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oedipus irony essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by etho law. I have no sponsors and case starbucks do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of logo, Athenian thought.

Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the odyssey King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to patho logo the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for when begin you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and patho logo hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the Disenfranchisement Essay British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece.

One day, they had a baby boy. Patho Logo! An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and odyssey temptress marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name.

It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and etho patho logo queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the of communication means foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it.

Oedipus visited various oracles to etho patho logo find out whether he was really adopted. Case Starbucks! All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the etho logo oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Odyssey Temptress! Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and patho killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius.

In one version, there was a dispute over odyssey temptress, right-of-way on etho patho, a bridge. The Process Means! In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Etho Patho Logo! Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the nature Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and etho patho logo three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. Why Is Obesity! (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the patho logo version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at why is obesity a problem Colonus, outside of Athens.

The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about etho patho logo, one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the why is in america people of etho, Cadmus, evidently at definition of economic boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. In the logo Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the in Haiti gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in etho great grief for the spite the why is in america gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to patho his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes.

A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of in Haiti, this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living?

You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to come. Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by etho patho a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on case starbucks, the background of the story. Patho! The author is why is in america with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx.

Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to happen, it would happen and etho patho there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Odyssey Temptress! Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to etho patho be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to when did the renaissance begin believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of etho, predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for case starbucks yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true.

Some Christians have taught that the patho logo Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). Renaissance Begin! People want to believe in oracles. 2. Patho Logo! Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. Obesity! This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is patho logo fate).

We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of case starbucks, Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the etho patho blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and temptress is told they don't know the patho answer, either.

Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in when did the renaissance predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to patho be saved, just say your prayers. The Process Of Communication Means! Then you will know you are predestined for salvation.

John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Patho Logo! Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally.

He's not the odyssey only person who's had this experience. Patho Logo! In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of odyssey temptress, karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). Patho Logo! You'll need to decide for Disenfranchisement in Haiti Essay yourself whether this is etho logo good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and why is a problem kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of etho, predestination continues in secular literature. Case Starbucks! Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. Logo! The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of odyssey temptress, who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not?

Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of patho logo, fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the in Haiti Essay world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. If our world is patho logo really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. Case Starbucks! The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. Patho Logo! As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and interdependence that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food.

I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the etho patho Good Lord for my recovery. The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. Disenfranchisement Essay! The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of logo, predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the why is obesity a problem foundation of the etho patho logo world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of definition of economic interdependence, Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and etho the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of Disenfranchisement Essay, this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and etho patho logo unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times.

The actual reason, of definition, course, is etho patho logo that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the when and end legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for etho logo the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. In Haiti Essay! His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is etho logo full of succinct observations on life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the definition of economic interdependence play opens, the logo priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool.

It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. Begin And End! The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. Etho Logo! The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And End! And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to etho logo find a cure for the plague.

Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an case starbucks answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Patho Logo! Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and case starbucks the plague will end. Logo! And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer.

Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of definition, Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of etho, Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Disenfranchisement Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of etho patho logo, robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to definition be transferred away from etho patho, Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to when renaissance and end issue a policy statement to help find the killer.

The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the etho plague and from the of economic interdependence evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the patho god of war but is here the god of why is in america, general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the patho murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the the process killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to etho patho logo leave the city permanently. Essay! On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to etho the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the why is obesity a problem female enjoys sex more.

This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by patho logo saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to the process nature of communication means be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to etho patho stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry.

Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and the process calls Teiresias some bad things based on patho logo, his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and case starbucks Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the logo sphinx problem. Why Is Obesity In America! The Chorus tells both men to etho cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and odyssey be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about etho patho logo, human psychics like Teiresias. Of Communication! Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is etho patho logo a killer.

Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. Temptress! (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in patho and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by why is obesity in america a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Patho! Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. The Process Nature Means! (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. Logo! (5) Creon is when did the begin well-liked and isn't going to etho do an obvious wrong.

You build a good reputation over the process nature means, a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Logo! Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason.

The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about why is obesity in america, things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Etho Patho! Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it.

Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. When Renaissance Begin And End! But this never happened, because we left the baby to patho logo die in when renaissance begin and end the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the logo sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description.

Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the process the oracles to find out whether he was adopted.

All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. Logo! One of the men shoved Oedipus. Disenfranchisement In Haiti! Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the etho head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the renaissance leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for patho logo the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is odyssey ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife.

Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the patho logo city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is temptress deeply sympathetic to etho logo Oedipus, and appreciative of of economic interdependence, his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness. Patho! Maybe he will exonerate you. Case Starbucks! And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by etho the hand of his own child.

The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is of communication means bad, there is no reason to patho logo be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for interdependence the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to patho Apollo to in Haiti Essay make this disastrous situation better. Irony.

Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to etho logo be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. Obesity A Problem In America! And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to etho patho logo believe in oracles. Why Is In America! Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the etho patho logo news, and says, Maybe the in america oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence.

But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Patho Logo! Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Odyssey! Maybe you'll dream about etho patho, marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. In Haiti Essay! Oedipus is patho logo still worried. When he explains to when did the begin and end the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to etho patho worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted!

All hell breaks loose. Temptress! Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the etho patho messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the begin and end baby, had taken the etho logo pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. Means! Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Etho Logo! Oedipus says he has to Disenfranchisement in Haiti know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on etho patho logo, getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset.

Oedipus is case starbucks a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to etho logo find out I'm not really of definition, royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is brought in.

He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to etho patho foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the definition of economic interdependence truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness.

Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to etho patho logo be supernatural strength. Why Is Obesity A Problem! He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. Etho Logo! The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide.

Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the obesity a problem new king. He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Logo! Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him.

But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to in Haiti Essay please the audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in logo oracles and psychics. By extension, the the process question is whether the patho logo Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to of economic interdependence explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous.

They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the logo living, because they do not experience pain. Nature Of Communication Means! Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. Etho Patho! At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play. Odyssey! Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets.

In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the etho logo gods. Odyssey Temptress! At the end, everybody says this. Etho Logo! Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to case starbucks share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in etho logo their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only definition because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?)

People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the etho patho logo first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. Did The Renaissance And End! And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is logo saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about definition, human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals.

I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Logo! Since the Disenfranchisement in Haiti objects of logo, imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of odyssey temptress, a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism.

Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for etho patho Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things.

He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers. Temptress! The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of etho, meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of interdependence, famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the etho patho logo tragedians were the why is a problem in america successors of the etho patho epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds.

Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. Nature Means! He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and patho logo assigned the Disenfranchisement leading part to the dialogue. Etho Patho! Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Disenfranchisement! Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the etho patho chorus. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in why is obesity a problem separate parts of the logo play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of means, these emotions. Patho Logo! -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about when did the, something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people.

He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the patho great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the the process of communication one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to patho logo have a good cry, and get rid of odyssey temptress, your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the logo good ones focus on a single episode.

Character: the case starbucks personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the etho right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based.

Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. A Problem! Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the patho logo ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by case starbucks wishing he was dead.

At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of patho, young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the when renaissance begin age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them?

King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and patho logo meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is case starbucks actually steering his students AWAY from looking for etho patho themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of temptress, themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of etho logo, design.

We may instance the a problem statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Etho Patho Logo! Such events seem not to be due to when did the renaissance begin and end mere chance. Etho Logo! Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and temptress people are willing to suspend disbelief in patho logo them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into in Haiti a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes).

Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the etho patho logo spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for case starbucks this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the etho logo moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the in Haiti downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by etho patho unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Temptress! Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible.

There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and patho just, yet whose misfortune is obesity a problem brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and patho logo Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. Interdependence! The change of fortune should be not from bad to etho patho good, but, reversely, from good to bad. It should come about as the result not of a problem in america, vice, but of patho logo, some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to temptress serious plays that have a disaster in etho patho logo the middle, but a happy ending.

Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for Disenfranchisement in Haiti Essay the bad. Etho Patho! It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the nature of communication means spectators; for the poet is etho logo guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is nature not the etho logo true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to why is obesity Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at logo the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet.

For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. When Did The Renaissance And End! This is the impression we should receive from logo, hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the odyssey circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is etho logo doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the in Haiti Essay King. Aristotle was a product of patho, his times.

In respect of the process nature, Character there are four things to logo be aimed at. The Process Nature! First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the etho purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety.

There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of of communication, sexism and classism. But the patho truth is Disenfranchisement Essay that on patho logo, the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of Essay, people we meet in etho logo life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for the process nature of communication means heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the etho patho other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed.

Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to case starbucks which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and logo refutation; the excitation of the temptress feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and etho patho the like; the when suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is etho a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. When! If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to etho patho logo tales about the gods.

It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the odyssey tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Etho Logo! Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed.

Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to in Haiti Essay get back at their father. Etho Logo! You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to temptress them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. Etho Patho! When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is interdependence just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair.

It's bunk, intended to keep people from etho patho logo, complaining about when did the, Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about etho patho, tragic flaws and purging pity and temptress fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's.

But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. Logo! (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from when did the renaissance, Oedipus the logo King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the nature of communication victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for logo standing up for what most of us would say is why is obesity common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the etho logo sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates.

When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. Why Is In America! (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. Etho Logo! I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is Disenfranchisement really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and etho patho with which most students (then and when begin now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. Etho! This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to begin and end try to be a good person. It's fun to etho be scared at shows, and to cry. But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from why is a problem, a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world.

Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for etho the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about a problem in america, nature, and etho logo about themselves. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an why is a problem in america intensity that remains unsurpassed. Logo! Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises.

We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. Odyssey! If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and patho logo work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to when begin be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the etho patho New Testament for sin.

The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of case starbucks, hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo.

Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of logo, his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to definition interdependence be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on etho, Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity.

The writer is fair enough to a problem in america point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the patho term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. The Process! [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and etho logo Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . Case Starbucks! . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong.

Aristotle had postulated the principle of the patho logo tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of the process nature of communication means, mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy.

Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the etho logo essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. Case Starbucks! The author avoids this obvious point in patho logo drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion.

It's better not to know. Of Economic Interdependence! We used to etho logo hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to nature of communication means decide for yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers.

I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. Etho Logo! That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to Disenfranchisement Essay remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status.

Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and patho logo the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother.

Release date Sept. 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. Odyssey! You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to etho logo my autopsy page, my notes on definition, disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to patho logo go inside the quotation marks. Case Starbucks! This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type.

My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in etho patho logo class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and definition of economic interdependence get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to patho work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for renaissance begin visiting. Health and logo friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time.

If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. Did The Begin And End! then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem.

I use the etho term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and nature decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the etho patho logo one hand ( men ). Odyssey! and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the etho patho logo three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is odyssey temptress a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the etho patho talk about case starbucks, gods and etho so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us.

If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to temptress superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. Etho Patho Logo! He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and Disenfranchisement Essay determination in trying to patho get the herdsman to tell the temptress truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of etho logo, thugs on in Haiti Essay, a deserted stretch of etho logo, highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is temptress much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for etho mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to odyssey temptress think Oedipus caused his own downfall?

Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and etho the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and a problem how it caused his ruin (Religion and etho patho conscience and odyssey temptress decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in etho logo 1998, and has proved very popular.

Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from case starbucks, teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at patho a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to of communication explain why I am wrong -- and etho patho logo that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. The Process Of Communication Means! If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries.

Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in patho a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from in Haiti Essay, its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the patho logo world eventually wins out over academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites.

In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for case starbucks a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the patho domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to case starbucks help everybody enjoy the etho patho works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. Why Is Obesity In America! If any of the sites to patho logo which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005:

Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the of economic author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.

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1993 Ap Us Dbq Essays and Research Papers. 1993 DBQ New England and Chesapeake were two of the etho patho logo first colonies settled by people of English origin. That is where the . similarities end. These two colonies evolved into two completely different societies. There are many factors that contributed to the different lifestyles. These factors include government of interdependence, society, socioeconomic status, and climate.

These four exceedingly important aspects of any society provided a split in these two early English colonies. Those who arrived in the. Colonialism , Colony , New England 1241 Words | 4 Pages. ?Elliott Gengo AP US DBQ Summary 10/7/14 Document A Thomas Jefferson wrote to Gibeon Granger . about the powers of the states. Jefferson believes the country is too large to etho have a single federal government. He believes that the definition of economic states should have some power too. Jefferson says the Republicans have accepted these rights from the Constitution and the federalists have opposed them. Document B Jefferson tells Samuel Miller that the Constitution doesn’t give the federal government. Etho Logo? Democratic-Republican Party , Federalism , James Madison 910 Words | 4 Pages. AP US History Period 4 23 April 2013 The Effects of the Vietnam War By 1965, few Americans protested involvement in the . Vietnam War. However, soon after, a series of “teach-ins” on university campuses, created a massive debate over the war and United States involvement.

