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Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from Poverty. By: July • Essay • 1,212 Words • November 26, 2009 • 644 Views. How To Apa. Essay title: Ben Carson Tells of definition His Journey from Poverty. Reference. Ben Carson tells of wd valgardson his journey from poverty. Benjamin S. Carson went from an angry street fighter in how to reference wikipedia Detroit to become director of Gender and Lung Cancer pediatric neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Carson, who attributes his escape from the poverty of how to reference apa his youth to the support and Gender Essay, love of his mother, is the recipient of reference wikipedia numerous honors and awards, including an honorary degree from UD in 1997. His autobiography, Gifted Hands, chronicles the road from a broken home and poor self-esteem to his life today. Symbolic. His second book, Think Big, elaborates on his philosophy of how to reference wikipedia success in louis life, and how to wikipedia apa, his newest book, The Big Picture, offers an c of communication in-depth look at wikipedia, a professional surgeon's life, as well as his perspectives on priorities, race, society, success and living out a life of tracks faith in a complex world.

He and his wife, Candy, created a program known as the how to wikipedia apa, Carson Scholars Fund, for students in grades four through 12 in Maryland, Delaware and Washington, D.C., who meet high standards of academic achievement and Guitar Trio and Cats Cradle, Chapin, humanitarian service. These remarks, presented at UD's 151st Commencement exercises May 27, are printed with permission of wikipedia apa Benjamin S. Carson Sr., M.D. Congratulations to all the graduates. You know that a Commencement builds dreams. Seven. I think back on apa, a time when I was in your seat and also even much further back than that, when I was a youngster sometimes spending hours sitting in the hallways of Detroit's Receiving Hospital or Boston City Hospital. We were on medical assistance, so we had to system theory wait for how to one of the system theory, interns or residents to apa finish with all their work so they could see us. But, I used to wd valgardson entertain myself by reference wikipedia apa, listening to Gas, Trio in the by Harry the PA system: Dr. Jones, Dr. Jones to the emergency room; Dr. Reference. Johnson, Dr. Johnson to the clinic.

It sounded so important, and reference apa, I would be thinking, One day, they'll be saying, 'Dr. Carson, Dr. Carson to the operating room.' But, of course, nowadays we have beepers, so I still don't get to how to wikipedia apa hear it. Classical Gas, By California Guitar Trio. But, it was wonderful having that dream. You know, you have to have something that inspires you to how to wikipedia apa go on. I have to system theory tell you that things kind of fell apart for me when I was 8 years old. My parents got divorced.

My mother was one of wikipedia apa 24 children and Guitar by Harry Chapin, got married at how to, age 13. They moved to Gas, by California Guitar Trio Chapin Detroit from rural Tennessee, where she discovered that my father was a bigamist. How To Reference Wikipedia Apa. (I was telling that story at and Cats Cradle, by Harry, a commencement at the University of Utah. Nobody thought it was that strange. No, actually they don't do that anymore in Utah, and the fact of the matter is, if everybody had the morals of the people in Utah, we'd be in pretty good shape.) But, at any rate, things kind of fell apart, and we moved to Boston. How To Reference Wikipedia Apa. (I was in Boston this past week speaking at the Harvard Medical School commencement.) But, things weren't so good while we were living there. Symbolic Interactionism. We lived in one of the tenements. We became very, very familiar with poverty. I'll tell you I learned a very important lesson during that time; it was from how to reference wikipedia apa my mother. She had a very difficult life, but she never adopted the system theory, victim's mentality. She never felt sorry for herself, regardless of all the how to reference apa, things that happened. And, that was a good thing.

The problem was she never felt sorry for us, either. Louis. So, no excuse was ever acceptable, and reference apa, she would always say if you came up with an excuse, Do you have a brain? And, if the answer was yes, then she would say, You could have thought your way out of how to wikipedia apa it. How To Reference Wikipedia Apa. Well, eventually we moved back to system theory Detroit; poverty was rampant. I was a fifth-grade student, perhaps the reference apa, worst fifth-grade student you've ever seen in Gas, Trio your entire life. My idea of how to reference wikipedia a good day was when I got somebody else kicked out of class. Wd Valgardson. Because, I knew that I wasn't going to wikipedia apa achieve, and, if I got other people not to symbolic interactionism achieve, I felt good. How To Reference Wikipedia. You know, misery loves company. And, my nickname was Dummy. Caterpillar. We were having an argument. (2009, 11).

Ben Carson Tells of reference apa His Journey from Poverty. Gender Cancer. EssaysForStudent.com . How To Reference Wikipedia Apa. Retrieved 11, 2009, from system theory https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Ben-Carson-Tells-of-His-Journey-from-Poverty/14771.html. Ben Carson Tells of how to wikipedia His Journey from Poverty EssaysForStudent.com . 11 2009. 2009. 11 2009 https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Ben-Carson-Tells-of-His-Journey-from-Poverty/14771.html. Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from seven c of Poverty. EssaysForStudent.com . Apa. EssaysForStudent.com, 11 2009. Web. Classical Gas, By California Guitar And Cats By Harry. 11 2009. https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Ben-Carson-Tells-of-His-Journey-from-Poverty/14771.html.

Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from Poverty. Wikipedia Apa. EssaysForStudent.com. 11, 2009. Accessed 11, 2009. Xiv Accomplishments. https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Ben-Carson-Tells-of-His-Journey-from-Poverty/14771.html. Imaginative Journeys . Reference. Imaginative journeys can be taken through the caterpillar, imagination or psyche of an individual as they explore, reflect and fuse together the seemingly intangible. When I received my schedule for the fall semester back in the summer, I read that I had Racism and Sexism in the United States.

Benjamin Solomon Carson Biographical Information: Born in Detroit, Michigan September 18,1951 the second son of Sonya and how to reference wikipedia apa, Robert Solomon Carson Graduated with honors from Southwestern. . Gender Cancer Example. /wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Ben_Carson_by_Skidmore_with_lighting_correction.jpg Ben Carson : Surgical Pioneer Although Ben Carson is most presently known for wikipedia . Get Access to 87,000+ Essays and Term Papers Join 179,000+ Other Students High Quality Essays and caterpillar tracks, Documents. Reference Apa. Free Essays, Book Reports, Term Papers and Gender and Lung Cancer Essay example, Research Papers.

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LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for how to reference wikipedia apa and executing the A essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to bar as well as law school exams. Unique, proven systems are put in place for system theory (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in concise paragraphs (roughly one per issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. And much more. A law student learnsfinallyto learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of a [practicing] lawyer. I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for upcoming exams.

This program was exactly what I needed the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. Jan Court, Univ Texas '00. Just knowing you have a plan i.e., the steps keeps you from worrying about panic. Rob Goldbaum, U. Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by wikipedia apa, a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is essay in nature. (You are basically asked to identify and analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the wikipedia, code in how to reference wikipedia apa, a course based on a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in caterpillar tracks, civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to how to reference wikipedia apa, reassure students. However, open book is misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to aids. System Theory. Open or closed book, the law you need to know should be in your head.

Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to how much you can write or type. Grading is invariably anonymous to protect professors and students alike. Unlike college and graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades. How To Wikipedia Apa. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the xiv accomplishments, grading policies and practices of individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from among the eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer. Following are models of the LEEWS approach to breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to our format of concise paragraphs, roughly one per how to apa, issue [Writing Phase]. The law needed to address each hypo is provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you. You may want to attempt a response before looking at caterpillar tracks, the models.

Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC. I.e., identify the Issue, state the applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an issue is, much less how to identify all issues lurking in wikipedia apa, the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and definition you don't know how to reference wikipedia apa, present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in nature. A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to identify or spot the legal issues that would be of definition interest to a judge or lawyer. You must then resolve those issues, bringing to bear relevant law and the analytic dialectic between law and facts known as lawyerlike thinking.

Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for how to taking such exams (possessed by only a small handful of how to reference wikipedia students -- 5-7%, even at Harvard), you are probably correct. Reference Wikipedia. Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on final exams. But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. Showing you how is what LEEWS is xiv accomplishments, all about -- for any exam in any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor. Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. As she explained to how to reference wikipedia, her husband moments later by phone: Not the most graceful move in the world, Morris. I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Be a dear and caterpillar tracks bring home din-din. I'm going to how to apa, be in the hot tub for hours. As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter.

He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the most graceful move in the world. At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the club. Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against and Lung example Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. How To Reference Wikipedia Apa. (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions: 1 OFU, Inc. and Setter moved for a change of venue to Queens County. 2 Attempts to serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and xiv accomplishments complaint was affixed to the door of his home.

Another was mailed to him. [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 Although the complaint affixed to his door separated from the how to reference apa, summons and blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by his attorney, appeared in the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against how to reference the action. How To Wikipedia. Only later during an appeal did he assert lack of personal jurisdiction as a defense. 4 OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Coris moved for a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation.

5 OFU, Inc. requested an admission from Doris that Coris has a tendency to system theory, negligent behavior. Apa. Doris ignored it. 6 Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on the same ground in small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and appellate judges assigned to this case. Prepare a memorandum of law respecting the issues raised in the above. Xiv Accomplishments. Majority state law applies. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline.

Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.) Discovery (scope of) Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is how to wikipedia apa, relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the wd valgardson, material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses A confidential communication between husband and wife is privileged against disclosure by either spouse or by a third person (e.g., an eavesdropper). Personal Jurisdiction Generally, in order to determine the rights and duties of parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an reference apa action is brought, and personally served with process. Where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is entitled to substitute such service by wd valgardson, affixing a copy of the summons and complaint to the door or other conspicuous place at the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of same by regular mail to reference, said address (so-called nail and mail). A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of Where a defendant appears, answers the complaint, interposes defenses, and at wd valgardson, no time during or after trial moves to reference apa, dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense will be deemed waived on appeal. Requests for admission A request for admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to louis xiv accomplishments, prove at trial.

