of functional classification is moving more and more cars at faster and faster speeds. This has certain benefits, but also a wide range of disastrous consequences for the built environment and the people who live in it. Hundreds, possibly thousands of reform-minded transportation planners and engineers have determined that the roadway functional classification system should be replaced. It should be replaced by guiding concepts that support a more efficient, safer, less-polluting transportation system concepts that support a wider range of choices for neighborhood living and daily travel. Overshadow Moral Essay? What factors should be considered when formulating a sustainable transportation system? What proposals have already been made?

Part One of this essay explores those questions. Part Two continues by proposing a replacement, a sustainable transportation network classification, covering the block-scale and neighborhood-scale relationships. Part Three concludes by covering the city-scale relationship and the congestion-related impacts of a sustainable network. The Brad Pitt-narrated PBS series e? ( the Economies of being Environmentally conscious) has several episodes about urban design and planning. For a general introduction to germany strategy walkable, transit-oriented design and planning, I recommend the episode Portland: A Sense of Place. It focuses on the citys rail transit and aerial tram, the Pearl District redevelopment, and the quality of life that can result from downtown revitalization with good urban design. Even better is the episode Seoul: The Stream of Consciousness which focuses on Seouls Cheonggyecheon Restoration Project.

This was a major freeway in the heart of the diplomacy city that was torn down and replaced with a linear park and recreated running stream. Mable Fairbanks? The best thing about this episode is the diplomacy sense of hope and renewal for the city that is conveyed by the residents pride in their new park.

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Les Misérables, de Victor Hugo : Résumé De l'?uvre entiere se degage cette pensee sociale exposee dans la preface : Tant qu'il existera, par le fait des lois et des m?urs, une damnation sociale creant artificiellement, en pleine civilisation, des enfers, et compliquant d'une fatalite humaine la fatalite, qui est divine ; tant que les trois problemes du siecle : la degradation de l'homme par le proletariat, la decheance de la femme par la faim, l'atrophie de l'enfant par la nuit, ne seront pas resolus ; tant que, dans certaines regions, l'asphyxie sociale sera possible ; en d'autres termes, et a un point de vue plus etendu encore, tant qu'il y aura ignorance et misere, des livres de la nature de celui-ci ne seront pas inutiles. Germany? Le heros des Miserables est Jean Valjean, l'emondeur de Faverolles, condamne au bagne pour un pain vole, un jour que les enfants de sa s?ur avaient faim. ? A titre de prologue, Victor Hugo nous presente un respectable eveque, Mgr Myriel (Bienvenu. Miollis) dans lequel il a incarne toutes les vertus du catholicisme primitif. Germany? Un pauvre diable deguenille, have, souille de boue et de poussiere, vient demander l'hospitalite a l'eveque. ? L'eveque l'accueille, le couche. Diplomacy? Au petit jour, l'homme deguerpit, emportant quelques couverts d'argent laisses sur la table. Caterpillar Tracks? C'est Jean Valjean.

Saisi par les gendarmes, qui l'ont vu s'enfuir, il est ramene chez le prelat pour la constatation du vol, mais le digne homme, lui montrant les deux flambeaux d'argent de sa cheminee, lui reproche doucement de ne pas les avoir emportes, puisqu'il les lui avait donnes comme les couverts. Diplomacy? Ecrase par cette generosite qui le sauve, le galerien prend les flambeaux et se jure d'etre honnete homme. Une jeune fille, Fantine, a ete abandonnee par son amant ; malheureusement, elle a un enfant, la petite Cosette. Things Apart? Pour subvenir a leurs besoins, Fantine est disposee a faire tous les metiers, mais repoussee de partout comme fille mere, elle est obligee de se livrer a la prostitution. Diplomacy Germany Strategy? Une dispute de la pauvre Fantine avec un imbecile qui lui jette de la neige dans le dos l'amene en presence du redoutable Javert, la police faite homme. Rousseau Definition? Javert donne tort a la fille, tout naturellement, mais il se heurte alors a M. Germany Strategy? Madeleine, maire de la ville, qui, entre par hasard dans le bureau, a entendu toute la lamentable confession de Fantine, et qui, pris de pitie, prend sur lui de la faire relacher. Economic Moral Reasoning: Bluefish? Ce trait impossible, un maire sauvant une fille publique, exaspere Javert et confirme des soupcons que d'autres faits ont deja provoques dans son esprit. Strategy? M. Rousseau Definition? Madeleine ne dissimule-t-il pas sous un faux nom une autre personnalite? Javert laisse deviner ce doute; ce qui trouble grandement M. Germany? Madeleine, puisqu'il n'est autre que Jean Valjean lui-meme, et il se voit ainsi sur le point de perdre tout le fruit de dix ans de probite. Things? Un autre incident vient le troubler plus profondement encore : il apprend qu'un malheureux, arrete sous le faux nom de Jean Valjean, passe en ce moment meme en cour d'assises. Germany? Le malheureux se demande s'il doit laisser s'accomplir la condamnation de l'innocent, condamnation qui assurera son avenir et affermira sa personnalite empruntee, et sans se decider, pousse par une sorte d'instinct, il se rend a la cour d'assises.

La, il voit le malheureux, propre image de l'ancien Valjean, balbutiant d'un air hebete des recriminations qui ne convainquent personne : on insurance, va le condamner. Diplomacy Germany Strategy? M. Rousseau? Madeleine se leve et declare qu'il est Jean Valjean; il se fait connaitre par ses compagnons de chaine, appeles pour etre confrontes avec le faux Valjean, et il est ressaisi avec joie par l'impitoyable Javert. Diplomacy Germany? Toutefois, on tracks, le laisse libre momentanement et il profite de ce repit pour assister a l'agonie de Fantine, qui meurt sur un lit d'hopital. Germany? Il jure a celle-ci, dont il s'accuse d'avoir cause la mort en la chassant de son atelier, d'adopter sa fille, la petite Cosette et il parvient a s'echapper et a gagner Paris, ou il retire 600 000 francs de la banque Laffitte et les enfouit dans un bois. Nous retrouvons Cosette chez un chenapan, Thenardier, qui s'est etabli aubergiste a Montfermeil et chez qui Fantine a place sa fille. Things Fall? Depuis que sa mere n'a plus paye la pension, les Thenardier ont fait de Cossette une servante qu'ils bourrent de coups et qui n'a plus que le souffle. Diplomacy Germany? Il est temps que Jean Valjean vienne la sauver. Arrete par Javert, a la suite d'une nouvelle imprudence, Jean Valjean est reintegre au bagne, mais il s'en est echappe en se devouant pour sauver un homme tombe a la mer ; tout le monde, Javert lui-meme, le croit noye.

Cependant Jean Valjean arrache Cosette a l'enfer de la maison Thenardier, et, une fois en possession de la fille de Fantine, l'ancien forcat se choisit une retraite obscure d'abord sur le boulevard de l'Hopital, dans cette masure Gorbeau, qui devient un des centres d'action les plus caracteristiques des Miserables . Of Antiheroes? Mais la encore il est depiste par Javert et oblige de se refugier a la communaute de l'Adoration perpetuelle comme jardinier, tandis que Cosette y entre comme eleve. Un nouveau personnage fait son entree en scene : Marius. Germany? C'est le fils du colonel de Pontmercy, sauve par Thenardier sur le champ de bataille de Waterloo et qui se trouvait oblige de travailler pour vivre par suite des evenements politiques. Fall Apart Unoka? Marius est venu habiter, par economie, la masure Gorbeau. Diplomacy? Sa vie est partagee par deux passions : l'amour de la liberte, qui le fait s'affilier a un cenacle de jeunes republicains, et l'amour, plus tendre, qu'il eprouve pour Cosette qu'il a rencontree au Luxembourg au bras de son pere. Marius a pour voisin un effroyable chenapan, le sieur Jondrette, qui vit de chantage et de la prostitution de ses filles, Eponine et Azelma, ainsi que son fils, un gamin, Gavroche, que Victor Hugo a rendu populaire. ? Ce Jondrette n'est autre que Thenardier, tombe au fond du gouffre.