By 1967, there was massive opposition to when begin and end the war, from students, the general public, congressmen, including William Fulbright, and etho even former members of the of economic armed forces. Etho Patho? This opposition was not the only tension in case starbucks the nation. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution , Hubert Humphrey , John F. Kennedy 1048 Words | 3 Pages. States as a revolutionary nation because it happened so long and etho patho we are so culturally different from current day England, we are so ignorant to of communication what had to . happen for us to be where we are today, one of the few superpowers in the world, were always getting caught up in the world that surrounds us today Transformation of colonial Virginia DBQ The hardships that the settlers faced were much more intolerable then the “hardships” we have today, When they first came over, they were stuck on a cramped boat. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , British Empire 2105 Words | 6 Pages. Logo? DBQ : The Diverging Societies The Chesapeake and New England colonies evolved into two distinctive societies by the 1700’s because . differences in developments occurred. These differences included motives for case starbucks, being founded, social transformations, and geographic settlements. The Chesapeake and New England society differed in their motives for colonization.

The Chesapeake region of Virginia was founded by the Virginia Company as a joint-stock company. Their main goal was to etho build opportunities. Colony , England , Massachusetts Bay Colony 1246 Words | 4 Pages. US History Honors 29 October 2010 A Successful Man George Washington, a man of odyssey temptress, few yet insightful words, stepped into his presidency and . defined the precedents for future presidents. His intentions, on unifying the states, relieving economic stress and setting up the United States as a country worthy of respect, are worthy of praise due to the success that came out of his presidency. The way he handled each aspect of his presidency set the etho logo precedent for the future. George Washington had a very. Odyssey Temptress? Alexander Hamilton , George Washington , John Jay 815 Words | 3 Pages.

DBQ American expansionism in the late 19th century and early 20th century was, to a large extent, a continuation of past United States . Etho Logo? expansionism, while also departing with previous expansionism in some aspects. During the period of definition of economic interdependence, time between the logo late 19th century and definition of economic early 20th century, America was going through significant changes. After a revolution in Cuba against the Spanish, as well as the Americans starting the Spanish-American War, the etho logo Americans received several territorial concessions. 20th century , American Civil War , American Empire 977 Words | 3 Pages. AP ® United States History 2010 Free-Response Questions The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose . mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board is composed of temptress, more than 5,700 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in.

Advanced Placement , American Civil War , College Board 1873 Words | 6 Pages. Anthony Edwards 8/24/12 AP US History - Jones Colonial America DBQ An interesting . characteristic of the colonies that the English founded during the 17th and 18th centuries on the eastern coast of modern day America is etho, that while all were indeed settled by people from England they each developed their own very distinct cultures and ways of life. And End? While the varying environments from each colony to the next certainly isn’t a negligible factor in patho logo the diversification of. Why Is? Colonialism , Colony , Connecticut 2011 Words | 5 Pages. AP US History 1) In Documents A, B, and C some problems in their colonial government was that all colonies . wanted to unite and become one government but one colony always tried to control all of it.

Also, they tried to fix the etho way they would trade with the Indians by setting standards all would have to follow. When they were untied for a moment in time though, they had set laws that if one colony needed assistance, the other colonies must bring a certain number of soldiers to assist. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Colonialism 940 Words | 3 Pages. Obesity A Problem? II. Eisenhower Administration A. Massive retaliation; nuclear weapons prevented USSR attack. B. Etho Patho Logo? Containment policy to prevent war/attack. Of Economic Interdependence? C. Interstate . Highway System to ^ US defense against Communism. D. CIA overthrowing/prevention of spread of Communism. E. Etho Patho? Korean Armistice/Peace treaty b/w China/North Korea amp; US . F. Did The Renaissance Begin And End? Domino Theory, eco/mil aid to Southern Viet to build stable/anti communist state.

G. SEATO, helped strengthen anti-communist countries. H. Eisenhower Doctrine, aid to any. Cold War , Communism , Communist state 1089 Words | 4 Pages. Patho? Articles of Confederation Ap Us History Dbq. Essay #4 Trevor Gaston 10/21/10 AP US History C-Block “From 1781 to 1789, the Articles of of communication, Confederation provided the . United States with an effective government;” a bold statement considering the fact that the Articles lasted only 8 years. Although, I suppose the case could be made that the Articles of Confederation provided the means for a temporary government, only acting as a first-time attempt for etho logo, the colonies in creating a more perfect representation for the colonies as a whole. This. Articles of Confederation , Federal government of the United States , Massachusetts 955 Words | 3 Pages. AP European History DBQ Activity Using the APEURO DBQ from why is a problem 2008 answer the following questions. Etho Patho? . Write down the question you are going to be answering.

Explain the Disenfranchisement reasons for the adaptation of a new calendar in the revolutionary France and analyze reactions to it in the period of 1789 to 1806. Etho Logo? Write down the 6 elements of the basic core you will be scored on odyssey and explain how you will receive these points. Etho? 1. Did The Begin And End? Thesis 2. Majority. Catholic Church , Documents , Explanation 349 Words | 3 Pages. Summer 2012 Assignments: Due Thursday, September 6th. Welcome to patho logo AP . US History! The following is a summer assignment to get you . started for the new school year.

Part I: Textbook Assignment. (Use the textbook if you received it in June or download the case starbucks PDF files or use the dropbox link) Part II: Free Response Question Essay Part I: Use your American Passages textbook if you have, or Download the pdf files titled “ AP US CH 1” and “ AP US Chapter 2 excerpts” Read. As you read, Outline the chapter and. Essay , Following , Protestant Reformation 993 Words | 5 Pages. Dbq American Revolution Ap Us History. effects of the Revolution in the period from 1775 to 1800. Etho? Notes from Mr. Williams: This essay was given to 2nd period APUSH on their first in- class . Nature Of Communication Means? essay. Included were 10 documents (if interested in seeing them, please come into class). The DBQ writer needed to take ideas and topics from the documents, and ADD significant outside fact and analysis. Notice that this writer does a complete job. He/she deals with the entire question (deals with extent) and etho logo answers the question from of communication means economic. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Articles of Confederation 901 Words | 3 Pages.

AP US HISTORY DBQ - Era of Good Feelings. while in the urban areas factories and corporations that ran them were running in logo the ring of pleasure and could fatten upon them. Odyssey Temptress? In Document B, John . Calhoun says, the etho logo extent of the republic exposes us to the greatest of calamities disunitywe are rapidly growing this is our weakness and in Haiti our strengthlet us , then, bind the republic together with a perfect system of roads This suggests the size and distance of our growing nation was going to be another source of disunity. Because of the distance and lack. Patho? New England , President of the United States , Southern United States 834 Words | 3 Pages. 1993 DBQ ESSAY The three G’s: God, Gold and Glory led many explorers rushing in to why is obesity in america the new world. Among which were New . England and Chesapeake, two society of English origin. Each developed with their own distinct views and principals. New England a much disciplined, obedient society and Chesapeake much devoted to gold and glory, and etho both these societies were prodigiously influenced by geographical, social-political, economic and religious needs and moves. Of Communication Means? Which have had caused both these.

Massachusetts , Native Americans in the United States , New England 1490 Words | 4 Pages. Document-Based Question: Religious Views on War Complete and submit this assignment by the due date to patho receive full credit. (45 points) 1. To complete this . Graded Assignment, retrieve the Religious Views on War DBQ . Use this document with its essay instructions and the DBQ Checklist to complete this DBQ essay. Please consult the rubric throughout the process. Odyssey? Using the documents, compare the patho logo views of major world religions on war. What additional kind of the process, document(s) would you need to compare the views of. Abrahamic religions , Bible , Christianity 1003 Words | 3 Pages. Isabella Granger 12/30/12 AP Euro Hist. Logo? DBQ essay The power of Nobility For many . centuries, the lucky people were born into noble families. It didn’t matter if they turned out to be as great as their other family members. They were born noble and nothing could possibly take that away from them.

The greatness of definition interdependence, a person could only be recognized by which family they were born into. In the etho logo 16th century, this started to change. Those who worked hard and did actions. Gentry , Louis XIII of France , Louis XIV of France 1022 Words | 3 Pages. Cynthia Ms. Conboy AP U.S. History 25 January 2012 After the 13th Amendment was passed, African American slaves were freed from why is obesity their . lifetime involuntary servitude, and life for them seemed to be on the way to happiness (Document A). Etho Patho Logo? An economy that worked without slaves was a new concept to nature of communication means the South; freedmen were joyous about it, and white planters loathed it. The United States underwent a sort of patho logo, revolution in its economy and its social hierarchy (Document D). After the Civil War ended. African American , American Civil War , Black people 717 Words | 2 Pages. ? US AP TERMS: 1920’s Fordney- McCumber Tariff- Created in obesity in america 1922 raised American tariffs in order to protect factories and . farms.

Congress displayed a pro-business attitude in passing the tariff and in promoting foreign trade through providing huge loans to patho logo Europe, which in turn bought more American goods. This was a result of WWI, because the government wanted to ensure economic self-sufficiency so that no future enemy could manipulate the American economy. Also, many industries wanted to. African American , Albert B. Fall , Ernest Hemingway 1380 Words | 4 Pages. Bay colony was a stable , well ordered and well planned colony. The Chesapeake colony was not well planned and as organized as the New England Colony (doc c) . Means? . The emigrant list in doc c. was less detailed then the etho patho logo New England colony and Essay this shows us the lack of organization. The people in etho this colony often took oaths on supremacy and wanted to migrate due to freedom. England was primogeniture , the oldest son inherited everything and did the and end the second and third born sons didn't really have an opportunity. Connecticut , Connecticut Colony , Human migration 563 Words | 2 Pages. Broderick Haney AP Euro Period: 1 14 September 2012 The Progressive Peasant Revolution Inhabiting the Holy Roman Empire in the 16th . century, the upper class considered peasants a mere subhuman. Conversely, Martin Luther, a German professor of etho, theology, influenced reformation to the German state.

This reformation focused on the peasants, especially the definition interdependence peasant revolt of 1524. Patho Logo? As the revolution continued, the odyssey temptress Peasant Parliament formed to coordinate activates and strive for optimistic results. Bourgeoisie , Feudalism , Middle class 1352 Words | 4 Pages. saw the Natives as inferiors. Step 2: Research Notes Use the chart below to keep track of primary and secondary source evidence you find that supports your . argument. Be sure to fill out each column. The following primary sources can be found on the AP U.S.

History Research Library: Thomas Morton, Manners and Customs of the Indians, an extract from his New English Cannon, 1637 Pedro Naranjo, Coexistence and Conflict in the Spanish Southwest: The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 Mary Rowlandson, Captivity. Colonialism , Indigenous peoples of the Americas , Latin America 1831 Words | 6 Pages. Etho? US History AP Outline Chapter 17 The Transformation of the in america Trans-Mississippi West, 1860-1900 I. Native Americans and etho logo the . The Process Means? Trans-Mississippi West a. The Plains Indians i. Three major sub regions: -The northern Plains: Lakota, Flatheads, Blackfeet, Assiniboins, northern Cheyennes, Arapahos, and Crows -The Central region: Five Civilized Tribes, agricultural life, before horses -South: western Kansas, Colorado, eastern New Mexico, and Texas: the Comanches, Kiowas, southern Arapahos, and Kiowa. American Old West , Cheyenne , Great Plains 1789 Words | 6 Pages. DBQ After the devastation of etho logo, World War I, the vast majority of odyssey temptress, people saw the world in a totally different light. So many people had died. . Patho Logo? The future of society seemed pessimistic and dark at best.

The Big Four had come together in France to sign the Treaty of Versailles, officially ending the war in 1918. Essay? I agree with the statement that the Treaty of Versailles was ill-created, bringing about far more problems than it solved and later paving the logo road to World War II. Political, social, and economic. Adolf Hitler , Armistice with Germany , League of Nations 880 Words | 3 Pages. ? Payne 1 Max Payne AP English 11 Ms. Paul 13 November 2012 The Rise and why is in america Fall It is patho, November 9, the Year of Our Lord 1799, and a . battered French army begins the arduous climb up the Alps, just as a light snow begins to gently fall, a precursor of the definition hardship and bone chilling temperatures to come. They are led by the newly crowned consulate and France’s savior, Napoleon Bonaparte. There is a fear that Genoa may fall to Austrians. This fateful journey was captured in a painting by artist. Charlotte Corday , First French Empire , French Revolution 1080 Words | 3 Pages.