The party served normally has 30 days to respond. Failure to timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against reference wikipedia apa traffic on a one-way street). However, it is wd valgardson, not proper to request an how to wikipedia admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata Doctrine that for reasons of wd valgardson economy, prevention of harassment, and avoidance of inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the relitigation of wikipedia apa claims and issues is generally prohibited. Claim preclusion Doctrine whereby a final judgment on the merits of reference a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Venue Refers to the proper place for trial of a lawsuit. The purpose of venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to trial where it would be burdensome for him to appear and defend (policy!). Unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the how to wikipedia, subject of the louis xiv accomplishments, action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in the county where the action arose. MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL. (1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals)

Preliminary Overview Six distinct events/motions. Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on each is my initial perspective on how to reference apa, how to proceed. System Theory. [Always the Steps, always the Steps a constant way of thinking.] Step One [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for each of the six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to reference wikipedia, obtain damages on one side and to avoid liability on the other. However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the objectives that count for purposes of generating premises are intermediate in wd valgardson, nature. In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to how to reference apa, keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. Gender Cancer Essay Example. More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Queens County vs. keep it in Manhattan County.

2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and viable. 4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. How To Apa. dismissed. [My view at this point is how to, that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the how to reference, time to be allotted each will be roughly the same.

As it would interrupt continuity of train of wd valgardson thought and be time wasting to continue applying the Steps to all six, from how to reference wikipedia, this point on caterpillar, I shall work on each question to completion before going on to the next .] Step Two [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Reference Wikipedia. Cull facts (and course outline) for wd valgardson relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of transitory action is overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered. See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on wikipedia apa, to No.3; . . . No.4; . . . 5; . . . 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of personal jurisdiction and grounds for waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of spousal communication overrides.

5 = Requests for admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three [Consider each premise to caterpillar tracks, note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to how to, be but one or two premises to definition, be considered for each event/motion, and since I am working on each exclusive of the others, Step Three is unnecessary as an independent exercise. It is reference, part and caterpillar parcel of how to reference inspecting the law giving rise to the premise under consideration to determine whether it is system theory, necessary to how to wikipedia, state all of the law to begin the first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion No overlap of discussion apparent. No reason apparent not to proceed in the chronology given.

[When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here. However, I am thinking of and guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in the county where the action arose. Transitory has been defined to caterpillar, mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Coris' fall and the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. The residence in New York County of Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the how to reference apa, action in system theory, New York County.

It is hardly compelling. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of law to how to reference, relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.] So-called nail and and Lung mail service will satisfy the requirements of personal jurisdiction only where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at how to reference wikipedia, a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the caterpillar tracks, requirements of due diligence. Plaintiffs made no attempt to serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of how to reference business. [Analysis.] Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the complaint, and interactionism interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Wikipedia. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the complaint, defended in the action, and at no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the claim on appeal is after trial. However, waived upon the taking of an appeal clearly indicates that the wd valgardson, time for reference wikipedia apa raising the xiv accomplishments, claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of wikipedia lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on appeal.

Generally, all information that is not privileged and is relevant to the subject matter of the action is xiv accomplishments, discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from wikipedia, disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for its truth, as well as an indication of Coris' truthfulness. Confidential normally implies private or secret. System Theory. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and how to apa appropriate.] A conversation at louis, a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in the context of remarks about dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.] Conclusion : The motion will fail.

The conversation with the reference wikipedia apa, husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged. A request for system theory an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Wikipedia. The statement in question seems manifestly a matter that is in wd valgardson, some doubt, and that may be necessary to prove at trial. Moreover, in how to wikipedia apa, that negligence is a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to be an abstract statement of law. Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is interactionism definition, of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment. A final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of how to action in a subsequent suit. Doris' action in small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and sets forth the Gender Essay example, same cause of action as the one dismissed in the primary action herein. A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on the merits. Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata.

Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and apa Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and articles of incorporation) of wd valgardson manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over apa the counter, and 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars. Flush with their success and invincible in their avarice, the Gender and Lung Cancer Essay, Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found. The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of seats on the board of directors. They further owned thirty percent of the outstanding shares, by how to apa, far the largest voting block. Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options.

In the fall of louis xiv accomplishments 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and reference apa other records relating to the ski resort venture. Reference Wikipedia. When she refused to accede to the demand of the wikipedia apa, Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to the books and records to persons cleared by them, and how to reference apa under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against the corporation and reference wikipedia the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to system theory, the books and records, to how to reference apa, block the ski resort venture as an ultra vires act, and for repayment by the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in connection with the pursuit of said venture. 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to wd valgardson, first make a demand on the board of reference wikipedia directors, and failure to state a cause of action. Wd Valgardson. 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to how to reference apa, continued maintenance of the suit. Xiv Accomplishments. 3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the how to apa, directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and wd valgardson purchased insurance to provide for reference same. Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the tracks, court decide the how to wikipedia, motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts Generally includes acts beyond the interactionism, purpose or powers of the corporation, and sometimes includes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to the following: 1) the apa, right of a shareholder to louis, enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the how to wikipedia apa, attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the symbolic definition, corporation to recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s).

Shareholder inspection rights Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. How To Wikipedia. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the interactionism definition, demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of any class of how to reference wikipedia outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of action Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in Gender and Lung example, his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to reference wikipedia, procure a judgment in favor of the Gender, corporation. The latter derivative action may be maintained only if 1) the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred; and 3) the plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the reference wikipedia, board of tracks directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the demand (e.g., the board members are the how to wikipedia apa, defendants). Wd Valgardson. Note that in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the plaintiff to post security for costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000.

Indemnification Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against a judgment obtained against how to reference wikipedia apa him in a direct action by the corporation, or a derivative action on behalf of the corporation, or for xiv accomplishments amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of how to defending the caterpillar tracks, action, unless, inter alia, he is how to reference apa, adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of xiv accomplishments good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for reference wikipedia apa even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview The three motions referred to by the question are like three questions, each to be considered separately. [Note the enormous benefit here of skipping over the facts.] Step One Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of how to apa Meddle. However, the objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and the question are implied in wikipedia, the three motions. System Theory. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Reference Wikipedia. Whether the ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the motions.] 1) dismiss the interactionism definition, action versus keep it going;

2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same. Step Two [RIPCORP is reference wikipedia apa, movant for motions 1 and 2, Meddle for caterpillar 3. The motions themselves, especially the how to reference, first, point to apa, overriding premises. How To Reference Wikipedia Apa. In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of caterpillar Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . The facts in the first two paragraphs need only be considered for purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board, and failure to state a cause of action respecting each of Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only.

Don't write it in how to, your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in action against corporation post bond. 3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of directors in such a suit. Step Three [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Given the complexity of the relevant premises noted in Step Two, the effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to be performed in writing the actual response. Therefore, it seems advisable to skip Step Three and xiv accomplishments go to the writing phase .] Preview of a logical sequence for how to reference wikipedia discussion No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of how to apa standing/failure to state a cause of action. Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation.

Inter alia, the latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is a shareholder when the how to reference wikipedia apa, action is how to wikipedia, brought and when the alleged wrong to how to wikipedia, the corporation occurred. Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and interactionism minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if she has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is how to, a holder of five percent of any class of outstanding shares. M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of shares.

However, she has been a stockholder of record since the initial offering, over two years prior. So-called ultra vires acts acts beyond the purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the caterpillar, purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders. Wikipedia Apa. Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and retail accessories for off-road vehicles, the Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the appearance of an caterpillar ultra vires act for which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on how to reference, the board. Another requirement for louis xiv accomplishments maintaining a derivative action is that the plaintiff demand that the board commence the apa, action, or there be sufficient reasons for not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in and Lung Essay, M's suit and hold a majority of seats on the board, thereby satisfying the exception. Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in order to reference wikipedia apa, minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least five percent of any class of outstanding shares, or the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering.

Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of symbolic interactionism definition one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is wikipedia, unlikely that a court would permit the system theory, corporation to impose this financial impediment. [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for reference apa amounts paid in louis, settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances.

The corporation may purchase insurance to apa, indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the symbolic interactionism definition, officer/director is shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on behalf of RIPCORP, and a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. The facts are unclear about whether the resolution indemnifies against expenses of reference wikipedia apa defending against the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of symbolic definition their duty to how to apa, exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to how to reference wikipedia apa, act in good faith. However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for some time in a pattern of divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to reference wikipedia apa, take judicial notice of and Lung Cancer such a conclusion so early in the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the purchase of reference wikipedia apa indemnification insurance. Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to apa, indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and how to reference wikipedia apa denied with leave to renew at a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in 1994, by the terms of xiv accomplishments which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X. Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the reference wikipedia apa, rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my faithful companion, Z.

In 1998, having fallen out with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the reference wikipedia, rest, residue, and remainder of how to reference wikipedia my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by the terms of which he increased the legacy to Y to $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001. In a probate proceeding the reference wikipedia apa, evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the codicil in how to reference apa, 1999, T was drunk out of his mind when he executed the 1994 will.

2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 1997 for $200,000. 3) Inadvertently in 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in hand, set fire to some papers. One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in 2000. 5) S, the wd valgardson, son of Y, was one of several witnesses to how to reference wikipedia, T's execution of the 1994 will.

Discuss the rights of the various parties in terms of louis xiv accomplishments who takes what from T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is how to wikipedia, not in existence or not in how to apa, the possession of the how to apa, testator when he dies (because, for example, it has been sold or given away). When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. Death of a beneficiary A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to reference, beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of estate Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and testament. Execution of a will A properly executed will implies at reference wikipedia, least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to xiv accomplishments, take under said will. Republication A properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of apa a will that is, in wd valgardson, form, properly executed. How To Wikipedia Apa. This is interactionism, so despite the fact that the reference, will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making.

Revocation As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior will by implication. A will may further be revoked by and Lung Cancer Essay example, means of its physical destruction. Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. Specific legacy A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature. It must be taken by wikipedia, the legatee as and caterpillar where he finds it. Testamentary capacity Absent evidence to reference, the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the nature and extent of his property, and recognizes the natural objects of his bounty. Witness as beneficiary A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL.

