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Nov 17, 2017 Example of speech,
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Nov 17, 2017 Example of speech,
An Essay on Understanding the example Mind. Several conjectures by Essay about Homelessness an Issue, A. S. Of Speech! Iberall on life and mind are used as a backdrop to sketch a theory of mental activity that respects both the contents of thought and the dynamics of thinking. The dynamics, in paramount pictures, this case, refers fundamentally to animated, meaningfully coupled self-organizing processes (coordination dynamics) and of speech exhibit multistability, switching, and, because of symmetry breaking, metastability. The interplay of 2 simultaneously acting forces underlies the metastable mind: the sports heroes 1920s tendency for the coordinating elements to couple together (integration) and the tendency for the elements to of speech express their individual autonomy (segregation). Snowball Represent In Animal! Metrics for metastability are introduced that enable these cooperative and competitive tendencies to example of speech be quantified. Whereas bistability is the basis for polarized, either/or thinking, the rhapsody metastable r#x000e9;gime#x02014;which contains neither stable nor unstable states, no states at example of speech all, in fact#x02014;gives rise to a far more fluid, complementary mode of operation in which it is possible for sports, apparent contraries to coexist in the mind at example of speech the same time. By way of virtical marketing reminiscence, and apropos the topic of this contribution, the photograph in of speech, Figure 1 was taken at a symposium on Nonlinearities in in animal, Brain Function, organized by Eugene Yates and Arnold Mandell, held at the Kroc Ranch in Santa Ynez, California, from March 1 through March 5, 1982.
As remarked upon previously (Kelso, 1995, p. 50), this was an example of speech event way ahead of its time, organized by visionaries and supported by enlightened philanthropy. A quarter of a century ago there were no Centers or Institutes for marketing, Complex Systems and the like yet, and of speech no one was talking about #x0201c;brain dynamics,#x0201d; a field of oba san research that very much stirs the example air of contemporary neuroscience. The organizers of this remarkable meeting, Yates and oba san Mandell, sensed the potential and the power of transdisciplinary science and were doing something about it. The man we honor in these lectures was living testament to that. Arthur Iberall (#x0201c;Ibby#x0201d;) was the centerpiece of the Kroc symposium, holding court every evening, laying out his homeokinetics manifesto in a unique and irrepressible way. Only once can I remember him being told to shut up. Example! Ibby was both generalist and specialist, theorist and who does snowball represent in animal experimenter, scientist and engineer, physicist and biologist, swimmer and example of speech poet-and much, much more.
Was it Georges Braque who said, #x0201c;Le conformisme commence #x000e0; la definition#x0201d;? Iberall was no conformist so there is who does represent in animal, no point in example of speech, trying to classify him. The usual categories fail and words are not the thing. Nevertheless, he was a great man and friend, the likes of which one is not likely to meet, as they say where I grew up, in a month of Sundays. For students with an interest in the history of science and especially #x0201c;the sciences of marketing complexity#x0201d; who also want to get a sense of the man and the range of his intellect in one swift glimpse, consider Iberall's (1994) short article in Physics Today , where he chastises a Nobel laureate for, shall we say, pontificating with blinders on.
For those in the know, the reply is revealing enough. What did Iberall have to say about example of speech nature, life, and mind? Quite a lot, as it turns out, initially with Warren McCulloch (see Kelso, 1995, pp. 114#x02013;115). On the occasion of paramount pictures uk his 80th birthday, he and example of speech his colleague of 60 years, Harry Soodak, provided a primer that contains his principles of homeokinetics along with a number of conjectures about paramount pictures uk their application to matters of nature, life, mind, brain and example of speech humankind (Iberall #x00026; Soodak, 1998). Among those pertinent to the present concerns (words italicized to convey effect) are: (1) the notion of sports heroes 1920s a homeokinetic oscillator , a unit of of speech some generality that underlies nature's self-organization of forms and functions, even complex ones; (2) said unit consists of an energy storing nonlinear element and is conceived of as bistable; (3) the energy to snap the element in a direction from one #x02018;stable#x02019; position to another is very small (the quotation marks around #x02018;stable#x02019; are theirs); (4) the human is bohemian, conceived as a nonlinear marginally stable storage device who can #x02018;self-urge#x02019; (Ibby's words) onboard sources in any number of directions (Ibby loved telling the story of a young boy's bar mitzvah; when asked by his father what he was today, he replied, #x0201c;Today I am a fountain pen#x0201d; ). Of Speech! The idea is that people snap into a direction by virtical, . . . Example Of Speech! #x0201c;always taking a binary decision mind set , e.g., to trade or to rob, to persuade or to rape, to bohemian buy or to sell, to be or not to be, to kill or not to kill, to eat or not to example of speech eat, to bohemian genre scratch or not to scratch a body itch#x0201d; (p. 29); (5) complexity develops from interacting or synergetic engine processes; (6) by virtue of very weak interactions #x0201c;whose complex character we do not quite understand yet,#x0201d; a kind of mutual entrainment is possible, which may leave a memory after the interaction is over (for a recent example of social memory following entrainment, see Oullier, DeGuzman, Jantzen, Lagarde, #x00026; Kelso, 2008); (7) a direction of common agreement often emerges, a higher order chemistry or command-control system typical of any complex system; (8) the laws and rules for example, command-control (a term that Ibby liked despite its linguistic similarity to represent in animal farm discredited #x02018;commands to muscles#x02019; schemes for motor control; see, e.g., Turvey, Fitch #x00026; Tuller, 1982) lie in a homeokinetic spectrum in the person's body, brain, and of speech mind; this ushered in and grounded the field of biospectroscopy (see Yates, this issue, and for an application Goodman #x00026; Kelso, 1983); (9) the human mind operates, as does nature, by a #x0201c;peculiar fumbling mode#x0201d; identified as #x0201c;reverie,#x0201d; suggesting that thought has its own typical space and oba san time scale ; and (10) consonant with 3 and 4, command-control is example, catalytic, chemically based linguistic signals causing low energy switching among action modes . It is a tribute to Iberall's powers of divination that empirical traces of oba san many of his proposals continue to permeate the literature and will be touched upon as we proceed. The foregoing list is presented here principally as a backdrop for where this article is headed, which is to sketch a theory of of speech thoughts and thinking that attempts to: (1) accommodate both the content of thoughts and the dynamics of thinking and (2) narrow the gap between the language and science of molecules and cellular machinery (genetics, neuroscience) and the language and science of mind and marketing behavior (cognitive science, neurology, psychiatry). How the molecular biological level relates to mind, brain, and behavioral function is far from transparent. Example Of Speech! As Kandel (2006) has recently concluded, a conceptual shift is needed from studying elementary processes such as single proteins, genes, and uk cells to studying complex systems of example nerve cells, the functioning of who does snowball in animal whole organisms, and the interactions of organisms. #x0201c;Biology,#x0201d; says Kandel (2006), #x0201c;will have to focus more on example of speech human beings as the model system of choice#x0201d; (p.
423). He kids not. Ultimately (and there is no point in beating about the bush) we need a language and science of experience, of everything we human beings take for granted#x02014;as Virginia Wolf would say, #x0201c;an ordinary mind on an ordinary day#x0201d;#x02014;that connects to a language and virtical marketing science of body#x0223c;brain activity. The central thesis of of speech this article can be stated bluntly: Minds, brains, and bodies, yours and mine, immersed as they are in their own worlds, both outside and inside, share a common underlying dynamics. They are cut fundamentally, as Maxine Sheets-Johnstone (2004) says, from the same dynamic cloth. The dynamics here refers to equations of motion for key coordination variables or order parameters that characterize patterns of behavior on uk multiple levels of description: patterns of of speech brain activity, patterns of cognition and emotion, patterns of paramount uk human interaction, patterns of the mind. The dynamics are not of a system described by states parameterized or forced by example, environmental signals, though they may be conceived as such (cf.
Rosen, 1991). The dynamics refer to both environment and about an Issue animal in a way that ordinary physics does not (Kelso, 1994a). The dynamics deal with coordination, not (or not only) with matter and motion: coordination dynamics . Coordination dynamics deals specifically with informationally coupled, self-organizing systems, where information is meaningful and specific to coordination tasks and functions: functional information (for the origins of the example notion of information as form, see references and discussion in Kugler, Kelso, #x00026; Turvey, 1980, 1982). Coordination dynamics stresses, in the words of the late James Gibson (1979/1986), himself a genius, that the organism and the environment are complementary . Indeed, as we shall see, coordination dynamics shows how many apparently contradictory aspects such as whole versus part, integration versus segregation, individual versus collective, cooperation versus competition, stability versus instability, and so on, are complementary. In doing so, coordination dynamics opens up a path to reconciling contradictions, dualisms, binary oppositions, and the like in all walks of life, illuminating thereby the complementary nature (Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006; see also Kelso, 2005). 1. TOWARD A COMPLEMENTARY SCIENCE OF BODY, BRAIN, MIND, AND BEHAVIOR. It is worth noting that up until the snowball represent time of Bohr, Heisenberg, and Pauli, physics debated over example whether light, sound, and atomic scale processes were more basically particle-like or wave-like in character.
Philosophy spoke of about is No thesis and antithesis, of dialectic tension, of of speech self and not self, of the qualitative and rhapsody genre the quantitative, the objective and the subjective, as if they were either/or divisions. This tendency to dichotomize, to divide the world into example, opposing categories (the binary decision mind-set , see 3 earlier) appears to be a #x02018;built in#x02019; property of human beings, perhaps arising very early in development and independent of cultural background (Spelke, 2006). For Bohr, Pauli, and Heisenberg, three of the chief architects of quantum mechanics, it became abundantly clear that sharp dichotomies and contrarieties must be replaced with far more subtle and sophisticated complementarities, for all of nature, human nature (and human brains) included. Probably Pauli (1994) expressed it best: To us the rhapsody genre only acceptable point of view appears to example of speech be one that recognizes both sides of reality#x02014;the quantitative and the qualitative, the marketing physical and example of speech the psychical#x02014;as compatible with each other.
It would be most satisfactory of bohemian rhapsody all if physics and psyche could be seen as complementary aspects of the same reality. (p. 260) The remarkable developments of quantum mechanics demonstrating the example of speech essential complementarity of who does snowball represent both light and matter should have ushered in not just a novel epistemology but a generalized complementary science. However, they did not. Thinking in terms of contraries and the either/or seems to come much more easily to the human mind. As in traditional logic, the mind is in one state or another but not both at the same time. Much harder to grasp is the notion that contraries are complementary: Contraria sunt complementa , as Bohr's famous coat of arms says. That mind-set might change, however, if complementary aspects and their dynamics were found not just at the remote level of the subatomic processes dealt with by example of speech, quantum mechanics but also at the level of human beings, human brains, and human behavior. In particular, over the last 25 years or so, due to the efforts of people working in paramount pictures uk, and across many fields, a multilevel, interdisciplinary science of coordination has emerged called coordination dynamics . A broad range of example of speech coordinative phenomena have been studied and explained using the concepts, methods, and tools of coordination dynamics (Fuchs #x00026; Jirsa, 2008; Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2004; Kelso, 1995; Tschacher #x00026; Dauwalder, 2003, for reviews). Because coordination dynamics deals in oba san, the currency of of speech meaningful information, it's to coordination dynamics where we might look for insights into understanding mind. COORDINATION DYNAMICS: MULTISTABILITY, PHASE TRANSITIONS, AND METASTABILITY.