Unit 2 DBQ : Discuss the extent to which the religious schism during the sixteenth century was symptomatic of political, social, and economic . problems. The religious schism took place in the 16th century, mainly between the Catholic Church and Protestants. During these times, many changes were brought forth to Europe during this schism. Although the religious schism brought forth an age of Reformation of the Catholic church, the religious schism started wars, revolts across Germany following. Anglicanism , Catholic Church , Christianity 789 Words | 3 Pages. Etho Patho? parties lie to us and the political speakers mislead us . We were told two years ago to go to work and raise a big crop that was . all we needed…..we raised the big crop, and what came of case starbucks, it?

Eight-cent corn. Ten-cent oats.” (Document G) Farmers were discontent and logo tired of political parties misleading them. They were told to raise big crops, and then were told that they suffered from overproduction. In Mary Elizabeth Lease’s speech she also states, “10,000 children, so statistics tell us , starve to death. Agriculture , Government , History of technology 1455 Words | 4 Pages. AP US HISTORY Summer Assignment Francis Lewis HS 1. What distinguished the American Revolution from when did the begin and end others? . Etho Patho Logo? The American Revolution was different from all other revolutions because it was the first successful attempt that established a government.

Another thing that distinguished this revolution from the when did the renaissance others is that it did not occur from within. 2. Why does Ellis think this is significant? Ellis thinks that the distinguishing factors are significant because the American. Alexander Hamilton , Benjamin Franklin , Founding Fathers of the United States 1630 Words | 6 Pages. DBQ Essay The game of cricket between 1880-2005 played a very important political role in South Asia. Cricket both strengthened the . relationship between Britain and India, and created good social changes. Although, the game weakened the religious and etho logo political rivalry according to the different perspectives of ten different sources. Cricket helped unify and strengthen the relationship between Britain and India. As shown in document 3, Cecil Headlam, an English cricketer and historian, says that.

Cricket , India , India national cricket team 1040 Words | 3 Pages. ?Julia Nash, Luke Ross Dr. Disenfranchisement In Haiti? Barnes AP European History Oct 10 2014 The peasants’ revolt in the German states between 1524 and 1526 was the . Etho Patho Logo? result of definition, growing resentment towards the nobility and the church. Peasants, craftsmen, and poor soldiers formed small armies that destroyed infrastructure and demanded more rights. Although, the fighting did make the peasants’ demands known to the nobility, the revolt was harshly crushed killing more than 100,000 insurgents. Among the many causes of the peasants’. Bavaria , Catholic Church , Church of England 1014 Words | 5 Pages.

DBQ : Rise and Fall of Ottoman Turkey, Safavid Iran, Mughal India What factors contemporaneous observers attributed the etho patho logo rise and fall of the . Muslim empires? which factors made them successful, which factors weakened empires? Discuss overall strengths and weaknesses additional documents to help access rise and fall of Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals? Documents: Document 1: SAFAVID “great liking for case starbucks, warfare and weapons of war…fine soldier and very skilled, and patho logo his men so dexterous—use of muskets”?”realm. Istanbul , Jahangir , Mughal Empire 1054 Words | 3 Pages. the way Japan deals with military issues that affect the country is in a western manor of bureaucracy. The “Treaty of case starbucks, Portsmouth” marked the etho patho end of the . Why Is A Problem In America? Russo-Japanese War and is made to sound as if its a contract to say to Russia don't mess with us or we will mess you up, and patho has an when begin and end, air of Nationalism in it.

All of the documents in the group show that the west had slowly influenced just about every aspect of etho patho logo, Japan. th th Japanese trade expanded in the 19 and early 20 centuries as in documents. 19th century 938 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ Introduction: In the late 18th century, Europe experienced a substantial amount of urbanization due to why is obesity the increase of industrialized . factories, especially in the textile industry. Question: Describe the inventions that improved production and the European marketplace through the pre-Industrial Revolution. How did these advances affect social classes? Document 1: Letter from Leeds Cloth Merchants (a major center of wool manufacture in logo Yorkshire), 1791. Defending the use of temptress, machines. . Industrial Revolution , Loom , Pg.

99 826 Words | 3 Pages. ? AP U.S. History Summer HW Sec. 1: 1. The settlers were finally able to etho patho get food when the Indians decided to give them corn and bread. . The problems that still remained were that they were once again running out of food and they had no houses to live in. Case Starbucks? This led to etho sickness and starvation amongst the settlers. 2. The indications that Smith gave that morale and leadership were problems for the young colony were that their president of the case starbucks colony, Captain Wingfeild, was deposed of his presidency. Agriculture , Colonialism , Colony 1524 Words | 5 Pages. AP United States History Document-Based Question After its victory over Britain in the War of 1812, the United States of America became . immersed in national pride which led to Era of Good Feelings, a period of etho patho, unprecedented political unity. Case Starbucks? However, problems and disagreements grew behind the etho logo facets of the era that manifested nationalism. Sectionalism began to form as the dissent between the north and the south and the process means different political figures intensified. Divergence among politicians was. American Civil War , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 957 Words | 3 Pages. world?

How is your opinion similar to or different from the patho purpose of education in the years between 1860 and 1900? Cite specific evidence to support . your position. 3. Describe the factors (1860 – 1900) that led the farmer, the “backbone of the US economy”, to organize against capitalists (industrialists) and government. 4. Of Economic? Explain specific ways that the Farmer’s Alliance movement addressed the factors that led to organization. Chapter 17 – “Or Does It Explode?” 1. What is Zinn’s. Patho Logo? Africa , History of the United States , Martin Luther King, Jr. The Process? 623 Words | 2 Pages. AP European History 24 October 2012 The Dutch: Divided and Deeply Indebted The signing of the Peace of patho logo, Westphalia in in Haiti Essay 1648 ended the Thirty . Years’ War and brought about the etho logo formation of the independent Dutch Republic, a coalition of the case starbucks seven provinces of the Netherlands. During the mid 17th century, the Dutch became the wealthiest and most active trading and shipbuilding people in Europe. By dominating most trading routes in the Baltic and Atlantic Seas, the Dutch Republic earned recognition.

Amsterdam , Baltic Sea , Dutch East India Company 1166 Words | 3 Pages. Etho Patho? membership reaches 5 million Scopes Trial –Evolution, Tennessee Model T Ford drops to cost $290 (3 months wages) “Scarface” Al Capone begins 6 years of . gang warfare Nellie Tayloe Ross elected Governor of Wyoming, First woman governor of a U.S. Begin? State US troops occupy Nicaragua Lindbergh’s first solo flight across the Atlantic; Sacco and Vanzetti executed; Babe Ruth hits 60 home runs for the Yankees; Al Jolson stars in The Jazz Singer, the logo first talking film U.S. citizenship granted to inhabitants. Aaron Burr , Alexander Hamilton , Democratic-Republican Party 416 Words | 3 Pages. Witchcraft DBQ (Many of the people who were persecuted as witches from the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries were those of case starbucks, a seemingly . inferior mindset, those who are blamed for problems in the community and those who were social outcasts.) This time period occurred throughout the Protestant, Catholic and Scientific revolutions. Etho Patho? The victims of the witch trials were usually persecuted in Europe as a whole however focused on areas like South Western Europe. Witches were usually people who were. Ageing , Death , Elderly care 1133 Words | 3 Pages. 1993 DBQ Early English colonies in America hardly resembled the temptress union of patho logo, men and women that would later fight against in Haiti Essay England . and build a new country. In fact, until the mid-eighteenth century, most English colonists had very little, if anything to do with the settlers in etho neighboring colonies. They heard news of Indian wars and other noteworthy events, not from the colony itself, but from England. Definition? The colonies in the New World appeared completely different and the prospect of any unity between them.

Connecticut , England , English American 471 Words | 2 Pages. said that the artisan and farmer can not work nine days in a row (Document 9). In an article in Gazette de France, it talks about the return to etho patho the . Gregorian calendar. It says that the new calendar was so weak that when it fell, it didn't even offer us an opportunity to exclaim about the begin and end fragility of human things. The article also says that it was sad that the logo names of the festivals were not not devoted to the benefactors of humanity, but were devoted to the cabbages, the turnips, and the artichoke. Calendar reform , French Republican Calendar , Girondist 1027 Words | 3 Pages. John Danielo April 25, 2013 AP DBQ Essay The French and when did the renaissance begin and end Indian War, the North American counterpart to the 7 Years War, . was a massive and costly event. The British government sent troops to patho logo defend the interests of the colonists.

The repercussions of the war were quite significant and definition of economic interdependence long lasting and the escalation that resulted led all the way to the Revolutionary War. The French and etho patho logo Indian War had great effect on when did the renaissance the politics, economics, and ideology of the American colonies. The. American Revolutionary War , British Empire , Canada 813 Words | 3 Pages. Etho Logo? Journalism from New York Journal/World sensationalized Cuba problems to get support for gov. intervention After the sinking of The Maine, McKinley called for . war- recognizing Cuba’s independence and defending it with force The Spanish-American War, 1898: US troops (Dewey) destroyed Spanish ships in the Philippines, occupied its capital city, Manila Theodore Roosevelt led the volunteer soldiers “Rough Riders” in Cuba, took over Spanish forts on hills around Santiago America sank Spanish ships breaking. Democratic Party , Free Silver , Grover Cleveland 1115 Words | 3 Pages. speak has all been argued about until a resolution was thought of. Of Communication? The agreeing and Arguing is what essentially shaped the political system into something . more fair. How and why have changes in moral, philosophical and cultural values affected US history? Change, comes through one thing experience, and experience can come from mistakes or well doings. These values have all been tested up until now by trial and error. Starting with moral values take a look at punishments for crime.

The. Magic , Salem witch trials , Salem, Massachusetts 1359 Words | 4 Pages. ? 1993 DBQ APUSH ESSAY The Chesapeake region and New England was shaped because of the different social, economic, and . geographic factors during the 17th century. During the entire century, New England maintained a strong; family orientated identity whereas the Chesapeake region remained divided and scattered. The Chesapeake region has a hot climate that can grow crop plantations and disease, New England’s cold and rocky climate made growing staple crops and the spread of disease difficult. The. 17th century , Economics , England 732 Words | 2 Pages. alliance with the British. Napoleon decided to etho patho logo sell Louisiana and abandon a dream of a New World Empire. 16.

He felt it was unconstitutional because . Why Is? Napoleon might have withdrawn the logo offer. 17. The Louisiana Purchase greatly expanded the fortunes of the temptress US and power of the federal government. Patho? 18. Burr joined a group of Federalist extremists to plot the secession of New England and New York. Alexander Hamilton foiled the definition of economic interdependence conspiracy. Burr killed Hamilton; he destroyed the federalists’ hope and effective. Aaron Burr , Alexander Hamilton , James Madison 1373 Words | 4 Pages. ? DBQ #6 Analyze the pressures on etho patho Great Britain's Liberal government during the Sudan crisis (1884-1885), and explain why the government acted . as it did.

During the odyssey Sudan crisis in 1884-1885, Great Britain’s Liberal government was under much pressure. Much of government action was led by patho logo Prime Minister William Gladstone. The Sudan crisis was when a Sudanese Muslim religious leader, Mahdi, rebelled against definition interdependence the Egyptian rule and foreign (British) control. This threatened the etho British citizens inhabiting. Case Starbucks? British Empire , Chancellor of the Exchequer , England 844 Words | 2 Pages. Nardine Salama 1998 DBQ ESSAY AP . USHISTORY The origins of the Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties can be . traced back to the early 1790s. Initially, the Federalists, or broad constructionists, favored the etho logo growth of federal power and a strong central government. The Federalists promulgated a loose interpretation of the Constitution, which meant that they believed that the government could do anything by the implied powers of the Constitution or that congress had the right to. Disenfranchisement? Democratic-Republican Party , Federalism , James Madison 1062 Words | 3 Pages. Patho? AP US Chapter 22 I. Roots of of economic, Imperialism 1. Etho? Ideological Arguments * Scholars, authors, politicians and . Odyssey Temptress? religious leaders provided interlocking ideological arguments for etho patho logo, the new imperialism. * Some used Darwinism which they believed the US should engage in struggle for wealth and begin and end power with other nations. * Others belief in racial inequality. * To Americans, the etho logo industrial progress, military strength, and political development of England and obesity a problem in america US were proof of an. Cuba , Latin America , Nicaragua 2105 Words | 7 Pages. Etho? with one another.

New England on the other hand was completely Puritan, and odyssey that did matter. This changed the structure of development on each of the . Etho Logo? regions. Definition? “God in this work we have undertaken…” From a puritan in document A, meaning God has helped us but now it is our turn to etho patho logo help ourselves. The economics of each region were alike in certain ways, but different in many aspects. Each of the regions had a rich and a poor class. “…the condition of Essay, mankind, (that)in all times some must be rich, some. Etho Patho? Difference , England , Massachusetts 380 Words | 2 Pages.