Le vieux monsieur du Luxembourg, toujours trop charitable, vient visiter ce gredin qui ecrit des lettres lamentables a toutes les personnes genereuses ; il est reconnu par l'ancien aubergiste de Montfermeil, et Cosette egalement. Germany Strategy? Thenardier tend un piege a Jean Valjean, mais Marius, qui a entendu s'ourdir le complot, previent la police, c'est-a-dire Javert. Tracks? Jean Valjean, des son entree, est saisi et garrotte. Diplomacy Strategy? Toute la bande Thenardier-Jondrette est arretee, mais quand Javert veut interroger le respectable monsieur attire dans le piege, il n'y a plus personne. Des lors, tous ces elements de l'action ayant ete mis en presence et combines, le denouement est proche ; mais l'illustre auteur ne se hate pas ; il ne veut pas etre que romancier, il veut aussi etre le peintre de toute une large epoque de notre histoire. Les amours de Marius et de Cosette, ce -qu'il appelle l'Idylle rue Plumet , ont pour pendant des scenes terribles, l'emeute de 1832, l' Epopee rue Saint-Denis . When Economic Incentives Reasoning: Bluefish? La se denoue le sort de bien des personnages; sur la barricade meurent presque tous les amis de Marius; lui-meme n'echappe que grace au devouement d'Eponine, singuliere fille qui l'aime au milieu de la degradation dont elle vit, et qui meurt en recevant une balle a lui destinee ; Gavroche aussi meurt heroiquement, en vrai gamin de Paris. Germany Strategy? Javert, deguise en insurge et reconnu, va etre fusille ; il est confie a Jean Valjean, qui, au lieu de lui bruler la cervelle quand les troupes reprennent la barricade, le detache et lui dit : Vous etes libre. Employment Insurance Malaysia? Marius est blesse; Valjean le sauve a travers le dedale des egouts de Paris, terrible voyage souterrain auquel, suivant son habitude, Victor Hugo a donne pour preface une veritable monographie des egouts, de ce qu'il appelle l'intestin du Leviathan . Diplomacy Strategy? Au bout du cloaque, au moment ou il se croit hors de danger avec Marius, se dresse pour la derniere fois la redoutable encolure de. Examples Of Antiheroes? Javert, mais le terrible policier a reflechi profondement depuis que le galerien a dedaigne de se venger ; il aide Valjean a sauver Marius.

Puis, ne pouvant se resoudre soit a faire reintegrer au bagne l'homme a qui il doit la vie, soit a manquer a son devoir en ne le livrant pas, il sort en stoicien de sa perplexite : il se tue ! Marius, gueri, epouse Cosette, et Jean Valjean s'eteint ayant rempli jusqu'au bout la promesse faite a la morte. Psychologie des personnages. Jean Valjean est un personnage aussi fantastique que Quasimodo. Strategy? Mais il est fait, lui aussi, de ce beau fantastique des poetes qui part de la realite, qui l'exalte, l'amplifie, la magnifie. Au debut, Jean Valjean est un innocent qui a vole un pain et qui ne rencontre pas un president Magnaud pour le sauver du bagne. Insurance? Forcat, il devient un bandit. Diplomacy Germany Strategy? Sa rencontre avec l'eveque Bienvenu est la rencontre du mal avec le bien. Rousseau Definition? Il vole son bienfaiteur, qui lui pardonne, le sauve du chatiment social, le sauve surtout de lui-meme. A partir de ce jour, il n'y a plus de Jean Valjean. Diplomacy Germany? Il y a M. Insurance Malaysia? Madeleine, industriel, philanthrope, maire de la petite ville et le plus surprenant genie de feerie qui soit, un genie bienfaisant qui surgit par toutes les trappes dans toutes les circonstances, pour barrer la route au crime, proteger la vertu, sauver la faiblesse.

Il fait aux autres ce que l'eveque Bienvenu lui a fait. Strategy? C'est lui qui fait luire l'espoir aux yeux des desesperes, qui ramene la bonte au c?ur meurtri et desseche des miserables. Il est le magistrat qui venge la fille publique Fantine de la basse injure du sot bourgeois Bamatabois et qui l'arrache a la poigne du policier Javert. ? Il est le confident de l'agonie de la triste creature, et il se met en marche pour decouvrir et adopter la petite fille qu'elle a laissee dans l'antre des Thenardier. Diplomacy Germany Strategy? Il est, avant de partir pour cette mission, celui qui sauve la brute innocente Ghampmathieu, pris pour Jean Valjean.

Il est le brave homme qui surgit dans la foret pour porter le seau de Cosette et lui acheter une poupee a la fete du village. Caterpillar? Il est le gibier qui depiste les meilleurs limiers et qui passe par-dessus les murailles sans quitter la precieuse petite fille. Germany? Il est l'insurge aux coups de fusil bienfaisants qui ne tuent personne, le pardonneur magnanime qui rend la vie a son ennemi Javert, le sacrifie conscient qui emporte Marius mourant et le guerit pour donner a Cosette l'epoux qui la prendra pour lui tout seul. Things Apart? Il meurt de sa derniere belle action apres avoir accompli tous ses tours de force et seme tous ses germes de bonte. Diplomacy Germany Strategy? Il est donc bien un genie de feerie. Mais quelle etonnante et inattendue feerie!

La plus vaste, la plus sombre, la plus pathetique, tout le Paris du XIXe siecle avec ses rues, ses ruelles, ses maisons, ses murs, ses taudis, ses repaires, ses jardins, ses couvents, ses barricades, ses braves gens, ses bandits, ses belles filles, ses insurges, ses vieillards. Things Fall Unoka? Une feerie qui est une grave et profonde tragedie, la verite des etres et des choses vue par un poete, exprimee par des mots qui bougent, qui se hatent, qui s'enfievrent, qui revent, qui font le bruit et le silence, qui se colorent de jour et de nuit, qui soupirent, sanglotent comme l'amour, qui grondent comme la foudre du ciel et comme le canon des guerres civiles, qui vivent et font de la vie. Fantine, un des personnages les plus touchants du roman des Miserables . En le creant, Victor Hugo a pris le theme favori de sa jeunesse, la rehabilitation de la fille de joie par l'amour maternel. Diplomacy Germany? Fantine est s?ur de Paquette la Chantefleurie ( Notre-Dame de Paris ). Mable Fairbanks? La parente est incontestable entre ces deux figures. Diplomacy Germany? Elles sont egalement, touchantes par leurs infortunes. Apart Unoka? Non, pas egalement. Diplomacy? La derniere venue est plus miserable encore que son ainee. Insurance Scheme? Fantine, au XIXe siecle, est plus malheureuse, plus persecutee que Paquette en plein moyen age. Fantine a commis une faute, elle a une tache originelle, et il faut qu'elle l'expie. Germany Strategy? C'est en vain qu'elle essaye de reparer, a force de devouement et de sacrifices, une faute ou la misere et l'ignorance l'ont jetee. Mable Fairbanks? Elle veut elever son enfant.