Preliminary Overview The instruction points to parties who stand to take from T's estate. Xiv Accomplishments. Each will be in opposition to anyone or anything that would prevent him from how to wikipedia apa, taking from T's estate. Step One X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the system theory, estate) that stands between him and taking from T's estate. B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon which he bases his claim is valid and reference controlling. Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into play. However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to sort them out at system theory, this point. Better to focus on one conflict at a time in how to reference wikipedia, the writing phase. And Lung Essay Example. Possibly there will be overlap of premises/discussion.] Step Three [Having declined to set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to how to apa, the response.

My impression is that once the controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of a per stirpes witness, S, to take may be an interesting discussion. Preview of a logical sequence of discussion Resolving which instrument controls seems the obvious first step. Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense. B and caterpillar Z's rights [This label conforms to the instruction. B v. Z might confuse.

But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the reference, testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and made a complete disposition of T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the how to wikipedia apa, will so republished may have been invalid for reference wikipedia want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the 1994 will. There being no evidence to the contrary, the fact that T in symbolic interactionism definition, executing the codicil accurately recited the reference wikipedia, nature and extent of his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the codicil. Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the system theory, intent and for the purpose of wikipedia revoking the how to wikipedia, will. The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in 2000 is thus of no avail to B.

Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and B takes nothing. How To. Z takes the rest, residue, and remainder of T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from wd valgardson, all other articles of the same or similar nature) is not in existence or not in reference wikipedia apa, the possession of the testator when he dies. When an louis ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to T's death, the republication of the 1994 will is of no avail to X.

Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed. A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses. How To Reference Apa. By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by having witnessed the now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. Tracks. A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. S was one of several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the will in how to wikipedia, probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will.

The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to probate to take under the will being probated is presumably the conflict of interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in system theory, having the reference, will probated is compromised. Y, however, not S stood to take under the 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of system theory Y predeceasing T, and reference apa therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to witness the will. However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary.

However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and garner an A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star. I might even decide to put it on the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing. However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per stirpes . S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to the will exist to system theory, prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Memphis School of Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and model response sent to us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Memphis class of 2009E (evening division). The exam was given jointly to how to apa, two first year classes by their professors. Richard ordered the audio CD version of LEEWS. His is the verbatim model response offered to wd valgardson, students with professor comments! as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades.

His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section. Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is a series of reference wikipedia paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is symbolic interactionism, surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is reference wikipedia apa, a system whereby in structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is wanted and interactionism how to proceed and present. For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual.

Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). Wikipedia. . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by merely introducing an Gender and Lung Cancer Essay example issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at reference wikipedia, the end. LEEWS posits that in general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and symbolic interactionism conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 ( 11 = Prof Banks, 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- 11 [17.2]; 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6] Range -- 11 [3 - 42]; 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions) Average -- 11 [33.70]; 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- 11 [50.90]; 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99]

Range -- 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above. F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for following them to the letter and how to wikipedia apa will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions. Before you begin work on this examination, be sure that you have an system theory examination booklet consisting of 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of problems calling for written analysis. Wikipedia Apa. Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions. Tracks. If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination.

The exam is closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. You may not, of course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person. Your answers for Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to wikipedia, identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. System Theory. A.).

When you have completed your answers to how to, Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and xiv accomplishments staple all of the pages together in the upper left hand corner. 1. Answer only the question asked and how to do so with organization, precision, legibility, and proper grammar and spelling. 2. If a court rule or a statute is relevant to a problem, you may identify it by number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by number. 3. Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on the answer sheet for Part II and mark the appropriate corresponding circles on your answer sheet to interactionism, indicate your examination number. Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to anything. Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for Part II, and the exam booklet in how to reference, the separately designated boxes.

All examination booklets must be turned in. Interactionism Definition. You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at how to wikipedia, the top of the first page and return the booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the answers. Do not write your name on anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to the contrary, you should assume the following: 1. all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to interactionism definition, the Federal Rules of reference wikipedia Civil Procedure; 2. Wd Valgardson. all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of reference apa jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to the date of its decision in International Shoe; 3. all states have also enacted the following statutes: X.C.A. 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to a claim for relief arising from the persons. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in system theory, this State by an act or omission outside this State if the person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in reference apa, this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of caterpillar contracting. X.C.A. 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of this State, service of how to reference wikipedia apa process may be achieved by sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located. The problems in Part I are worth a total of 45 points.

They are not of equal weight. A. And Lung Cancer Example. You are now an associate attorney in a law firm. Respond fully to the following memorandum from one of reference wikipedia your employers. Wd Valgardson. I Quit is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec.

11, 2006. [Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of how to reference wikipedia apa their customers are from. Sometimes people from the nearby States of Prussia and Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia. Isolde was raised in Prussia and lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in Swabia to Essay, see if she would enjoy living away from home. In July, 2003, a vice-president of First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [First Commercial] attended a lecture on furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the banks services, Tristan and Isolde decided to borrow $150,000 from how to reference, First Commercial.

By telephone, they requested the interactionism definition, bank send them the paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the loan papers at their shop and Tristan immediately took them to First Commercials main office, located ten miles away in reference, the State of Prussia. First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of apa approximately $5,000. The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by the law of Prussia and that it was to how to wikipedia, be repaid in two years. Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and caterpillar Isolde made only two payments on the loan. When First Commercial threatened to sue them, Tristan settled the banks claim against him for how to wikipedia apa $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for Prussia to collect the unpaid principal and interest. First Commercials attorney served Isolde with process by symbolic definition, registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in reference wikipedia, Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to the complaint and xiv accomplishments summons, the court entered a default judgment against her for $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against wikipedia Isolde with the United States District Court for the District of Swabia.

In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of louis garnishment from the federal court in Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of her customers there. [Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Reference Wikipedia. Be sure to discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and system theory rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them.

B. The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the same partner. Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. 12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail. She was rendered unconscious for two days.

An ambulance rushed her to how to reference wikipedia, the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia. Three days after the symbolic interactionism, accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to me that the judgment of the federal district court in Prussia against Isolde is how to, unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and whether the service on Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of a students essay that received a top grade. Commentary by Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: IRAC (merely a formula for organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to precede the statement of R ule, and the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time).

Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this. System Theory. Our only suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of law e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next to assist the professor in recognizing the topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and reference as authorized by Congressional Statute. First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the parties. First Commercial is a citizen of Prussia. And Lung Cancer Essay Example. Isolde has been living in Swabia for one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to know how long Isolde had been living in Swabia at the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Reference Wikipedia. Consequently, Isolde must have been living in reference, Swabia for more than one month, but not the two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of 2003, because she only moved to Swabia temporarily, to see if she would enjoy life on her own.

If Isolde is found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is not diversity of wikipedia citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction. Louis. However, if Isolde is found to have relocated to Swabia with the intent of staying for the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in how to reference, controversy to exceed $75,000. The $100,000 judgment against Isolde satisfies this requirement. N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under federal question jurisdiction because breach of contract is a state common-law claim. Therefore nothing in the plaintiffs complaint arises under the Constitution and laws of the United States. Subject-matter jurisdiction is never waived, and in this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on symbolic, collateral attack. Reference. However, it is more likely than not that the court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the intent to system theory, stay indefinitely, so the District Court in how to apa, Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction. In the how to, alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in wikipedia apa, Prussia lacked jurisdiction over the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on xiv accomplishments, collateral attack in the enforcing court. How To Wikipedia. [We would have preferred a discussion at this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action.

Most of you could have improved your answers by making better use of the facts to support your analysis. The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is interactionism definition, because she did not appear at all in the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for establishing jurisdiction over her in Prussia. N.B. The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in how to reference wikipedia, which they are situated, so the District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only Gender Essay, if the state court could do so. Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to how to reference wikipedia apa, personal jurisdiction on the basis of domicile.

Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the wd valgardson, same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of students referred to how to reference wikipedia, this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in part of the answer and a choice of law provision in another part of the same answer. Louis. Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and not a choice of how to reference wikipedia law provision. Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of preparation. Failure to devote sufficient time to study of the symbolic interactionism, assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a persons demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions. Reference Wikipedia. Others simply didnt know what to do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to system theory, study the Burger King opinion and to how to reference wikipedia apa, pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. First Commercial will argue that the wd valgardson, long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on the basis of the reference wikipedia apa, first of the enumerated acts: a) transacting any business within the State. The claim for relief, the $100,000 breach of contract, arises from the defendants act of entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on Tristans delivery of the loan documents to the Banks main office in system theory, Prussia.

Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in reference wikipedia, Swabia. This is a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and narrowly. However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the statute reaches the out of state act, the interactionism, signing of the contract, which causes an in apa, state result, the execution of the contract. And Lung Cancer Example. [It is probably not necessary to stretch the how to reference wikipedia apa, construction of the wd valgardson, statute as the court did in Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the facts of this problem. The statute covers transacting business in the forum state directly or by an agent. Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the wikipedia apa, partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the papers to the bank. Cancer Essay. The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the papers and that he immediately took them to the bank. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them. Reference Wikipedia. There is symbolic, simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didnt know what she was signing. Indulging in speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard.

The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process of law. The U.S. Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to wikipedia, imposing personal jurisdiction on symbolic interactionism definition, an out of state defendant in International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the cause of action arises from the defendants minimum contacts with the forum, such that the assertion of jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to reference wikipedia apa, the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the Shoe standard? [While it is system theory, implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only if the court first accepts the argument that the statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the contact which gives rise to the claim, the wikipedia apa, signed loan contract, was brought into the forum by the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of system theory conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to secure the loan. Reference Wikipedia Apa. They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Wd Valgardson. Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in reference apa, these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the contract would be executed there, and she could reasonably anticipate being haled into court in Prussia over any disputes to the contract. (See Denckla, Worldwide VW).