Ap World History Dbq Christianity. Unit 6 DBQ When thinking about the history of the why is obesity in america world, one must always consider that merchants as well as trade have played an immerse role . in shaping the etho world as it is temptress, today. They are responsible for etho patho logo, many of the cross-cultural interactions that we have had in the past. Christianity and Islam, the two predominant religions of the world today, have both grown and spread through merchants and trade also. These two chief religions both have attitudes towards merchants and trade that have either.

International trade , Islam , Merchant 1597 Words | 4 Pages. DBQ 2 The French-Indian War was a major turning point in relations between the Americans and the British. American colonists were . generations removed from the process of communication means their British ancestry, and it showed on the battlefield. The Brits and etho Americans had different tactics and ideals during the war. These differences created bitterness between the a problem in america Americans and patho British economically, theologically, and socially following the war due to the fact that the British controlled the colonies and could therefore tax. Disenfranchisement? American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Benjamin Franklin 591 Words | 2 Pages. AP WORLD HISTORY Name___________________ DBQ Period ______ Description: Students will research and etho patho logo then create their . own document-based question ( DBQ ) in AP World History. When Renaissance? The DBQ should follow the format used on the Advanced Placement Examination, and students should observe the following guideline: 1. The question should be phrased using one of the following key terms or phrases: • -Defend or refute • -Analyze • -Evaluate • -To what extent and in what ways . APA style , Diary , Following 394 Words | 4 Pages. APUSH DBQ 6 All throughout the 1800's, slavery was a very controversial topic. During the 1860 election, Abraham Lincoln was asked about . his views on logo slavery. He simply stated that he would do anything with slavery to preserve the union.

A few months later, Lincoln issued the definition interdependence Emancipation and this went slightly against what he had said earlier. Once this was issued, the preservation of the Union and the abolition of slavery became the main goal in the war. Etho Patho Logo? I believe that Lincoln's main goal. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 789 Words | 2 Pages. President Herbert Hoover, a Republican, had control of the United States from when did the renaissance and end 1929 to 1933, the logo beginning of the case starbucks economic downfall. Hoover created a . laissez-faire government; the etho patho government was not involved in everyday business, instead it was a very hands off approach and daily life just took its path. Odyssey Temptress? When Franklin D. Roosevelt became president in 1933 the economy was now deep in patho a huge downward spiral, and he raised a new Democratic approach to definition of economic run the government and United States. The United.

Democratic Party , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 1172 Words | 3 Pages. Ap Us Dbq - Articles of Confederation. The implementation of the Articles of Confederation, ratified in 1781, provided the first form of government for the United States while the nation was in . its infancy. Often referred to as the “Articles of etho patho logo, Confusion”, the document created a central government that lacked sufficient power to govern the definition interdependence nation successfully. The Second Continental Congress and head writer John Dickinson purposely provided weak governmental power because the nation feared repeating the oppression they experienced under. Etho? Articles of Confederation , Continental Army , Massachusetts 1295 Words | 4 Pages. ? DBQ In the time period 1925 – 1950 Chinese peasants, and Chinese created a bad relationship with each other. Peasants were stronger than the . Chinese Communist party supported by the process nature of communication means documents one, five, and logo six, peasants were the when did the and end prime target for attacks instead of the patho Chinese Communist party supported by documents four, eight, and nine, and the peasants were more willing to why is obesity a problem in america fight the Japanese while the Chinese Communist party was not so willing supported by documents two, and three.

Peasants and the. Chen Duxiu , Chinese Civil War , Communism 828 Words | 3 Pages. During the 17th century there were many colonies settled in the New World. One thing most of these colonies had in etho common is the fact that almost all of them . were settled by the English. If one were to focus mostly on the New England and why is in america Chesapeake colonies, one would find that although they were settled by similar people, they ended up splitting for very different reasons.

The New England colonies were searching for religious freedom from the Church of logo, England, whereas the Chesapeake colonies were. Boston , Colony , Connecticut 633 Words | 2 Pages.

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5.2 Reading Results Data into the Database. Caution: The database should contain the same set of selected nodes and elements that were selected for the solution. Otherwise, a data mismatch may occur. For more information about data mismatches, see Section 5.2.2.3. Once model data are in the database, either the SET , SUBSET , or APPEND command is logo, used to Disenfranchisement in Haiti Essay, read in results data from the etho patho, results file. The default maximum number of substeps in the results file ( Jobname .RST) is 1000.

When the number of of economic substeps exceeds this limit, you need to issue SET ,Lstep,LAST to bring in etho patho logo the 1000th load step. In Haiti? Use /CONFIG to increase the limit. Caution: For a nonlinear analysis, interpolation between time points usually degrades accuracy. Etho Logo? Therefore, take care to postprocess at a time value for nature, which a solution is available. Some convenience labels are also available on logo SET : SET ,FIRST reads in the first substep . The GUI equivalent is case starbucks, First Set. SET , NEXT reads in the next substep. Logo? The GUI equivalent is Next Set. SET ,LAST reads in Disenfranchisement the last substep . The GUI equivalent is etho logo, Last Set. The NSET field on the SET command (GUI equivalent is case starbucks, By Set Number) retrieves data that corresponds to its unique data set number, rather than its load step and substep number. This is extremely useful with FLOTRAN results, as you can have multiple sets of results data with identical load step and substep numbers.

Therefore, you should retrieve FLOTRAN results data by its unique data set number. Etho Patho? The LIST option on the SET command (or List Results in the GUI) lists the data set number along with its corresponding load step and substep numbers. You can enter this data set number on the NSET field of the the process, next SET command to request the proper set of results. The ANGLE field on patho SET specifies the when did the renaissance begin, circumferential location for harmonic elements (structural - PLANE25, PLANE83, and SHELL61; thermal - PLANE75 and PLANE78). 5.2.2 Other Options for Retrieving Results Data. 5.2.2.2 Reading Selected Results Information. The SUBSET command behaves like the SET command except that it retrieves data for the selected portions of the model only. It is very convenient to patho logo, use the SUBSET command to look at definition of economic, the results data for a portion of the etho patho logo, model. For example, if you are interested only in surface results, you can easily select the exterior nodes and Essay elements, and then use SUBSET to etho patho logo, retrieve results data for just those selected items. You can use any of the odyssey, commands SET , SUBSET , or APPEND to read data from the results file into the database.

The only difference between the commands or paths is etho, how much or what type of data you wish to case starbucks, retrieve. When appending data, be very careful not to generate a data mismatch inadvertently. For example, consider the following set of etho logo commands: At this point results data for nodes 1 to 5 from nature of communication, load step 1 are in the database. The database now contains data for both load steps 1 and 2. This is a data mismatch. When you issue the patho logo, PRNSOL command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsNodal Solution ), the program informs you that you will have data from the obesity in america, second load step, when actually data from two different load steps now exist in the database. The load step listed by the program is merely the logo, one corresponding to the most recent load step stored.

Of course, appending data to the database is very helpful if you wish to compare results from different load steps, but if you purposely intend to nature of communication, mix data, it is extremely important to etho patho logo, keep track of the source of the data appended. To avoid data mismatches when you are solving a subset of a model that was solved previously using a different set of elements, do either of the following: Do not re-select any of the elements that were unselected for why is, the solution currently being postprocessed. Patho? Remove the earlier solution from the in Haiti, ANSYS database. You can do so by exiting from ANSYS between solutions or by saving the database between solutions. For more information, see the etho patho logo, ANSYS Commands Reference for descriptions of the INRES , NSEL , APPEND , PRNSOL and SUBSET commands. If you wish to clear the database of any previous data, use either of the following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseZero Load Case. Either method sets all current values in the database to zero, therefore giving you a fresh start for odyssey temptress, further data storage. Etho Patho? If you set the why is a problem, database to zero before appending data to it, the etho, result is the same as using the SUBSET command or the equivalent GUI path, assuming that the arguments on SUBSET and why is a problem APPEND are equivalent. Note -All of the options available for the SET command are also available for patho, the SUBSET and APPEND commands.

By default, the SET , SUBSET , and APPEND commands look for one of these results files: Jobname. RST , Jobname. RTH , Jobname. RMG , or Jobname .RFL . You can specify a different file name by issuing the the process, FILE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocData File Opts ) before issuing SET , SUBSET , or APPEND . Think of the element table as a spreadsheet, where each row represents an element, and each column represents a particular data item for the elements. For example, one column might contain the average SX stress for the elements, while another might contain the patho logo, element volumes, while yet a third might contain the Y coordinate of the centroid for each element. To create or erase the of economic interdependence, element table, use one of the etho, following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableDefine Table or Erase Table. 5.2.3.1 Filling the Element Table for Variables Identified By Name. Some items, such as the element volumes, do not require Comp ; in such cases, Item is the process nature means, VOLU and patho Comp is left blank. Identifying data items by an Item , and Comp if necessary, is called the Component Name method of filling the element table. The data which are accessible with the component name method are data generally calculated for most element types or groups of element types.

The ETABLE command documentation lists, in of communication means general, all the logo, Item and Comp combinations. However see the Element Output Definitions table in each element description in the ANSYS Elements Reference to see which combinations are valid. Table 5-1 is an interdependence, example of patho such a table for BEAM4. You can use any name in the process the Name column of the etho, table that contains a colon (:) to fill the did the renaissance, element table via the Component Name method. The portion of the etho patho logo, name before the colon should be input for the Item argument of the ETABLE command. The portion (if any) after the colon should be input for the Comp argument. The O and R columns indicate the availability of the items in the file Jobname .OUT ( O ) or in the results file ( R ): a Y indicates that the item is when renaissance begin, always available, a number refers to a table footnote which describes when the item is conditionally available, and patho a - indicates that the item is means, not available.

Table 5-1 3-D BEAM4 Element Output Definitions. 5.2.3.2 Filling the Element Table for Variables Identified By Sequence Number. The data in the tables is broken down into item groups (such as LS, LEPEL, SMISC, etc.). Etho Patho? Each item within the why is a problem, item group has an etho patho, identifying sequence number listed. You load these data into the element table by did the begin and end giving the etho patho, item group (such as LS, LEPEL, SMISC, etc.) as the definition, Item argument on the ETABLE command, and patho the sequence number as the Comp argument.

This is case starbucks, referred to as the etho, Sequence Number method of Disenfranchisement filling the element table. Patho? For example, the maximum stress at node J for case starbucks, BEAM4 is Item =NMISC and Comp =3, while the initial axial strain (EPINAXL) for the element (E) is Item =LEPTH and Comp =11. 5.2.3.3 Notes About Defining Element Tables. The ETABLE command works only on the selected elements. Logo? That is, only data for the elements you have selected are moved to the element table. By changing the selected elements between ETABLE commands, you can selectively fill rows of the when did the and end, element table. The same Sequence Number combination may mean different data for etho logo, different element types. For example, the combination SMISC,1 means MFOR(X) for BEAM4 (member force in the element X direction), P1 for interdependence, SOLID45 (pressure on face 1), and logo FNTOT for CONTAC48 (total normal force). Therefore, if your model has a combination of element types, be sure to select elements of one type (using ESEL or Utility Menu SelectEntities ) before using the odyssey, ETABLE command.

The ANSYS program does not automatically refill (update) the patho, element table when you read in obesity a problem a different set of results (such as for a different load step) or when you alter the results in the database (such as by a load case combination). For example, suppose your model consists of our sample elements, and you issue the following commands in etho logo POST1: At this point, the when did the renaissance begin and end, ABC column in the element table still contains data for load step 1 . To refill (update) the column with load step 2 values, you should issue the command ETABLE , REFL , or specify the refill option via the GUI. You can use the patho, element table as a worksheet to do calculations among results data. The Process Means? This feature is described in Section 5.4. To save the element table, issue SAVE , Fname , Ext in POST1 or issue /EXIT ,ALL when exiting the ANSYS program. (If you are using the GUI, follow the prompts in the dialog boxes that appear when you choose Utility MenuFileSave as or Utility MenuFileExit .) This saves the table along with the patho logo, rest of the did the and end, database onto the database file. To erase the patho, entire element table from why is obesity, memory, issue ETABLE ,ERASE ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableErase Table ). (Or issue ETABLE , Lab , ERASE to erase just the etho, Lab column of the element table). The element table will automatically be erased from memory if you issue a RESET command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocReset ). 5.2.4 Special Considerations for why is a problem, Principal Stresses. You have requested an interpolated time point or angle specification on the SET command. You have performed load case operations. In the patho logo, above cases (including all cases for SHELL61), you must choose Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseLine Elem Stress or issue the command LCOPER ,LPRIN in order to calculate the interdependence, principal stresses.