Mais si elle la garde avec elle, jamais on germany, ne la recevra dans les ateliers : elle la met en pension dans un menage de loups-cerviers , qui traitent durement la pauvre Cosette. Malaysia? Fantine, calomniee, est reduite pour vivre, ou plutot pour faire vivre son enfant, a accepter l'ouvrage le plus grossier et le moins lucratif. Germany Strategy? Elle apprend comment on mable fairbanks, se passe tout a fait de feu en hiver, comment on diplomacy, renonce a un oiseau qui vous mange un liard de millet tous les deux jours, comment on caterpillar, fait de son jupon sa couverture et de sa couverture son jupon, comment on diplomacy germany strategy, menage sa chandelle en prenant son repas a la lumiere de la fenetre d'en face . Fantine, reduite aux dernieres extremites, est contrainte de faire argent de tout, de ses cheveux, de ses dents. ? Elle descend plus bas encore : elle devient quelque chose de moins encore qu'elle n'etait. Diplomacy Germany? Cet etre degrade par la misere n'est releve, soutenu que par l'amour maternel. Un seul homme a pitie de Fantine, car il comprend ses malheurs par experience : c'est le forcat devenu honnete homme, c'est Jean Valjean devenu M. Unoka? Madeleine. Germany Strategy? Il s'empresse de retirer de la misere la malheureuse mere et de recueillir l'enfant maltraite par les Thenardier ; mais Fantine est tombee trop bas pour se relever. Mable Fairbanks? Les privations et les exces ont ruine sa sante.

Elle languit, elle meurt a l'hospice, demandant sa fille, qu'on ne veut point lui rendre. Diplomacy Germany Strategy? Jean Valjean veut consoler la moribonde, mais on fall apart, a retrouve les traces de l'ancien forcat : on diplomacy germany, vient l'arreter au chevet de Fantine expirante. Examples Of Antiheroes? C'est le dernier acte de la triste vie de Fantine. Javert, type de policier, dans Les Miserables . Diplomacy? Victor Hugo a particulierement donne du relief a ce type difficile a creer apres les inoubliables policiers de Balzac. Tracks? Il en a fait un tout autre homme que les Peyrade et les Contenson, pourtant si reussis dans leur genre, de Une Tenebreuse affaire et de Splendeurs et miseres des courtisanes . Diplomacy Germany Strategy? Javert est le policier honnete, rigide, inflexible, tout entier aux devoirs de sa fonction, incorruptible aussi et ne se laissant pas plus acheter qu'attendrir. Economic Reasoning: Bluefish Tuna? Il joue evidemment un role odieux, lorsqu'il s'acharne apres la pauvre Fantine coupable d'avoir insulte M. Diplomacy Germany? Bamatabois, qui la maltraitait, lorsqu'il triomphe de faire rentrer au bagne Jean Valjean, qu'il devine, avec un flair tout particulier, sous le masque de l'honnete M. Mable Fairbanks? Madeleine, et qu'il suit a. Diplomacy Germany Strategy? la piste en prenant toutes sortes de deguisements ; mais, au fond, ce n'en est pas moins son devoir qu'il accomplit, et lorsque Jean Valjean, encore une fois echappe du bagne, lui a sauve la vie, Javert, ne pouvant se resoudre soit a livrer l'homme auquel il doit au moins quelque reconnaissance, soit a manquer a son devoir en ne le livrant pas, sort en stoicien de sa perplexite : il se tue.

C'est avec des mots exacts, souriants, compatissants, spirituels, gouailleurs, familiers, camarades, que Hugo a fait Gavroche. Rousseau? Avec ce nom propre, qui est devenu un nom commun, un nom generique, l'ecrivain a trouve le reste. Je ne sais s'il s'est inspire du Gavroche avant la lettre qu'Eugene Delacroix a dresse en guenilles sur la barricade de sa Liberte , un lourd pistolet a chaque main, une giberne en bandouliere qui lui bat les jambes, le visage rieur et exalte dans l'atmosphere de poudre et de gloire. Germany Strategy? C'est le meme enfant heroique et blagueur, a n'en pas douter, qui a ete vu par le peintre et par l'ecrivain aux jours de 1830. Gavroche est la joie des Miserables . Of Antiheroes? Il est le moineau qui vient chercher les miettes de pain du repas des pauvres et qui paye son ecot en cris de plaisir et en irreverences. Diplomacy Strategy? Le pave est a lui, et tout ce qu'il y a dessus et autour. Caterpillar? Son argot salue la jolie femme qui sourit, et nasarde le bourgeois qui passe. Germany? Il sait trouver une alcove pour ses freres et pour lui sous une arche de pont, dans une maison en construction, a l'angle de deux murs. Mable Fairbanks? Quand il a bien dine d'une croute et de l'eau de la fontaine et qu'il est en gaiete, il casse un reverbere, pour faire croire que c'est la Revolution qui commence. Sa petite ame est aussi une grande ame. Diplomacy Strategy? S'il est la joie du livre, il est aussi l'une de ses douleurs.

Sous toutes ses grimaces et tous ses rires, il a l'amertume de la vie avant d'avoir vecu. Mable Fairbanks? Il ne dit pas tout ce qu'il sait, et il sait tout. Strategy? Il sait le chagrin des autres, la misere sans fin, la mort prefere donc la mort tout de suite, avec de fiers jeunes gens comme les amis de l'A B C, a la mort lente du travail, de la maladie et de l'hopital. Definition? Et il meurt en chantant, comme il a vecu, dans la rue, qui a ete son domicile, sur le pave, qui a ete son lit. Diplomacy Germany? Son esprit chante encore, si vous savez l'entendre, a certains coins de rues du Paris de ce temps-la. [Revue Universelle, 1902] Autres resumes d?uvres de Victor Hugo : La vache.

Trop de texte! Plutot bien ecrit mais je suis desole, j'appelle pas vraiment ca un resumer! trop long mes sinon ses bien. ouaaa franchement c'est genial on things apart unoka, trouve toutes les infos qu'on cherche!! merci beaucoup ^^ Sofia Williams ce resume est trop trop long tu peux faire un resume. c'est trop long dsl ^^ pffffff tu nous a ecrit un dictionnaire c'est pas un resume sa. ce resume est trop long mais donne de bonne information sur l'oeuvre. Pire que long donne pas envie de le lire ce n'est pas un resume ca non de dieu!!

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alcoholism apa essay The Writing Center. Empire State College. Genesee Valley Center. Strategy? GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS. IN THE APA STYLE.

This style sheet is intended only as an overview and does not cover all aspects of the APA style. For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or a style guide to writing research papers. The Writing Center has these and mable fairbanks other resources on hand, and Writing Center tutors can help you to diplomacy strategy use them. The APA style refers to the method of writing research papers recommended by the American Psychological Association. Diplomacy Strategy? The APA style is used in the social sciences and is governed by two basic ideas. The first is that a scientific paper attempts to show something that has already been proven true, so it calls for the past or present perfect tense when you cite the things fall apart unoka work of strategy others. Second, the tracks year of publication is important, so you need to feature it immediately after any named source in the text. Smyth (1972) found that children often studied while watching television.

Williams and Maier (1994) have defined a new theory of cognition. Germany? Use the When Incentives Moral Essay present tense for generalizations and personal comments. Use the past or present perfect tenses only to introduce the diplomacy strategy work of cited sources. Of Antiheroes? Evidence of the rise of the heroin use exists for every age group, even children. Burroughs and Bruce (1996) reported on five incidents of heroin overdose in the under 10 age group.

Basic APA Facts. Always double space, including the text of your paper, quotations, notes, and the reference page. Leave margins of at least one-inch at the top, bottom, right, and diplomacy left of every page. Use parenthetical citations to acknowledge direct quotations, indirect quotations, and/or any ideas you have borrowed from another person. Use a reference page for reference to parenthetical citations. Within the text of caterpillar your paper, underline titles of books, plays, pamphlets, periodicals, films, television programs, and recordings; place in quotation marks titles of articles, essays in anthologies, book chapters, and lectures.

Number pages in the upper right hand corner. Include a running head. Plagiarism is the germany use of the words and/or ideas of tracks another person without acknowledging the source. Plagiarism is generally grounds for failure of a course and can lead to dismissal from college. To avoid plagiarism, acknowledge your sources with in-text citations and a reference page.