While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to Gender Essay, favor First Commercial. How To Apa. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the fairness factors, defining fair play and substantial justice, articulated in the US Supreme Courts Burger King decision? In weighing the how to wikipedia, relative burden on Isolde compared to wikipedia, the interest of First National in litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to wd valgardson, require Isolde to how to reference, travel to reference, a nearby state where she lived most of her life and where she sometimes appears to give lectures. Wikipedia. The interest of the forum state in adjudicating the wd valgardson, dispute would be well served because of the choice of law provision; Prussia has an interest in adjudicating its own laws. The interest of the several states in efficiency and public policy do not seem to enter the reference wikipedia, picture, so the fairness factors do not point to Prussia as an unfair forum for Isolde. Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on a defense of lack of personal jurisdiction.

[Many of you neglected altogether most of the issues about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and service of process in Essay, the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and how to reference apa Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to symbolic definition, read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and a failure to how to reference apa, study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]

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Recording, Analysing and Using Human Resource Information Essay. This assignment is based around a retail organisation. This organisation is in reference wikipedia apa the fashion sector, primarily selling ladies fashion (although it does have some lines for men and system theory children). The organisation has 34 stores, primarily based in the Midlands and South of the UK. Apa! It tends to employ significant number of students during the holiday period (to help cover staff holidays) and wikipedia apa it always employs a number of temporary workers in the busy weeks leading up to Christmas. Answer the following questions (total of 1000 words):

1. Why does this organisation need to keep employee records (identify at least two reasons?) Two reasons as to why the above mentioned organisation would need to keep employee records are as follows; 1) To satisfy legal requirements There are numerous legal requirements regarding the recording of employee records. The key legal requirements that this or any organisation or Human Resources (HR) department would need to be aware of are; Storing records for how to reference wikipedia the Inland Revenue, The Working Time Regulations 1998, The National Minimum Wage Act 1998 and the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR). This list is not exhaustive. [1]According to Martin et al there is an Cancer example, extensive body of legislation that regulates and controls the management of personal data and how to reference wikipedia apa information. HR records have to satisfy a number of louis xiv accomplishments legal principles. 2) To provide information to how to reference wikipedia, support the organisation in its decision making By keeping employee records the above mentioned organisation can support the organisation in apa its decision making in various ways. How To Apa! For example as this organisation tends to employ a significant number of students during the holiday period they would be able to look at records from tracks previous years and reference wikipedia perhaps re-employ students who had a good previous record in attendance and performance etc. Louis Xiv Accomplishments! On the other hand if they had an employee who caused them problems with areas such as attendance or performance they would know not to re-employ them.

This could help to save time and resource when it comes to how to reference, recruiting for the holiday period. 2. What data relating to employees might this organisation want to collect and how will this support HR or LD practices? (Give 2 examples of types of data) Two examples of types of data the above organisation may want to collect to support with HR or LD practices are as follows; 1) Primary employee records These records include all employee personal information such as name, address, date of how to reference wikipedia apa birth, start date of employment, bank details, National Insurance number, and reference wikipedia tax information (P45 or P46). This information will support the HR department in a variety of and Lung Cancer example different ways ranging from simple tasks such as producing letters to more complex tasks such as producing reports. How To Reference Wikipedia! The HR department may need to produce letters for employees relating to anything such as a change in working hours to information about a sickness absence. The employees contact information would be gathered from the primary employee records as mentioned above. The HR department may also need to wd valgardson, produce reports; these reports may refer to how to, the age of the workforce, or the length of symbolic definition service within the workforce. Again the HR department would look to these primary employee records to support. 2) Absence It is vital for how to reference apa any organisation to record absence levels however, ultimately if the information gathered is not used then it is of no real benefit to the organisation.

[2]According to Daniels if absence data is going to be of any use it needs to be: Reported alongside data that shows at least the past 12 months. Compared with the rate for the industry. Broken down by group of employee (e.g. manual and non-manual) or by department. Recording absence levels will support the louis, above mentioned organisation within the apa, HR department in wd valgardson numerous ways. One example of this would be if there are any months where absence is particularly high then operationally the organisation may look at the possibility of needing temporary cover. The organisation may also look at yearly trends, therefore if they know that December for example is a month where absence levels are particularly high they can strategically plan and prepare temporary cover in advance. 3. What would you recommend as effective methods for apa this organisation to store the data, and why? (Give two different options)

My recommendations as effective methods for this organisation to store the data relating to primary employee records and wd valgardson absence are as follows; 1) Primary employee records As this organisation has a large number of employees spread across 34 different stores in different locations throughout the United Kingdom; my recommendation would be to use a Personnel Database. I believe this would be a key requirement in keeping the wikipedia apa, data stored efficiently. HR departments may need to access information from different Stores for reporting etc therefore I feel it would be necessary to have a master database for all employees. Common examples of types of data stored on a database would be name, address, start date, date of birth and salary etc. This information can then be used in a variety of different ways ranging from simple tasks such as producing letters to more complex tasks such as creating spreadsheets and reporting. [3]Martin et al cited that using databases for employee records could be used in its raw, unprocessed form to send out a letter. In addition it could be processed to identify who is due to retire or to Gender and Lung Cancer Essay example, calculate salary costs for department. 2) Absence My recommendation for this organisation to apa, store their absence rates would be through Computerised Personnel Information Systems (CPIS).

[4]According to Daniels, as well as holding personnel records and data, there are a number of other functions that can be incorporated into CPIS. These may not always come with the wd valgardson, standard package, but they might be bought as additional facilities. Absence management being one of the functions Daniels refers to. One of benefits in how to apa using CPIS in relation to absence would be that all Stores would have access to absence information relating to system theory, every Store within the organisation. This would enable decision makers to efficiently and effectively analyse trends relating to all the Stores. [5]Martin et al refer to the fact that only actions taken by managers and supervisors can bring absence levels down however good records can help them to do this job. A CPIS will produce accurate data therefore making it easier for managers to monitor this.

4. Why is how to wikipedia it important for the organisation to effectively input and retrieve information? Answer this with particular reference to Gender and Lung Cancer Essay, payroll and personnel records. The importance of effectively inputting and how to wikipedia retrieving information is key to the successful operation of the wd valgardson, above organisation, or in fact any organisation. I will specifically concentrate on the areas of how to reference apa payroll and personnel. Firstly I will discuss the implications relating to payroll. Symbolic Interactionism! Paying employees the how to wikipedia, correct amount of system theory money at how to wikipedia, the correct time is essential to employee satisfaction, therefore within any business it is vital that all information needed for processing payroll has been input and retrieved accurately. As this organisation has 34 stores there will be a large number of xiv accomplishments employees, therefore there will be a large amount of information stored relating to pay. If information has been input or retrieved incorrectly this could result in incorrect payments to staff. For example if an employee left the business however someone forgot to input that they were a leaver, this could result in an incorrect payment, therefore losing the company money.

On the other hand if an employee started the company however someone forgot to input the information this would mean that the new employee wasnt paid as the information would not be in the system. Reference! This would instantly give the new employee a bad first impression of the organisation. Secondly I will discuss the implications relating to personnel records. Wd Valgardson! It is vital that personnel information is input and retrieved effectively for numerous reasons. How To Apa! The first example would be in case of an xiv accomplishments, emergency; when a new employee starts within the business they are always asked to submit a contact who is to be contacted in case of an emergency. Therefore it is very important that this information in input or retrieved in the correct manner. Reference Wikipedia! If the telephone number was input incorrectly and the employer came to system theory, use the number in the case of an emergency the employer would then not know who to contact especially within a large organisation as mentioned in the case study. If the how to apa, information is retrieved incorrectly the employer may contact the incorrect person which may lead to unnecessary worry for system theory someone was has been inserted as an emergency contact for another employee. Another example as to why personnel records need to apa, be input and retrieved correctly would relate to medical information. When an employee is new to the business medical information will be gathered.

For example if an system theory, employee suffers from a medical condition such as epilepsy and how to this has not been input into the system because of an error then staff may not understand or be aware if they had an epileptic fit. It could be the same with allergies to nuts etc. If staff are not aware they wont be able to louis xiv accomplishments, provide medical information to reference wikipedia apa, the ambulance when they arrive to symbolic, support in cases like the above mentioned. Very often providing this information to the ambulance services can make the difference in life and reference death situations. 5. Identify three aspects of the storage of data that need to be addressed as a result of the caterpillar, Data Protection Act. [6]According to government legislation, The National Archives cited that The Data Protection Act is an Act to make new provision for the regulation of the processing of information relating to individuals, including the obtaining, holding, use or disclosure of such information. Three aspects I have identified of the how to wikipedia, storage of data that need to apa, be addressed as a result of the Data Protection Act are as follows; 1) Data that is processed must be done so fairly and how to wikipedia lawfully. [7]The Information Commissioners Office (ICO) cites that in practice, it means that you must: have legitimate grounds for collecting and using the personal data; not use the data in wikipedia apa ways that have unjustified adverse effects on the individuals concerned; be transparent about how you intend to use the data, and how to give individuals appropriate privacy notices when collecting their personal data; handle peoples personal data only in system theory ways they would reasonably expect; and make sure you do not do anything unlawful with the data. 2) Data stored must be adequate, relevant, and not excessive This means that any information gathered must be relevant to the specific job of the employee.

You must ensure that you do not hold more information than what is needed for a specific purpose. How To Apa! The organisation should identify the minimum amount of information that is required. 3) Data stored must be accurate and where necessary kept up to date. This principle places a responsibility to apa, take steps to ensure accuracy of information processed and stored. When collecting the information reasonable steps must be taken to ensure the information is reference apa correct. [8]According to system theory, Martin et al in employment one way to achieve this is to allow employees to check, and how to apa even update, their own records. Input this data into an appropriate IT package (e.g. Excel) and then display the data in the most appropriate way. I have chosen to present my data in a line graph as I feel this is the most appropriate way to show the two variables (absence rate % in the last 12 months and staff turnover % in the last 12 months) in how to apa one graph. Now write a report (no more than 500 words) identifying what this data tells you, and suggesting how this might impact on the decision making in the organisation.

Key findings within this data are as follows; Store D has the highest absence rate, that being 7.2% in the last 12 months Store C has the lowest absence rate, that being 1.8% in wikipedia the last 12 months Store C has the louis, highest staff turnover, that being 21% in the last 12 months Store F has the lowest staff turnover, that being 10% in the last 12 months. As Store Ds absence rate is relatively high decision makers within the organisation and the Human Resource department (HR) should consider focusing on areas such as job motivation, employee engagement, working condition etc so as to apa, try and improve overall absence % rate for the year. Decision makers should also ensure that the absence policy is being managed by line managers and Gender Essay example that managers are correctly trained in following the policy. Another key area decision makers should focus on are key trends of absence types. For example sore throats and colds can be an indicator that the apa, air conditioning is set to the wrong level. It is vital that decision makers understand why the absence rate is high so as they can take measures to improve it. Even though store Cs absence rate is the louis, lowest at 1.8% they still have the how to wikipedia, highest staff turnover, that being 21%.

A low absence rate can indicate that an employee is engaged and how to reference they want to be in the work place. Reference Wikipedia Apa! One of the Gender Cancer example, reasons for reference wikipedia the highest staff turnover could be due to the significant number of students being employed in the holiday period and also the Gender Cancer Essay example, temporary workers in the busy weeks leading up to Christmas. These figures may lead the decision makers within the organisation to consider a different approach for staff cover over how to wikipedia apa the holiday periods and Christmas if it is louis xiv accomplishments going to have a negative effect on how to reference wikipedia, the turnover % for that period of 12 months. An example of how they could improve this would be to reference wikipedia apa, offer overtime to existing employees rather than hiring temporary workers for the Christmas period. They could also have more part time employees throughout the year, for example they could employ students on a low number of hours throughout the year and then ramp up their hours at the busy periods such as Christmas. Store F has the lowest staff turnover that being 10%. This may be for numerous reasons such as location or employee engagement. Store F may not employ as many students for the Christmas or holiday period as it is in a smaller community where fewer students live. It may be that the reference apa, people who are employed in the store are from louis a smaller community and they have worked here for years and there isnt the need to ramp up over the Christmas period. Apa! Very often people who come from smaller communities tend to stay within the same place of work and Gender Cancer example dont look to leave, therefore contributing to low staff turnover. Another factor could be that staff are engaged and motivated.

The decision makers within the business should look to how to reference apa, considering why Store F has the lowest staff turnover. They could look at wd valgardson, how other Stores manage the Christmas and how to apa holiday period ramp up and system theory also if they have any programmes with employee engagement. Then they could look to transferring skills and ideas from Store F to other stores with a high staff turnover. Information Commissioners Office (2012) Processing personal data fairly and lawfully (Principle 1) (online) (cited 6th August 2012). Available from: The National Archives (2012) Data Protection Act 1998 (online) (cited 6th August 2012). Available from: Martin, M. Whiting, F. and wikipedia Jackson, T. (2010) Human Resource Practice, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, London. Daniels, K. (2010), Recording, Analysing and Using Human Resource Information, ICS Limited, Glasgow. [1] M.Martin et al (2010) Human Resource Practice, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, London, p. 278. [2] K. Daniels (2010), Recording, Analysing and Using Human Resource Information, ICS Limited, Glasgow, p.17.

[3] Martin et al, Human Resource in Practice, pp. 284. [4] Daniels, Recording, Analysing and Using Human Resource Information, pp. 29 [5] Martin et al, Human Resource in how to wikipedia apa Practice, pp. 284. [6] The National Archives (1998) [7] Information Commissioners Office (2012) [8] Martin et al, Human Resource Practice, pp.289. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 13 November 2016.

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6 Appealing Skills to Include on Your Resume When You Change Careers. So you picked a degree in a career field you thought youd love, but a few years into the daily grind, youre no longer feeling it. What can you do when all your education and experience is in one field, but you know in your gut its time to move on? Dont despair youre not the reference first person to find yourself in this pickle. Believe it or not, you can transfer plenty of skills from interactionism, your field to your next dream job. (Click here to Tweet this thought.) And if youre on the lookout for a drastic career change, quite a few unexpected jobs pay surprisingly well. Reference Wikipedia! Here are six of the top transferable skills all employers want and how you can mine them from your experience, no matter how distant your ideal job seems from your current career: 1. You know how to keep lines of communication open. Whether your experience has been arguing criminal cases in reference wikipedia, front of a jury or fielding customer complaints at apa a call center, your communication skills will serve you well as a career changer. Being able to clearly communicate your thoughts, ideas and suggestions is valued in every workplace. In addition, if youre adept at reading people and tweaking your communication style to meet the needs of those you work with, youll become invaluable to whatever organization you want to join. Think of caterpillar what your colleagues, clients and how to apa supervisors would say about your communication skills, and translate that praise into and Lung example, your resume and apa interviewing plan of attack. 2. You can organize, manage and lead teams efficiently.

Even if the wd valgardson only group youve had the chance to lead was your sons little league team, your ability to lead a group, organize different players and manage unexpected situations like rain or wardrobe malfunctions will serve you well as you change careers. Think back on your career for times when you were selected to lead a project, discussion or committee. Dont rule out any time when you were able to how to reference take charge and facilitate a positive outcome. Find ways to share examples from a universal perspective. Identify specific skills and outcomes rather than the tasks you performed. For example, you could say, Led a team of 12 people to successfully meet and exceed goals for three quarters rather than explaining the technical details of your work as an caterpillar tracks, accountant, office manager or other specific position. Your ability to broadly highlight your leadership and management abilities will put you at the top of the how to apa list in your new job search. 3. You naturally go the extra mile.

Being willing to definition do more than youre asked #8212; as well as the ability to anticipate the how to wikipedia apa needs of your boss, customers or colleagues #8212; are key factors to how to wikipedia apa success in any industry. Reference Apa! Identify examples of when you went above and beyond. Symbolic! It could have been taking on how to reference apa an extra project, putting in extra hours or extending your patience to help train the new recruit. Highlight those examples, and be as specific as possible without pigeonholing yourself in the field youre leaving. If you received any service awards or other acknowledgement for your efforts, be sure to include those details in an Awards and Recognitions section on your resume. 4. Your passion drives your performance. And Lung Cancer Essay! Chances are theres something about the job youre leaving that you feel passionately about theres a reason you chose it in the first place. Identify those core elements that drove you into this field and isolate their value to your new field. If you chose journalism because you love telling stories, but youre burned out on chasing ambulances and legislative upsets, maybe you can parlay that love into working at reference wikipedia your local library, social media management or Web marketing. Find a company, hobby or interest you enjoy and caterpillar tracks translate your storytelling skills into telling that story instead of reference dissecting the interactionism traumas and tribulations of the world.

5. Youre a pro at wearing many hats. All the how to wikipedia apa cliches about juggling and hats come into play when youre switching fields. And Lung Example! If your job gave you the chance to fulfill more than one role at your company such as managing both the marketing and the HR departments highlight that experience when applying for jobs. These skills are crucial, especially if youre drawn to how to working for a non-profit or becoming a teacher, two of the hottest fields for career jumpers. In smaller companies and classrooms, you need to be able to manage more than one task at a time without losing sight of your ultimate goal or losing control of your charges. Believe it or not, your perfect attendance record and wasted vacation days can be a top selling point, no matter how big a jump your move from accountant to massage therapist seems. Just like clients need their taxes filed on time, clients also want a massage therapist to begin and end their $100 massage on Gender Essay time. If you can be relied upon how to reference apa and dont leave people waiting, youre already on the road to success no matter what your career change is. But if you include dependability in louis, the list of skills on reference wikipedia apa your resume, make sure you have specific examples to back it up when youre asked about it in an interview.

What other skills do you think all employers value? Elli Bishop is the community manager for The Daily Buzz, the BusinessBee blog. You can follow BusinessBee on system theory Twitter, Google+ or Facebook. How to Follow Up After an reference, Interview: 3 Questions You Were Afraid to how to apa Ask. Lovely advice. How To Reference Wikipedia Apa! Thank you.

No problem! The decisions you make in how to, college and in your early twenties aren#8217;t always the best. Luckily, I picked a major that applies to how to nearly everything I do on a daily basis- communication. System Theory! My friends who majored in construction engineering and want out how to reference wikipedia apa ASAP might not feel the same way! Good article. Another tactic is to boost the value of your career by focusing on these 5 key career skills there#8217;s an infographic too here: I really appreciate it Elli including your achievements from your recent experience, earlier jobs, etc. .could help to caterpillar qualify for your next dream job but you also need to focus on things you did related to your target job. Skip everything else.

Just make sure your resume makes it clear that you have the how to reference apa skills ethic to do that next job. These tips are really helpful. Gender And Lung Cancer! I like the idea of how to reference wikipedia apa demonstrating the ability to wear a lot of hats in an organization. It shows that you#8217;re versatile and system theory not a 1 trick pony. In most cases, any kind of client or customer-facing skills are a plus. Even if that doesn#8217;t end up being part of your job, your ability to how to wikipedia communicate with and definition understand their unique business needs is a major plus, no matter what you#8217;re doing in your role.

Similarly, an ability to work with and communicate among different levels within the organization if you#8217;re someone who#8217;s worked across the board with interns, clients, managers and executive level decision makers, that#8217;s worth noting, as it shows a versatility and strength in your communication and interpersonal skills. Sure, but how do you write those down as skills on how to reference wikipedia a resume? Looking at these 6 skills, they are definitely something that an employee. would be looking for. Transferable skills are something that people dont. realise they have. How To Reference! Many people stick to one job, although their set of skills.

While these are important qualities, the descriptions are subjective. I can#8217;t write on my resume that I #8220;can be counted on#8221; or that I #8220;go the apa extra mile.#8221; Do people actually write these things on their resumes? Do they work? Are recruiters really that dumb? Well, what I have seen in how to reference wikipedia apa, many companies as well as most of resume2hire reviews that the important thing is the required skill and how to expertise and all the things come later but still I would say that these tips are really helpful for the people facing such problems,

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Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question. Stephanie Allen read Classics and English at St Hughs College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in Early Modern Academic Drama at the University of Fribourg. Weve all been there. How To Wikipedia! Youve handed in an essay and you think its pretty great: it shows off all your best ideas, and contains points youre sure no one else will have thought of. Youre not totally convinced that what youve written is relevant to the title you were given but its inventive, original and caterpillar good. Wikipedia Apa! In fact, it might be better than anything that would have responded to the question. But your essay isnt met with the lavish praise you expected.

When its tossed back onto your desk, there are huge chunks scored through with red pen, crawling with annotations like little red fire ants: IRRELEVANT; A bit of a tangent!; . ; and, right next to your best, most impressive killer point: Right so?. Caterpillar Tracks! The grade your teacher has scrawled at the end is wikipedia nowhere near what your essay deserves. Definition! In fact, its pretty average. And the comment at the bottom reads something like, Some good ideas, but you didnt answer the question!. If asked a question about Keats, you should write about Keats. If this has ever happened to you (and it has happened to me, a lot), youll know how deeply frustrating it is and how unfair it can seem. This might just be me, but the exhausting process of reference researching, having ideas, planning, writing and re-reading makes me steadily more attached to the ideas I have, and the things Ive managed to put on the page. Each time I scroll back through what Ive written, or planned, so far, I become steadily more convinced of its brilliance.

What started off as a scribbled note in the margin, something extra to reference apa, think about or to how to apa, pop in symbolic interactionism definition if it could be made to fit the argument, sometimes comes to apa, be backbone of a whole essay so, when a tutor tells me my inspired paragraph about Ted Hughess interpretation of symbolic interactionism definition mythology isnt relevant to my essay on Keats, I fail to see why. Or even if I can see why, the how to wikipedia thought of taking it out is wrenching. Who cares if its a bit off-topic? It should make my essay stand out, if anything! And an examiner would probably be happy not to symbolic, read yet another answer that makes exactly the how to reference wikipedia same points. If you recognise yourself in the above, there are two crucial things to realise. The first is that something has to change: because doing well in louis xiv accomplishments high school exam or coursework essays is almost totally dependent on being able to how to, pin down and organise lots of ideas so that an examiner can see that they convincingly answer a question.

And its a real shame to how to wikipedia apa, work hard on something, have good ideas, and wikipedia apa not get the marks you deserve. Writing a top essay is a very particular and actually quite simple challenge. Cancer Essay! Its not actually that important how original you are, how compelling your writing is, how many ideas you get down, or how beautifully you can express yourself (though of reference wikipedia course, all these things do have their rightful place). What youre doing, essentially, is using a limited amount of time and knowledge to really answer a question. It sounds obvious, but a good essay should have the title or question as its focus the interactionism definition whole way through . It should answer it ten times over in apa every single paragraph, with every fact or figure. Treat your reader (whether its your class teacher or an external examiner) like a child who cant do any interpretive work of their own; imagine yourself leading them through your essay by the hand, pointing out that youve answered the system theory question here , and here , and here. Now, this is all very well, I imagine you objecting, and reference much easier said than done. Wd Valgardson! But never fear! Structuring an how to reference apa, essay that knocks a question on system theory, the head is reference wikipedia something you can learn to do in a couple of easy steps. In the next few hundred words, Im going to share with you what Ive learned through endless, mindless crossings-out, rewordings, rewritings and rethinkings. Ive lost count of the number of times Ive been told to write the question at the top of Gender example every new page- but for how to wikipedia apa, some reason, that trick simply doesnt work for me.

If it doesnt work for you either, use this three-part process to allow the question to structure your essay: 1) Work out exactly what youre being asked. It sounds really obvious, but lots of system theory students have trouble answering questions because they dont take time to figure out exactly what theyre expected to do instead, they skim-read and then write the essay they want to write. Sussing out how to wikipedia a question is a two-part process, and the first part is easy. It means looking at the directions the question provides as to what sort of essay youre going to write. I call these command phrases and will go into more detail about what they mean below. The second part involves identifying key words and phrases. Use forceful, persuasive language to show how the caterpillar tracks points youve made do answer the question. My main focus so far has been on how to reference, tangential or irrelevant material but many students lose marks even though they make great points, because they dont quite impress how relevant those points are.

Again, Ill talk about symbolic interactionism definition how you can do this below. 3) Be brutally honest with yourself about whether a point is apa relevant before you write it. It doesnt matter how impressive, original or interesting it is. It doesnt matter if youre panicking, and you cant think of any points that do answer the question. Symbolic Definition! If a point isnt relevant, dont bother with it. Its a waste of time, and how to reference wikipedia might actually work against you- if you put tangential material in an essay, your reader will struggle to how to wikipedia apa, follow the thread of how to your argument, and lose focus on your really good points. Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath by reference wikipedia apa Theodore Chasseriau. Lets imagine youre writing an English essay about the how to reference wikipedia role and importance of the three witches in Macbeth . Interactionism Definition! Youre thinking about the different ways in which Shakespeare imagines and presents the witches, how they influence the action of the tragedy, and reference apa perhaps the extent to which were supposed to believe in xiv accomplishments them (stay with me you dont have to reference wikipedia, know a single thing about Shakespeare or Macbeth to understand this bit!). Now, youll probably have a few good ideas on this topic and whatever essay you write, youll most likely use much of the same material. However, the detail of the phrasing of the question will significantly affect the way you write your essay.

You would draw on similar material to address the following questions: Discuss Shakespeares representation of the three witches in wd valgardson Macbeth . How does Shakespeare figure the supernatural in Macbeth ? To what extent are the three witches responsible for Macbeths tragic downfall? Evaluate the importance of the three witches in how to wikipedia bringing about Macbeths ruin. Are we supposed to believe in the three witches in Macbeth ? Within Macbeth s representation of the witches, there is profound ambiguity about the actual significance and caterpillar power of their malevolent intervention (Stephen Greenblatt). Discuss. Ive organised the examples into three groups, exemplifying the reference wikipedia apa different types of questions you might have to Gender Essay example, answer in an exam. The first group are pretty open-ended: discuss- and how-questions leave you room to set the scope of the essay.

You can decide what the focus should be. Beware, though this doesnt mean you dont need a sturdy structure, or a clear argument, both of which should always be present in an essay. The second group are asking you to evaluate, constructing an argument that decides whether, and how far something is true. Good examples of hypotheses (which your essay would set out to prove) for how to, these questions are: The witches are the most important cause of caterpillar tracks tragic action in Macbeth. How To Apa! The witches are partially, but not entirely responsible for Macbeths downfall, alongside Macbeths unbridled ambition, and symbolic interactionism that of his wife. How To Reference Wikipedia! We are not supposed to system theory, believe the witches: they are a product of Macbeths psyche, and his downfall is his own doing. The witches role in Macbeths downfall is deliberately unclear.

Their claim to reality is shaky finally, their ambiguity is how to reference apa part of an uncertain tragic universe and Gender and Lung example the great illusion of the reference wikipedia theatre. (N.B. Its fine to conclude that a question cant be answered in black and white, certain terms as long as you have a firm structure, and wd valgardson keep referring back to how to apa, it throughout the essay). The final question asks you to respond to a quotation. Students tend to find these sorts of wd valgardson questions the most difficult to answer, but once youve got the hang of them I think the reference title does most of the wd valgardson work for you often implicitly providing you with a structure for your essay. The first step is breaking down the quotation into its constituent parts- the different things it says. I use brackets: ( Within Macbeth s representation of the how to reference wikipedia witches, ) ( there is profound ambiguity ) about the symbolic interactionism ( actual significance ) ( and how to apa power ) of ( their malevolent intervention ) Examiners have a nasty habit of picking the most bewildering and system theory terrifying-sounding quotations: but once you break them down, theyre often asking for something very simple.

This quotation, for example, is asking exactly the same thing as the other questions. Reference Wikipedia! The trick here is making sure you respond to all the different parts. System Theory! You want to how to wikipedia apa, make sure you discuss the following: Do you agree that the status of the witches malevolent intervention is ambiguous? What is its significance? How powerful is it? James I, the wd valgardson King of England and Scotland at the time Macbeth was written, famously wrote Daemonologie, which encourages the practice of witch-hunting. Having worked out exactly what the question is asking, write out how to reference apa a plan (which should be very detailed in a coursework essay, but doesnt have to interactionism, be more than a few lines long in an exam context) of the material youll use in each paragraph. Make sure your plan contains a sentence at the end of each point about how that point will answer the question. A point from my plan for one of the topics above might look something like this: To what extent are we supposed to believe in the three witches in Macbeth ? Hypothesis: The witches role in Macbeths downfall is deliberately unclear.

Their claim to reality is uncertain finally, theyre part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. At the time Shakespeare wrote Macbeth , there were many examples of people being burned or drowned as witches There were also people who claimed to be able to exorcise evil demons from people who were possessed. Catholic Christianity leaves much room for wikipedia, the supernatural to exist This suggests that Shakespeares contemporary audience might, more readily than a modern one, have believed that witches were a real phenomenon and wd valgardson did exist. My final sentence (highlighted in red) shows how the reference material discussed in the paragraph answers the question. Writing this out at the planning stage, in addition to wd valgardson, clarifying your ideas, is how to wikipedia a great test of symbolic interactionism whether a point is relevant: if you struggle to write the sentence, and make the connection to the question and how to reference apa larger argument, you might have gone off-topic. Step Three: Paragraph beginnings and Cancer Essay example endings. This 16th century English illustration shows a witch feeding her familiars. The final step to making sure you pick up all the possible marks for answering the question in an essay is how to wikipedia apa ensuring that you make it explicit how your material does so. This bit relies upon getting the beginnings and endings of paragraphs just right. To reiterate what I said above, treat your reader like a child: tell them what youre going to say; tell them how it answers the question; say it, and then tell them how youve answered the question. This need not feel clumsy, awkward or repetitive.

The first sentence of each new paragraph or point should, without giving too much of your conclusion away, establish what youre going to discuss, and how it answers the reference wikipedia question. Reference Apa! The opening sentence from the louis paragraph I planned above might go something like this: Early modern political and religious contexts suggest that Shakespeares contemporary audience might more readily have believed in how to reference wikipedia apa witches than his modern readers. The sentence establishes that Im going to discuss Jacobean religion and witch-burnings, and also what Im going to use those contexts to show. Id then slot in all my facts and how to wikipedia examples in the middle of the paragraph.

The final sentence (or few sentences) should be strong and how to reference apa decisive, making a clear connection to the question youve been asked: Contemporary suspicion that witches did exist, testified to Gender Cancer Essay example, by witch-hunts and exorcisms, is crucial to our understanding of the witches in Macbeth. To the early modern consciousness, witches were a distinctly real and dangerous possibility and apa the witches in definition the play would have seemed all-the-more potent and how to apa terrifying as a result. The best way to get really good at wd valgardson making sure you always answer the question is to write essay plans rather than whole pieces. Reference Apa! Set aside a few hours, choose a couple of essay questions from past papers, and for each: Write a hypothesis Write a rough plan of what each paragraph will contain Write out the first and last sentence of each paragraph. You can get your teacher, or a friend, to look through your plans and give you feedback. If you follow this advice, fingers crossed, next time you hand in an essay, itll be free from symbolic, red-inked comments about irrelevance, and instead showered with praise for the precision with which you handled the topic, and wikipedia apa how intently you focused on xiv accomplishments, answering the question.

It can seem depressing when your perfect question is just a minor tangent from the how to apa question you were actually asked, but trust me high praise and caterpillar tracks good marks are all found in answering the question in front of you, not the one you would have liked to see. Teachers do choose the questions they set you with some care, after all; chances are the question you were set is the reference wikipedia apa more illuminating and wd valgardson rewarding one as well. 40 Responses to Focus and how to Precision: How to reference wikipedia, Write Essays that Answer the Question August 21, 2014 at 8:22 am, Kristen Webster said: I have been reading your articles on better essay writing and I am wondering whether you can provide an example of a well written essay please? August 21, 2014 at 11:59 am, ORA Admin said: We havent produced any sample essays ourselves. How To Apa! However, there is wikipedia apa a huge amount available online the Student Rooms sample essays might be a good place to start.

We hope this helps. January 20, 2015 at 1:54 am, kot said: Thank you this was very helpful! March 18, 2015 at how to wikipedia 7:56 am, Kos cahe said: How do you answer a to what extend essay question? March 18, 2015 at 12:34 pm, ORA Admin said: A to what extent essay question is effectively a yes or no essay question thats phrased in wd valgardson a more helpful way. For example: To what extent did his desire for a son influence Henry VIIIs decision to break from the how to apa Catholic Church?

Did his desire for a son influence Henry VIIIs decision to break from the Catholic Church? You can see that both questions will get a very similar answer, only to what extent gives you a hint of caterpillar what sort of answer is how to wikipedia expected that it played some role, but that there are other causes that need to be considered. In a to what extent essay, you should consider a variety of Gender reasons, but in each paragraph return to the reason given in the question. Reference Apa! In my Henry VIII example, you might write one paragraph on and Lung Cancer, his desire to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, but connect this back to how to reference apa, his desire for a son, as he believed Anne Boleyn stood a better chance of giving him a son than Catherine of Aragon. In the conclusion, you could then assess whether the reason given in the question is in fact the most important, or if there was a more significant reason that you have identified in the essay. We hope this helps,

November 22, 2015 at xiv accomplishments 6:14 pm, Sarah said: How do I write an reference, essay with keywords or key points already given in the question? For eg. If the question says to write an symbolic definition, essay on some topic and reference apa below are some key points or key words. November 23, 2015 at 10:25 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. It is difficult to wd valgardson, advise you on the specific essay in question, but we do have a large collection of essay-writing and study skills articles on the ORA website that may be of use to you. Hopefully you can find something that can help you in the following articles:

March 29, 2016 at how to reference wikipedia apa 9:47 am, Fay said: How do you answer a why essay question? May 29, 2016 at 8:16 pm, Aaliyah said: Hi, how do you answer a what does so and so contribute to physics? Is this simply a descriptive essay? June 27, 2016 at louis 3:04 am, Dutta the One said:

Thank you for how to reference wikipedia, this amazing article. Tracks! I feel so much more confident now! Just coincidentally, I happen to have an essay on Macbeth this Friday! Wish me luck! June 27, 2016 at how to wikipedia apa 6:38 am, ritchie said: Great article, thanks! When answering a DO YOU AGREE question, is it better to give a straight Yes or No answer, instead of May be, Yes and no August 22, 2016 at 5:23 pm, holly said: how would you answer evaluate the system theory main reasons Im confused on how to structure it. August 27, 2016 at 1:35 am, Deyshan said: I was wondering your opinion on how to answer a How essay question. For example: How does To Kill a Mockingbird and 12 Angry Men illustrate the dangers of personal prejudice?

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Clinical trials for medicines: apply for authorisation in the UK. How to apply for a clinical trial including eligibility, phases, model IMPDs, costs and how to make changes to your application. To apply, you must be the sponsor of the trial, or someone authorised by reference, them. If you are not established in the European Community then your legal representative must make the how to apa, application. When a clinical trial authorisation (CTA ) is needed. Use MHRAs online algorithm Is it a clinical trial of a medicinal product? ( PDF , 25.2KB , 2 pages ) to find out if your study needs MHRA authorisation. The algorithm is a set of apa, questions that determine: whether the substance youre testing counts as a medicinal product whether your trial counts as a clinical trial within the scope of the relevant EU directive. You can also read the clinical trial mock examples ( PDF , 25.9KB , 6 pages ) to louis help you decide if your study needs a CTA . If you are still unsure, email a copy of the protocol (the document describing the objectives, design and how to reference methodology) to clintrialhelpline@mhra.gov.uk, with Scope - protocol review followed by the study title (shortened) as the subject line. You will also need a positive opinion from an ethics committee before you start your trial. You can get this before, at caterpillar the same time or after you have made your submission to MHRA.

You must create XML and PDF versions, save and sign them electronically, and submit them with the rest of the required documents. Find guidance on how to complete this submission on the European Commission website. Submissions through the Common European Submission Portal (CESP) Clinical trial submissions can be made through CESP. Wikipedia? This system is available from the Heads of Medicines Agencies (HMA) and provides a simple and secure mechanism for how to reference, exchange of information between applicants and regulatory agencies. The purpose of the system is to: provide a secure method of communicating with regulatory agencies via one platform allow submission of an application once to reach all required agencies reduce the how to reference wikipedia, burden for both industry and regulators of submitting/handling applications on CD-ROM and DVD. If you are a first time CESP user and wish to setup up an organisation/university or trust to manage multiple users on the system, register with CESP here.

If you are a standalone user and wish to upload for Non Commercial Use on your own behalf, register with CESP here. Once registered you will receive credentials to symbolic interactionism definition access the portal to your registered email address. General CESP training is available to all registered users via CESPs training menu once logged into the system. How To? Training on demand videos are available and you can also sign up to louis xiv accomplishments our free online weekly live demonstrations. CESP encourage all users to attend training before using the how to wikipedia, system. View FAQs here. There are 4 phases of a clinical trial and a product can only go to the next phase if it has passed the safety and effectiveness tests of the and Lung Cancer, previous one.

Your application must specify the phase. Phase I trials, sometimes called first-in-human trials, test a small number of subjects to find out how to wikipedia how the treatment works in the body. This type of trial aims to find the system theory, lowest dose at which the treatment is how to reference wikipedia apa effective (the minimum therapeutic dose) and the highest dose at which it can be taken without causing harm. Phase II trials test the treatment in several hundred people with a given disease or condition. They aim to find out how well the treatment works in larger numbers, identify common side effects, and refine the louis xiv accomplishments, dose and length of how to wikipedia apa, treatment. Phase III trials typically compare the Gender, treatment across several thousand patients to gather more detailed information on how well it works in wikipedia, groups of caterpillar, patients and reference apa its safety. Caterpillar? The results influence the prescribing and patient information of a medicine once it is marketed. Trials are carried out how to reference wikipedia apa after a medicine has been licensed and put on the market.

These trials are designed to find out system theory more about the how to reference wikipedia apa, long term harms and benefits of a medicine and to discover new uses for it. Applications that need expert advice. For certain trials, we will seek advice from the Clinical Trials, Biologicals and Vaccines Expert Advisory Group (CTBVEAG ) of the Commission on wd valgardson, Human Medicines (CHM ). The CHM will then discuss the trial at their meeting, which will take place later in the same week as the CTBVEAG meeting. How To Wikipedia? We will make the decision to louis xiv accomplishments refer applications for expert advice based on how to reference wikipedia apa, an assessment of the risks and how the sponsor plans to mitigate them. Areas we look at when considering risk factors include: mode of action nature of the target relevance of animal species and models. We may refer other applications for system theory, expert advice if we identify issues during the assessment process. Currently, all initial applications for trials involving CAR-T cell medical products are being referred to CTBVEAG for advice. Examples of trials where expert advice may be needed include first-in-human (FIH ) trials with novel compounds where the: mode of action involves a target that is reference connected to multiple signalling pathways (target with pleiotropic effects), eg leading to various physiological effects or targets that are ubiquitously expressed compound acts (directly or indirectly) via a cascade system where there may be an amplification effect which might not be sufficiently controlled by a physiological feedback mechanism compound acts (directly or indirectly) via the immune system with a target or mechanism of interactionism, action which is novel or currently not well characterised is novelty in the structure of the active substance eg a new type of engineered structural format such as those with enhanced receptor interaction as compared with the parent compound level of expression and biological function of the how to reference wikipedia, target receptor may differ between healthy individuals and patients with the Gender and Lung Essay example, relevant disease is insufficient available knowledge of the structure, tissue distribution, cell specificity, disease specificity, regulation, level of expression and biological function of the human target, including down-stream effects compound acts via a possible or likely species specific mechanism or where animal data are unlikely to be predictive of how to reference wikipedia apa, activity in humans. Sponsors should contact us before applying for a CTA for these trials and supply us with a data package, which will allow us to get appropriate expert advice.

The normal timescale for approving a CTA will begin when you actually submit your application. Sponsors should use the criteria above to decide if their trial needs expert advice. You can get pre-submission advice from us if you are unsure if your compound falls into Gender and Lung the higher-risk category. a summary of the nature of the compound its target/mechanism of action the relevance of the animal model(s) We will send a response to wikipedia this email within 14 days. If we confirm that the application comes within the wd valgardson, category of higher risk, you should select the how to, date of the CTBVEAG /CHM meeting you want your trial discussed at.

You should then prepare a data package containing: the IMP dossier the investigators brochure the protocol responses to required CHM areas for how to reference, discussion (see below) labelling manufacturer authorisation(s) a qualified person (QP) declaration on how to reference, good manufacturing practice (GMP) (if necessary) a summary of scientific advice from any member state or the European Medicines Agency (EMA ), if available *a covering letter. You should submit the data package to us by sending an email titled URGENT FIH SUBMISSION to clintrialhelpline@mhra.gov.uk or using Eudralink. Fill out the Eudralink account request form to get an how to wikipedia apa, account. You should submit it no later than 21 days before the date of the reference wikipedia, CTBVEAG /CHM meeting it will be discussed at. The application form/xml file should be sent by symbolic interactionism, email during the week of the CTBVEAG /CHM meetings. We will assess the information provided and how to reference wikipedia may provide feedback on the content and completeness of the data package.

A formal letter with questions to the sponsor will be sent as soon as possible (but no later than 14 days) after the CTBVEAG meeting. At the CHM meeting the experts will discuss your application, including the responses you provide to the CHM areas for discussion. These are: the function of the target in man the ability of the subject to maintain a normal physiological response to challenge in the presence of the investigational product the transition from apa, preclinical to human testing, particularly with regard to highly species-specific molecules the how to, potential for on-target and off-target effects and how this will be handled in the clinic the doses used in the relevant animal species (particularly with regard to the use in the animal model of the starting dose to reference be administered to man) a rationale for the starting dose in man (including, for example receptor occupancy) a rationale for the study population (particularly for the use of healthy volunteers) a rationale for the administration schedule for the initial and subsequent cohorts - this should include the time interval between doses administered to individual subjects a rationale for the dose escalation particularly with regard to potential adverse effect a rationale for how to reference apa, the proposed trial site, including the facilities available. Documents to send with your application. Your submission package must include:

a covering letter (when applicable, the subject line should state that the how to reference wikipedia apa, submission is for a Phase I trial and is eligible for a shortened assessment time, or if it is submitted as part of the notification scheme) a clinical trial application form in wikipedia apa, PDF and XML versions a protocol document an investigators brochure (IB ) or document replacing the how to reference wikipedia apa, IB an investigational medical product dossier (IMPD ) or a simplified IMPD a non-investigational medicinal product dossier (if required) a summary of how to reference apa, scientific advice from any Member State or the European Medicines Agency (EMA ), if available manufacturers authorisation, including the importers authorisation and Qualified Person declaration on xiv accomplishments, good manufacturing practice for reference, each manufacturing site if the product is manufactured outside the apa, EU a copy of the EMA s decision on the paediatric investigation plan and the opinion of the paediatric committee, if applicable the how to wikipedia apa, content of the labelling of the investigational medicinal product (IMP ) (or justification for its absence) All documents must have copy and system theory paste functionality. We do not currently password-protected documents. Reference Apa? You must provide a file for each section of the submission, even if you dont have to provide the documents as part of louis, your application. If you do not need to include documents in how to, a section, you must insert a document which gives an explanation for interactionism, why the document has not been supplied. If you are using an in vitro diagnostic device in your trial, the covering letter and/or protocol should confirm that any applicable CE marking requirements have been complied with (or will be complied with prior to how to reference wikipedia the study start). The information you provide in the submission package will be used to and Lung Essay example validate your application. Incomplete applications will be rejected.

Example investigational medical product dossiers (IMPDs ) If you are carrying out a trial using modified established medicines, MHRA has produced some mock examples of wikipedia, completed IMPDs which set out our minimum requirements: The initial assessment will be completed within 30 days of being submitted. Wd Valgardson? Applications for healthy volunteer trials and sponsor-determined phase I trials in non-oncology patients may qualify for a shortened assessment time (average 14 days). You should state on your covering letter if you think your trial is eligible. Note that trial designs that stretch to investigating the how to wikipedia, benefit of the treatment to subjects may not be eligible for the expedited assessment timeframe. We will tell you the tracks, outcome of your submission, which could be: acceptance of the request for a clinical trial authorisation acceptance of the request for a clinical trial authorisation subject to conditions grounds for how to wikipedia, non-acceptance of the caterpillar, request for a clinical trial authorisation. If we do not accept your submission you will be told why and will usually have to how to amend your application and reference apa resubmit. Letters informing the how to wikipedia, applicant of MHRAs decision relating to an amended request for a general medicinal product (Reg 18) or a product with special characteristics (Reg 20) will be sent by MHRA within 60 days of us receiving the caterpillar, original valid application. Notification of MHRAs decision relating to an amended request for reference wikipedia apa, a gene therapy, somatic cell therapy (including xenogenic cell therapy) product or products containing genetically modified organisms (Reg 19) will be sent within 90 days of us receiving the original application unless otherwise advised.

Change your application before or during assessment. You can submit further supporting documentation before assessors begin their assessment of the application. You cant send additional documents once we have begun assessment. If additional or updated documents are submitted the time limit for assessment restarts. You should submit updated or additional documentation to us by email. The email must be sent by the contact person listed in how to wikipedia apa, the application form and must be entitled:

Changes to submitted documentation/additional documentation to CTA (Number XXXXX/XXXX/XXX-XXXX) - EudraCT Number XXXX-XXXXXX-XX. We will inform you by email of either rejection or acceptance of the changes. If the request is accepted the date of your email will be reflected on your acknowledgement letter. Withdraw your request before the final decision. You may withdraw your request at any point before a decision on reference apa, authorisation is reached.

It is not possible to withdraw an application once grounds for non-acceptance has been issued. To withdraw an application you must send an email entitled Withdrawal of CTA EudraCT Number XXXX-XXXXXX-XX. The email must be sent by reference apa, the contact person listed in Section C.1 of the application form and include a statement of intention to withdraw the application. You must also send a signed, formal letter on company-headed paper including: the EudraCT number, CTA number (if available) and protocol number of the application to be withdrawn a brief description of the reasons for withdrawing the application. Once we receive the formal letter, it will be processed within 5 days and an acknowledgement email will be sent to reference you to Essay confirm that the application has been withdrawn. If you want to resubmit your application after withdrawing it, you must state that it is a re-submission in apa, the covering letter and on the application form. Common issues identified during clinical trial applications. More than half of all applications clinical trial authorisation (CTA ) applications for system theory, investigational medicinal products (IMPs) received by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) require additional information to how to reference apa be submitted before they are considered approvable. Many of the reference wikipedia apa, issues identified are common and avoidable if available guidance is how to reference wikipedia followed or if a satisfactory justification for not following the applicable guidance is wd valgardson provided in the application.

This guidance sets out the most common issues and how to avoid them. We provide a notification scheme for how to wikipedia, certain lower-risk trials, defined as Type A trials. System Theory? In these cases, the reference wikipedia, risk to the patient from the IMP is considered to be no greater than that of standard medical care. Trials under the notification scheme also have simplified requirements for conducting the trial. Louis Xiv Accomplishments? Our guidance document Points to how to wikipedia apa consider when preparing the IMP dossier ( PDF , 54.8KB , 3 pages ) gives more information about these requirements.

These are trials involving medicinal products licensed in any EU Member State if: the trial relates to the licensed range of indications, dosage and form of the product the wd valgardson, trial involves off-label use (such as in reference, paediatrics and oncology) that is wd valgardson established practice and supported by enough published evidence and/or guidelines. For the purposes of fee determination, an application supported by quality data for blinding purposes (for example placebo comparator or over-encapsulation) remains within the category of applications without an IMPD . Applications under the Notification Scheme do not incur a fee. You can contact MHRA Finance Department on 020 3080 6533 or email sales.invoices@mhra.gov.uk for more information on how to pay fees. For further information about wikipedia your submission, including status and tracking enquiries, contact the clinical trials helpline on 020 3080 6456 (Monday to Friday 8:30am to 4.30pm) or email clintrialhelpline@mhra.gov.uk See Clinical trials named contact for caterpillar, further information. Published: 18 December 2014. Updated: 4 August 2017. 4 August 2017 Additional information added to the section: Documents to send with your application. How To Reference? 18 May 2017 Updated clinical trial mock examples. 31 March 2017 Information about proof of payment requirements updated. 27 March 2017 Updated to include a link to how to guidance on reference, common issues identified during clinical trial applications and how to avoid them.

24 January 2017 Updated contact information for fee section. 12 January 2017 Additional information about applications for trials involving CAR-T cell medical products added to the page. Caterpillar? 3 January 2017 Updated contact information. 20 December 2016 Contact information updated. 28 November 2016 Updated information under 'Assessment of your submission. 1 February 2016 Physical media submissions (CD/DVD) for medicines licences and how to clinical trial applications will not be accepted from 1 February 2016. 18 December 2014 First published.

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