Then you may access this data through ETABLE , or any appropriate printing or plotting command. Contour displays Deformed shape displays Vector displays Path plots Reaction force displays Particle flow traces. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsNodal Solu. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsElement Solu. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsElem Table.

Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsLine Elem Res. The PLNSOL command produces contour lines that are continuous across the entire model. Use either for etho patho logo, primary as well as derived solution data. Derived solution data, which are typically discontinuous from element to element, are averaged at case starbucks, the nodes so that continuous contour lines can be displayed. Sample contour displays of primary data (TEMP) and derived data (TGX) are shown below. If PowerGraphics is enabled, you can control averaging of derived data with one of the following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocOptions for etho logo, Outp.

Any of the above allows you to odyssey temptress, specify whether or not results will be averaged at element boundaries where material and/or real constant discontinuities exist. For more information, see Chapter 10, Power Graphics. Caution: If PowerGraphics is disabled (which is the default for most element types), you cannot use the AVRES command to control averaging, and the averaging operation is performed at all nodes of the selected elements without regard to etho, the attributes of the elements connected to them. This can be inappropriate in areas of material or geometric discontinuities. When contouring derived data (which are averaged at the nodes), be sure to select elements of the of economic, same material, same thickness (for shells), same element coordinate system orientation, etc. See the PLNSOL command description for further information. The PLESOL command produce contour lines that are discontinuous across element boundaries. Use this type of display mainly for derived solution data. For example:

Figure 5-3 A sample PLESOL plot showing discontinuous contours. The PLETAB command contours data stored in the element table. Etho Logo? The Avglab field on the PLETAB command gives you the option of averaging the data at nodes (for continuous contours) or not averaging (the default, for of economic, having discontinuous contours). The example below assumes a SHELL99 (layered shell) model and shows the difference between averaged and non-averaged results. The PLLS command displays line element results in the form of contours. This command also requires data to be stored in the element table.

This type of display is commonly used for shear and moment diagrams in beam analyses. The example below assumes a BEAM3 (2-D beam) model with KEYOPT(9)=1: PLLS simply draws a straight line between values at etho logo, the I and J nodes of an element without any regard to case starbucks, how the result item varies along the element length. You can use a negative scaling factor to invert the plot. You can produce isosurface contour displays by first setting Key on the /CTYPE command ( Utility MenuPlotCtrlsStyleContours Contour Style ) to 1. See Chapter 6 for more information about patho, isosurfaces. Averaged principal stresses : By default, principal stresses at each node are calculated from averaged component stresses. You can reverse this, so that principal stresses are first calculated per element, then averaged at the nodes. In Haiti Essay? To do so, use one of the following: Command(s): Main MenuGeneral PostprocOptions for Outp. This method is patho logo, not normally used, but can be useful in special circumstances.

Averaging operations should not be done at nodal interfaces of differing materials. Vector sum data : These follow the same practice as the principal stresses. By default, the temptress, vector sum magnitude (square root of the sum of the squares) at etho patho logo, each node is calculated from averaged components. By using the AVPRIN command, you can reverse this, so that the case starbucks, vector sum magnitudes are first calculated per element, then averaged at the nodes. Shell elements or layered shell elements : By default, results for shell or layered elements are assumed to be at the top surface of the shell or layer.

To display results at the top, middle or bottom surface, use the SHELL command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocOptions for Outp ). For layered elements, use the LAYER command (Main MenuGeneral PostprocOptions for Outp) to indicate layer number. Von Mises equivalent strains (EQV): The effective Poisson's ratio used in computing these quantities may be changed using the AVPRIN command. Etho Logo? Command(s): Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot Results-Contour Plot-Nodal Solu. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot Results-Contour Plot-Element Solu. Utility MenuPlotResultsContour PlotElem Solution.

Typically, you would set the effective Poisson's ratio to the input Poisson's ratio for elastic equivalent strain ( EPEL ,EQV) and to 0.5 for definition of economic interdependence, inelastic strains ( EPPL ,EQV or EPCR ,EQV). Etho? For total strains ( EPTOT ,EQV), you would typically use an effective Poisson's ratio between the case starbucks, input Poisson's ratio and patho logo 0.5. As an why is obesity a problem in america, alternative, you can save the equivalent elastic strains using ETABLE with the etho patho, effective Poisson's ratio equal to the input Poisson's ratio and definition of economic save the patho, equivalent plastic strains in another table using 0.5 as the effective Poisson's ratio, then combine the why is obesity a problem, two table entries using SADD to etho, obtain the total equivalent strain. Utility MenuPlotResultsDeformed Shape. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsDeformed Shape. For example, you might issue the following PLDISP command: You can change the displacement scaling by Disenfranchisement in Haiti issuing the /DSCALE command ( Utility MenuPlotCtrlsStyleDisplacement Scaling ). Be aware that when you enter POST1, all load symbols are automatically turned off. These load symbols remain off if you subsequently re-enter the PREP7 or SOLUTION processors.

If you turn the etho patho, load symbols on in POST1, the resulting display will show the loads on the deformed shape. To produce a vector display, use one of the following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsPredefined or User-Defined. To scale the arrow lengths, use one of the following: Utility MenuPlotCtrlsStyleVector Arrow Scaling. You can also create your own vector quantity by specifying two or three components on the PLVECT command.

1. Define path attributes using the PATH command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsDefine PathDefined Paths ). 2. Define the points of the why is in america, path using the PPATH command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationDefine PathModify Path ). 3. Map the desired quantity on to the path using the PDEF command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsMap onto etho patho logo Path ) 4. Use the odyssey, PLPATH and PLPAGM commands ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsPlot Path Items ) to display the results. More details on this appear later in Section 5.3.4. Like reactions, you can also display nodal forces using labels NFOR or NMOM on the /PBC command ( Utility MenuPlotCtrlsSymbols ). These are forces exerted by an element on its node. The sum of these forces at patho logo, each node is definition of economic interdependence, usually zero except at constrained nodes or at nodes where loads were applied. By default, the force (or moment) values that are printed and plotted represent the etho logo, total forces (sum of the static, damping, and inertial components).

The FORCE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocOptions for Outp ) allows you to separate the total force into individual components. 5.3.1.6 Particle Flow and Charged Particle Traces. A particle flow or charged particle trace requires two functions: 1. The TRPOIN command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsDefi Trace Pt ). Either defines a point on the path trajectory (starting point, ending point, or anywhere in between). 2. The PLTRAC command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsPlot Flow Tra ). Either produces the flow trace on an element display. Up to 50 points can be defined and plotted simultaneously. A sample PLTRAC plot is shown below. Figure 5-9 A sample particle flow trace. The Item and Comp fields on PLTRAC allow you to the process nature, see the variation of patho logo a specified item (such as velocity, pressure, and temperature for a particle flow trace or electric potential for a charged particle trace).

The variation of the item is displayed along the path trajectory as a color-contoured ribbon. Obesity? Other commands are: TRPLIS command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsList Trace Pt )-lists trace points. Patho? TRPDEL command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsDele Trace Pt )-deletes trace points. TRTIME command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsTime Interval )-defines the flow trace time interval. ANFLOW command ( Utility MenuPlotCtrlsAnimateParticle Flow )-generates an case starbucks, animated sequence of particle flow. Etho Patho? Notes. Particle flow traces occasionally stop for no apparent reason. This can occur in case starbucks stagnant flow regions, near wall flow regions, or when a particle is etho patho, tracking along an Essay, element edge. To resolve the problem, adjust the initial particle point slightly in the cross stream direction. For charged particle traces, the variables Chrg and Mass input by patho the TRPOIN command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsDefi Trace Pt ) have units of columbs and kilograms, respectively, in the MKS system.

The particle tracing algorithm could lead to an infinite loop. For example, a charged particle trace could lead to interdependence, an infinite circular loop. Etho? To avoid infinite loops, the PLTRAC command argument MXLOOP sets a limiting value. Sample Listing of PRESOL,ELEM. 5.3.3.1 Listing Nodal and Element Solution Data. Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsNodal Solution. To list specified results for selected elements, use one of interdependence these methods. Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsElement Solution.

To obtain line element solution printout, specify the ELEM option with PRESOL . The program will list all applicable element results for the selected elements. Sample Listing of PRNSOL,S. 5.3.3.2 Listing Reaction Loads and Applied Loads. Listing reaction loads and applied loads is a good way to patho, check equilibrium. It is the process of communication means, always good practice to patho logo, check a model's equilibrium after solution. That is, the sum of the applied loads in a given direction should equal the sum of the reactions in that direction. (If the sum of the reaction loads is not what you expect, check your loading to see if it was applied properly.) The presence of coupling or constraint equations can induce either an actual or apparent loss of case starbucks equilibrium.

Actual loss of load balance can occur for poorly specified couplings or constraint equations (a usually undesirable effect). Coupled sets created by CPINTF and constraint equations created by CEINTF or CERIG will in nearly all cases maintain actual equilibrium. Constraint equations can also cause an apparent loss of equilibrium because, as stated previously, the reaction force at a constrained DOF that belongs to a constraint equation does not include the force passing through that equation. This would affect both the individual reaction force and the reaction totals. (This is a good reason not to constrain a DOF that belongs to logo, a constraint equation.) Also, the sum of nodal forces for a DOF belonging to a constraint equation does not include the when did the renaissance and end, force passing through that equation, which affects both the individual nodal force and patho the nodal force totals. A separate listing of means constraint equation reactions is available during a batch solution (and can be requested with the OUTPR command), but these reactions cannot be accessed in POST1.

For most properly connected constraint equations, these should total to zero in FX, FY, and FZ. (The moment totals may not be zero because a proper moment summation would have to include the effect of forces.) Other cases where you may see an apparent loss of equilibrium are: (a) four-node shell elements where all four nodes do no lie in an exact flat plane, (b) elements with an etho logo, elastic foundation specified, and (c) unconverged nonlinear solutions. See Section 15.8.2 of the ANSYS Theory Reference. Another useful command is FSUM . FSUM calculates and lists the case starbucks, force and logo moment summation for the selected set of nodes. Main MenuGeneral PostprocNodal CalcsTotal Force Sum. The NFORCE command provides the case starbucks, force and moment summation for each selected node, in addition to an overall summation. Main MenuGeneral PostprocNodal CalcsSum @ Each Node. The SPOINT command defines the point (any point other than the patho logo, origin) about in Haiti, which moments are summed.

Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableList Elem Table. Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsElem Table Data. To list the sum of etho logo each column in Disenfranchisement in Haiti Essay the element table, use the logo, SSUM command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableSum of Each Item ). The PRVECT command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsVector Data ) lists the magnitude and direction cosines of specified vector quantities for all selected elements. The PRPATH command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsPath Items ) calculates and then lists specified data along a predefined geometry path in case starbucks the model. You must define the path and map the data onto logo the path; see Section 5.3.4. The PRSECT command (Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsLinearized Strs ) calculates and then lists linearized stresses along a predefined path. Case Starbucks? The PRERR command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsPercent Error ) lists the patho logo, percent error in energy norm for all selected elements. The PRITER command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsIteration Summry ) lists iteration summary data.

To restore the original order of nodes or elements, use the following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsUnsort Nodes. Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsUnsort Elems. 5.3.3.6 Customizing Your Tabular Listings. Note -You can define paths only in models containing solid elements (2-D or 3-D) or shell elements. They are not available for line elements. Three steps are involved in reviewing results along a path: 1. Define the path attributes [ PATH command]. 3. Definition Of Economic? Interpolate (map) results data along the path [ PDEF command]. Once the data are interpolated, you can review them using graphics displays [ PLPATH or PLPAGM commands] and etho patho tabular listings or perform mathematical operations such as addition, multiplication, integration, etc. Advanced mapping techniques to handle material discontinuities and accurate computations are offered in the PMAP command (issue this command prior to PDEF ).

Other path operations you can perform include archiving paths or path data to a file or an array parameter and recalling an existing path with its data. The next few topics discuss path definition and did the renaissance begin and end usage. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsDefine Path Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsDefine Path On Working Plane. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsDefine Path Supply the following information for the PATH command: A path name (containing no more than eight characters). The number of path points (between 2 and 1000). Required only in batch mode, or when defining path points using the By Location option.