Enclose direct quotations in diplomacy germany strategy, quotation marks or otherwise indent them from the body of your text. ? If you use another person's idea or paraphrase another person's words, be sure to use your own language and style of writing #8212; don't simply rearrange the words. Use an in-text citation to acknowledge the source, then list on a reference page the publications or sources from which you obtained your citations. For more detailed information on plagiarism and how to avoid it, see the handout available at the GVC Writing Center. Diplomacy Germany? Cite the first appearance of another person's words and/or ideas by introducing the quotation or paraphrase with the author's name. After the first appearance, cite the author's name either within the text of your writing or within the parenthetical citation immediately following the cited passage. Always use the last name of the diplomacy strategy author/authors and employment the year of publication. The year of publication always follows the name of the cited/quoted authority. Note that commas separate items within parentheses. Strategy? Following are some examples of in-text citation methods in the APA style.

In his study of the effects of mable fairbanks alcohol on the ability to drive, Smith (1991) showed that the reaction times of participating drivers were adversely affected by as little as a twelve ounce can of beer. Germany? If you don't use the author's name in the text, place it within the parenthetical citation with the date. Things? A recent study of the effects of alcohol on the ability to drive showed that as little as twelve ounces of beer adversely affected the reaction time of participating drivers (Smith, 1991). Provide a page number when you use an exact quotation. Use quotation marks. Use the singular p. or the plural pp. to strategy indicate page number(s). In his study on the effects of alcohol on drivers, Smith (1991, p. 104) stated that participants who drank twelve ounces of beer with a 3.5% alcohol content reacted, on average, 1.2 seconds more slowly to an emergency braking situation than they did when they had not ingested alcohol.

As an alternative, place the When Economic Incentives Overshadow Reasoning: Bluefish Tuna page number within parentheses at diplomacy the end of the quotation. Tracks? If you do so, remember to place the date immediately after the author's name. In his study on the effects of alcohol on drivers, Smith (1991) stated that participants who drank twelve ounces of beer with a 3.5% alcohol content reacted, on average, 1.2 seconds more slowly to an emergency braking situation than they did when they had not ingested alcohol (p. 104). Indent a direct quotation of 40 or more words five spaces from the left margin.

If the quotation includes more than one paragraph, indent the first line of succeeding paragraphs five more spaces (ten spaces total). Mable Fairbanks? Don't use quotation marks, and be sure to double space the quotation as well as your own writing. In her study of adult patterns of television watching, Roberts (1996) reported the following behaviors: Response behaviors exhibited by participants who watched television without any other persons present in the viewing room included imitating the Economic Overshadow Reasoning: Tuna facial expressions and hand movements of germany strategy television characters as well as talking to individual characters. Affective behaviors included exhibitions of anger such as shouting and throwing magazines at the television.

Such behaviors were less evident behaviors in participants who watched television in groups of three. Instead, participants in fall apart, group watching were more likely to interject critical or humorous comments regarding the content of particular television programs. If you're citing an author who's been quoted in germany strategy, another book or article, use the original author's name in tracks, the text, and cite in parentheses the source in which you found the quotation. Behavior is affected by situation. As Wallace (1972) postulated in Individual and Group Behavior , a person who acts a certain way independently may act in an entirely different manner while the member of a group (cited in Barkin, 1992, p. 478). When citing a work with two, three, four, or five authors within the text of the germany paper, name them all in the first entry, e.g. , (Smith, Andrews, Lawrence 1995). After the first entry, cite only the examples first author's name followed by et al. , for example, (Smith, et. al. , 1995). Germany? When citing a work with six or more authors, name only the first author followed by et. Overshadow Tuna? al. , for example, (Fredericks, et. al ., 1995). If the author is diplomacy not given, use the things fall first word or two of the title in the parenthetical citation. Massachusetts state and municipal governments have initiated several programs to improve public safety, including community policing and after school activities (Innovations, 1997). If Anonymous is specified as the author, treat it as if it were a real name: (Anonymous, 1996).

In the bibliographic references, also use the name Anonymous as author. The Reference Page. Diplomacy Germany? You must always have a reference page as well as in-text citations to avoid plagiarism. The Reference Page immediately follows the text of the paper. Items on the reference page are listed alphabetically.

Begin the first line of a reference at the left margin ( i.e. , do not indent the first line as you did in the body text). Diplomacy Strategy? All subsequent lines for examples, a reference should be indented one-half inch this is sometimes known as an outdent or hanging indent). APA has a second format that uses normal (one-half inch) indents on the first line of a reference, then left justifies subsequent lines to the left margin. This format is only for documents being submitted for publishing. Student papers should always use the first (hanging indent) format. Diplomacy? For the reference page, use the running head and page number, then center the title References two lines below. List the author's last name first with initial of the first name; year of publication in parentheses; title of book underlined (capitalize only the first word of the title and of any subtitle, and all proper nouns); the edition (if any) in parentheses; place of publication; and publisher. Omit the words Publishing Company and Inc . from the publisher's name. Use one space after periods and other punctuation. Book by one author. Zimbardo, P. (1992).

Psychology and mable fairbanks life (13 ed.). New York: Harper Collins. List more than one book by the same author chronologically, earliest edition or work first. Book by two or more authors#8212;List authors as they are listed in the book; use an ampersand to indicate and. Brasco, D. Corleone, M. (1992). Child development: A behavioral approach . New York: Calavita. Tork, P., Jones, D., Nesmith, M. (1968). Adolescent development: Behavioral mimicry . Los Angeles: Pasquin.

Textbook or anthology#8212;List cited author, date of the cited author's work, the chapter or section title, the editor's name preceded by In and followed by (Ed.), the title of the textbook/anthology, edition number (if appropriate), page numbers on which the cited author's work is found, place of publication, and rousseau definition publisher. Bailey, B. (1992). Diplomacy Germany? Jobs in the nineties. In V. Westerhaus (Ed.). Issues for the 21st century (pp. 55-63). New York: Holt.

Book with a corporate author#8212;List alphabetically with authors; if published by the author of the book, list the publisher as the author. Fall Unoka? American Psychiatric Association. (1992). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (3d ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Book with no author or editor#8212;Alphabetize by book title. Student planning guide for degree programs and portfolios . (1996). Saratoga Springs, NY: Empire State College. Journal Article#8212;List the author(s), year of publication in parentheses, title of article without quotation marks and with only the germany strategy first word, proper nouns, and words after colons capitalized, name of the journal underlined and with all major words capitalized, volume number underlined, and inclusive page numbers not preceded by p. or pp. Smith, A. (1975).

Driver age and crash involvement. American Journal of mable fairbanks Public Health . 9 . 326-327. Brown, W. Williamson, L. J. (1983). The myth of carcinogenic elements in tobacco smoke. American Journal of Public Health . 14 . 419-431. Magazine#8212;List the author(s), year and month of strategy publication (without abbreviations), title of the article without quotation marks and with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized, name of the magazine underlined and with all major words capitalized, volume number, and mable fairbanks inclusive page numbers preceded by p. or pp. Jackson, L. M. (1997, April). Taking back the diplomacy streets. School Planning and Management . pp. 30-31. Of Antiheroes? Newspaper#8212;List the author(s), year, month, and day of publication (without abbreviations), title of the article with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized, complete name of the newspaper underlined with all major words capitalized, and the section with discontinuous page numbers preceded by p. Diplomacy Germany Strategy? or pp.

Raymond, C. (1990, September 12). Global migration will have widespread impact on society, scholars say. Incentives Overshadow Reasoning: Bluefish Essay? The Chronicle of diplomacy strategy Higher Education . When Overshadow Reasoning: Bluefish Tuna? pp. A1, A6. The following information is provided in Harnack, A., Kleppinger, E. (2000). Online! A Reference Guide to diplomacy germany strategy Using Internet Sources . Mable Fairbanks? New York: Bedford/St. Martin's. World Wide Web sites. To document a specific file, provide as much as possible of the following information: Date of publication or last revision (if known), in diplomacy germany strategy, parentheses.

Title of document. Title of complete work (if relevant), in italics or underlined. Online in square brackets. Availability (indicated by the word Available) Retrieval Date (indicated in square brackets at end of citation) Patterson, O. (2001). Cultural continuity and collective memory. In The Emory center for myth and ritual in American life [Online].

Available: [2001, October 29]. Author's name (last name, first and any middle initials). (Date of Internet publication). Document title. Where available: URL (or other retrieval information). Retrieval date.

Shapiro, H. (1999). Professional Communications . Available: [November 6, 2001]. An online book may be the mable fairbanks electronic text of part or all of a printed book, or a book-length document available only on the Internet ( e.g. a work of hyperfiction). Bryant, P. (1999). Biodiversity and Conservation . [Online]. Available: sustain/bio65/Titlepage.htm [October 4, 1999]. Strategy? Article in of antiheroes, an electronic journal (ejournal) Fine, M., and Kurdek, L.A. (1993, March 9). Reflections on determining authorship credit and germany authorship order on faculty-student collaborations. Strategy? Available: American Psychologist . 48 . Employment? 1141-1147 [June 7, 1999]. Article in an electronic magazine (ezine) Adler, J. (1999, May 17). Ghost of Everest.

Available: Newsweek : [May 19, 1999]. Azar, B., Martin, S. (1999, October). APA's Council of Representatives endorses new standards for testing, high school psychology. Available: APA Monitor . [October 7,1999]. Bush, G. (1989, April 12). Principles of ethical conduct for government officers and employees.

Exec. Order No. 12674. Pt. Germany? 1 . Insurance Scheme? Available: [November 18, 1997].

E-mail. (Simply include a reference to the date sent and the subject heading) Ward, Neil ( (2001, October 22). Tutoring Japanese students. Germany? E-mail to Shirley Jackson ( However, if the E-mail source is a consistently retrievable, subscriber-based journal or other text/document on E-mail, include it in the reference page as follows: Funder, D. C. (1994, March).

Judgmental process and content: Commentary of Koehler on base-rate [9 paragraphs]. Psycoloquy [On-line serial], 5 , (17). Available E-mail: psyc@pucc Message: Get psyc 94-xxxx. Include the following information if your citation refers to an entire CD-ROM: Beekman, G. Employment Insurance Malaysia? (1991). Germany Strategy? Computer confluence (Version 1.0) [CD-ROM]. New York: Benjamin/Cummings. Include the following information for , an abstract on a CD-ROM: Meyer, A. S., Bock, K. (1992).

The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Blocking or partial activation? [CD-ROM]. Memory Cognition, 20 . 715-726. Abstract from: Silver Platter File: PsycLIT Item: 80-16351. Norton, P. (1990). The new Norton guides 4.0 [Computer software]. New York: Simon Schuster. Strategy? Whereas you might not always be able to supply all the above information, follow the general APA format for the specific type of source you are citing (journal, article, chapter, book, etc.).

Include all necessary information to definition allow the reader to diplomacy access the source material. The APA style requires an examples abstract, an 80 to germany strategy 120 word summary of the contents of the paper that immediately follows the title page. When Economic Incentives Moral Reasoning: Tuna? Be sure to ask your mentor whether or not s/he requires an abstract . The abstract should include the purpose, thesis, and conclusions of diplomacy germany your paper and be accurate, self-contained, concise, coherent, and readable. Do not use a paragraph indentation for the abstract. The abstract requires a separate page and immediately follows the title page. Nicotine has been identified as an addictive substance since the mid-nineteenth century, when it was the first substance used to explore and map the synaptic system of receptors. Moreover, the common perception of American society throughout the twentieth century regarded cigarette smoking as a bad habit akin to addiction. Yet, despite more than a century of scientific study into and acceptance of nicotine as an addictive substance, American political, medical, scientific, and rousseau common societies still carry on a dialogue regarding whether or not nicotine is addictive. This dialogue is the very foundation of the prevailing negative attitudes toward tobacco. The scientific and medical communities proclaim the costly outcomes of nicotine addiction while the tobacco industry claims that nicotine is a relatively innocuous product.

APA format requires a title page that establishes a running head. Ask your Mentor if you need to provide a title page for your paper. Addiction: Societal Denial. of the Addictive Nature of Nicotine. William M. Reynolds. Austin Peay State University.

Running Head: Addiction. Germany? Each successive page will then have the running head Addiction followed by the page number in the upper right-hand corner. This style sheet was produced with the. aid of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (3rd ed.) and the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (4th ed.)

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Complete Guide to Writing a Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] Today’s the strategy, day that you’re moving on with your life. It’s graduation day! Cue Pomp and Circumstance and throw that cap in tracks the air. Congratulations! You’ve made mom and dad proud. Diplomacy Strategy. But, what’s next? For many of you, graduation is bittersweet. You’ve finished one chapter of your life, and it’s time to caterpillar tracks start the next.

Figuring out where to start is the hard part. Well, I’ll let you in on germany, a little secret. The best place to start is to learn how to make a student resume. Why? Let me tell you. If I had to guess, I’d say that the germany strategy, majority of caterpillar tracks, you won’t have some sweet job waiting for you. Diplomacy. Even if you have a benevolent fairy godmother and an internship, finding your first job is hard.

In fact, most of you will struggle to find any work that meets your expectations. Insurance. A lot of fresh graduates find themselves underemployed, trying to pay back loans or make ends meet. That’s why I’ve put together this article for you. Learning how to write a graduate resume now will allow you to find your first job, find your second job, and get you on diplomacy, your career path. It’s a lifelong skill that will get you to employment malaysia where you want to go. And it’s not difficult. Learning how to make a great student resume is as easy as recess. Diplomacy Germany. Remember recess?

Yeah, it was fun. Why is a Strong Student Resume so Important? The current job market is of antiheroes not the friendliest of places. And that’s pretty much true for everyone. But if you just graduated from college in the States, getting started on your career path is tough. In a study by Accenture, more than half (51%) of recent grads said they feel underemployed and disillusioned with the reality of the job market. And that’s up 10% from how grads felt three years ago. Many of you are working jobs that don’t use your degree or develop your skill set. That’s bad news.

According to scheme malaysia the American Sociological Review, working a job that’s “beneath you” can look as bad as one year of unemployment on your resume. As for strategy high school students, having no experience and a minimum level of education also makes it hard to find your first job. For either party, the answer is to learn how to fall apart make a strong graduate resume. So, let’s get started. Pro Tip: If you just graduated from strategy, high school and plan on attending college, the best thing for you to do is to find work with a lot of transferable skills . If you can work a job related to what you want to do, that’s even better. There is nothing wrong with grabbing a random shift at the local grocery store. But when you want to grow up to be a Wizard of Wall Street, you might do better starting off in employment insurance malaysia a bank. Which Resume Format and Layout is diplomacy Best for Beginners? For starters, what should your student resume look like? There are three different formats or structures for resumes. The Reverse-chronological Resume Format The Functional or Skills-based Format The Combination Resume Format.

All of them cause some problems for students who are trying to figure out how to make a student resume. Caterpillar. If you want to diplomacy know more about resume formats, read our article about mable fairbanks, how to choose the best one . In the diplomacy strategy, meantime, there are a couple of things to keep in mind when selecting a layout for your student resume. First, lay out your resume so that it shows off your best assets . Second, try to caterpillar strike a balance between flexibility and adherence to a format . In reality, you can rearrange sections in just about any order that fits your needs. For students, placing your education section before your experience section is a wise choice. Remember that putting the diplomacy strategy, most important information at the top of your resume is always good practice. Mix Your Skills and Experience To Your Advantage. Let’s say you did have a job during studies. Insurance Scheme. Whatever it was - working at McDonald’s, lifeguarding, or babysitting - let’s say it isn’t related to the job you want now. You can format your resume to focus on skills that your old posts have in common with the diplomacy strategy, new job . Start by finding the definition, most important skills from the job description . Germany Strategy. Use these as subheadings in scheme your experience section before listing your responsibilities.

You are applying for diplomacy germany strategy your first teaching position. The job description lists skills like this: Skills/Qualifications: Classroom Management, Verbal Communication, Resolving Conflict, Presentation Skills, Motivating Others, Listening, Collaborative Teaching - K-12, Dealing with Uncertainty, Objectivity, Confidentiality. You worked at McDonald’s during your studies. Rousseau. What does McDonald’s have to do with teaching? Well, more than you’d think. Select a skill from the diplomacy, job description that your responsibilities at McDonald’s will reflect. McDonald’s (2003-2005) Swing Manager Motivating Others Responsible for motivating crew members to do well in their current positions so that they can move on to new roles, making them more valuable. You may not have developed the skills they want while in the classroom, but you did develop them. . Using skills as subheadings in your experience section can illustrate that point. In the diplomacy, end, the mable fairbanks, layout you choose for your resume should meet your needs and prioritize information in the best way for you.

If you want to make things super easy on yourself, you can always consider using a student resume template or a resume builder. Pro Tip: The one thing you should never do is copy and paste blocks of text from generic, online resume templates. You will want to diplomacy write your graduate resume yourself and tailor it to your needs if you want to get good results. Five Quick Tips To Keep Your Resume Tidy and Scannable. There are a few student resume tricks that you may think are no-brainers, but it’s always good to refresh. Choose an attractive font that’s easy to read. (Anything that sounds like a Hipster baby name is usually safe. Do a search online to see what’s trendy.) Keep your font size between 10 and 12 points. Align your content to the left for easy skimming. Strategically use italics, bold, and caps throughout the text. Start bullet points with action verbs, make a quantifiable point, and follow up with a task.

Let’s say you were a Swing Manager at McDonald’s in high school. Quantifiable Point: team of up to 15 people. Managed a team of up to 15 people responsible for closing the store on diplomacy germany strategy, weekdays. How to Add Contact Information To a Student Resume. Your contact information is always going to go at the top of your resume. And while this section may seem like the easiest, there are a couple of caterpillar tracks, potential blind spots for students. Your contact section needs to include the following: Your Name Phone Number Professional Email Social Media Handles (Twitter and LinkedIn) URLs to Personal Websites or Blogs.

If you’ve been living in strategy a dorm or with your parents, you don’t really have an address yet. When Economic Reasoning: Bluefish. And that’s okay. If the job you want is out of state, you may want to consider leaving it off your application or graduate resume. If you’re applying for a job in germany strategy your hometown, it’s okay to unoka use mom and dad’s address. Now that you aren’t a student anymore, you need to hook yourself up with a professional email address . Don’t use your old student email address if you’ve graduated. And if you’re graduating high school, it’s time to retire that email address you thought was so funny when you were fourteen. Use your name instead - - and choose a sophisticated provider like Gmail or Outlook.

If you happen to have a website or blog, put the URL on your resume in the contact section. Pro Tip: Only add your professional social media handles. These could vary for different types of diplomacy, people. Mable Fairbanks. Your Twitter handle may be necessary, or perhaps it’s your Instagram profile. Just review your accounts to make sure you’ve taken down any unprofessional content like those pictures of you playing beer pong in a sexy kitten costume from germany strategy, last Halloween. Also, take a moment to double-check that all of your contact information is up to date on your LinkedIn profile and that it matches your physical resume. The Art of Writing a Resume Objective as a Student. A student resume should start with a resume objective . A long, long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, a resume objective was a statement that you put on your resume telling the employer what you want from caterpillar, a job. Young professional seeking tons of money and a lifetime supply of tacos so I can retire early and sit at home playing Magic: The Gathering. Today, employers want to know if you have what it takes to meet their objectives. Self-motivated Mathematics Graduate with advanced programming skills looking to help build Company XYZ’s homepage.

So, a resume objective is one or two lines at the beginning of your resume that state how you are a good fit for the position on diplomacy strategy, offer . To paraphrase President Kennedy, “ Ask not what your company can do for you, ask what you can do for you company. ” Make the statement targeted and snappy. Reflect on what you have already achieved (a degree or a specialized skill), and how you are going to use those achievements to meet the objectives of the company. If you’ve graduated from germany strategy, university, you will want to lead with your degree. For more information about resume objectives and student resume objective samples visit our article on the only way to use resume objectives . You may feel that you’re past the germany, stage where you need a student resume objective.

If you’re a budding professional with a well-developed sense of your professional brand, check out mable fairbanks our article on writing a resume summary instead. The resume summary is the diplomacy strategy, sophisticated older brother of the resume objective, and perhaps it’s the one thing your resume is missing. Education Before Experience - Structure Your College Resume. What do you put next after your resume objective? As I mentioned above, it is often better to put your education section before your experience section . At this point in your life, you’ve probably got more education than experience. Here is what your education section should include on tracks, a college resume: Your highest degree first followed by subsequent degrees. The name of each school you attended. Graduation dates or prospective graduation dates. Germany Strategy. What you studied (major/minor). Optional things include your GPA, which you should only add if it’s impressive, and a description of your course of diplomacy strategy, study.

If you have no experience, you can tell the story of what you studied to give the hiring manager an idea of the insurance malaysia, skills and knowledge you have. University of Dayton (2005-2009) BA in English 3.9 GPA. High school student resume sample: Flowerville High Expected completion date - 2018 Current GPA - 3.7 Student Body President and AP Student. Pro Tip: If you graduated from university, you don’t need to Economic Overshadow Moral Reasoning: Tuna put the high school you attended on your college resume.

If you are in germany strategy the middle of a degree, write it like this: University of insurance malaysia, Dayton (2014 - present) Expected to graduate in 2018 with a BA in Psychology. Current GPA - 4.0. You can also list awards and honors you received and any activities you participated in that you find relevant or important. Experience Sections for Students Who Haven’t Worked. If you’ve had part time jobs before, these go in your experience section first. But let’s say you have never, ever worked a day in your life. What goes in your experience section?

For a student, it’s okay to add internships, roles you had in tracks student organizations, practicums (like student teaching experiences), or volunteer work. It doesn’t matter if these were unpaid positions. When you list your roles and responsibilities, focus on When Economic Incentives Bluefish Tuna Essay, the what skills you used that will translate to your new job . Make the experience section work for you even if you have no experience. Check out diplomacy germany strategy our article on how to prepare a resume to When Economic Moral Bluefish Tuna Essay find out more about writing a strong experience section. The Most Desired Skills for diplomacy Student Candidates. The Most Desired Skills for Student Candidates. When deciding what skills to put on rousseau, a resume, it’s best to add as many from the job description as possible. Once you’ve done that, add skills that hiring managers want to see from new college grads. For example, leadership and the ability to work on diplomacy germany, a team still rank as the skills hiring managers want to see the When Overshadow Bluefish Tuna, most from you. A 2016 study by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) shows that 80% of employers are looking for recent college graduates who display leadership skills . So, for scheme a student just starting your college years, it sounds like you should end up as team captain of the girl’s soccer team as soon as possible. The truth is that you should emphasize any leadership role on your college resume.

Were you the president of a two person anime club? Great. Put it on your resume. Here is germany a list of the caterpillar, top five skills that hiring managers think are important for a student to have on a graduate resume: Whenever you can prove that you’ve learned these skills, i.e. Strategy. tie them to an experience, do it. If you can show how you achieved impressive results by rousseau, implementing these skills - do it.

Hiring managers also said that the diplomacy, attributes that influence their decision the definition, most are: And if it applies to diplomacy germany strategy college graduates, logic follows that high school graduates who have the same skills will also do well. Add Extra Sections to definition Flesh out strategy Your Student Resume. So, you were an honors student involved in a lot of caterpillar tracks, student body organizations who won a lot of awards. Germany Strategy. Great. What does that have to do with your graduate resume? For a student, your resume doesn’t need to end when you’ve completed your education, experience, and skills sections. You can add extra sections with additional information to flesh out your resume. It’s a great way to insurance scheme malaysia show hiring managers that your skills and experiences were awarded and appreciated by others.

Here are three types of sections you could add to your student resume to make it shine. You could add a separate section if you received quite a few awards in school. You can also add honors and awards to your education section if you received only one or two. If you graduated with Latin honors, such as magna cum laude or summa cum laude , or were the valedictorian or the salutatorian of your graduating class, you can put that in your education section next to your degree. Purdue University 2005 -2009 BA in English Literature - Valedictorian, Magna Cum Laude. Other honors and awards could include: Any academic award or scholarship. Diplomacy. Academic Honors - participation in an honors program, making the Dean’s List, or acceptance into honors societies (campus, national, or international). Incentives Overshadow Moral Reasoning: Bluefish Tuna Essay. Work related awards or honors (these can go in an honors and awards section or under the relevant job in your experience section).

Adding an activities and associations section is good for high school students and for things fall recent college graduates who have little to no experience. It gives you a chance to diplomacy germany show where and how you developed certain skill sets. Pick those activities that reflect the type of work you’ll be doing and illustrate skills you found in the job description. Boy Scouts of diplomacy germany, America Assistant Scoutmaster 2005 - present Leadership Provide guidance and assistance for scouts wishing to achieve a higher rank. Your activities can range from definition, on-campus student body organizations, publications, and clubs to diplomacy germany volunteer work, athletics, and other activities off campus. Adding a hobbies and interests section boosts just about any resume. And it’s a super easy section to put on a student resume because you probably have a lot of diplomacy germany, hobbies and interests beyond your school activities. The key is matching your hobbies to your future company’s work culture. Here is a handy guide on how to put hobbies and interests on a resume that will help you research your company’s culture and choose the best hobbies for your resume. Edit and Customize Your Resume for a Nice Finish. You wouldn’t turn in a term paper without proofreading it first would you?

No! You were a first-class student who never cheated, came to mable fairbanks every class on time, and got straight A’s. You wouldn’t dream of turning in shoddy work. Well, you don’t want to turn in an unedited college resume either. Here’s a quick checklist for germany editing your resume: Edit your resume so that it fits on one page. A student resume should stick to the one-page resume rule . Use an app like Grammarly or Language Tool to proofread your resume. Have a living, breathing person proofread your resume.

Get feedback about how you’re selling yourself. . Give the file your name when you save it - john_smith_resume.pdf Save and send your resume as a PDF unless otherwise instructed. Don’t Forget to Write a Cover Letter - They Are Still Important. It is still important to strategy include a cover letter with your resume, even if you’ve heard otherwise. The only time it wouldn’t be prudent to things apart unoka include a cover letter is diplomacy germany strategy if a hiring manager has explicitly told you not to caterpillar send one. Need a more in-depth approach to cover letter writing?

Here’s our full guide on germany strategy, how to write a cover letter that will get you sorted. Clean the Skeletons Out of of antiheroes, Your Online Closet. If you’re a student, you probably don’t remember the days before the Internet. That means you’ve probably connected your whole life in strategy some way to the wonderful world online. But what would happen if someone searched for When Overshadow Reasoning: Tuna Essay you online? Your various social media accounts may pop up, or perhaps they’d find your blog. But what you don’t want is that stupid Youtube video of you surfacing in search results. You know, the one where you were drunkenly singing at the Homecoming tailgate party. So how do you do a quick cleanup job of your online presence? Start by checking the strategy, settings on your social media accounts. You want your LinkedIn profile to be public and your Facebook profile to be private.

View your profiles as “ public ” to see what content is examples of antiheroes visible. Then do a search on your name to diplomacy germany strategy see what comes up in the results. For information on how to rousseau definition remove unsavory content from the Internet check out germany our guide on how to clean up your online presence . Just remember, Dorothy, you’re not in school anymore. That means that employers will not appreciate photos that include drugs, alcohol, or nudity. How to Email Your Student Resume To a Hiring Manager. Now that you have a bright and shiny graduate resume, it’s time to send it! If you already know who will read your resume, start by writing an attention-grabbing subject headline. As a student, it’s a good idea to start by pitching yourself. Try to rousseau definition keep your headline under 60 characters . Subject: Award-winning Yale Med School Grad.

You should write a personal email. That means using the hiring manager’s name in the salutation and referring to your knowledge of the fall apart, company’s culture, competition, and brand in the body of the email. Do some research so you can show that your achievements and skills are compatible with what you know about the company. You’re not in school anymore, so you can go ahead and relax your style. Use a natural and likable tone. Don’t be afraid to show who you are. If you don’t know who will read your resume, check out our guide on employment insurance scheme, how to email your resume and how to find a hiring manager’s name and email address. Getting your first job is hard work. Preparing your graduate resume shouldn’t be.

As a student, you’ve got the skills and education it takes to do a good job. Economic Incentives Overshadow Reasoning: Bluefish. It’s just harder to convince a hiring manager that you’ve learned to apply them. But if you take the little bit of strategy, time and effort to create a strong student resume, you will find that getting that first job isn’t that hard after all. Need more details? Still not sure how to make the perfect student resume? Write us a comment with your problem and we will help you solve it.

Thanks for reading! Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. Of Antiheroes. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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Introduction to Management Report. In large organisations, management represents the key factor that propels businesses and germany strategy, industries to attain growth and caterpillar, development. The rise of modern organisations is not only due to the rapid advancements in technology and communications but on the ability of diplomacy strategy, competent managers to struggle and confront emerging challenges to the organisations very existence. There are a variety of views about management. Practically, the term management refers to planning, organizing, leading, and controlling of organisational activities and their resources (McNamara). Planning involves identifying goals, objectives, methods, resources, and responsibilities and dates for the completion of tasks. Planning and organizing human resources can be quite a challenge given the complex structure of todays organisations. Establishing the strategic direction and vision for the organisation involves influencing people to caterpillar tracks, follow that direction and share the diplomacy germany strategy, same vision. Things Fall Unoka. Management is also about controlling the human resource processes, the human resource systems, and the human resource structure of the organisation in order to make it more adaptable to strategy, change in Economic Bluefish Essay, its internal and external environment.

This report will try to make an analysis of the existing organisational culture, structure, and diplomacy germany, management style of rousseau definition, Harvester Restaurant. It is presented with adequate emphasis on germany strategy, how management, when confronted with a new reality, was able to identify its weaknesses in its management structure, style, and existing culture and things apart, the corresponding remedies and germany, management initiatives through empowerment and apart unoka, other changes in the style and structure of diplomacy strategy, their management. Harvester Restaurant is a wholly owned brand within the Forte Restaurants Division and was recently purchased by the Bass Group (Ashness and caterpillar tracks, Lashley, p. Strategy. 18). By 1995, it had 78 chains of restaurants around the United Kingdom. Today, it has over 2,000 drinking and entertainment establishments (Wikipedia). Its previous management setup was thought to examples, be obstructing the way its employees commit themselves to the quality of their service to germany, customers. Management Structure and When Economic Incentives Bluefish Essay, Problems. Harvester was initially managed in a traditional hierarchical manner.

Each restaurant unit was managed by diplomacy germany strategy a restaurant manager and two to three assistant managers. This management team was responsible for the day-to-day running of the unit which includes ordering stocks, maintaining the security of definition, materials and money, cashing up and banking takings, locking premises, staffing and management of all the people within the germany strategy, unit (Ashness and Lashley, 1995). The restaurant unit manager reports directly to a regional manager. Four regional managers are directly accountable to the operations managers (north and south divisions) while the rousseau definition, operations managers report to the managing director. This structure produced five layers between the customers and the managing director. The management team then became aware of the new emerging demands and discerning attitude of customers.

At this point, there seems to be a problem with the diplomacy germany, layers of management. In this structure, decisions are made at the top and passed down through several intermediaries. Senior managers decide whats best for customers which employees follow without hesitation. Economic Moral Reasoning: Bluefish Essay. But according to studies made, people resist solutions imposed by people who lack familiarity with day-to-day operations (Harvard Business Essentials, 2003). Todays organisational structures need to have collaboration between willing and motivated parties in order to effect changes. The problem then is germany strategy, that in this structure, senior level managers are better at telling people what to do than at getting employees to collaborate and diplomacy strategy, made significant contributions. Under this Harvester management setup, a lot of problems emerged. There was low commitment from employment insurance malaysia, their employees. The rate of turnover was high. The organisation itself was too dependent on their managers for decisions.

Resources and skills were under-utilized (Ashness and Lashley, 1995). Too much attention was given to processes and not on the attentive values. Employees, who are usually the ones in direct contact with customers and who usually hold direct knowledge on germany strategy, the day-to-day operations are usually not listened to. But there are other factors which might have been influencing these happenings. According to Duck (2001), most leaders do not have enough vertical contact with others in the organisation or enough time to stay in touch. She notes that most members of the management team of examples of antiheroes, organisations are not actively using information networks that keep them up-to-date on whats happening and whos saying what. Diplomacy Germany Strategy. While most leaders recognize the value of being connected with people at every level and of getting unfiltered information, very few know how to make it happen without investing more time than they feel they have available. In short, the organisations strategy was not consistent with the management of its untapped human and intellectual resources. While it has set up long term goals and mechanisms to satisfy its customers, it has failed to address their immediate needs and concerns. It is not altogether uncommon for conflict to occur inside the organisation. Rousseau. Conflict occurs when individuals or groups are not obtaining what they need or want.

People in organisations bring with them different educational backgrounds, interests, preferences, religious and diplomacy strategy, ethical values, and personalities. Usually, it causes the flow of real communication which results to the identification and resolution of problems. In a hierarchical structure however, there is a greater chance that conflict would occur. Things Apart. The communication process passing through different layers does not always guarantee that the right information flows correctly. Conflict resolution usually hinges around a certain layer of management.

The situation at Harvester is no different. There was selective communication going on. Accountability was limited to a few. The present management setup has instilled a culture not bent on proactively managing the focus on germany strategy, guests. There was a lack of trust and feeling of ownership prevailing at When Reasoning: this time. Diplomacy Germany Strategy. Information was not valued either. In planning for change, it is important to identify the dimensions of diplomacy germany strategy, change. Theory E and Theory O includes the organisational goals, leadership, and focus (Harvard Business Essentials, 2003). Theory E and Theory O Change involves embracing the paradox between economic values and organisational capability. It also encourages setting management directions from the tracks, top while encouraging participation from the people below.

It also focuses simultaneously on the hard (structures and systems) and the soft (corporate culture). This theory was what had been applied to Harvesters changes in its management structure, style and culture. The reorganisation at Harvester Restaurants involved the removal of two layers of strategy, management within the entire organisation through a process called delayering (Ashness and Lashley, 1995). At a senior level, the rousseau, two operations manager posts were removed and three regional teams were created. Each team was based on a regional office which included one training manager, one control manager, and three regional managers who would each be accountable for eight to ten restaurants. In all cases, the diplomacy, teams became autonomous, with a senior member of management taking special interest in each team. The team became the focus of business performance and assessment. When Economic Overshadow Reasoning: Essay. Regional teams were allocated budgets and made decisions on how best to use these funds within the diplomacy germany strategy, team. In discussing the wider aspects of organisational culture, Handy (1993), suggests that diversity in things fall apart, the organisation puts on germany, what he categorizes as a task culture, with influence based on of antiheroes, the expert power. Handy (1993) describes this as a team culture where getting the job done tends to wipe out most status and style differences. At the diplomacy germany, restaurant level, the rousseau, team manager and the team coach were no longer managing the staff but were more responsible for encouraging the staff to be more self sufficient and empowered.

Each restaurant is organised around three teams which reflect the different operational areas like the bar, the restaurant, and the kitchen. Germany Strategy. Each team has its own team responsibilities. Johnson and Scholes (1997, p. 35) say that a major challenge for things apart unoka managers is to help develop an organization which is able to simultaneously meet stakeholder expectations while meeting the needs of customers better than competitors within a changing environment. Micro management of the operational areas has helped address immediate customer and restaurant concerns while increasing employees awareness to their responsibilities, accountabilities, and total commitment to the organisations new set of goals. The creation of these teams has ensured that employees are given the necessary training needed for effective performance. Cane (1996) says that Harvester has also assigned to each team a coach who plays a very important part in the employee development. The task of the coach is to give the support, advise, training, and development necessary to enable the team to fulfill its role as well as put into strategy practice the concept of continuous development.

Each coach is carefully selected and trained for his or her work and has continual close support from Harvesters central training team. There were short and Economic Incentives Moral Reasoning: Tuna Essay, long term tangible and intangible benefits which were derived from the diplomacy germany strategy, initiation of examples, changes to the management style, culture, and structure. Diplomacy Germany. Turnover has fallen by 19 percent. Wage and administration costs were reduced. Mable Fairbanks. There was also a noted low level of customer complaints.

Problems were resolved more quickly without resorting to the manager. The cultural context of the organisation was moving to a trust-based culture. Within the limits set, individuals were trusted to do their jobs without constant and close supervision. The reorganisation has led to improvements in the communications process. Team members liked to know how they were doing. They seemed to take personal interest and pride in the units performance (Ashness and Lashley, 1995). They began to value their contribution to the team. In terms of conflict resolutions, problems can easily be locally settled and decided immediately just as they arise. This has helped Harvester channel much needed resources for team building activities and other skills enhancements programs. In analyzing the management structure, culture, and style of germany strategy, Harvester Restaurants, it is examples of antiheroes, clear that the management of diplomacy germany, organisations today does not solely lie on senior managers decision making prowess but also on the involvement of the other significant members of the lower and tracks, middle levels of the organisational hierarchy. Sometimes, the higher the number of management layers, the more likely that problems and solutions cannot be communicated on quickly enough.

Given todays competitive atmosphere, the need to make quick decisions and diplomacy, communicate problems faster can spell success or failure for the organisation. The key to sustaining competitiveness rests on having every member of the organisation involved in the decision-making process, having a management approach and management style which is similar to autonomous teams and empowerment, and having a leadership style capable of building local team loyalties while securing their commitment to the overall goals and visions of the unoka, organisation. It may be a risky proposition but it is better to live in an organisation that has a trust-oriented culture, where members value the service and information they share to the organization than in an organisation that controls and filters everything. The changes that took place at Harvester Restaurants management setup and the corresponding success that came with it proves that change strategies are slowly being influenced by the need to develop small teams which can foster better teamwork and provide avenues for continuous learning and sharing of diplomacy germany strategy, information. If an organisation has the right structure and right management style, then the best people will ultimately shine and commit themselves invaluably and , weak spots will eventually be discovered. Books Cane, Sheila (1996), Kaizen Strategies for Winning Through People, Pitman Publishing, London. Germany. Duck, J (2001), The Change Monster, Crown Business, New York. Handy, C (1993), Understanding Organizations, Harmondsworth, Penguin. Harvard Business Essentials, (2003). Managing Change Transition . Harvard Business Press. Johnson, G. and Scholes, K (1997) , Exploring Corporate Strategy , 4 th edn, Prentice Hall Europe.

Electronic Sources Mcnamara, C (n.d), Basics =Definitions (and Misconceptions) About Management, Retrieved: March 4, 2006 from Mcnamara, C (n.d), BasicsDefinitions (and Misconceptions) About Management, Retrieved: March 4, 2006 from Ashness, D and Lashley, C (1995), Empowering Service Workers at Harvester Restaurants, Personnel Review, 24, 8; ABI/INFORM Global. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of definition, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on diplomacy, hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is rousseau definition, qualified to diplomacy, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and fall apart unoka, you could have your customised Business work in germany, your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to fall apart, us by a student in order to help you with your studies.

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