New empirical and theoretical developments in the science of coordination suggest that the reason the mind fragments the world into dichotomies (and more important, how opposing tendencies may be reconciled) is deeply connected to the way the human brain works, in particular its multi- and metastable dynamics (Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Fingelkurts #x00026; Fingelkurts, 2004; Friston, 1997; Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2004; Kelso, 1995; Oullier #x00026; Kelso, 2006; Tschacher #x00026; Dauwalder, 2003; Velazquez, 2005, for reviews). Etymologically, #x0201c;metastability#x0201d; comes from the Latin meta (beyond) and stabilis (able to stand). In coordination dynamics, metastability corresponds to a regime near a saddle-node or tangent bifurcation in paramount, which stable coordination states no longer exist (e.g., inphase synchronization where the relative phase between oscillating components lingers at zero), but attraction remains to where those fixed points used to be (#x0201c;remnants of example attractor repellors#x0201d;; see Figure 2 ). This gives rise to sports heroes 1920s a dynamical flow consisting of example of speech both phase trapping and phase scattering. Metastability is thus the simultaneous realization of Essay about Longer an Issue two competing tendencies: the tendency of the example components to couple together and the tendency for the components to express their intrinsic independent behavior. According to a recent review (Fingelkurts #x00026; Fingelkurts, 2004), Metastability is an sports entirely new conception of brain functioning where the individual parts of the brain exhibit tendencies to function autonomously at the same time as they exhibit tendencies for coordinated activity. (Kelso, 1991, 1992, 1995; Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; see also Bressler, 2003) A number of neuroscientists have embraced metastability as playing a role in various cognitive functions, including consciousness (e.g., Edelman, 2004; Edelman #x00026; Tononi, 2000; Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Friston, 1997; Koch, 2005; Sporns, 2004; Varela, Lachaux, Rodriguez, #x00026; Martinerie, 2001; see Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007, for review). Metastability's significance lies not in the word itself but in what it means for understanding informationally coupled, self-organizing dynamical systems like the brain and its complementary relation to mind. In coordination dynamics, metastability is not a concept or an idea but a result of the broken symmetry of a system of (nonlinearly) coupled (nonlinear) oscillators.
The latter design is motivated by empirical evidence that the structural units of the brain that support sensory, motor, and cognitive processes express themselves as oscillations with well-defined spectral properties. At least 12 different rhythms from the example infraslow (less than 1 Hz) to pictures uk the ultrafast (more than 100 Hz) have been identified, all connected to various behavioral and example cognitive functions (e.g., Chen, Ding, #x00026; Kelso, 2003a). Indeed, brain oscillations are considered one of the most important phenotypes for studying the genetics of complex (non-Mendelian) disorders (Begleiter #x00026; Porjesz, 2006). The mechanisms that give rise to rhythms and synchrony exist on genre different levels of of speech organization: single neurons oscillate due to oba san voltage-gated ion channels depolarizing and hyperpolarizing the membrane; network oscillations, for example, example, in hippocampus and neocortex, strongly depend on the activity of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons in sports heroes 1920s, the central nervous system (so-called inhibition-based rhythms; see, e.g., Whittington, Traub, Kopell, Ermentrout, #x00026; Buhl, 2000); neuronal groups or assemblies form as transient coalitions of discharging neurons with mutual interaction. Neuronal communication occurs by means of synapses and glia. Synaptic connections between areas may be weak but research shows that synchrony among different inputs strengthens them, thereby enhancing communication between neurons (for one of many recent examples, see Womelsdorf et al., 2007). Phase coupling, for example, allows groups of neurons in distant and disparate regions of the brain to synchronize together (e.g., Canolty et al., 2006).
According to coordination dynamics, nonlinear coupling among oscillatory processes that possess different intrinsic frequencies is necessary to generate the broad range of behaviors observed, including pattern formation, multistability, phase transitions, switching (sans #x0201c;switches#x0201d;), hysteresis, and so forth. Although the example mechanisms of coupling multiple oscillations within and between levels of organization are manifold, the principle is clear enough: patterns of behavior arise as an emergent consequence of self-organized interactions among neurons and neuronal populations and this self-organization is a fundamental source of cognitive, affective, behavioral and 1920s social function (Ba#x0015f;ar, 2004; Buzs#x000e1;ki, 2006; Kelso, 1995; Oullier et al., 2008; Schmidt #x00026; Richardson, 2008; Van Orden, Holden, #x00026; Turvey, 2005). Metastability was originally discovered when experimental observations of sensorimotor coordination (Kelso, DelColle, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1990) made it necessary to extend the elementary HKB coordination law (Haken, Kelso, #x00026; Bunz, 1985; Sch#x000f6;ner, Haken, #x00026; Kelso, 1986) to handle the interaction of oscillatory components with different intrinsic properties 2 (Kelso et al., 1990; Kelso, 1995, chap. Example! 4). Virtical Marketing! This breaks the symmetry of the original HKB equation, which describes changes of the order parameter relative phase over example time ( #x003d5; . ): where #x003d5; is the relative phase between two interacting components, a and b are parameters p setting the paramount pictures uk strength of attracting regions in the system's dynamical landscape, Q #x003be; t is a (delta-correlated) noise term of of speech strength Q , and #x003b4;#x003c9; is a symmetry breaking term expressing the paramount uk fact that each coordinating element possesses its own intrinsic behavior (Kelso et al., 1990; see Park #x00026; Turvey, 2008, for further discussion). The introduction of the example symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; in Eq. 1 changes the sports heroes in the entire coordination dynamics (layout of the fixed points, bifurcation structure) of the original HKB system. This is important to realize because it is the subtle interplay between the coupling ( k = b/a ) and the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; in Equation 1 that gives rise to metastability 3 (see Kelso, 2002, for further discussion). where X 1 and X 2 are the individual components, the dots are their time derivatives and #x003b1; and #x003b2; are coupling parameters (Haken, Kelso #x00026; Bunz, 1985). A nontrivial aspect of HKB is that it derives patterns of coordination from the example of speech individual components and their nonlinear interaction (see Kelso, 2007b for steps and rationale). Equation 1 is weird.
Even though it is an order parameter equation of motion that is oba san, designed to describe collective behavior (in words, phi dot is a function of phi), it includes also a parameter that arises as a result of differences among the individual components . Of Speech! Eq. 1 is thus a strange mixture of the whole and the parts, the global and oba san the local, the cooperative and the competitive, the collective and the individual. Were the components identical, #x003b4;#x003c9; would be zero and we would not see component differences affecting the behavior of the whole. Eq. 1 would simply reflect the example of speech behavior of the collective untarnished by bohemian genre, component properties, a purely emergent interaction#x02014;the HKB equation. It is the fact that both the components and their (nonlinear) interaction appear at the same level of description that gives rise to of speech the array of coexisting tendencies characteristic of metastability.
Eq. 1 is a basic representation of a synergy : a low dimensional dynamic of a metastable organization in which the who does in animal farm tendency of the of speech parts to act together coexists with a tendency of the parts to do their own thing (Kelso, 1995, chap. 4; for more on synergies, see Kelso, 2007a, 2000b, in press). It is pictures uk, metastability that endows the synergy with robustness and flexibility, enabling the same parts to participate in example of speech, multiple functions. If the synergy is a unit of life, then it is metastability that brings it alive. The flow of the coordination dynamics across a range of an Issue #x003b4;#x003c9; values is shown in Figure 2 for a fixed value of the coupling parameter, k = b/a = 1, where a = 1 and example of speech b = 1). Stable fixed points (attractors) are presented as filled circles and unstable fixed points (repellors) as open circles. Note these fixed points refer to the coordination variable or order parameter and are not known in advance but have to be experimentally identified (see Kelso, 2000, for a full discussion).
Here, fortuitously for the brain, fixed points of the coordination variable #x003c6; represent the phase and farm frequency relationship between oscillatory processes. The surface shown in Figure 2 defines three regions under the influence of the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; . In the example first region, present in the lower part of the surface, the system is multistable: two stable attracting fixed points (filled circles) represent possible alternative states. Which one the system settles in depends on initial conditions and the size of the basin of attraction. In an intermediate region, following the line labeled 2 from left to right, the weakest attractor near antiphase (right side) disappears after it collides with its associated repellor somewhere near #x003b4;#x003c9; = 1.3, but the bohemian strongest attractor (left side) is still present as well as its repellor partner. Finally, in the third region, in the upper part of the surface, the dynamics become metastable. Following the line labeled 3 from left to right, no fixed points exist anymore: this part of the surface no longer intersects the isoplane #x003d5; . = 0 where the fixed points are located. Strictly speaking, coordination states qua frequency- and phase-synchrony no longer exist in the metastable regime of the coordination dynamics. What does individual and coordination behavior look like in of speech, the metastable regime and how might their relationship be quantified? A unique flow now exists in which the dynamics may be characterized by places where the trajectory of the oba san coordination variable relative phase converges and pauses around the horizontal and places where the trajectory drifts or diverges from the horizontal. Let us define the former as a dwell time and the latter as an escape time . In Figure 3c we show two locations for of speech, the dwell times: one that lingers a long time before escaping (e.g., Figure 3c , annotation 1), slightly above the more stable inphase pattern near 0 rad (modulo 2 #x003c0; ), and the other that lingers only briefly (e.g., Figure 3c , annotation 2), slightly above #x003c0; (modulo 2 #x003c0; ). These inflections recur over represent in animal and over again as long as the system self-organizes in the metastable regime, that is, as long as it does not undergo a phase transition to a locked or unlocked state.
Despite the example complete absence of phase-locked attractors, the coordinating elements in represent farm, the metastable regime do not behave totally independently. Rather, their interdependence takes the form of dwellings (phase gathering) near the remnants of the fixed points (cf. Figure 2 ) and may be nicely expressed by concentrations in the histogram of the relative phase (see Kelso, 1995, chap. 4). METRICS FOR METASTABILITY: A START.
In the following some potential measures of metastable coordination dynamics are introduced. Notice that all the usual measures used previously in coordination dynamics to measure and quantify stability and loss of stability such as local and global relaxation times, switching times, fluctuations, and so on, no longer apply in the metastable regime (see Kelso, Sch#x000f6;ner, Scholz, #x00026; Haken, 1987; Sch#x000f6;ner #x00026; Kelso, 1988, for reviews of theory and experiments establishing the utility of example of speech these quantities). The reason of bohemian course is that in the metastable regime, all fixed point states have vanished leaving only traces of coordination, #x0201c;ghosts#x0201d; or #x0201c;remnants#x0201d; of where the fixed points once were. Once the fixed points go, so also all the methods and techniques of linear stability analysis. Of Speech! 4 This means we have to be creative about finding new ways to capture metastable coordination. A dwell time may be defined by how long a collective or coordinative tendency persists in a system or data set; an escape time is Essay about Longer an Issue, how long the example of speech coordinating elements express their individual autonomy in a system or data set. 5 Consider first the pure cases. Sports Heroes! For reasons of generality that may become apparent later, let's refer to of speech them as complementary aspects ca1 and Essay Homelessness is No an Issue ca2. An example of a pure case is of speech, illustrated in Figure 3d : there is no coupling and the oscillators are completely independent (ca1). Examples of another pure case are illustrated in Figures 3a and 3b . Paramount Pictures Uk! Whether in the mono- or bistable regimes, the oscillators are locked together, coupled in phase- and frequency-locked states (ca2), which constitute asymptotically stable states of the of speech coordination dynamics.
The metastable regime is in-between the Longer an Issue two pure cases and is a blend of two tendencies: one for the elements to bind together and the other for the elements to behave independently. Such coexisting tendencies may be denoted as a complementary pair, ca1#x0223c;ca2. Notice that the transition from a metastable regime to a mono- or multistable regime constitutes the example of speech creation of functional information (Kelso, 1994a, 2002; Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006). Oba San! That is, the system moves from a place where there are no states to a place where the coordinated state is well defined and vice versa. Notice also that in the metastable regime near the saddle-node bifurcation, information in the classical Shannonian sense (and presumably #x0201c;information processing#x0201d;) is at a maximum. The two pure cases, fully coupled and totally uncoupled, represent a minimum of example of speech information. They are what they are forever. For Iberall, the creation and heroes stability of new forms requires two or more force systems. The physical intuition is of a generalized Reynolds number. If the energy sweeping into a field of atomisms can be absorbed, nothing much happens.
If it cannot, the field becomes unstable and example of speech some new inhomogeneous patterning emerges. The generalized Reynolds number is oba san, dimensionless and expresses a competition between a global, convective process and a local diffusive transport or propagative process. The resulting form or pattern is a collective, cooperative effect. Note again how the complementary pairs competition#x0223c;cooperation and example of speech local#x0223c;global come into play. Formally, the generalized Reynolds number (Re) can be written as follows: with unity (Re critical = 1) reflecting the critical value at which the transition to new forms occurs. With apologies for belaboring the fact, criticality conditions have to be worked out in each case (for an interesting example, see Warren, 1984). Along the same lines of reasoning, a k number may be defined as follows: The dimensionless k number appears to provide a measure of the quality of metastability . The mathematical expression is virtical, trivial: In words, as the escape time (e) approaches zero, the dwell time (d) relative to (e) gets larger and larger. This means that there is of speech, a stronger and stronger tendency for the individual elements to bind together than to stay apart. Likewise,
In words, as the escape time (e) gets larger and larger, the dwell time (d) relative to (e) gets smaller and who does snowball farm smaller. This means that the individual elements tend to express their autonomy more and example of speech more, approaching total independence. In analogy to the generalized Reynolds number, a critical k number expresses when the tendency to coordinate overcomes the tendency to stay apart, and vice-versa. The k number might be expected to scale with the is No distance from the asymptotically stable locked state. But how? This will again depend on the details of the system. Example! Were this process analogous to oba san so-called Type-1 intermittency, the distribution of dwell times should scale as the distance #x02212;1/2 from the critical surface where the parameterized function (Eq. 1) lifts off the origin. Experimentally, this would require pinpointing the bifurcation point and manipulating control parameters very precisely. 6 More generally, comparing k numbers, the ratio of dwell and escape times, across a range of levels of observation of the example same and different systems may even reveal scale-free properties (for examples, see Billock, DeGuzman, #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Chen, Ding, #x00026; Kelso, 1997, 2003b; Eguiluz, Chialvo, Cecchi, Baliki, #x00026; Apkarian, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2005).
METASTABLE COORDINATION DYNAMICS OF THE BRAIN. This brief introduction to measures of metastability once again highlights the complementary nature. Only together, as a complementary pair, do apparently contrasting phenomena, such as individual #x0223c; collective, integration #x0223c; segregation, local #x0223c; global, cooperation#x0223c;competition, attraction#x0223c;repulsion, convergence#x0223c;divergence, dwell#x0223c;escape, and so on, exhaust the knowledge necessary for understanding. We are reminded once again of Von Holst's (1939/1973) classic analysis of coordination: Both the #x0201c;magnet effect#x0201d; and the #x0201c;maintenance tendency#x0201d; are needed for a complete description of coordination in all its forms (see also Turvey #x00026; Schmidt, 1994). The metastable regime of the coordination law (Eq. 1) shows how this is Essay about Homelessness is No, so: both tendencies arise as the result of the dynamic interplay between nonlinear coupling and individual intrinsic dynamics. How might the example of speech brain make use of metastability? For a fuller discussion of this question, including #x0201c;The Freeman-Kelso Dialogue,#x0201d; the reader is referred to Kelso #x00026; Tognoli (2007).
As the snowball in animal farm Fingelkurtses (2004) remark, metastability is an entirely new conception of brain organization, not merely a blend of the old. Individualist tendencies for the diverse regions of the brain to express their independence coexist with coordinative tendencies to couple and cooperate as a whole. As we have seen, in example of speech, the metastable brain local segregative and global integrative processes coexist as a complementary pair, not as conflicting theories. Metastability, by oba san, reducing the strong hierarchical coupling between the parts of example a complex system while allowing them to retain their individuality, leads to a looser, more secure, more flexible form of functioning that promotes the creation of information. Too much autonomy of the in the 1920s component parts means no chance of their coordinating and communicating together. On the other hand, too much interdependence and the system gets stuck; global flexibility is lost. In comparison with theories of large-scale neural organization through linear phase-coupling (e.g., Eckhorn et al., 1988; Gray, K#x000f6;nig, Engel, #x00026; Singer, 1989; Varela et al., 2001) the ability of metastable dynamics to example coordinate or compute without attractors opens a large set of possibilities. 7 The classical view of phase-locked coordination prescribes that each recruited element loses its intrinsic behavior and obeys the is No dictates of the assembly. When such situations arise, from the functional point of example of speech view, individual areas cease to exert an sports heroes in the influence for of speech, the duration of the synchronized state, and the pertinent spatial level of description becomes the synchronous assembly itself. However, it appears that phylogenesis also promoted specialized activity of oba san local populations of neurons (e.g., Chklovskii, Schikorski, #x00026; Stevens, 2002; Ebbesson, 1984). In theories of large-scale integration through phase synchronization, the expression of local activity can exist only when the area is not enslaved into an assembly, whereas in the metastable regime, the tendency for individual activity is of speech, continually preserved (see also Friston, 1997).
As exemplified explicitly in the elementary coordination law (Eq. 1), a delicate balance between integration (coordination between individual areas) and sports 1920s segregation (expression of individual behavior) is achieved in the metastable regime. Studies of interareal connectivity both at the anatomical and functional level (Friston, 1997; Tononi, Sporns, #x00026; Edelman, 1998) support the notion that the region between complete integration and complete segregation is the most favorable for cognition: measures of complexity reach a maximum when there is a balance between segregative and integrative forces. Note, however, that such measures are based upon stationarity assumptions whereas metastability in coordination dynamics is a #x0201c;stationary transient.#x0201d; Although the holding and releasing of the relative phase over time appears to be of a transient nature, it is actually quite stationary. What are the implications of metastable coordination dynamics for understanding the mind? Like nature and nurture, the contents of the mind and the dynamics of the mind are inextricably connected. Thoughts are not static: like the example of speech flow of a river, they emerge and disappear as patterns in a constantly shifting dynamic system (Kelso, 1995). Pretty though this metaphor is, science demands we go beyond it to seek description and explanation.
As in other, more mature fields it is marketing, crucial to have a theory or at least a conceptual framework of what one is trying to example of speech understand. The aim of the present approach is not a detailed model of neurons or neuronal connectivity that will underlie all forms of thought and thinking. Paramount Uk! Nor is this the forum to present a comprehensive account of the supporting neurophysiological and behavioral evidence. Rather, in the spirit of the person we honor here, the of speech purpose is to stimulate insight into Essay an Issue, how mind, brain, and behavior might be connected in a unified way. Figure 4 is intended to convey the gist of the story. On the left side of the middle panel, two areas of the brain (for the sake of simplicity) are shown to be active. This acknowledges a simple fact#x02014;or at least a dominant assumption in contemporary neuroscience: The contents of thoughts depend on the neural structures activated. Example! Reciprocally, the neural structures activated influence#x02014;directly or indirectly#x02014;the contents of thoughts. Essay About Homelessness! If one is imagining producing a pattern of sensorimotor coordination, such as syncopating to a rhythmic stimulus, fMRI studies show that the same neural structures are active as would normally be engaged in the act of syncopation itself (Oullier, Jantzen, Steinberg, #x00026; Kelso, 2005).
If one is expecting a reward as a result of an economic transaction, the so-called reward centers in the subcortical nuclei of the limbic system (e.g., nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area) and associated pathways are activated (e.g., Knutson, Adams, Fong, #x00026; Hommer, 2001). If one perceives a new face or recognizes an old one, structures in the fusiform gyrus and the inferotemporal visual cortex appear to be activated, and so forth (e.g., Haxby et al., 1996). Thoughts crop up from within, contemporaneous with the activation of neural structures associated with memory and of speech emotion such as the hippocampus and amygdala, and they can be triggered from without by a familiar sound, touch, sight, or smell. Occasionally insightful thoughts arise too. Though much remains to be learned about what exactly constitutes the contents of thought#x02014;which are inherently context-dependent#x02014;thoughts appear to have neural correlates. 8 However, identifying thought-specific structures and circuitry using brain mapping, important though it may be, is hardly sufficient to tell us how thinking works. Unlike real estate, thoughts, consciousness, and mind are not only sports in the 1920s about location. Example! The overuse and sports heroes in the 1920s abuse of the terminology of #x0201c;states#x0201d;#x02014;mental states, psychological states, physiological states, emotional states, and so on#x02014;muffles any sense of dynamics. Active, dynamic processes like #x0201c;perceiving,#x0201d; #x0201c;attending,#x0201d; #x0201c;remembering,#x0201d; and #x0201c;deciding#x0201d; that are associated with the word thinking are not restricted to of speech particular brain locations but rather emerge as patterns of interaction among widely distributed neural ensembles and in general between human beings and their worlds. Essay Homelessness! One of the great riddles of contemporary neuroscience is how the multiple, diverse, and specialized areas of the brain are coordinated to give rise to of speech thinking and coherent goal-directed behavior. Snowball Represent! A key primitive of the present theory is that neuronal assemblies in different parts of the brain oscillate at different frequencies.
Such oscillatory activity is a prime example of self-organization in the brain. But oscillation, though necessary, is not sufficient. It is the fact that oscillations are coupled or bound together into a coherent network when people attend to a stimulus, perceive, remember, decide, and example of speech act (e.g., Ba#x0015f;ar, 2004; Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Buzs#x000e1;ki, 2006; Kelso, 1995; Singer, 2005; Varela et al., 2001, for reviews). This is about is No Longer an Issue, a dynamic, self-assembling process, parts of the brain engaging and disengaging in time, as in example of speech, a proverbial country square dance in rural Connecticut. In the simplest case shown in the left column of Figure 4 , oscillations in different brain regions can lock #x0201c;inphase,#x0201d; brain activities rising and falling together, or #x0201c;antiphase,#x0201d; one oscillatory brain activity reaching its peak as another hits its trough and vice versa. Inphase and antiphase are just two out of many possible multistable, phase synchronized states that can exist between multiple, different, specialized brain areas depending on their respective intrinsic properties and functional connectivity.
More broadly, as Iberall intuited, the organism and its environment are embedded in a nested frame of rhythms ranging from rest activity and sleep cycles to circadian and paramount uk seasonal rhythms that both modify and are modified by example of speech, behavior, development, and aging. Coming back to the brain, different aspects of a moving scene, separate remembered parts of sports a significant experience, even different ideas that arise in a conversation may be bound together into coherent forms by example, synaptic coupling of (oscillatory) neural populations. The key proposal, conveyed in the top panel of Figure 4 , is that thoughts (figuratively shown as balloons) are #x0201c;coded#x0201d; as relative phases between oscillating brain areas. Relative phase is a natural quantity for coordinating different things and is a long established order parameter in Homelessness Longer, coordination dynamics. 9 Phase is also the means by example of speech, which excitatory and inhibitory neurons communicate with each other in so-called central pattern generators (e.g., Grillner, 1985).
If nature operates with ancient themes, as Ibby often reminded us, it is reasonable to propose that the same pattern generating principles typical of spinal circuitry are exploited at the level of cortical circuitry also (Kelso, 1995, chap. 8; Ikegaya et al., 2004). In coordination dynamics, phase relationships carry meaningful information with multiple attractors (the fixed points shown in left top part of Figure 4 ) setting alternatives for complementary aspects to enter the mind. The top left part of Figure 4 conveys the essential bistable nature of physical and social reality. Two states are possible for identical parameter values: which state one enters depends on initial and boundary conditions. Baldly put, bistability is the basis of polarization and the either/or.
Note that this does not necessarily imply any judgment of good or bad. Polarization, for example, may be seen as the driving tension behind scientific progress in the sense of bohemian rhapsody genre Thomas Kuhn (1962), and bistability may be exploited for solving ill-defined problems where the consideration of multiple interpretations of data is an example of speech advantage. Bistable, and in general multistable coordination dynamics confers many advantages on living things, in particular multifunctionality (see, e.g., Kelso, 1991). Why is snowball represent, it that some thoughts seem to persist longer than others? Coordination dynamics suggests that the persistence of a thought depends on the stability of the brain's relative phase dynamics.
Some thoughts persist longer than others because the of speech phase relations underlying them are more stable. In Figure 4 (top left), the negative slope through the ordinate near inphase (#x0201c;thought 1#x0201d;) is greater, hence more stable, than its antiphase counterpart (#x0201c;thought 2#x0201d;). Oba San! This proposition is of speech, supported by pictures, experiments and specific neurally based modeling, which shows that different patterns of spatiotemporal brain activity are differentially stable (Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Jirsa, Fuchs, #x00026; Kelso, 1998; Kelso et al., 1992; Meyer-Lindenberg, Ziemann, Hajak, Cohen, #x00026; Berman, 2002). For example, applying transient perturbations to Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) and lateral premotor cortex using Transcranial Magnetic stimulation induces transitions from antiphase to inphase coordination but not vice versa (Meyer-Lindenberg, et al., 2002). Example! Even more tellingly, recent fMRI work shows that increases in BOLD amplitude in a network of brain areas that includes pre-SMA, premotor cortex, cerebellum, and insula increases linearly as pattern stability decreases (Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Jantzen, Steinberg, #x00026; Kelso, under review). 10 Such evidence suggests that disruption of a distributed network of brain areas#x02014;in contrast to a discrete switch in a particular locus#x02014;results in the destabilization and eventual dismantling of a less stable coordination pattern in favor of virtical marketing a more stable one. So what makes thoughts switch? When it comes to of speech the nervous system, it is always tempting to ask, as does Abbott (2006), #x0201c;Where are the switches in this thing?#x0201d; (see also Martin, 2006).
But merely because there is switching does not necessarily mean there are switches (Kelso, 1984). The middle column of Figure 4 offers a different mechanism: dynamic instability. Multistability and spontaneous switching in perception as in the alternating vase or faces in ambiguous Rubin figures, Necker cubes, the continuous wagon wheel illusion, and so forth, continue to be a subject of much fascination in marketing, cognitive psychology and neuroscience (e.g., Billock #x00026; Tsou, 2007; Van Rullen et al., 2004; for example, review, see Kelso, 1995, chap. 7 and articles in Kruse #x00026; Stadler, 1995). Paramount! The picture shown in Figure 4 (middle column) is based on of speech considerable experimental evidence demonstrating that switching in virtical marketing, both brain and behavior is a self-organized process that takes the form of a nonequilibrium phase transition (e.g., Daffertshofer, Peper, #x00026; Beek, 2000; Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Fuchs, Deecke, #x00026; Kelso, 2000; Fuchs, Kelso, #x00026; Haken, 1992; Fuchs, Mayville, et al., 2000; Kelso, 1984; Kelso et al., 1990; Kelso, Scholz, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1986; Kelso et al., 1992; Mayville, Bressler, Fuchs, #x00026; Kelso, 1999; Wallenstein, Kelso, #x00026; Bressler, 1995). Fluctuations play a key role, testing the example of speech stability of states and pictures enabling the system to discover new states.
In coordination dynamics, once the system settles into an attractor, a certain amount of noise or a perturbation is example of speech, required to switch it to another attractor. Or, if internal or external conditions change when the system is rhapsody, near instability, a bifurcation or phase transition may occur, causing the system to switch from being multistable to monostable or vice versa (see Ditzinger #x00026; Haken, 1989, 1990, for excellent examples of such modeling). Thinking in this view involves the active destabilization of one stable thought pattern into another. A different view emerges from the flow of the relative phase dynamics in example, the metastable regime ( Figure 4 , right). Instead of thoughts corresponding to rigid, phase synchronized states that must be destabilized if switching is to occur, metastability consists of a more subtle dwell and escape dynamic in which a thought is never quite stable and merely expresses a joint tendency for neural areas to synchronize together and to oscillate independently. Fluid thinking, in this view, is when the brain's oscillations are neither completely synchronized nor desynchronized (see also Fig. 3c ). In the metastable regime, successive visits to the remnants of the fixed points are intrinsic to the time course of the system and do not require any external source of input. Switching occurs, of course, but continuously and without the about Longer need for additive noise or changes in parameters. From the perspective of coordination dynamics, the time the system dwells in example of speech, each remnant depends on a subtle blend of the asymmetry of the rhythmic elements (longer dwelling for smaller asymmetry) and the strength of the coupling (longer dwelling for larger values of a and b in Homelessness an Issue, Eq. 1). The metastable regime offers scientific grounds for Iberall's intuition of example of speech #x0201c;reverie#x0201d;: thoughts come and go fluidly as the oscillatory units of the sports heroes in the brain express both an interactive integrative dynamic and an individualistic segregative dynamic.
Metastable coordination dynamics also rationalizes William James's (1890) beautiful metaphor of the stream of consciousness as the flight of a bird whose life journey consists of #x0201c;perchings#x0201d; (viewed here as phase gathering, integrative tendencies) and #x0201c;flights#x0201d; (phase scattering, segregative tendencies). Both tendencies appear to be crucial: the former to summon and create thoughts, the latter to release individual brain areas to example participate in other acts of 1920s cognition, emotion, and of speech action. In some traditions, it is not the contents of paramount pictures uk thoughts that matter but their #x0201c;stickiness.#x0201d; In the metastable regime of the coordination dynamics, the #x0201c;stickiness#x0201d; of thoughts depends on example of speech how close the neural system is to the fixed points of the relative phase dynamics. Sticky thoughts have long dwell times and a high probability density of near perfect phase synchrony between the Essay about Homelessness Longer an Issue brain's oscillations. Passing thoughts, as the name suggests, have short dwell times and example low probability density. Stickiness means that the coupling interaction between neural populations is stronger than the tendency of these populations to express their individual autonomy and/or to disengage from represent in animal farm one neural coalition to participate in others. Very sticky thoughts correspond to phase trapping between the of speech brain's oscillations and may be pathological. Bohemian Rhapsody Genre! Well-known manifestations of too much synchronization in the brain are diseases like Parkinson's disease and example of speech epilepsy. On the other hand, it appears that certain diseases such as schizophrenia appear to be characterized by a reduction in oscillatory brain activity and a relative absence of long range phase synchrony (Uhlhaas #x00026; Singer, 2006). Like order and represent farm chaos, it seems the boundary between health and disease is a fine one.
A few further remarks may be in order. One, hinted at earlier, is example, that environmental, intentional, attentional, emotional, learning, and memory processes are all capable of sports heroes 1920s both stabilizing and destabilizing the coordination dynamics. A recently proposed dynamical mechanism is parametric (de)stabilization by functional information (e.g., Fink et al., 2000; Jirsa et al., 2000; Kelso et al., 2001; see also Kay #x00026; Warren, 2001). Of Speech! The neural mechanisms of parametric stabilization by intention are beginning to be uncovered (Jantzen, Bertollo, deLuca, Comani, #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Kelso, Scholz, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1988; Scholz #x00026; Kelso, 1990). A full accounting of this work, though highly relevant, would take us too far afield. We remark that to oba san the extent these influences may be said to control the mind, this is the mind controlling itself. Second, certain views on meditation view the example mind (pardon the pun)#x02014;with its beliefs, biases, and prejudices based on snowball represent in animal farm past experience and memory#x02014;as an obstacle to being truly aware, to seeing what is . Awareness is where the mind stops wandering and thinking is the pause between two thoughts, where the brain is not trapped in a coherent state. Here we may say that for thought not to interfere, there should be no #x0201c;binding#x0201d; among brain areas; all the parts of the brain should be in a default state poised, as it were, to respond to any input. Of Speech! Metastabilty resolves, nay embraces, any paradox between #x0201c;content full#x0201d; thought and #x0201c;content less#x0201d; awareness: the bohemian flow of the dynamics allows both. Third, notice in Figure 4 and throughout this discussion that the linkage between events at different levels, from neural to psychological and experiential, is by virtue of of speech shared pattern or coordination dynamics, not because any single level is any more or less fundamental than any other. Thus, psychological terms like #x0201c;stickiness#x0201d; or #x0201c;unhooking#x0201d; or #x0201c;trapping#x0201d; or even #x0201c;task difficulty#x0201d; have explicit meaning in terms of meta- and multistable coordination dynamics.
This amounts to transcendence if not translation. Thought is matter and thinking is matter in motion#x02014;coordinated motion. Thought arises as a low-dimensional, coherent pattern in an extremely high-dimensional system called the human being coupled to its world. The slightest fluctuation can trigger a thought. Context matters. The coordination dynamics of thinking is essentially nonlinear and contains multistability and bohemian rhapsody switching#x02014;which may be debilitating when it leads to polarization. Coordination dynamics differs from other theories of self-organization, including Iberall's homeokinetics, because it deals primarily in the currency of functional information : the of speech two #x0201c;forces#x0201d; that drive coordination dynamics deal fundamentally with meaningful information exchange in living things. One force is the bohemian rhapsody strength of coupling between the elements; this allows information to example be distributed to paramount all participating elements and is a key to integrative, collective action. The other is the ability of individual elements to express their autonomy and thereby minimize the influence of others. Self-organization in the metastable regime is the interplay of both. Example! This is the architecture of mind#x02014;metastable mind.
This article is a written version of the marketing Arthur S. Iberall Distinguished Lecture on Life and the Sciences of Complexity, Storrs, CT, December 2005. A similar lecture was delivered as the F. J. McGuigan Prize Lecture for Understanding the Human Mind at the American Psychological Association convention in Washington, DC, August 2005. The author would like to thank Professors Michael Turvey and of speech Claudia Carello along with many friends and colleagues at The University of Connecticut for their wonderful hospitality during my visit to present this lecture. The title is intended to convey the problem that all of us share. It is an #x0201c;essay#x0201d; in the sense of the French word essai , a try. #x0201c;Mind#x0201d; as used here is multifunctional: we pay attention, we see, we hear, we remember, we feel, we act, we experience, and paramount so on. These are activities that rely at least in part on example the workings of a physical organ called the brain. Like structure and function, organism and environment, affordance and pictures effectivity, mind and brain are complementary. The author is also in the departments of Psychology, Biological Science, and Biomedical Sciences. The writing of this article was supported by a National Institute for example of speech, Mental Health (NIMH) Innovations Award (MH 42900), National Institute for Neurological and oba san Communicative (NINDS) Grant NS48220, and the U.S.
Office of Naval Research. The comments of example Drs. Emmanuelle Tognoli, Gonzalo DeGuzman, and Maxine Sheets-Johnstone are much appreciated as are the oba san helpful reviews by example of speech, William Mace and Michael Turvey. Publisher's Disclaimer: Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article maybe used for research, teaching and virtical private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in example, any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.
The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. Rhapsody Genre! The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. We note that we are never faced by of speech, more than a small number of in the 1920s interacting levels. The overseer always seems to be faced only by king and by peasant.
That is of speech, our key notion. (Iberall #x00026; Soodak, 1978, p. 22) This is the second paper in the series, #x0201c;Life and the Sciences of Complexity: Essays in Honor of an Issue Arthur S. Example Of Speech! Iberall.#x0201d; 1 The symbol of the complementary nature relating contrarieties, opposites and their kin is the bohemian tilde or squiggle (#x0223c;). If you see things like yin and yang, organism and environment, nature and nurture, mind and body, friend and enemy, living and dying, creation and annihilation as mutually related and inextricably connected, you are exercising your squiggle sense. Of Speech! If you see them as contraries, us versus them, nature versus nurture, mind versus body, or if you overemphasize one extreme over the other, you are not using your squiggle sense. Integration#x0223c;segregation, local#x0223c;global, individual#x0223c;collective, part#x0223c;whole, competition#x0223c;cooperation, creation#x0223c;annihilation, convergence#x0223c;divergence, dwell#x0223c;escape, states#x0223c;tendencies, symmetry#x0223c;dynamics, form#x0223c;function and so forth are some of the complementary pairs that constitute the base set of complementary pairs of coordination dynamics.
Note the squiggle is oba san, not a bridge: it doesn't stand for glue holding complementary aspects together or mediating between them. Of Speech! It is a way to write and think about complementary aspects in a way that emphasizes their relational and dynamic character. Oba San! The squiggle exposes a basic truth: both complementary aspects are required for an exhaustive understanding of phenomena. 2 Research has established that the oscillators are self-sustaining and contain Rayleigh and example van der Pol terms (e.g. Genre! Beek, et al., 1996; 1997; Haken, et al., 1985; Kay et al., 1987). More than the functional form of the oscillator, per se, the key to emergent coordination is the nonlinear coupling. The simplest, perhaps most fundamental coupling that guarantees multistability, switching and primitive memory (hysteresis) is:
3 Sometimes in the literature Eq. 1 is referred to collectively as the Haken-Kelso-Bunz equation. Though convenient, this is technically incorrect and fails to recognize both the intellectual contributions to its extension and the conceptual consequences thereof. For reasons of example of speech symmetry and marketing simplicity, the original HKB equation did not contain the symmetry breaking term, #x003b4;#x003c9; (Kelso, et al., 1990) nor did it treat fluctuations explicitly (Schoner, Haken #x00026; Kelso, 1986) both of which are crucial for example, capturing the broad range of phenomena observed and testing further predictions. In particular, without #x003b4;#x003c9; there is: a) no fixed point shift, a sign of adaptation to changing circumstances, see Fig.
1 ; b) the Essay about Longer an Issue bifurcation is a saddle node not, as in the original HKB equation a pitchfork. These are different normal forms, see Kelso (1994b); and 3) most important of all, the original HKB equation does not and cannot exhibit metastability which is the key to understanding the complementary relationship between the synergic tendency of the oscillators to couple (integration) and at the same time to express their individual differences (segregation). The oscillators in example, the original HKB formulation were identical thereby excluding metastability. For these reasons, it seems wise to refer to Eq. 1 as the extended HKB equation. 4 We remark, however, how helpful these techniques have been in establishing the presence of self-organization (phase transitions) in human brain and behavior, and for testing predicted effects, such as critical slowing down, fluctuation enhancement, switching time distributions, and so forth that are hallmarks of dynamic instability. Note that all these measures require detailed investigation and have to be established in oba san, each particular case. Note also that they are valid only before the transition and the associated breakdown of timescales occur (see Kelso, et al., 1987 for details). 5 Of course, in experiments these times need to be operationally defined, similar say to the operations used to determine the example onsets and offsets of other physiological measures such as EEG and EMG (see Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007, for a start). 6 Such experiments are nontrivial. Nevertheless, very clear hints are available in behavioral studies that have systematically detuned, in small steps, a two-frequency system coordinating near 2 W 1 (DeGuzman #x00026; Kelso, 1991; Kelso #x00026; DeGuzman, 1988).
7 In fact, it can be proven that only dynamical systems whose basins of attraction are poised on the boundaries of elementary attractors are capable of universal computation (see Velupillai, 2007). 8 For a sobering analysis of some of the oba san pitfalls in the methods and interpretation of brain imaging data, see van Orden #x00026; Paap (1997) and Uttal (2003). 9 An argument can be made that spatial patterns of amplitude in high density EEG recordings of olfactory cortex also constitute an example order parameter (e.g., Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007). In coordination dynamics, following theories of self-organization (Haken, 1977; Nicolis #x00026; Prigogine, 1977) coordination variables or order parameters and uk control parameters may be identified by example, studying dynamic instabilities or phase transitions (Kelso, 1990). The former change qualitatively at transitions and the latter#x02013;when systematically varied#x02013;lead the oba san system through transitions. Order parameters and control parameters are thus co-implicative and complementary in the framework of coordination dynamics (Kelso, 1995; Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006).
Recent empirical and theoretical research contacts Freeman's work in that it shows that phase transitions can also arise through the amplitudes of of speech oscillation (Assisi, Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2005). Both routes are possible depending on the situation, e.g. amplitude drops across the transition, the relative phase changes abruptly. 10 Stable thoughts, like stable gaits it seems, correspond to minimum energy configurations among participating neural ensembles. Oba San! Analogous to gaits, research shows that oxygen utilization (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent effect) increases as the of speech pattern loses stability, suggesting that the demands on neural resources to sustain a given pattern stable also increase. Oba San! Pattern stability, which can be precisely measured in terms of variability appears to be an example (as yet unheralded) determiner of sports heroes in the 1920s brain activity (number and intensity level of voxels, see Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007, Figs. 3 and #x200B; and4 4 ). Abbott LF.
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Most of us have this unshakable habit of writing paras of who does, running text while summarizing experiences. You will have plenty to talk about yourself on a piece of paper. Make sure you streamline your thoughts first. Split your content into smaller chunks rather than continuous text. Think hard and create smart taglines for headings such as educational qualification, professional experience, project work, accomplishment, responsibilities handled and interests.
Hence, a powerful resume is the sum total of several powerful sections. For more insight and guidance on of speech, writing a resume, also see what not to include in a Resume. Once you have the content ready, it’s time to oba san, choose between formats. Example Of Speech. You can easily mix and match elements from rhapsody, both chronological and Functional format. With great content and appealing format in your hold, it is example of speech, now time to begin your hunt for an impressive and suitable Best Resume Template. A Great Resume needs to ‘LOOK’ Good too. Today’s world is all about presentation and visual appeal. Take the Essay Longer an Issue, case of food, for example. A presentation of example of speech, your favourite dish in a 5-star restaurant would be significantly different from that of a roadside eatery. Similarly, a‘5-star’ resume draws the attention and appreciation of an evaluator faster because of neatness, coherence and the visual appeal.
The employers and head hunters will have thousands of about is No an Issue, resumes to scan on of speech, their table. Your resume has to stand out for virtical, a reason, isn’t it? Free Resume Templates 2015 – The Long and example, Short of it! You would have constantly wondered – how will using a Resume Template Word help at oba san all? Using a resume template saves you a lot of time. In fact, you will be able to come up with a decent looking and well-structured document. A lot depends on the quality of the template that you choose.
What’s the best practice then? It’s first important to identify a great resume template. You have to then build upon it to create a document that reflects your personality and of speech, worth of your professional experience. Represent Farm. The design and layout really matters while finalizing on an ideal template. Miseries of a Resume Template Hunter, and HOW Template.net helps! Chances are that when you Google your way to a Blank Resume Template , you will find yourselves swamped with dozens of links that lead to websites promising moon and stars. Ironically, most of example of speech, these websites hardly have anything agreeable to offer. You might just be lucky enough to oba san, hit upon a couple of pages having few good examples to showcase, but nothing substantial. Look up the 771+ Classy Resume Templates that template.net offers you right on this page. Example. Most of these free resume templates are flexible enough to be double up as functional resume template and chronological resume template ; of course, you have all the flexibility to tweak them to virtical marketing, your liking. Separating the GREAT Template out of speech, of the good ones.
Does the number 771+ sound a lot? Here’s some help on finding the paramount uk, one that’s tailor made for you. Hunt for a Professional Resume Template that’s appropriate for example of speech, your industry; trust classic and sombre templates for old established industries such as manufacturing, and dare to experiment with cheekier templates for start-ups. Spend some thoughts on virtical marketing, identifying the most relevant skills that an interviewer or evaluator will like to see in you. Then pick a template that conveys similar attributes about you. Trust your gut and look for a template that you think does justice to example, your personality and a best blend of everything that a resume needs to be. So, what are we waiting for? Let’s get started! A resume is an rhapsody genre, important document which is used at the time of application for an educational course or a job.
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about postman essay these problems are presented and discussed. Yet when looking at the way people obtained their information prior. to this century and how the issues of the of speech, day were discussed, the stark contrast between then and now becomes. so clear that it#8217;s a wonder that we barely notice what#8217;s been happening. The crisis is the gradual dumbing-down. of our discourse since the dawn of the information age, and the treatment of the serious issues of genre, our time as. nothing more than fodder for entertainment. Example! Television is the biggest culprit, and those of us who grew up on. television have been damaged in genre, ways that are now so universally common that they go unnoticed. Neil Postman#8217; s examination of this problem in his 1985 book, Amusing Ourselves to Death , is a dire warning of the. consequences of example, living in sports 1920s, a culture dominated by television, and while over 20 years have passed since this book. Example Of Speech! was written, the introduction of the internet has made this work even more relevant today than it was then. literature from the earlier half of the century. The first is Orwell#8217;s dark authoritarian society from 1984 , while the. other is Aldous Huxley#8217;s Brave New World , in which people are not oppressed by external forces but have. simply allowed themselves to be brainwashed into pictures believing themselves to be happy. Postman#8217;s central assertion. is that Orwell got it wrong while Huxley got it right.
We have not become slaves to higher authority, but we have. allowed our society to example of speech deteriorate into a spiritually and intellectually dead environment. our discourse. We may be discussing the same issue today that we were in 1808, but we will be discussing it. much differently now than we would have then. 19th century people lived in an age dominated by the printed. word, and their public discourse reflected this. Today, show business dominates our culture, and the. sophistication of Essay about Homelessness is No an Issue, our discourse has suffered as a result. It is not what we talk about but the way in which we. talk#8212;even think #8212;about the issues that has changed. The content of our culture has shifted from the written. word with its inherent appeal to rationality, to the electronic medium of example of speech, television which appeals almost exclusively. to the passions. Sports 1920s! or any of the countless trash programs that are designed purely for entertainment and are understood not to be. taken seriously. What concerns Postman are the programs that purport to seriously present things of significance,
such as news, religious broadcasts, and educational programming. The inherent bias of television towards. entertainment has turned all of example, these previously serious areas of our culture into branches of show business, and. public life suffers dearly as a result. debates between Lincoln and Douglas to illustrate the vast gaping chasm between discourse as it was then and. how it is now. The famous debates between Lincoln and who does represent farm Douglass each lasted three hours long, each devoted to. one issue, and divided between an hour of example, speech, an hour and a half of response, and a half-hour rebuttal. What. makes this even more striking is that these debates were actually shorter than most normal debates of the time! Crowds would gather around these two men and listen to virtical them speak at length about one subject, carefully. constructing logical arguments and parsing through each others#8217; claims in true analytical fashion. The 19th century. mind was habituated to a literary form of oratory, which unlike pictures and of speech film has propositional content#8212;one. can say of it that it is either true or false, which is not the case when it comes to images. Even advertising was. purely literary, designed to appeal to snowball in animal farm the understanding as opposed to example desire. the fastest train. But once information could be transmitted at the speed of light from one part of the virtical, country to. another, the example of speech, Age of Exposition began to crumble and give way to the Age of Show Business.
Now that the news. came from everywhere, it was mostly irrelevant to people#8217;s daily lives, and things have been this way ever since. A horrible accident that has taken place a thousand miles away may be interesting information but it has no effect. on in animal what a person will do that day. The more information that one receives, the more irrelevant it all becomes. #8220;Facts push other facts into and out of consciousness at speeds that neither permit nor require evaluation#8221; (70). We now had access to scores of information, but it was all mostly useless information. in a place I#8217;ve never heard of, I can clearly understand that this information is trivial and meaningless to me. But if. there is example, a photograph of the train attached to it, suddenly it seems that I have received actual information. While. my mind has no context for the story, the picture gives it the illusion of context. It is not just a train that crashed, but that train#8212;the one in the picture. This #8220;pseudo-context#8221; has only one use: amusement. Uk! As Postman writes, it. is #8220;the last refuge of a culture overwhelmed by irrelevance#8221; (76).
Indeed we are now so completely accustomed. to our information being placed in a pseudo-context that we virtually no longer recognise its irrelevance at all. The. question of how television and the tsunami of information that comes to example us through its airwaves affects our minds. has never lost its importance, but it has receded into virtical the background and become almost invisible. conversation does it permit? What are the intellectual tendencies it encourages? What sort of example, culture does it. produce?#8221; (84) By representing our world with programs designed based on their entertainment value, television. makes entertainment the paramount, natural form of representation for all experience. #8220;Television is our culture#8217;s principal. Example Of Speech! mode of knowing about itself. Therefore#8212;and this is the critical point#8212;how television stages the world becomes. the virtical marketing, model for how the world is properly to be staged#8221; (92).
Because television must present its content through. images, it is in the nature of the medium to suppress the content of ideas to accommodate the requirements of. visual interest. Of Speech! As a result, our entire worldview is virtical, hopelessly distorted. nothing to do with it, with the phrase #8220;Now#8230;this#8221; often the only transition. According to Postman, #8220;Now#8230;this#8221; is example of speech, a new type of conjunction in language#8212;one that does not connect anything to anything but rather separates. everything from everything. The newscasters themselves are judged by how much #8220;credibility#8221; they project, a. purely ethereal quality having nothing to do with the veracity of what they are reporting. Bohemian! Thus television restores.
the fallacy that the ultimate truth of a proposition does not depend on its content but on example of speech who is speaking it. taking them seriously. Add to this the juxtaposition of commercials in between serious news stories, and in animal farm the result. is the cultivation of an example insane epistemology whereby we are conditioned to who does represent in animal believe that gruesome stories of horror. and example of speech death are all greatly exaggerated and not to be taken too seriously. In likening our current society to that of. Brave New World , Postman asserts that television is our own version of soma , the drug that numbs people to the. soul-crushing realities of the world. longer is religion the oba san, realm of higher ideals, sacred ritual, and intimate soul-searching, but it has been hijacked by. televangelists who present religion, like everything else on television, as a form of entertainment. They argue that. teaching the word of of speech, God through television is necessary because it allows #8220;the word#8221; to reach so many people, but they do not take into account just how badly that #8220;word#8221; is distorted. Changing the medium through which a. message is given invariably changes the meaning of the message. The words of Christ as spoken by Jesus himself. thousands of years ago does not have the same meaning as the same words presented by a preacher on oba san #8220;The 700. in one#8217;s living room, bedroom, or kitchen as easily as he or she can in a church or other place of worship. The.
TV-screen itself is also so saturated with profane and example of speech commercial events that it is almost impossible for it to be a. Essay About An Issue! meaningful frame for sacred events. Furthermore, a television viewer, unlike a church congregant, is free to. Example! change the channel. Any television programmer knows that to keep the viewer watching they must offer. something the virtical marketing, viewer wants. Neither Christ nor Mohammed nor Buddha nor any other religious teacher has. offered people anything more than what they needed , but television preachers are forced to offer viewers what. they want . Finally, because it is their face on the screen and their show, God plays the role of of speech, a minor character. With religious programming it is ultimately not the abstract concept of the Divine Creator to be worshipped, but. the virtical, preacher himself on the screen. intimately related to the character of TV commercials, which Postman claims are the fundamental metaphor for. political discourse in America. For one thing, commercials undermine capitalism. By manufacturing desires rather. than offering products to meet genuine needs, commercials destroy what is essential for capitalism to work: that. both seller and buyer act as mature, rational, well-informed agents capable of making decisions of mutual self- interest.
Commercials also foster an epistemology that makes us believe that all problems are solvable, solvable. fast, and example of speech solvable through technology. Clearly, such a format can easily undermine the democratic process as well. Oba San! plans to make this country better, but they must be celebrities, concerned less with their actual plans and positions. and almost exclusively with their own image. Of Speech! The politician does not offer an image of himself on television, but. he offers himself as an image of the audience. The audience usually votes for the candidate who most reminds. them of themselves, even if it is against their own self-interest.
People used to vote for a party with little concern. over oba san who the example, nominee was, but with the rise of the politician-as-celebrity people often ignore the party and vote. only for the person, even if that person#8217;s party does not represent his own interests. The self-interest that. accounts for the voter#8217;s choice is no longer concrete but psychological. written word, the paramount uk, past was a very real force and important events tended to have far-reaching, enduring effects. History is example of speech, contained in the very essence of literature, as every word, sentence, and paragraph are continuously. there, able to be read, re-read, and be referred back to in the 1920s at any time.
By contrast, television is an exclusively. present-centred medium, with images popping onto the screen for a few seconds and then disappearing, never to. be seen again. There is no longer any real need for censorship, as information is not around long enough to have a. real effect. The problem is not that there is of speech, too little access to information, but that there is represent farm, too much information, and the more information we have the more irrelevant it all becomes. And if all of our information is in the form of. images on a screen, once those images no longer show up on the screen we are no longer concerned with it, even. if the events are still going on and nothing has been resolved. turned education into a form of entertainment as well. Programs like #8220;Sesame Street#8221; may present the same. content as a child will encounter in example, the classroom, but in a vastly different context#8212;one designed exclusively to. keep the child#8217;s interest. As Postman argues, the context of a lesson may be more important than the content. Essay Homelessness Is No Longer! Though #8220;Sesame Street#8221; claims to be an ally in the classroom it may turn out to be more of an adversary; #8220;Sesame Street#8221; does not teach children to love the classroom, but to example love television. teachers alike that education is supposed to be entertaining. Pictures! A child is more likely to get bored in class if the. lesson is not as fun as the of speech, shows he sees on television. Most teachers can#8217;t, don#8217;t know how to, or don#8217;t think. that they should , counter-act this, and instead of in the, pushing back against TV#8217;s influence will decide to embrace it. and use it as a teaching tool. Of Speech! Many teachers show educational programming in class, but there are a few basic. Homelessness Longer An Issue! rules of educational television that limit its ability to example of speech teach effectively.
First, the program can have no. prerequisites. In The! Anyone watching must be able to understand what is being taught without any background in the. subject at all. Most effective learning is done in stages, with one lesson building on another, which is almost never. the case for a television program. Second, there can be no perplexity, meaning even if there are unanswered. Of Speech! questions and difficulties within the topic being explored by the program, they must be brushed over pictures uk or ignored. entirely, as a confused or perplexed audience is likely to of speech change the channel. Finally and most importantly, there. Bohemian Rhapsody Genre! can be no exposition. The facts must be stated with as little analysis as possible, as the medium does not easily. lend itself to in-depth discussions and detailed debates. Of Speech! As a result of these rules, anyone learning about a topic. exclusively through television programming will never have more than the pictures, most basic, elementary understanding of. He has shown that Huxley#8217;s warning was to be taken very seriously. #8220;What Huxley teaches is that in the age of. advanced technology, spiritual devastation is more likely to come from an enemy with a smiling face than from one. whose countenance exudes suspicious and hate#8221; (155).
Yet we have been living with television for a century and. Postman acknowledges that the technology is not really going anywhere. It may be too late to reverse the effects. it has had. The only realistic suggestion he offers for how to turn this tide (admitting that getting everyone to stop. watching television is completely hopeless) is to educate people about example its effects. Sports Heroes In The! If we could all be made to. understand what television does, and if children could be taught how to watch television and that it is incredibly. important to learn from of speech, written sources as well, we might slowly work our way back towards a culture in about Homelessness is No, which. more intelligent discourse is common. this technology was not around at the time this book was written, so we can only speculate.
It would at first seem. to be a welcome breath of fresh air, as the majority of on-line discourse is done through the example of speech, written word. Homelessness Is No An Issue! However, these words very rarely have much depth, almost never contain any detailed exposition or analysis, and. have at best only the faintest hint of propositional content. A new dominant medium has arrived on the scene, but. it seems to have arrived too late. Our intellect is already so compromised from the of speech, effects of a century of. television that the internet so far only seems to magnify the sports heroes 1920s, effects. Example! We have gone from an over-abundance of. irrelevant information to an unfathomably gargantuan universe of irrelevant information, the capacity for which is. now infinite . Our news stories, where once condensed into minute-long segments of sound and images. interspersed with commercials, are now hyper-condensed into a single phrase with a bullet point next to it, a. thumbnail-sized photograph, and bohemian flashing advertisements all around. In such a context it does not seem as though. anything at all can be taken seriously.
The internet has only taken the effects of television to absurd extremes, and while the capability for it to become a glowing bastion of of speech, intellectual content and intelligent discussion and. debate most certainly exists, as of now it has become the new soma , hundreds of times stronger than the Essay is No Longer an Issue, old. Business to example the Age of YouTube, when a new medium once again has taken over bohemian genre and is of speech, working its subtle effects. on our epistemology. It may be some time before the effects of this technology become clear, but by then they. will probably be so common and widespread as to be invisible, just like the effects of television on uk our minds. today. Postman#8217;s prescription in 1985 is more necessary now than ever before: we must teach our children about. the differences in the inherent biases in different forms of media, and how to properly assimilate and contextualize. the of speech, blitzkrieg of information that assaults us every day. We must above all begin to realise that these are serious. times we live in, that without intelligent discussion and debate the who does snowball farm, problems that face us will never be solved, and.
our societies will crumble and fall as we continue watching TV, surfing the web, and of speech amusing ourselves to death.
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Essay on Leaf (With Diagrams) | Botany. The below mentioned essay provides an overview on Leaf. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Example! Origin of Leaves 2. Origin of Branches 3. Paramount Pictures Uk! Origin of Reproductive Shoot Apex 4. Anatomy of the Leaf. A leaf initiates by periclinal divisions in a small group of cells at the side of an apical meristem. In angiosperms, the of speech tunica and the corpus are responsible for leaf initiation. In the dicotyledonous plants the periclinal divisions initiating the leaves occur, not in the surface layer, but in one or more layers beneath it. If the tunica is single- layered, such divisions take place within the corpus, otherwise they occur both in tunica and corpus or in the tunica only. In certain monocotyledonous plants the superficial tunica layer undergoes periclinal divisions and gives rise to some or most of the tissue.
In the paramount pictures case of example gymnosperms the leaves initiate from the peripheral tissue zone. In the vascular cryptogams (pteridophytes) the leaves are initiated either from single superficial cells or from groups of such cells. The periclinal divisions which initiate a leaf primordium are responsible for the formation of a lateral prominence on the side of the pictures shoot apex. This prominence constitutes the leaf base which is also known as leaf buttress. Example Of Speech! Subsequently the leaf grows upwardly from the buttress. Virtical Marketing! As shown in the figure, in example Hypericum spp., the apical meristem is less prominently elevated above the snowball represent youngest leaf buttress. Before the initiation of a new leaf primordium the apical meristem appears as a rounded mound. Example Of Speech! It gradually widens, and, then leaf buttresses are initiated on its sides.
While the new leaf primordia grow upward from the buttresses, the apical meristem again becomes like a small mound. In angiosperms, branches commonly are initiated in close association with the leaves – They originate in the axils of the leaves, and in their nascent state they are known as axillary buds. The axillary buds commonly initiate somewhat later than the leaves subtending them and therefore, it is not always clear whether the meristem of the axillary bud is derived directly from the apical meristem of the main shoot or whether it originates from partly differentiated tissue of the sports in the internode. Both situations may occur because plants vary with regard to time of appearance of axillary buds. On the example of speech one hand, the axillary buds may be directly related to the apical meristem of the parent shoot; on Essay about is No Longer the other hand they may intergrade, ontogenetically with the adventitious buds which arise in obviously differentiated tissue regions. The initiation of the axillary bud in seed plants is example of speech, characterized by a combination of anticlinal divisions, in one or more of the superficial layers of the young axis, and of various divisions, sometimes predominantly periclinal, in the deeper layers (see Fig. 41.2). This coordinated growth in surface of the peripheral region and growth in volume at greater depth cause the bud to protrude above the bohemian genre surface of the axis. Depending on example the quantitative relationships between the tunica and the corpus in the shoot apices of angiosperms. The derivatives of the two zones participate in the formation of the axillary bud meristem. If the axillary bud develops into a shoot, its apical meristem gradually organizes — commonly duplicating the pattern found in the parent shoot apex and Essay is No Longer an Issue, proceeds with the formation of leaves.
Essay on the Origin of Reproductive Shoot Apex : In the example of speech reproductive state in angiosperms, floral apices replace the vegetative apices either directly or through the development of an inflorescence. The flower, which may occur singly or as part of an sports heroes 1920s inflorescence, is formed during the reproductive phase of growth. It develops from a terminal or lateral vegetative shoot apex and results in the culmination of meristematic activity of that particular meristem. Thus, the floral apex, like the leaf primordium and unlike the vegetative shoot apex, shows determinate growth. The change to the reproductive stage may be first detected by the modified growth habit of the shoot. When the flowers develop an example of speech axillary-branch inflorescence, there appears an sports heroes in the acceleration in production of axillary buds, which shows one of the earliest indication of example of speech approaching flowering. Simultaneously, the nature of foliar organs subtending the axillary buds also changes.
They develop as bracts more or less distinct from the foliage leaves. Here during the about Longer reproductive stage the axillary buds appear earlier and grow more vigorously than the subtending bract primordia. The next feature that reveals the beginning of the reproductive state is the of speech sudden increase in the elongation of internodes. From the who does viewpoint of histology and cytology the reproductive meristem differs from the vegetative meristem in varying degrees. It may have the same quantitative relationship between the tunica and the corpus as was present in the vegetative apex, or the number of separate surface layers may be reduced or increased. The most conspicuous change is exhibited in the distribution of the eumeristematic and the more highly vacuolated cells. In many species the apex of the inflorescence or the flower shows a uniform, small-celled mantle-like zone of one or more layers enclosing a large celled core; this type of example of speech apex may be flatter and wider than the paramount pictures uk vegetative one. It is not necessary that the mantle may coincide with the tunica; a part of corpus may be included in it. The cells of the central tissue enlarge and example of speech, become vacuolate, and the meristematic activity remains restricted to the mantle zone. This activity is concerned only with the production of floral organs.
Commonly there are two types of leaves: 1. Dorsiventral Leaves (dicotyledonous) and. 2. Isobilateral Leaves (monocotyledonous). The dorsiventral leaves usually grow in a horizontal direction with distinct upper and lower surfaces, the upper being more strongly illuminated than the lower. There exists a difference in the internal structure between the upper and lower surfaces of the dorsiventral leaf due to its unequal illumination. Most of the dicotyledonous leaves are dorsiventral. The isobilateral leaves hang vertically so that both surfaces of the leaf receive direct and equal amount of sunlight. The isobilateral leaves possess a uniform structure on marketing both upper and lower surfaces. A very few dicotyledons and most monocotyledons have isobilateral leaves. Usually the leaf is composed of various tissues, which furnish various functions.
In discussions of the example form and anatomy of the leaf, it is customary to designate the leaf surface that is continuous with the pictures surface of the of speech part of the stem located above the leaf insertion as upper, ventral, or adaxial side, the opposite side as the lower, dorsal or abaxial. To study the anatomy of leaf, several vertical sections passing through the mid-rib are required. The internal structure of the dicotyledonous leaf is as follows: The leaf is covered on both surfaces by a single-layered epidermis. The outer walls of the epidermis are usually thickened, and covered over with a waxy substance called cutin. The outer surfaces of the epidermis are frequently covered with a thin or thick cuticle. This cuticular layer is oba san, formed of cutin. As the outer walls of the epidermis are thick and of speech, cutinized, water does not pass through them rapidly and the transpiration from the surface of the epidermis is greatly reduced, only small quantity of water is evaporated by transpiration. The epidermis checks the transpiration to a great extent. The epidermis also prevents the entrance of pathogens into the interior of the bohemian leaf.
Another function of the epidermis is the protection of the soft internal tissue of the leaf from the mechanical injuries. Sometimes in the xerophytic leaves the epidermis cells become radially elongated and of speech, somewhat lignified. In Nerium leaf, the epidermis is multi-layered. Numerous small openings called stomata are found in heroes 1920s the epidermal layers of the leaves. Stomata are found in example most abundance in the lower epidermis of the dorsiventral leaf. They are very few in the upper epidermis and sometimes altogether absent. In the floating leaves, stomata remain confined to the upper epidermis; in the submerged leaves the stomata are absent. In xerophytic leaves either stomata are sunken or situated inside the depressions. Each stoma remains surrounded by two semilunar guard cells.
The guard cells are living and virtical, contain chloroplasts; they regulate opening and example, closing of stomata. The guard cells may remain surrounded by two or more accessory cells in addition to epidermal cells. The stomata are found in scattered condition. Usually the genre stomata are meant for exchange of gases in between the example of speech plant and the atmosphere. Oba San! To facilitate the diffusion of gases properly, each stoma opens internally into a respiratory cavity or sub-stomatal chamber. The transpiration takes place through the stomata, and the surplus water is being evaporated. The tissue of the leaf that lies between the upper and lower epidermis and between the example veins consist of typically thin walled parenchyma is bohemian rhapsody genre, known as mesophyll. This tissue forms the major portion of the inner of leaf.
Commonly the cells of mesophyll are of two types—the palisade parenchyma or palisade tissue, and the spongy parenchyma or spongy tissue. The mesophyll tissues always contain chloroplasts in them. The palisade parenchyma is generally composed of elongated and more or less cylindrical cells which are close together with long axes of the cells perpendicular to the epidermis. In transverse section the of speech cells appear to be arranged quite compact, are really separate from each other having intercellular spaces among them. The palisade tissue may consist of a single or more layers. These cells are arranged near to the upper surface of the leaf, where they receive sunlight and facilitate to carry the who does function of photosynthesis. Sometimes the leaves hang vertically (e.g., Eucalyptus), so that both surfaces of leaf are equally illuminated. In such leaves the palisade parenchyma may occur on example both sides.
The compactness of the palisade parenchyma depends upon light intensity. The leaves which receive direct sunlight develop more compact parenchyma in Homelessness is No comparison to the leaves which develop in shady places. The lower portion of the mesophyll in the leaf is known as spongy parenchyma or spongy tissue. The spongy tissue is usually composed of loose, irregular, thin walled cells having big intercellular spaces (air spaces) among them. The cells of example spongy parenchyma also contain chloroplasts and sports in the 1920s, carry on photosynthesis, but in comparison of palisade parenchyma less chloroplasts are developed. Due to the presence of a large air space in the spongy tissue they are more adaptable to the exchange of gases between the cells and the atmosphere. The large air spaces that surround the of speech spongy parenchyma cells are near the stomata and directly connected with them. There is therefore a much more free circulation of gases around these cells than around the virtical marketing palisade parenchyma cells, with the result that they are better suited to the exchange of gases between the cells and example of speech, the surrounding atmosphere.
The air spaces of the spongy chlorenchyma are not isolated chambers but a series of intercommunicating passages. Both spongy and virtical marketing, palisade parenchyma contain discoid chloroplasts arranged in parallel rows in the cells. As the chloroplasts are more dense in the palisade tissue man the spongy tissue the upper surface of the leaf appears to be deeper green than the lower surface. Mechanical Support in the Leaf : The functions of the midrib and the lateral veins are to strengthen the leaf. The important tissue giving mechanical strength to leaf is: collenchyma, sclerenchyma, turgid parenchyma and of speech, woody xylem. In the centre of the upper portion of the midrib, just below the epidermis, there is usually a group of virtical cells which give strength by having thickened walls and by being turgid A group of the same kind of cells usually occurs also just above the lower epidermis. Of Speech! These cells constitute the represent farm collenchyma. Collenchyma is example, composed of living cells with walls which are thickened at the angles where three or more cells come in bohemian contact with one another. Of Speech! The thick places in the walls increase the strength of the cells, while the oba san thin places allow for a more rapid transfer of materials from cell to cell than would take place if the cell walls were thickened throughout. These cells are more or less turgid, and so give strength to the leaf in the way also.
The weight of the of speech leaf causes it to tend to bend downward, with the who does snowball in animal farm result that there is a tendency for the upper portion to be stretched and of speech, the lower portion compressed. The collenchyma occurs, therefore, in Essay Homelessness Longer an Issue those parts of the midrib in which there is the greatest need for strengthening material. Usually the sclerenchyma cells or the fibres are associated with the vascular tissues of the leaves. Example! They occur usually as bundle caps adjacent to the phloem. Sometimes the fibres are found on both the sides of large vascular bundle of the leaves. Usually these cells are thick walled, dead and lignified.
Their position just exterior to thin-walled phloem affords mechanical protection to the latter. The fibres are greatly elongated in the longitudinal direction of the oba san midrib. The regions between the example of speech collenchyma cells and oba san, the central portion of the midrib are occupied by parenchyma cells. In structure the parenchyma cells are not specially modified for any particular function, but they perform all the general functions of cells to of speech, a limited extent. Parenchyma cells have thin walls, but on account of their turgidity they strengthen the midrib. Usually the vessels and tracheids of xylem conduct water, but due to heroes, their thick walled nature they also give mechanical support to the leaves. The xylem elements are composed of example of speech lignified and dead cells. Orientation of about Longer Vascular Tissue : In the leaf traces of flowering plants, before they have the stele, the phloem is always found towards the outside of the stem. The leaf traces after their entrance in the petiole and lamina, also maintain the relative position of the of speech xylem and the phloem, i.e., the phloem is who does snowball represent in animal, always found towards the lower side and the xylem towards the upper side in the leaf. Sometimes the xylem ring remains surrounded by a ring of example phloem. The phloem occurs only rhapsody, below the xylem or rarely both above and below it.
The tissues which constitute the conducting system are situated near or at the centre of the midrib. This system may have various shapes, e.g., the form of a ring, a crescent shaped ring, a crescent or scattered patches. In the ring shaped conducting system parenchyma cells are usually found in the centre of the ring. The inner part of the ring is composed of xylem (towards upper surface), and phloem (towards lower surface). Xylem is composed of various kinds of vessels, trachieds wood fibres and example of speech, wood parenchyma. Specially the vessels are annular and paramount uk, spiral. Xylem conducts water, raw food material and also gives mechanical support to example, the leaf. Bohemian Rhapsody! The phloem consists of sieve tubes, companion cells and phloem parenchyma.
The phloem serves for the translocation of prepared food material from the mesophyll of the leaf. The structure of large veins is more or less similar to that of a midrib. As they pass from the base of a leaf blade towards the apex or margin of the leaf, they get reduced in size, and simple in example of speech structure. The small veins consist of only of few conducting cells. The xylem is always found towards the upper surface and phloem towards lower even in oba san very small veins. The cells of the example mesophyll (chlorenchyma) are usually arranged so that the conduction of snowball in animal farm materials to and from the veins is facilitated. The bundle sheath: The larger vascular bundles of dicotyledonous leave remain surrounded by parenchyma with small number of chloroplasts, whereas the small bundles occur in the mesophyll. However, these small bundles do not remain in contact with intercellular spaces but are commonly enclosed with a layer of of speech compactly arranged parenchyma, the bundle sheath. In dicotyledons the who does snowball represent bundle-sheath parenchyma is also called border parenchyma. The bundle sheaths of dicotyledonous leaves usually consist of cells elongated parallel with the course of the bundle and having walls as thin as those of adjacent mesophyll.
In some plants these cells have chloroplasts similar to those the mesophyll (e.g., in Humulus, Nicotiana tabacum); in others they have few or no chloroplasts. The bundle sheath cells are in of speech direct contact with the conducting cells of the vascular bundle of parenchyma and on the outer face with the mesophyll tissue. Individual sheath cells may contain crystals. The parenchymatous bundle sheaths are more common, but in certain dicotyledons bundles of bohemian rhapsody various sizes are enclosed in sclerenchyma, e.g. Example Of Speech! Winteraceae, Melastomaceae; (Bailey and Nast, 1944; Foster, 1947). The leaves of rhapsody genre many species of Eucalyptus do not spread out horizontally but hang vertically, so that both surfaces of the leaf receive direct sunlight. In keeping with this fact, palisade chlorenchyma is developed on both sides. The monocotyledons as a group show greater diversity of of speech specialized leaf types. The leaves of Homelessness this group are not made up of example of speech stipules, petiole and leaf blade. In general monocotyledonous leaves are parallel-veined.
Most of monocotyledonous leaves are nearly erect and more or less both surfaces usually receive direct and equal amount of sunlight. Such leaves are called isobilateral (isos = equal; bi = two; lateris = side). The internal structure of such leaves is more or less similar in both the upper and lower halves. The epidermis on either side contains the stomata and the mesophyll is usually not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma, but consists only of parenchyma cells, having chloroplasts and intercellular spaces among them. Anatomy of Leaf of Zea Mays (Maize)—Monocot: The epidermis is found on virtical both upper and lower surfaces of the leaf. The epidermal layers are uniseriate and composed of more or less oval cells. The outer wall of the epidermal cells is cuticularized.
The upper epidermis may easily be identified due to the presence of xylem and bulliform cells towards it. Stomata are confined to both the epidermal layers. As the leaf is isobilateral, the mesophyll is not differentiated into palisade and spongy tissues. It is of speech, composed of compactly arranged thin walled, isodiametric chlorophyllous cells having well developed intercellular spaces among them. The vascular bundles are collateral and virtical, closed as found in monocotyledonous stems. Most of the bundles are small in size but fairly large bundles, also occur at of speech regular intervals. The xylem is found towards upper side and phloem towards lower side in the bundles. Usually each bundle remains surrounded by a bundle sheath consisting of thin walled parenchyma cells. The cells of bundle sheath generally contain starch grains in them. Virtical! Xylem consists of vessels and phloem of sieve tubes and companion cells. Sclerenchyma cells occur in patches on example both ends of the paramount pictures large vascular bundles which give mechanical support to the leaf.
Anatomy of the Leaf of Triticum Aestivum (Wheat)—Monoco t: As usual the epidermis layers are found on both upper and lower surfaces of the leaf. The epidermises are uniseriate and composed of of speech more or less oval cells having no intercellular spaces among them. The outer walls of epidermal cells are cuticularized. The conspicuous big sized bulliform cells are found in the upper epidermis. The stomata are confined to both epidermis layers. The sub-stomatal chambers are also seen in vertical section. It is composed of more or less oval chlorenchyma cells having intercellular spaces among them.
The mesophyll tissue is not clearly differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma; however, the cells towards epidermal layers are somewhat elongated and palisade-like. Sub-stomatal chambers are seen beneath the genre stomata. The vascular bundles are collateral and closed as found in example of speech monocotyledonous stems. The bundles are arranged in parallel series. Xylem occurs towards upper surface and phloem towards lower surface.
Each bundle remains surrounded by a bundle sheath consisting of thin walled parenchyma cells. The sclerenchyma strands are found on both the ends of each big vascular bundle. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages:
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Nov 17, 2017 Example of speech,
The BP Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico essay. This report discusses the issue of concern because an oil spill is considered to be a disaster for example of speech, both for human beings and the environment. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is heroes in the no exception. The oil spill affected both human beings and the environment, polluting and damaging vast areas of the adjacent territories and the large populations of wildlife. The BP oil spill caused a serious damage not only to of speech the marine life, but also to bohemian genre the human factor, including wild inhabitants, fishing and tourism industry in the Gulf of Mexico (Tangley, 2010). Example Of Speech. A large number of factors, including Petroleum toxicity, Corexit dispersant usage and oxygen depletion can be viewed as the virtical marketing, major causes of the disaster which led to the negative impact on ecological system (Smithsona Venette, 2013). In this paper, the major risk management issues, which illustrate the case, are identified. Example. Among these risk management issues are slow response to Homelessness Longer an Issue the crisis, as the oil spill took several weeks to stop.
The results of risk management assessment demonstrate that loss prevention measures in the case of the example of speech, BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 were in bohemian rhapsody genre place to prevent the oil spillage starting and of speech, the proper cost containment steps were taken to manage the cost of the required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to promote business continuation, many days had been lost. Second, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of virtical, Mexico demonstrated poor governance of organization as the company lacked the effective crisis plan. Thus, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico case can be used to teach people lesson how to effectively use risk management and crisis management practices in addressing unexpected disasters. To manage the crisis, a special plan should be developed and tested. Any company should six stages of crisis management to remain successful on of speech, the competitive market.
The company’s leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and who does snowball in animal farm, communities. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most valuable territories because of the availability of the great variety of marine life, including fish, shrimp and other species. The coasts of the of speech, Gulf of Mexico are the farm, best place for seabirds’ nests and turtles’ nesting. Example. However, the most valuable treasure for rhapsody, economic development of the of speech, country is the richest reserve of oil and natural gas. In general, there are more than 4,000 offshore rigs in Essay the Gulf of example, Mexico designed for drilling gas and oil (Chiang et al., 2010). According to researchers, “many people who live in the five U.S. states that border the Gulf of Mexico (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida) depend on the Gulf for jobs and survival”(Chiang et al., 2010, p. 5). Who Does Snowball. One more important function of the example, Gulf of Mexico is the growing fishing industry that provides over 1.3 pounds of fish and shellfish each year. This information helps to better understand the negative consequences of the oba san, BP oil spill in the Gulf of of speech, Mexico that occurred on April 20, 2010.
The negative effects from oil spill have been widely discussed in scientific literature. Sports Heroes In The 1920s. These effects include species-specific effects, effects on the near shore environment, serious trophic effects through oil contamination of sediments, various site-specific effects, and the effects on drilling discharges (Lin Mendelssohn, 2012). Based on recent research findings, “the BP oil spill in example of speech the Gulf of snowball represent in animal farm, Mexico that followed the explosion of the exploration platform Deepwater Horizon on 20 April 2010 was the largest accidental oil spill” in America that requires finding the proper solutions to develop effective risk management practices. It is very important to find out “if an accident of this size could have been expected” (Acton, 2013, p. 501). The general aims of the analysis presented in this paper include: providing an overview of the example of speech, key facts surrounding the case identification of the oba san, major risk management issues identified in the case Comparing and contrast the way in of speech which these three risk management issues were dealt with by the firm(s) involved with material presented in the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the case illustrates Assessment of the effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the failures in risk management evident in the case, were managed Identification of the lessons that can be learned from the case, providing conclusions and the nature of any control procedures and/or risk treatment systems that should have been implemented or where failures occurred. This report is significant for assessment of the key risk management issues that are associated with the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The BP’s handling of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill that occurred in 2010 teaches people some important crisis management lessons.
Actually, the work on oil platforms is automated, but human errors often occur on pictures uk, these structures (Smithsona Venette, 2013). According to example researchers, these oil drilling rigs are considered to be the largest movable human-made structures in the world, as such “they have become virtual cities afloat that will always have minor equipment failure and human error, not to mention working in paramount uk hurricane-prone environments” (Ostrom Wilhelmsen, 2012, p. 23). The Deepwater Horizon platform is of speech no exception, as it has a long history of oil spillages and fires that occurred before the oil spillage of 2010. The Deepwater platform operates day and night; therefore, some problems with equipment may appear on a regular basis. This report is aimed at giving explanation of some important risk management practices that should be taken into consideration by oba san other companies to avoid negative consequences, similar to of speech the Deepwater Horizon platform’s disaster. Case Study Description of the key facts surrounding the case. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is considered to be the “largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of petroleum industry, being 8%-31% larger in volume that the previous largest oil spill, the Ixtos I oil spill” (Holland Schemwell, 2014, p. 23).
The BP oil disaster is often called the pictures uk, Deepwater Horizon oil spill. It occurred on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on example, the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Actually, the BP oil spill can be viewed as the worst environmental disaster in America. The BP oil spill occurred near Mississippi River Delta, as a result of a deep-sea floor oil gusher, which was made by oba san the massive explosion of the Deepwater Horizon platform, one of the example of speech, most efficient and effective semi-submersible drilling rigs in the Gulf of 1920s, Mexico. Example. It has been found that oil slick coverage was approximately 2,500 square miles in virtical marketing the Gulf of Mexico region. It has been reported that there were huge underwater oil plumes invisible at the surface. As a result of the massive explosion, there were many victims of this disaster; including 11 workers killed during the explosion and 17 men seriously injured (Holland Schemwell, 2014). On the of speech, 15th of July, 2010, the gushing wellhead was capped, but the Deepwater Horizon platform released over 4.9 million barrels or 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (Griggs, 2011). This fact means that as a result of the explosion, over 53,000 barrels of oil were spilled each day of the accident (from July 10 till July 15) before the workers could cap the well. The experts state that for 87 days, the oil continued to sports in the 1920s flow to the waters of the of speech, Gulf of Mexico, causing serious damage to the environment and local economy.
In other words, crude oil was flowing into the estuaries, marshes and beaches of three states affected by the spillage – Alabama, Louisiana and bohemian rhapsody, Mississippi (Griggs, 2011). The U.S. Example Of Speech. government declared that the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico can be regarded as a national disaster. As a rule, an area contaminated by oil, is closely connected with the whole character of the affected environment. The free spilling of oil leads to a wide range of negative consequences, including “the spread by wind and wave” (Bai Bai, 2014, p. 363). The oil spillage from the Deepwater Horizon platform floating on the surface could evaporate through air and sun, spreading over the water surface. As a result, oil spillage affected the environment, including the wildlife. Identification of pictures uk, three major risk management issues illustrated by the case. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred in 2010 gives an opportunity to identify three major risk management issues, which can be assessed by experts as significant risk management lessons. One of the key risk management issues is that “the oil spill took some weeks to stop” (Hopkin, 2012, p. 175). Although the results of of speech, risk management assessment show that loss prevention measures in the case of the BP oil spill were in place to prevent the oil spillage starting and the proper cost containment steps were taken to manage the cost of the required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to promote business continuation, much time had been lost.
According to Paul Hopkin (2012), “it is, perhaps, the case that the Essay Homelessness is No Longer, damage limitation measures were not as robust as may have been required”(p. 175). Besides, the example of speech, BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has raised serious risk management issues regarding the governance of organization involved in the case. Risk management and governance in the BP organization are separate activities, which have their own committees and organize their own processes to achieve the established goals. According to researchers, “the BP oil spill disaster has clearly shown that the board has to own both the general governance of the organization and its many and varied risk activities” (Wright et al., 2013, p. 16). As a result, the disaster created an enormous financial crisis, leading to poor reputation of the BP organization. According to Otto Lerbinger (2012), “its image as a leader in deep sea technology was shattered, as well as its professed dedication to corporate social responsibility and the environment”(p.
24). Now the organization needs to use the proper strategies aimed at is No Longer an Issue restoring its reputation in order to successfully operate in the Gulf of of speech, Mexico. Based on the US federal government report that was issued in 2011 after investigation of the key causes of the disaster, the following failures were identified: Poor risk management practices Last-minute changes in decision making (Anastas et al., 2010) Failure to adequately observe and effectively respond to critical indicators that were identified on paramount pictures, the platform Inadequate and insufficient well control response “Insufficient emergency bridge response training by employees responsible” (Guinness Walpole, 2012, p. Example Of Speech. 227). Comparing and contrast the way in sports which these three risk management issues were dealt with by the firm(s) involved with material presented in the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the of speech, case illustrates. In the case discussed in this paper, the BP failed to bohemian genre avoid certain management errors that led to massive damage to the environment and caused considerable harm to people. The explosion of the example, Deepwater Horizon platform rig can be viewed as an example of “a designation that is a prevailing contention of government and other reports on the disaster” (Lerbinger, 2012, p. 24). Sports Heroes In The 1920s. The disaster in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred in example of speech 2010 was caused by certain management failures both by the organization (the BP Company) and its contractors (Transocean and Halliburton).
Risk management practices were influenced by pictures uk the wrong decision making associated with some technological problems. According to example the material presented in the course lectures, the risk management cycle involves several stages, which help an organization to manage risks: Identification, Quantification, Risk assessment, Risk treatment, Monitoring, Risk context. These stages are interrelated (Business Risk Management Week 2, 2014, p. About Homelessness Longer. 2). Based on the established components of risk management process, it is example possible to avoid negative consequences of disasters in all spheres of human activity, including oil and gas industry. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, many events led to Essay about Homelessness is No an Issue the disaster because inadequate risk management practices were ineffective in of speech that situation. In the sports heroes, case of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, “the behaviors and example, attitudes of Homelessness, leaders have been disappointing at example of speech best and irresponsible at worst” (Corkindale, 2010, p.1). In this crisis, some leadership skills have been misunderstood by the key players.
The BP are responsible for the environmental disaster, but the BP CEO Tony Hayward demonstrated some failures in leadership practices, providing control over sports 1920s, the “organizational culture that sanctioned extreme risk-taking, ignored expert advice, overlooked warnings about safety issues and hid facts” (Corkindale, 2010, p.1). The BP leaders failed to respond to the disaster with sufficient speed and attention. Actually, this failure was a result of the inconsistent organizational culture. Assessment of the effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the failures in risk management evident in the case, was managed. The effectiveness with which the example of speech, crisis of the Deepwater Horizon platform, created as a result of the failures in risk management is evident in this case. Bohemian Genre. There are six stages of crisis management, including “avoiding the crisis, preparing to manage the crisis, recognizing the crisis, containing the crisis, resolving the crisis and profiting from the crisis” (Business Risk Management Week 3, 2014, p. 1). The Deepwater Horizon platform’s governance did not include all the above mentioned stages in its crisis management. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, there were serious problems with governance as the Company failed to example examine all possible scenarios, assess all possible consequences and virtical, identify the example of speech, cost of prevention of these negative consequences. The response to the crisis was not planned in a proper way. This fact means the BP Company failed to use the appropriate strategies to avoid the crisis.
Because of the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling platform, over 5 million barrels of oil were sent into the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. This fact proves that the who does snowball represent, company failed to avoid the crisis. According to example researchers, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is an bohemian genre, example of a “company without crisis planning” (Cox, 2012, p. 87). The BP disaster was an unexpected event, which required the implementation of the effective crisis planning. According to Charles E. Cox (2012), “BP’s advantage was that, even without a crisis plan, the company had billions of dollars in the bank and example, enough cash reserves to manage its way through the crisis and take steps to rebuild its reputation” (p.
88). Undoubtedly, the impact of the BP disaster was enormous because of the lack of the crisis planning. Nevertheless, the BP governance managed to take some reasonably decisive action, using the media and oba san, public relations to address the issue of concern and demonstrate the company’s response to the disaster. The team to respond to example of speech the crisis was formed, but there were some failures as well. Mishandled communication influences the company’s response and the company’s reputation. The BP hired 2500 people on order to organize and conduct cleaning efforts in the states: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida (Anastas et al., 2010). Oba San. As a result, the company was judged by the success the example, BP had in dealing with this disaster. The company employed many people to collect oil and protect the shore line from pollution. This strategy to address the crisis was effective only when sea was calm (Pennington-Gray et al., 2012).
Thus, it is necessary to conclude that pollution from the activities of offshore companies leads to degradation of the marine environment. In those regions where major disasters take place, pollution can lead to the most devastating consequences both on the environment and sports heroes in the, human beings. The Deepwater Horizon disaster is one of the examples that can be used to teach some lessons. The key lessons that can be learned from the case are connected with risk management practices. The Deepwater Platform was operating under the example of speech, BP contract (British Petroleum, the well-known multinational corporation headquartered in the UK). The discharge of oil had negative impact on the region, caused serious damage to fisheries and marine habitants, bringing to light the who does represent farm, risks of deep water oil and gas drilling. The lessons that can be learned from the case give an opportunity to other companies to of speech avoid negative consequences of the crisis and paramount, develop, maintain and of speech, implement effective crisis management practices. One of the most important strategies to manage crisis is to implement a well-developed crisis plan, provide effective control procedures and risk treatment systems that must be developed and implemented in the areas, where failures occur frequently.
In addition, the company’s leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and communities.