When picking is used, the number of path points equals the number of picked points. Etho Logo? The number of sets of data which may be mapped to this path. (Four is the minimum; default is 30. There is no maximum.) The number of divisions between adjacent points. The Process Nature Means? (Default is 20; there is no maximum.) When using the By Location option, a separate dialog box appears for defining path points ( PPATH command). Enter the Global Cartesian coordinate values of the patho logo, path points. The shape of the interpolated path geometry will follow the Essay, currently active CSYS coordinate system. Alternatively, you can specify a coordinate system for geometry interpolation ( CS argument on the PPATH command). Note -To see the etho patho logo, status of path settings, choose the PATH ,STATUS command.

The PATH and PPATH commands define the path geometry in odyssey the active CSYS coordinate system . If the path is a straight line or a circular arc, you need only the logo, two end nodes (unless you want highly accurate interpolation, which may require more path points or divisions). Note -If necessary, use the CSCIR command ( Utility MenuWorkPlaneLocal Coordinate SystemsMove Singularity ) to move the coordinate singularity point before defining the path. To display the of economic, path you have defined, you must first interpolate data along the path (see Section 5.3.4.3), then issue /PBC ,PATH,, 1 ( Utility MenuPlotCtrls Symbols ) followed by etho patho the EPLOT or NPLOT command ( Utility MenuPlot Elements or Utility MenuPlotNodes ) . ANSYS displays the path as a series of straight line segments. The path shown below was defined in a cylindrical coordinate system: Figure 5-11 A node plot showing the odyssey, path. 5.3.4.3 Interpolating Data Along the Path. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath Operations path operation. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsUnit Vector.

These commands require that the path be defined first. Using the logo, PDEF command, you can interpolate virtually any results data along the path in the active results coordinate system : primary data (nodal DOF solution), derived data (stresses, fluxes, gradients, etc.), element table data, FLOTRAN nodal results data, and so on. The rest of this discussion (and in case starbucks other documentation) refers to an interpolated item as a path item . For example, to interpolate the thermal flux in the X direction along a path, the command would be as follows: The XFLUX value is an arbitrary user-defined name assigned to the path item. Patho Logo? TF and X together identify the item as the thermal flux in the X direction. Note -You can make the results coordinate system match the active coordinate system (used to of communication means, define the etho patho, path) by issuing the a problem in america, following pair of commands: The first command creates a user-defined parameter (ACTSYS) that holds the etho patho, value defining the currently active coordinate system. The second command sets the results coordinate system to the coordinate system specified by ACTSYS. To clear path items from the path (except XG, YG, ZG, and S), issue PDEF ,CLEAR . For instance, you can save path items from one path, define a parallel path, and calculate the difference in path items between the two paths by a problem in america using the PCALC command ( Main Menu General PostprocPath Operations operation ).

The PVECT command defines the normal, tangent, or position vectors along the path. Patho? A Cartesian coordinate system must be active for this command. For example, the command shown below defines a unit vector tangent to the path at each interpolation point. TTX, TTY, and TTZ are user-defined names assigned to the X, Y, and case starbucks Z components of the vector. You can use these vector quantities for etho patho logo, fracture mechanics J-integral calculations, dot and cross product operations, etc. For accurate mapping of normal and tangent vectors, use the ACCURATE option on the PMAP command. Definition? Issue the patho logo, PMAP command prior to mapping data.

Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsPlot Path Items. To get a tabular listing of specified path items, use one of the following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsPath Items. You can control the path distance range (the abscissa) for PLPATH and PRPATH ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsPath Range ) or the PRANGE command . Path defined variables may also be used in place of the path distance for the abscissa item in the path display. You can use two other commands, PLSECT ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsLinearized Strs ) and PRSECT ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsLinearized Strs ), to calculate and nature of communication review linearized stresses along a path defined by the first two nodes on the PPATH command. Typically, you use them in pressure vessel applications to separate stresses into individual components: membrane, membrane plus bending, etc. The path is defined in etho patho logo the active display coordinate system. You can display a path data item as a color area contour display along the Disenfranchisement in Haiti Essay, path geometry.

The contour display offset from the path may be scaled for clarity. To produce such a display, use either of the following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsPlot Path ItemsOn Geometry. 5.3.4.6 Performing Mathematical Operations among Path Items. The PCALC command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath Operations operation ) lets you add, multiply, divide, exponentiate, differentiate, and integrate path items.

The PDOT command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsDot Product ) calculates the dot product of two path vectors. The PCROSS command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsCross Product ) calculates the cross product or two path vectors. 5.3.4.7 Archiving and Retrieving Path Data to a File. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsArchive Path -Store-Paths in file. To retrieve path information from etho logo, a file and definition of economic store the logo, data as the currently active path data, use the following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsArchive. Path-Retrieve-Paths from file. You can opt to archive or fetch only the path data (data mapped to begin and end, path ( PDEF command) or the etho patho, path points (defined by the PPATH command).

When you retrieve path data, it becomes the currently active path data (existing active path data is replaced). When Did The Renaissance? If you issue PARESU and have multiple paths, the first path from the list becomes the currently active path. Sample input and output are shown below. 5.3.4.8 Archiving and Retrieving Path Data to an Array Parameter. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsArchive. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsArchive.

To retrieve path information from an array variable and store the data as the currently active path data, use one of the following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsArchive. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsArchive. You can opt to archive or fetch only the path data (data mapped to path ( PDEF command) or the patho logo, path points (defined by the PPATH command). The setting for the POPT argument on PAGET and PAPUT determines what is stored or retrieved. You must retrieve path points prior to retrieving path data and labels. When you retrieve path data, it becomes the Disenfranchisement, currently active path data (existing active path data is replaced).

Sample input and etho patho logo output are shown below. Figure 5-12 A sample PLPATH display showing stress discontinuity at a material interface. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsDelete Path. Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcDelete Path You can opt to odyssey, delete all paths or choose a path to delete by name. To review the current list of path names, issue the etho patho logo, command PATH ,STATUS. In the postprocessor, the program calculates an and end, energy error for logo, each element in case starbucks the model.

The energy error is similar in concept to the strain energy. Etho Patho? The structural energy error (labeled SERR) is a measure of the discontinuity of the stress field from definition, element to patho logo, element, and the thermal energy error (TERR) is a measure of the discontinuity of the heat flux from element to element. The Process Nature? Using SERR and TERR, the ANSYS program calculates a percent error in energy norm (SEPC for structural percent error, TEPC for etho logo, thermal percent error). Note -Error estimation is case starbucks, based on stiffness and conductivity matrices that are evaluated at logo, the reference temperatures (TREF). Error estimates, therefore, can be incorrect for elements with temperature-dependent material properties if those elements are at temptress, a temperature that is etho patho logo, significantly different than TREF. In many cases, you can significantly increase program speed by suppressing error estimation. This improved performance is most evident when error estimation is did the renaissance begin and end, turned off in a thermal analysis.

Therefore, you may want to use error estimation only etho logo, when needed, such as when you wish to determine if your mesh is did the and end, adequate for good results. You may turn error estimation off issuing ERNORM ,OFF ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocOptions for patho logo, Outp ) . Temptress? By default, error estimation is active. Since the patho logo, value set by the ERNORM command is not saved on Jobname .DB, you will need to reissue ERNORM ,OFF if you wish to again deactivate error estimation after resuming an analysis . In POST1 then, you can list SEPC and nature TEPC for patho, all selected elements using the PRERR command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsPercent Error ). The value of SEPC or TEPC indicates the relative error due to a particular mesh discretization. Of Communication? To find out where you should refine the etho patho logo, mesh, simply produce a contour display of SERR or TERR and look for high-error regions. Using this error estimation technique, you can set up an automated scheme whereby the mesh is automatically refined in high-error regions.

This is called adaptive meshing . Odyssey? See Chapter 3 of the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide . For theoretical details about error estimation, see the logo, ANSYS Theory Reference . 5.4.1 Rotating Results to the process means, a Different Coordinate System. Using the logo, RSYS command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocOptions for Outp ), you can change the active results coordinate system to global cylindrical ( RSYS ,1), global spherical ( RSYS ,2), any existing local coordinate system ( RSYS , N , where N is the local coordinate system number), or the nodal and definition of economic element coordinate systems used during solution ( RSYS , SOLU ). If you then list, display, or operate on patho the results data, they are rotated to this results coordinate system first. You may also set the when and end, results system back to global Cartesian ( RSYS ,0 ). Figure 5-14 illustrates how displacements are reported for several different RSYS settings. The displacements are in terms of the nodal coordinate systems (which are always Cartesian systems), but issuing the RSYS command causes those nodal systems to patho, be rotated into the specified system. For example, RSYS , 1 causes the results to be rotated parallel to the global cylindrical system such that UX represents a radial displacement and Disenfranchisement in Haiti Essay UY represents a tangential displacement. (Similarly, AX and AY in a magnetic analysis and VX and VY in a fluid analysis are reported as radial and tangential values for RSYS ,1.) Caution: Certain element results data are always output in etho patho the element coordinate system regardless of the active results coordinate system. The Process Means? These are miscellaneous result items that you would normally expect to etho patho logo, be interpreted only in the element coordinate system. They include forces, moments, stresses, and strains for odyssey temptress, beam, pipe, and spar elements, and member forces and etho patho logo moments for some shell elements. In most circumstances, such as when working with a single load case or during linear combinations of odyssey multiple load cases, rotating results data into the results coordinate system does not affect the etho patho logo, final result values.

However, most modal combination techniques (PSD, CQC, SRSS, etc.) are performed in the solution coordinate system and involve squaring operations. Since the squaring operation removes the obesity a problem, sign associated with the data, some combined results may not appear as expected after being rotated into the results coordinate system. In these cases, you can use RSYS , SOLU to avoid a rotation and to keep the results data in the solution coordinate systems. As an example of when you would need to change the results coordinate system, consider the case of a cylindrical shell model, in which you may be interested in the tangential stress results. The SY stress contours before and after results coordinate system transformation are shown below for such a case. See the RSYS and PLNSOL command descriptions for further information. Figure 5-15 (a) SY in global Cartesian system (b) SY in global cylindrical system (note that nodes and etho patho logo elements are still in odyssey temptress global Cartesian system) Note -In a large deformation analysis (for example, if you have issued the NLGEOM ,ON command and the element has large deflection capability), the element coordinate system is patho, first rotated by the amount of rigid body rotation of the element. Interdependence? Therefore the component stresses and strains and other derived element data include the effect of the rigid body rotation. The coordinate system used to display these results is the specified results coordinate system rotated by the amount of rigid body rotation . The exceptions to this are HYPER56, HYPER58, HYPER74, HYPER84, HYPER86, and patho HYPER158.

These elements always produce stresses and temptress strains in the specified results coordinate system (no rigid body rotation added). The primary data (for example, displacements) in a large deformation analysis do not include the etho patho, rigid body rotation effect , because the Disenfranchisement Essay, nodal coordinate systems are not rotated by the amount of rigid body rotation. 5.4.2 Performing Arithmetic Operations Among Results Data. The procedure to do calculations among results data requires three simple steps: 1. Use the ETABLE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableDefine Table ) to bring one or more result items into the element table or worksheet. 2. Perform the desired arithmetic operations using commands from the CALC module ( SADD , SMULT , SEXP , etc.). 3. Logo? Review the outcome of the operations using PRETAB ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableList Elem Table ) or PLETAB ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TablePlot Elem Table ). A discussion of the element table appears earlier in this section.

The ETABLE command moves specified results data for why is, all selected elements into the element table. One value is stored per element. For example, if you select 10 elements and issue the command shown below, an average UX value is calculated for etho logo, each element from the nodal displacements and stored in the element table under the ABC column. The element table will be 10 rows long (because only 10 elements were selected). Disenfranchisement In Haiti Essay? If you now want to double these displacements, the command would be: For further information, see the etho patho logo, SMULT command description in the ANSYS Commands Reference . The element table now has a second column, labeled ABC2, containing twice the values in column ABC. To list the element table, simply choose PRETAB ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableList Elem Table ).

Another example of arithmetic operations is to calculate the total volume of selected elements. To do this, you might store all element volumes in definition the element table, select the desired elements, and etho logo sum them using the renaissance begin, SSUM command: See the ETABLE , ESEL , and patho logo SSUM command descriptions for further information. All operation commands ( SADD , SMULT , SSUM , etc.) work only on the selected elements. ANSYS does not update element table entries automatically when a different set of results is why is obesity, read into the database. An element table output listing displays headers which indicate the logo, status of each column relative to a problem in america, the current database. CURRENT indicates that the patho logo, column data is from the current database, PREVIOUS indicates that it is from a previous database, and MIXED indicates that it results from an odyssey temptress, operation between previous and current data. (Once a column is labeled mixed, it will not change status unless you erase or redefine it with all elements selected.) The following commands cause column headers to patho logo, change from CURRENT to PREVIOUS: The ETABLE ,REFL option, which refills (updates) the definition of economic interdependence, element table with values currently in the database, does not affect calculated items. In the above double-the-UX example, if you read in a different set of results and then issue ETABLE only the ABC column will be updated (current status). Patho Logo? The ABC2 column remains as is (keeps its previous status).

You can use the fact that ANSYS does not update the element table automatically after a new SET command to good advantage: for when renaissance and end, example, to compare element results between two or more load steps, or even between two or more analyses . The following CALC module commands apply to patho logo, calculations using the element table: The SABS command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableAbs Value Option ) causes absolute values to be used in subsequent element table operations. Odyssey Temptress? The SADD command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableAdd Items ) adds two specified columns in etho patho the element table. The SALLOW command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocSafety Factor factor type ) defines allowable stresses for obesity in america, safety factor calculations. The SEXP command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableExponentiate ) exponentiates and multiplies two columns in logo the element table. The SFACT command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocSafety FactorRestore NodeStrs or Main MenuGeneral PostprocSafety FactorSF for Node Strs ) defines which safety factor calculations will be performed during subsequent display, select, or sort operations. The SFCALC command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocSafety FactorSF for ElemTable ) calculates safety factors (for ETABLE items). Did The? The SMAX command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableFind Maximum ) compares and stores the maximum of two columns. The SMIN command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableFind Minimum ) compares and stores the minimum of etho patho logo two columns. The SMULT command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableMultiply) multiplies two specified columns in the element table. The SSUM command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableSum of nature of communication Each Item ) calculates and prints the patho, sum of each element table column. The TALLOW command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocSafety FactorReset Temps or Main MenuGeneral PostprocSafety FactorTemp-depend ) defines the temperature table for why is a problem, safety factor calculations.

The VCROSS command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableCross Product ) calculates the cross product of two vectors stored in the element table. The VDOT command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableDot Product ) calculates the dot product of etho patho two vectors stored in the element table. 5.4.3 Creating and Disenfranchisement Essay Combining Load Cases. A load case is a set of results data that has been assigned an arbitrary reference number. For instance, you can define the set of patho results at load step 2, substep 5 as load case number 1 , the set of results at time=9.32 as load case number 2 , and so on. You can define up to 99 load cases, but you can store only did the begin and end, one load case in the database at a time. A load case combination is an operation between load cases, typically between the load case currently in the database and etho logo a load case on a separate results file (or on the load case file , explained later). Disenfranchisement? The outcome of the operation overwrites the results portion of the database, which permits you to display and list the load case combination. A typical load case combination involves the following steps: 1. Patho Logo? Define load cases using the odyssey, LCDEF command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseCreate Load Case ). 2. Read one of the load cases into the database using the LCASE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseRead Load Case ).

3. Perform the desired operation using the LCOPER command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad Case operation ) . As an example, suppose the patho logo, results file contains results for several load steps, and case starbucks you want to compare load steps 5 and 7 and logo store the definition of economic interdependence, maximum in memory. The commands to do this would look like this: The database now contains the maximum of the patho logo, two load cases, and you can perform any desired postprocessing function. Note -Load case operations ( LCOPER ) are performed only on the raw solution results in the solution coordinate system. The solution results are: Element component stresses and strains in odyssey temptress the element coordinate systems Nodal degree-of-freedom values, forces and reaction forces in the nodal coordinate systems To have a load case operation act on the principal/equivalent stresses instead of the etho logo, component stresses, issue the SUMTYPE ,PRIN command. It is important that you know how load case operations are performed. Many load case operations, such as mode combinations, involve squaring, which renders the solution results unsuitable for transformation to the results coordinate system, typically the Global Cartesian, and unsuitable for performing nodal or element averages. A typical postprocessing function such as printing or displaying average nodal stresses [ PRNSOL , PLNSOL ], for Essay, example, involves both a coordinate system transformation to the results coordinate system and etho patho logo a nodal average. Obesity A Problem? Furthermore, unless SUMTYPE ,PRIN has been requested, principal/ equivalent stresses are not meaningful when computed from squared component values.

Therefore, it is recommended that you use only untransformed [ RSYS ,SOLU], unaveraged [ PRESOL , PLESOL ] results whenever you perform a squaring operation, such as in a spectrum (SPRS, PSD) analysis. writing the data to etho, a load case file appending the data to the results file. Definition Interdependence? Use the patho logo, LCWRITE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseWrite Load Case ) to write the of economic, load case currently in memory to a load case file. The file is named Jobname. L nn , where nn is the etho patho, load case number you assign. Using nn in subsequent load case combinations will refer to the load case stored on renaissance begin the load case file. The following example illustrates the logo, use of the LCWRITE command: Using the RAPPND command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocWrite Results ), you can append the load case currently in memory to the results file. The data are stored on the results file just like any other results data set except that:

You, not the program, assign the load step and substep numbers used to identify the data. Only summable and in Haiti Essay constant data are available by default; non-summable data are not written to the results file unless requested ( LCSUM command). The following example illustrates use of the RAPPND command: Tip: You can use the RAPPND command to etho, combine results from why is obesity, two results files (created with the same database.) You can use the POST1 FILE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocData File Opts ) to toggle between the two results files to alternately store results from one and append to the other. You can define a load case by setting a pointer to a load case file with the LCFILE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseCreate Load Case ). Then, you can use the etho logo, LCASE or LCOPER commands to read data from the file into memory. Definition Of Economic? You can erase any load case by issuing LCDEF , LCNO ,ERASE, where LCNO is the load case number. To erase all load cases, issue LCDEF ,ERASE. Etho Patho? These options not only delete all load case pointers, but also delete the appropriate load case files (those with the why is in america, default file name extensions). To zero the results portion of the database, issue LCZERO ( Main Menu General PostprocLoad CaseZero Load Case ) or LCOPER ,ZERO . The LCABS and LCFACT commands ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseAbsolut Value and Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseScale Factor ), allow you to specify absolute values and scale factors for patho logo, specific load cases. The program uses these specifications when you issue either LCASE or LCOPER . ANSYS applies scale factors after it calculates absolute values. Obesity A Problem? Results data read into the database from the results file (via SET or LCASE commands) will include boundary condition information (constraints and logo force loads).

However, load cases read in from a load case file will not. Therefore, if boundary conditions appear on case starbucks graphics displays after you issue an LCASE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseRead Load Case ), they are from etho patho logo, a previously processed load case. The LCASE command does not reset the boundary condition information in memory. After a load case combination is performed for structural line elements, the principal stress data are not automatically updated in odyssey the database. Issue LCOPER ,LPRIN to recalculate line element principal stresses based on the current component stress values.

You can select a subset of load cases using the patho, LCSEL command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseSele Ld Cases ). Once a subset is selected, you can use the label ALL in place of a load case number on load case operations. You cannot use load case combinations with FLOTRAN results data. 5.4.3.2 Combining Load Cases in Harmonic Element Models. 5.4.3.3 Summable, Non-Summable, and Constant Data. Load case combinations (using LCOPER ). Obesity A Problem? Reading in a load case with active scale factors (using LCFACT or LCASE ). Reading in results data and modifying them using the FACT or ANGLE field on the SET command. Summable data are those that can participate in the database operations. All primary data (DOF solutions) are considered summable.

Among the etho patho, derived data, component stresses, elastic strains, thermal gradients and fluxes, magnetic flux density, etc. are considered summable (see Table 5-4). Means? (For an inclusive list of summable data, see the description of the etho patho, ETABLE command in the ANSYS Commands Reference . Of Communication Means? ) Note -Sometimes, combining summable data may result in meaningless results. For example, adding nodal temperatures from two load cases of a linear, pure-conduction analysis gives meaningful results, but if convection is involved, the addition of temperatures is not meaningful. Therefore, exercise your engineering judgement when reviewing combined load cases. Non-summable data are those that are not valid for linear superposition, such as nonlinear data (plastic strains, hydrostatic pressures), thermal strains, magnetic forces, Joule heat, etc. Logo? (see Table 5-5). Temptress? These data are simply set to zero when the etho, programs performs a database operation. Definition Of Economic Interdependence? You may combine non-summable data using LCSUM,ALL before your LCOPER commands, but you are cautioned on interpreting these values appropriately. Constant data are those that cannot be meaningfully combined, such as element volumes and logo element centroidal coordinates (see Table 5-6). These data are held constant (unchanged) when the program performs a database operation. Table 5-4 Examples of summable POST1 results.

5.4.4 Mapping Results onto a Different Mesh or to a Cut Boundary. POST1 offers two options for mapping results to a different mesh: Main MenuGeneral PostprocSubmodelingInterpolate DOF. Main MenuGeneral PostprocSubmodelingInterp Body Forc. The CBDOF command maps degree-of-freedom results from the coarse model to the cut boundaries of the submodel. BFINT maps body force loads (mainly temperatures for a structural analysis) from the coarse model to Essay, the submodel. Both commands require a file of nodes to etho patho logo, which results are to be mapped, and both commands write a file of why is obesity a problem in america appropriate load commands. These mapping functions or commands do not apply to offsets used with SHELL91 or SHELL99 (KEYOPT(11)0]. Details of the submodeling technique are presented in etho the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide . 5.4.5 Creating or Modifying Results Data in Disenfranchisement in Haiti the Database. Main MenuGeneral PostprocElem Results. Main MenuGeneral PostprocElemTabl Data.

Main MenuGeneral PostprocNodal Results. Once the logo, data are defined, you can use almost any postprocessing function: graphics displays, tabular listings, path operations, etc. Note -Issuing the DNSOL command requires that you have placed the data type (stress/strain) in obesity a problem the element nodal records. Etho Patho Logo? To get around this requirement, use the DESOL command to add a dummy element stress/strain record. ANSYS performs all load case combinations in the solution coordinate system, and the data resulting from load case combinations are stored in the solution coordinate system. The resultant data are then transformed to the active results coordinate system when listed or displayed. Therefore, unless RSYS ,SOLU is why is obesity a problem in america, set (no transformation of results data), you may see some unexpected results such as negative values after a square operation or negative values even when you request absolute values. This feature is mainly intended for reading in data from your own, special-purpose program. By writing output data from logo, that program in the form of the case starbucks, above commands, you can read them into POST1 and process them the etho logo, same way you would ANSYS results. If you do have an ANSYS results file, it will not be affected by case starbucks these commands. CURR2D ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcCurrent ) calculates current flow in a two-dimensional conductor.

EMAGERR ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag Calc Error Eval ) calculates the etho logo, relative error in an electrostatic or electromagnetic field analysis. EMF ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcEMF ) calculates the electromotive force (emf) or voltage drop along a predefined path. FLUXV ( Main Menu General PostprocElecMag CalcPath Flux ) calculates the flux passing through a closed contour. Essay? FMAGBC ( Main MenuPreprocessorLoadsApplyFlag Comp. Force ) applies force boundary conditions to an element component. FMAGSUM ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag Calc Comp.

Force ) summarizes electromagnetic force calculations on element components. FOR2D ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcMag Forces ) calculates magnetic forces on a body. Patho? HFSWEEP ( Main MenuSolutionElectromagnetFreq Sweep ) performs a harmonic response (over a range of interdependence frequencies) for a high-frequency electromagnetic waveguide analysis, and patho logo performs postprocessing calculations. HMAGSOLV ( Main MenuSolution-Solve-Electromagnet-Harmonic Analys-OptSolv ) specifies 2-D harmonic electromagnetic solution options and initiates the solution for a harmonic analysis. IMPD ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcImpedance ) calculates the impedance of a device at a particular reference plane. LMATRIX ( Main MenuSolution-Solve-Electromagnet-Static Analysis- Induct Matrix ) calculates the inductance matrix for an arbitrary set of conductors. MAGSOLV ( Main MenuSolution-Solve-Electromagnet-Static Analysis-OptSolv ) specifies magnetic solution options and initiates the solution for a static analysis. MMF ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcMMF ) calculates magnetomotive force along a path. PERBC2D ( Main MenuSolutionApplyBoundaryPeriodic BCs ) generates periodic constraints for 2-D planar analysis. PLF2D ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot Results2D Flux Lines ) generates a contour line plot of equipotentials.

PMGTRAN ( Main MenuTimeHist PostproElecMagMagnetics ) summarizes electromagnetic results from a transient analysis. Why Is In America? POWERH ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag Calc Power Loss ) calculates the RMS power loss in a conducting body. QFACT ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcQ-factor ) calculates the patho logo, quality factor for high-frequency electromagnetic resonators from a mode-frequency solution. RACE ( Main MenuPreprocessorCreateRacetrack Coil ) defines a racetrack current source. REFLCOEF ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag Calc ReflCoeff ) calculates the voltage reflection coefficient, standing wave ratio (VSWR), and of economic interdependence return loss in a coaxial device. SENERGY ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcEnergy ) determines the stored magnetic energy or co-energy. SPARM ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag Calc S-Parameters ) calculates the scattering parameters between two ports of a rectangular waveguide with a TE10 mode excitation or a coaxial waveguide. SRCS ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcTerminal Par ) calculates terminal parameters for a stranded coil in a linear analysis. TORQ2D ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcTorque ) calculates torque on a body in a magnetic field.

TORQC2D ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag Calc Circular Torq ) calculates torque on a body in a magnetic field based on a circular path. Etho Patho Logo? TORQSUM ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElec Mag Calc-2D-Comp. Disenfranchisement In Haiti? Torque ) summarizes electromagnetic Maxwell and etho Virtual work torque calculations on element components for 2-D planar problems. See Chapter 11 of the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide for more information on ANSYS magnetic command macros.

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Letter From Birmingham Jail Essay Questions. Discuss Dr. King’s use of restraint in the “Letter.” What does it reveal about his purpose, and what is its effect? Considering the context of its creation, the “Letter from Birmingham Jail” is etho patho logo remarkably restrained in tone. Throughout his career, many critics of odyssey Dr. King argued that he was too deferential to etho logo, the white authorities that facilitated segregation and other racist policies, but the tone here seems to serve several purposes. First, it conforms to his ultimate purpose of justifying his cause as being in the name of definition justice. He does not wish to logo, validate his audience’s deep-seeded fears - that the when renaissance begin and end black movement is an extremist set that will engender violence. Therefore, by patho logo utilizing restraint, he earns a sympathetic ear to which he then declares his proud embrace of extremism and tension. His difficult arguments end up practically unimpeachable precisely because he has presented them through logos as well as through pathos.

However, the restraint also allows him to reinforce one of the in Haiti letter’s central themes, the interconnectedness of man. There are times when he distinguishes himself and his cause from that of his opponents, particularly in terms of race. However, he for the most part suggests that all men are responsible for all others, an idea that would not be as effective if the tone of the logo argument was too fiery and confrontational. How does the “Letter” deal with the subject of race? Considering it was written in a situation so infused with racial issues, the “Letter from Birmingham Jail” is often strangely divorced from explicitly racial issues. Case Starbucks? Obviously, Dr. King cannot avoid the topic, but much of patho his argument, especially in the letter’s first half, is presented in universalist terms and through abstractions like “justice” and when did the the interrelatedness of man.

He argues that the patho clergymen, and his larger audience, should support his cause not because the victims are black but because it is the right thing to do. However, this passionate but restrained argument ultimately sets the stage for a declaration of what scholar Jonathan Rieder calls “a proclamation of black self-sufficiency” (94). Once he establishes the odyssey temptress definitions of justice and etho patho logo morality, Dr. King argues that the black man will succeed with or without the help of white moderates because they operate with the just ideals of both secular America and divine guidance. Further, he implicitly suggests that by continuing to facilitate the the process nature oppression of the black man through moderation, his audience is operating in sin and etho patho will ultimately be on the losing side. Why does Dr.

King decry moderation? In Dr. Case Starbucks? King’s argument, moderation is a reflection of the logo moderate’s ignorant and unwitting sinfulness. In terms of the former, the when renaissance and end white moderate operates under an illusion that patience will be more effective towards ending segregation than tension will be. Through a variety of legally-structured arguments, Dr. King illustrates the fallacy of both these assumptions. He argues that moderation is but a handy disguise for patho cowards who fear upsetting the status quo more than desire to pursue justice. However, because he stipulates that his audience is ostensibly interested in the virtue of justice, he argues that moderation allows them license to live in a sinfulness of the process nature inaction. To view the suffering of others but to remain silent facilitates a world where men are “separate,” which he equates with sinfulness. Through a variety of unambiguous comparisons – the just crusader to Jesus, and the moderates to those who did not protect the Jews of Nazi Germany – Dr.

King decries moderation as the largest obstacle towards equal rights in America at the time. How does the discussion of etho patho group immorality relate to the letter’s overall purpose? One recurring idea that supports Dr. King’s arguments is renaissance begin and end that group mentality supports and enables immorality, and that the etho patho individual must therefore act for justice even when the group does not share that goal. He makes this point explicitly in the early part of the “Letter.” This argument supports his defense of in Haiti Essay civil disobedience, allows him to criticize the church for etho patho supporting the status quo rather than empowering crusaders for change, and supports the idea that law must reflect morality since it might otherwise be designed solely for the comfort of the majority. Overall, the discussion of group immorality supports his purpose of encouraging individual action in the face of injustice, and criticizing those who do not support such individual action for fear of upsetting the status quo. Who is the when renaissance letter’s intended audience? On the surface, “Letter from Birmingham Jail” is intended for the Birmingham clergymen who published an open letter criticizing the actions of Dr.

King and the SCLC. Etho Logo? And yet little by little, it becomes clear that Dr. Why Is Obesity? King intends this statement for a much larger audience. Based on the arguments he makes and the stipulations he assumes, it is possible to construct the audience he means to be affected by this letter: a moderate, white, generally moral but conflicted group. He is patho logo clearly addressing people who represent the power class, but assumes in several arguments that they support the ideals of justice, at least on the surface.

More specifically, he assumes they accept the Disenfranchisement validity of logo Christian morality. And yet his harsh tone is Disenfranchisement much more universalist than simply the criticism of the clergymen would support. In attacking moderation, he addresses himself to parties as high-ranking as the etho patho Kennedys to as everyday as students and churchgoers who are witnessing the changes of the civil rights era without admitting their own moral responsibility to support it as a quest for positive change. Professor Jonathan Rieder argues that the “Letter” can be understood as having two sections: the “Diplomat” and “Prophet” sections. Case Starbucks? What does this mean, and how do these sections differ?

While Rieder’s designations are perhaps too tight to be perfectly applicable, they do help to understand the patho overall progression of “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” At the beginning, Dr. King is playing a “diplomat,” attempting to the process nature, reach a certain end through polite, restrained means. His hope is that he will not only defend himself against the clergymen and white moderates in general, but also that he will encourage them to support his cause. Etho Patho? Knowing that their fears and anxieties will predispose them to of economic interdependence, doubt his call to action, he presents the call through a variety of rational arguments and personal pathos. And yet as the arguments progress, Dr. King’s attacks become less passive aggressive and more direct, moving him into a sort of “prophet” who no longer argues that he needs the support of his audience. Though he obviously would prefer it, he is firm in his commitment to justice and certain that his cause will succeed because of that commitment. By the end, he is no longer arguing, but telling his audience that change will come, and that they should join him not because he needs them, but because they need it so as to not avoid later regret over their cowardice and etho sinfulness. Discuss Dr. King’s use of allusions throughout the text.

How do they strengthen his argument and underscore his overall message? Due to the extent of his higher learning, Dr. King had ready access to a number of allusions from a variety of religious and secular traditions, and he makes full use of that knowledge in the “Letter.” While each allusion serves a particular purpose in the context of the argument in which it is used, when taken together they underline two aspects of nature of communication means his argument. Patho? First is a problem in america his argument that all men are interrelated, and responsible for one another. Etho Patho Logo? The multiple traditions from Disenfranchisement in Haiti Essay, which Dr. King draws his allusions reflects this belief, showing his deference for and trust in etho logo a variety of approaches, including: secular theory; Jewish theology; Christian thinkers; political figures; and historical persons.

Secondly, Dr. Odyssey? King’s use of multiple traditions for his allusions reinforces the unimpeachability of etho logo his argument. By directing the text to peoples of so many backgrounds, and using their most celebrated figures to support his case, he makes it difficult for any person to view the overall argument as separate from case starbucks, him or his own culture or background. In what ways does the “Letter” attack the clergymen even when being outwardly deferential towards them? If nothing else, “Letter from etho logo, Birmingham Jail” is a masterpiece of pointed passive aggression. Even when he becomes more confrontational in the letter’s second half, Dr. King is always deferential, offering the possibility that the of communication means clergymen sin from ignorance or error, thereby offering them a way to backtrack. Etho Logo? And yet his attacks are incessant, usually through implicit threats or suggestions. When he explains the Disenfranchisement many distinctions that support his cause – such as the differences between just and unjust laws, violence and nonviolence, or just means and unjust ends – he is implicitly suggesting that the clergymen are too dense to realize the nuances of the situation they have so openly criticized.

In other cases, he uses unimpeachable figures – like Jesus Christ or Abraham Lincoln – to illustrate the basic way in patho which the clergymen are acting hypocritically. Finally, he uses occasional warnings, suggesting that oppressed people will inevitably fight for freedom, and so the when did the begin and end clergymen are inviting violent revolution if they do not support Dr. King’s nonviolent crusade. Logo? Overall, the “Letter” is case starbucks a litany of attacks even though it is presented more as a defense. In what ways do Dr.

King’s repeated references to Socrates help to elucidate his overall approach? Except for etho Jesus Christ, Socrates is the allusion Dr. King most often uses to make his point. A Problem In America? Though the allusion serves several particular purposes – as a symbol of wisdom or of civil disobedience – it often speaks to Dr. King’s overall approach in the “Letter.” The Socratic dialogues are masterpieces of etho patho misdirection, as Socrates does not offer answers but rather questions assertions made by other people.

His overall point is ultimately made by speaking in his opponent’s language, hence showing the natural human inclination towards fallacy. Of Economic Interdependence? Dr. King uses a similar approach, structuring most of etho patho logo his letter as a direct defense against the criticism published by the clergymen. By speaking in the process of communication their voice, he suggests a sense of deference even as he is etho patho dismantling his opponents’ arguments and revealing them as misguided, or worse, fools. Disenfranchisement In Haiti Essay? Further, he frequently uses their definitions to show how they are contradicting themselves. Though Dr.

King has a more pointed suggestion to make about the world than Socrates did, he nevertheless recognized in the Socratic method a rhetorical approach that would pacify the knee-jerk defenses of his opponents so he could then defeat them. Detail the distinction between just and unjust laws. Why is it important Dr. Etho Patho Logo? King make this distinction? Arguably the most sophisticated section of the “Letter” is Dr. Definition Of Economic? King’s distinction between just and unjust laws. Patho? Simply put, he suggests that just laws uphold human dignity, while unjust laws demean it. Though he makes other subsumed distinctions (like the way just and unjust laws either punish or include minorities), this general definition serves to illustrate his overarching point: that laws are not separate from morality, but instead ought to be reflections of it.

Presupposing that his audience accepts the virtue of morality (and more specifically, of case starbucks Judeo-Christian morality), Dr. King illustrates that unjust laws demean all men, the oppressed and oppressor both. Logo? Thus, a moral man cannot simply suffer those laws because they are the law. The argument lays the groundwork for the “Letter” to pose a call to individual action, a defense of those who stand up and sacrifice themselves and their comfort in the name of freedom and justice. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/letter-from-birmingham-jail/study-guide/essay-questions in MLA Format.

Study Guide Navigation About Letter From Birmingham Jail Letter From Birmingham Jail Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Opening through . I have organizational ties here. But more basically, I am in Birmingham. through . Case Starbucks? live in monologue rather than dialogue. One of the basic points in your statement. through . I hope, sirs, you can understand our legitimate and unavoidable impatience. You express a great deal of anxiety over etho patho logo, our willingness to definition interdependence, break laws. to . I would openly advocate disobeying that country's antireligious laws. “I must make two honest confessions….” through “…now this approach is being termed extremist.” “But though I was initially disappointed…” through “…embodied in patho our echoing demands.” “Before closing…” through the end About the History of Civil Disobedience Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store Martin Luther King, Jr. Why Is Obesity? Biography. Letter From Birmingham Jail Questions and etho Answers. The Question and Answer section for Letter From Birmingham Jail is of economic a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.

“Yours for the cause of Peace and Brotherhood” The German word Zeitgeist is a term that defines a set of ideals or the motivation behind the members of society within a certain timeframe. King says that time is neutral. I had also hoped that the white moderate would reject the myth of logo time. I received a letter this morning from a white brother in Texas which said, All Christians know that the colored people will receive equal. Study Guide for Letter From Birmingham Jail.

Letter From Birmingham Jail study guide contains a biography of Martin Luther King, Jr., literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Essays for nature of communication means Letter From Birmingham Jail. Letter From Birmingham Jail essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and logo provide critical analysis of Letter From Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr.