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rough draft thesis This is “Creating a Rough Draft for a Research Paper”, section 12.1 from the pakistan tourism book Successful Writing (v. 1.0). For details on it (including licensing), click here. This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0 license.
See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to retainer preserve the availability of this book. Normally, the author and tourism publisher would be credited here. However, the publisher has asked for lipton tea bags the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and pakistan book URI to retainer for overbite be removed. Pakistan Tourism? Additionally, per the publisher's request, their name has been removed in elaboration likelihood, some passages.
More information is available on this project's attribution page. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. More details on the process are available in this blog post. For more information on pakistan tourism the source of elaboration this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. You can browse or download additional books there. You may also download a PDF copy of pakistan tourism this book (47 MB) or just this chapter (3 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). 12.1 Creating a Rough Draft for a Research Paper. Apply strategies for elaboration likelihood drafting an effective introduction and conclusion. Pakistan Tourism? Identify when and how to summarize, paraphrase, and directly quote information from research sources. Apply guidelines for citing sources within the body of the franz ferdinand paper and the bibliography.
Use primary and secondary research to support ideas. Identify the purposes for pakistan which writers use each type of uk research. At last, you are ready to begin writing the rough draft of your research paper. Putting your thinking and research into pakistan tourism, words is exciting. It can also be challenging. In this section, you will learn strategies for tea bags uk handling the pakistan tourism more challenging aspects of retainer writing a research paper, such as integrating material from your sources, citing information correctly, and avoiding any misuse of your sources. The Structure of a Research Paper. Research papers generally follow the same basic structure: an introduction that presents the writer’s thesis, a body section that develops the thesis with supporting points and evidence, and a conclusion that revisits the thesis and provides additional insights or suggestions for further research.
Your writing voice will come across most strongly in your introduction and conclusion, as you work to attract your readers’ interest and establish your thesis. These sections usually do not cite sources at length. They focus on the big picture, not specific details. In contrast, the body of your paper will cite sources extensively. As you present your ideas, you will support your points with details from your research. There are several approaches to writing an introduction, each of which fulfills the pakistan tourism same goals. Piece Of Mind Meaning? The introduction should get readers’ attention, provide background information, and present the writer’s thesis.
Many writers like to begin with one of the following catchy openers: A surprising fact A thought-provoking question An attention-getting quote A brief anecdote that illustrates a larger concept A connection between your topic and your readers’ experiences. The next few sentences place the opening in context by presenting background information. From there, the writer builds toward a thesis, which is traditionally placed at the end of the tourism introduction. Think of your thesis as a signpost that lets readers know in what direction the paper is headed.
Jorge decided to begin his research paper by connecting his topic to readers’ daily experiences. Read the first draft of dry british his introduction. The thesis is underlined. Note how Jorge progresses from the tourism opening sentences to background information to for overbite his thesis. Beyond the tourism Hype: Evaluating Low-Carb Diets. Over the retainer for overbite past decade, increasing numbers of Americans have jumped on the low-carb bandwagon. Some studies estimate that approximately 40 million Americans, or about 20 percent of the tourism population, are attempting to restrict their intake of food high in piece of mind meaning, carbohydrates (Sanders and Katz, 2004; Hirsch, 2004). Proponents of low-carb diets say they are not only the pakistan most effective way to retainer lose weight, but they also yield health benefits such as lower blood pressure and improved cholesterol levels. Meanwhile, some doctors claim that low-carb diets are overrated and pakistan caution that their long-term effects are unknown. Although following a low-carbohydrate diet can benefit some people, these diets are not necessarily the best option for everyone who wants to likelihood lose weight or improve their health.
Write the introductory paragraph of your research paper. Try using one of the tourism techniques listed in this section to write an lipton tea bags, engaging introduction. Be sure to include background information about the topic that leads to your thesis. Writers often work out of sequence when writing a research paper. If you find yourself struggling to write an tourism, engaging introduction, you may wish to humor write the body of pakistan your paper first. Writing the body sections first will help you clarify your main points.
Writing the introduction should then be easier. You may have a better sense of how to retainer introduce the pakistan paper after you have drafted some or all of the body. In your introduction, you tell readers where they are headed. In your conclusion, you recap where they have been. For this reason, some writers prefer to write their conclusions soon after they have written their introduction. However, this method may not work for all writers. Other writers prefer to elaboration write their conclusion at the end of the paper, after writing the body paragraphs. No process is absolutely right or absolutely wrong; find the tourism one that best suits you. No matter when you compose the conclusion, it should sum up your main ideas and revisit your thesis. The conclusion should not simply echo the tea bags uk introduction or rely on bland summary statements, such as “In this paper, I have demonstrated that.…” In fact, avoid repeating your thesis verbatim from the introduction. Restate it in pakistan, different words that reflect the new perspective gained through your research.
That helps keep your ideas fresh for your readers. Humor? An effective writer might conclude a paper by pakistan asking a new question the ferdinand research inspired, revisiting an anecdote presented earlier, or reminding readers of how the topic relates to their lives. If your job involves writing or reading scientific papers, it helps to understand how professional researchers use the structure described in this section. A scientific paper begins with an abstract that briefly summarizes the entire paper. Pakistan? The introduction explains the purpose of the research, briefly summarizes previous research, and presents the researchers’ hypothesis. Piece? The body provides details about the study, such as who participated in pakistan tourism, it, what the researchers measured, and what results they recorded. The conclusion presents the researchers’ interpretation of the data, or what they learned.
Using Source Material in Your Paper. One of the change in retained challenges of writing a research paper is successfully integrating your ideas with material from tourism, your sources. Your paper must explain what you think, or it will read like a disconnected string of humor facts and quotations. However, you also need to support your ideas with research, or they will seem insubstantial. Tourism? How do you strike the franz ww1 right balance? You have already taken a step in the right direction by writing your introduction.
The introduction and conclusion function like the frame around a picture. They define and limit your topic and place your research in context. In the body paragraphs of your paper, you will need to integrate ideas carefully at the paragraph level and at the sentence level. You will use topic sentences in your paragraphs to make sure readers understand the significance of any facts, details, or quotations you cite. Pakistan? You will also include sentences that transition between ideas from your research, either within a paragraph or between paragraphs. Humor? At the sentence level, you will need to think carefully about how you introduce paraphrased and quoted material. Earlier you learned about summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting when taking notes. In the next few sections, you will learn how to use these techniques in the body of your paper to weave in source material to support your ideas. When you summarize To concisely restate in one’s own words the main ideas from a source. material from a source, you zero in on the main points and restate them concisely in your own words.
This technique is pakistan, appropriate when only the major ideas are relevant to humor your paper or when you need to simplify complex information into a few key points for tourism your readers. Be sure to review the source material as you summarize it. Identify the piece of mind meaning main idea and restate it as concisely as you can—preferably in one sentence. Tourism? Depending on change your purpose, you may also add another sentence or two condensing any important details or examples. Check your summary to make sure it is pakistan, accurate and franz ferdinand complete. In his draft, Jorge summarized research materials that presented scientists’ findings about low-carbohydrate diets. Read the pakistan following passage from a trade magazine article and Jorge’s summary of the uk article.
Assessing the Efficacy of Low-Carbohydrate Diets. Adrienne Howell, Ph.D. Over the past few years, a number of clinical studies have explored whether high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets are more effective for weight loss than other frequently recommended diet plans, such as diets that drastically curtail fat intake (Pritikin) or that emphasize consuming lean meats, grains, vegetables, and a moderate amount of unsaturated fats (the Mediterranean diet). A 2009 study found that obese teenagers who followed a low-carbohydrate diet lost an average of 15.6 kilograms over a six-month period, whereas teenagers following a low-fat diet or a Mediterranean diet lost an average of 11.1 kilograms and 9.3 kilograms respectively. Two 2010 studies that measured weight loss for obese adults following these same three diet plans found similar results.
Over three months, subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet plan lost anywhere from four to six kilograms more than subjects who followed other diet plans. In three recent studies, researchers compared outcomes for obese subjects who followed either a low-carbohydrate diet, a low-fat diet, or a Mediterranean diet and found that subjects following a low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight in the same time (Howell, 2010). A summary restates ideas in your own words—but for specialized or clinical terms, you may need to use terms that appear in the original source. Pakistan Tourism? For instance, Jorge used the term obese in his summary because related words such as heavy or overweight have a different clinical meaning. On a separate sheet of paper, practice summarizing by writing a one-sentence summary of the same passage that Jorge already summarized. When you paraphrase To restate ideas or information from sources using one’s own words and sentence structures. material from a source, restate the lipton uk information from an pakistan tourism, entire sentence or passage in your own words, using your own original sentence structure. A paraphrased source differs from a summarized source in that you focus on restating the ideas, not condensing them. Again, it is important to check your paraphrase against the source material to make sure it is both accurate and original.
Inexperienced writers sometimes use the thesaurus method of likelihood paraphrasing—that is, they simply rewrite the source material, replacing most of the tourism words with synonyms. Lipton Tea Bags? This constitutes a misuse of sources. A true paraphrase restates ideas using the writer’s own language and style. In his draft, Jorge frequently paraphrased details from sources. At times, he needed to rewrite a sentence more than once to ensure he was paraphrasing ideas correctly. Read the passage from a website. Then read Jorge’s initial attempt at paraphrasing it, followed by the final version of his paraphrase. Dieters nearly always get great results soon after they begin following a low-carbohydrate diet, but these results tend to taper off after the pakistan first few months, particularly because many dieters find it difficult to follow a low-carbohydrate diet plan consistently. People usually see encouraging outcomes shortly after they go on piece meaning a low-carbohydrate diet, but their progress slows down after a short while, especially because most discover that it is pakistan tourism, a challenge to ferdinand adhere to the diet strictly (Heinz, 2009).
After reviewing the paraphrased sentence, Jorge realized he was following the original source too closely. He did not want to quote the full passage verbatim, so he again attempted to restate the idea in his own style. Because it is hard for dieters to stick to a low-carbohydrate eating plan, the pakistan tourism initial success of these diets is short-lived (Heinz, 2009). On a separate sheet of likelihood paper, follow these steps to practice paraphrasing. Choose an important idea or detail from your notes. Without looking at pakistan the original source, restate the idea in your own words. Check your paraphrase against ferdinand ww1, the original text in the source. Make sure both your language and your sentence structure are original. Revise your paraphrase if necessary.
Most of the time, you will summarize or paraphrase source material instead of pakistan tourism quoting directly. Doing so shows that you understand your research well enough to write about it confidently in your own words. However, direct quotes can be powerful when used sparingly and with purpose. Quoting directly can sometimes help you make a point in a colorful way. If an author’s words are especially vivid, memorable, or well phrased, quoting them may help hold your reader’s interest. Direct quotations from an interviewee or an eyewitness may help you personalize an issue for readers. And when you analyze primary sources, such as a historical speech or a work of for overbite literature, quoting extensively is often necessary to illustrate your points. These are valid reasons to use quotations. Less experienced writers, however, sometimes overuse direct quotations in a research paper because it seems easier than paraphrasing. Tourism? At best, this reduces the effectiveness of the quotations.
At worst, it results in a paper that seems haphazardly pasted together from outside sources. Lipton Tea Bags Uk? Use quotations sparingly for greater impact. When you do choose to quote directly from a source, follow these guidelines: Make sure you have transcribed the original statement accurately. Represent the tourism author’s ideas honestly. Quote enough of the original text to reflect the author’s point accurately. Elaboration Likelihood? Never use a stand-alone quotation. Always integrate the pakistan quoted material into humor, your own sentence. Use ellipses (…) if you need to pakistan tourism omit a word or phrase.
Use brackets [ ] if you need to replace a word or phrase. Make sure any omissions or changed words do not alter the meaning of the change original text. Omit or replace words only when absolutely necessary to shorten the text or to make it grammatically correct within your sentence. Remember to pakistan include correctly formatted citations that follow the assigned style guide. Jorge interviewed a dietician as part of his research, and he decided to quote her words in ferdinand ww1, his paper. Read an excerpt from the interview and Jorge’s use of it, which follows. Personally, I don’t really buy into pakistan, all of the piece hype about low-carbohydrate miracle diets like Atkins and so on. Sure, for some people, they are great, but for most, any sensible eating and exercise plan would work just as well. Registered dietician Dana Kwon (2010) admits, “Personally, I don’t really buy into all of the hype.…Sure, for pakistan tourism some people, [low-carbohydrate diets] are great, but for most, any sensible eating and exercise plan would work just as well.”. Notice how Jorge smoothly integrated the quoted material by starting the sentence with an meaning, introductory phrase.
His use of ellipses and brackets did not change the source’s meaning. Throughout the writing process, be scrupulous about documenting information taken from sources. The purpose of doing so is twofold: To give credit to other writers or researchers for their ideas To allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired. You will cite sources within the body of tourism your paper and at the end of the paper in piece of mind, your bibliography. For this assignment, you will use the citation format used by the American Psychological Association (also known as APA style). For information on the format used by tourism the Modern Language Association (MLA style), see Chapter 13 APA and in retained earnings MLA Documentation and pakistan Formatting. Citing Sources in the Body of Your Paper.
In-text citations Instances in which use of source material is documented in the body text of the research paper. In-text citations must have corresponding sources listed in the references section. document your sources within the body of your paper. These include two vital pieces of information: the author’s name and the year the likelihood source material was published. When quoting a print source, also include in the citation the pakistan page number where the quoted material originally appears. The page number will follow the year in the in-text citation. Page numbers are necessary only when content has been directly quoted, not when it has been summarized or paraphrased.
Within a paragraph, this information may appear as part of your introduction to the material or as a parenthetical citation at of mind the end of a sentence. Pakistan Tourism? Read the examples that follow. For more information about in-text citations for piece other source types, see Chapter 13 APA and MLA Documentation and pakistan tourism Formatting. Leibowitz (2008) found that low-carbohydrate diets often helped subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels. The introduction to the source material includes the author’s name followed by piece the year of publication in parentheses.
Low-carbohydrate diets often help subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels (Leibowitz, 2008). The parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence includes the author’s name, a comma, and the year the source was published. The period at tourism the end of the sentence comes after the parentheses. Each of the sources you cite in the body text will appear in retainer, a references list A list of sources used in a research paper that provides detailed bibliographical information. at the end of your paper. While in-text citations provide the pakistan tourism most basic information about the source, your references section will include additional publication details. In general, you will include the following information: The author’s last name followed by his or her first (and sometimes middle) initial The year the source was published The source title For articles in periodicals, the full name of the periodical, along with the volume and issue number and the pages where the article appeared. Additional information may be included for different types of sources, such as online sources.
For a detailed guide to APA or MLA citations, see Chapter 13 APA and MLA Documentation and ferdinand ww1 Formatting. A sample reference list is provided with the tourism final draft of dry british Jorge’s paper later in this chapter. Using Primary and Secondary Research. As you write your draft, be mindful of how you are using primary and secondary source material to support your points. Recall that primary sources present firsthand information.
Secondary sources are one step removed from pakistan, primary sources. They present a writer’s analysis or interpretation of primary source materials. How you balance primary and secondary source material in your paper will depend on lipton tea bags the topic and assignment. Using Primary Sources Effectively. Some types of research papers must use primary sources extensively to achieve their purpose. Any paper that analyzes a primary text or presents the writer’s own experimental research falls in this category. Here are a few examples:
A paper for pakistan tourism a literature course analyzing several poems by Emily Dickinson A paper for a political science course comparing televised speeches delivered by two presidential candidates A paper for dry british humor a communications course discussing gender biases in television commercials A paper for a business administration course that discusses the results of tourism a survey the writer conducted with local businesses to gather information about their work-from-home and flextime policies A paper for an elementary education course that discusses the results of an experiment the writer conducted to compare the effectiveness of two different methods of mathematics instruction. For these types of papers, primary research is the main focus. If you are writing about a work (including nonprint works, such as a movie or a painting), it is crucial to humor gather information and ideas from the original work, rather than relying solely on others’ interpretations. Pakistan Tourism? And, of course, if you take the time to design and conduct your own field research, such as a survey, a series of interviews, or an experiment, you will want to discuss it in detail. For example, the interviews may provide interesting responses that you want to share with your reader. Using Secondary Sources Effectively. For some assignments, it makes sense to rely more on secondary sources than primary sources. If you are not analyzing a text or conducting your own field research, you will need to use secondary sources extensively. As much as possible, use secondary sources that are closely linked to primary research, such as a journal article presenting the results of the for overbite authors’ scientific study or a book that cites interviews and case studies. Tourism? These sources are more reliable and add more value to your paper than sources that are further removed from primary research. For instance, a popular magazine article on junk-food addiction might be several steps removed from the original scientific study on which it is loosely based.
As a result, the article may distort, sensationalize, or misinterpret the scientists’ findings. Even if your paper is largely based on primary sources, you may use secondary sources to develop your ideas. For instance, an analysis of Alfred Hitchcock’s films would focus on the films themselves as a primary source, but might also cite commentary from critics. A paper that presents an original experiment would include some discussion of similar prior research in the field. Jorge knew he did not have the time, resources, or experience needed to conduct original experimental research for his paper. Lipton Tea Bags Uk? Because he was relying on secondary sources to support his ideas, he made a point of citing sources that were not far removed from primary research.
Some sources could be considered primary or secondary sources, depending on tourism the writer’s purpose for elaboration likelihood using them. Pakistan Tourism? For instance, if a writer’s purpose is to inform readers about how the No Child Left Behind legislation has affected elementary education, a Time magazine article on the subject would be a secondary source. However, suppose the dry british writer’s purpose is to analyze how the news media has portrayed the effects of the No Child Left Behind legislation. In that case, articles about the legislation in news magazines like Time , Newsweek , and pakistan US News World Report would be primary sources. They provide firsthand examples of the media coverage the writer is analyzing. Your research paper presents your thinking about a topic, supported and developed by other people’s ideas and information.
It is crucial to always distinguish between the two—as you conduct research, as you plan your paper, and dry british humor as you write. Failure to do so can lead to plagiarism. Intentional and pakistan Accidental Plagiarism. Plagiarism The practice of using someone’s words or ideas without acknowledging the change source. Pakistan? Plagiarism may be deliberate or may occur unintentionally through careless use of source material. is the act of misrepresenting someone else’s work as your own. Sometimes a writer plagiarizes work on purpose—for instance, by purchasing an essay from a website and submitting it as original course work. Dry British? In other cases, a writer may commit accidental plagiarism due to pakistan tourism carelessness, haste, or misunderstanding. To avoid unintentional plagiarism, follow these guidelines:
Understand what types of information must be cited. Understand what constitutes fair use of a source. For Overbite? Keep source materials and pakistan notes carefully organized. Follow guidelines for retainer for overbite summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting sources. Any idea or fact taken from an pakistan, outside source must be cited, in both the body of your paper and the references list. The only exceptions are facts or general statements that are common knowledge. Common-knowledge facts or general statements are commonly supported by and found in retainer for overbite, multiple sources. For example, a writer would not need to cite the statement that most breads, pastas, and cereals are high in carbohydrates; this is well known and well documented. However, if a writer explained in detail the tourism differences among the chemical structures of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, a citation would be necessary. When in doubt, cite.
In recent years, issues related to the fair use of sources have been prevalent in popular culture. Recording artists, for example, may disagree about the extent to which one has the right to sample another’s music. For academic purposes, however, the dry british guidelines for fair use are reasonably straightforward. Writers may quote from or paraphrase material from previously published works without formally obtaining the copyright holder’s permission. Fair use A legitimate use of pakistan tourism brief quotations from source material to support and develop a writer’s ideas. means that the uk writer legitimately uses brief excerpts from source material to support and tourism develop his or her own ideas. For instance, a columnist may excerpt a few sentences from a novel when writing a book review.
However, quoting or paraphrasing another’s work at franz ww1 excessive length, to the extent that large sections of the writing are unoriginal, is not fair use. As he worked on his draft, Jorge was careful to cite his sources correctly and not to rely excessively on any one source. Occasionally, however, he caught himself quoting a source at tourism great length. In those instances, he highlighted the elaboration likelihood paragraph in question so that he could go back to it later and revise. Pakistan? Read the example, along with Jorge’s revision. Heinz (2009) found that “subjects in change, the low-carbohydrate group (30% carbohydrates; 40% protein, 30% fat) had a mean weight loss of 10 kg (22 lbs) over a 4-month period.” These results were “noticeably better than results for subjects on a low-fat diet (45% carbohydrates, 35% protein, 20% fat)” whose average weight loss was only “7 kg (15.4 lbs) in the same period.” From this, it can be concluded that “low-carbohydrate diets obtain more rapid results.” Other researchers agree that “at least in the short term, patients following low-carbohydrate diets enjoy greater success” than those who follow alternative plans (Johnson Crowe, 2010). After reviewing the paragraph, Jorge realized that he had drifted into unoriginal writing. Tourism? Most of the paragraph was taken verbatim from uk, a single article. Although Jorge had enclosed the material in quotation marks, he knew it was not an pakistan, appropriate way to use the piece meaning research in his paper. Low-carbohydrate diets may indeed be superior to other diet plans for short-term weight loss.
In a study comparing low-carbohydrate diets and low-fat diets, Heinz (2009) found that subjects who followed a low-carbohydrate plan (30% of total calories) for 4 months lost, on average, about 3 kilograms more than subjects who followed a low-fat diet for the same time. Heinz concluded that these plans yield quick results, an idea supported by a similar study conducted by Johnson and tourism Crowe (2010). What remains to be seen, however, is whether this initial success can be sustained for longer periods. As Jorge revised the paragraph, he realized he did not need to quote these sources directly. Instead, he paraphrased their most important findings. He also made sure to include a topic sentence stating the retainer main idea of the tourism paragraph and a concluding sentence that transitioned to the next major topic in his essay. Disorganization and carelessness sometimes lead to elaboration likelihood plagiarism.
For instance, a writer may be unable to provide a complete, accurate citation if he didn’t record bibliographical information. Pakistan? A writer may cut and paste a passage from a website into her paper and later forget where the material came from. A writer who procrastinates may rush through a draft, which easily leads to elaboration sloppy paraphrasing and inaccurate quotations. Any of pakistan these actions can create the appearance of plagiarism and lead to of mind meaning negative consequences. Carefully organizing your time and notes is the tourism best guard against these forms of change earnings plagiarism. Pakistan Tourism? Maintain a detailed working bibliography and thorough notes throughout the research process. Check original sources again to uk clear up any uncertainties. Pakistan Tourism? Allow plenty of time for writing your draft so there is no temptation to cut corners. Citing other people’s work appropriately is for overbite, just as important in tourism, the workplace as it is in school.
If you need to for overbite consult outside sources to research a document you are creating, follow the general guidelines already discussed, as well as any industry-specific citation guidelines. For more extensive use of others’ work—for instance, requesting permission to link to pakistan tourism another company’s website on your own corporate website—always follow your employer’s established procedures. The concepts and change in retained strategies discussed in this section of Chapter 12 Writing a Research Paper connect to tourism a larger issue—academic integrity. Retainer? You maintain your integrity as a member of an academic community by representing your work and pakistan tourism others’ work honestly and by using other people’s work only in legitimately accepted ways. It is a point of likelihood honor taken seriously in every academic discipline and career field. Academic integrity violations have serious educational and professional consequences.
Even when cheating and plagiarism go undetected, they still result in a student’s failure to tourism learn necessary research and change in retained writing skills. Pakistan Tourism? Students who are found guilty of change academic integrity violations face consequences ranging from a failing grade to expulsion from the university. Employees may be fired for plagiarism and do irreparable damage to their professional reputation. In short, it is never worth the risk.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. Pakistan Tourism? When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and retainer accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and pakistan tourism tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job.
Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of retainer for overbite, your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to tourism, highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to humor, tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Tourism? Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only retainer, sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of pakistan, this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the retainer, Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in pakistan tourism the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and piece meaning accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume.
This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on pakistan tourism putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . Retainer For Overbite? According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the tourism, get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the lipton tea bags, good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet.
Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the pakistan, skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to dry british, one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the tourism, same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to elaboration likelihood, fit more in pakistan less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and dry british humor then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and tourism design?
Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and change in retained earnings the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an pakistan ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10.
Make Your Contact Info Prominent. Retainer For Overbite? You don’t need to include your address on tourism your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for humor, prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. Tourism? So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the meaning, most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right!
13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Pakistan Tourism? As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and for overbite only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. Pakistan Tourism? And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to change in retained, importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to pakistan, the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience?
No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Likelihood? Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the tourism, recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Change Earnings? Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the pakistan, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to for overbite, be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to pakistan, all of them.
Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to of mind, picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at tourism your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to change earnings, your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by pakistan, hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out tea bags, these tips for pakistan, turning your duties into accomplishments . In Retained Earnings? Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of pakistan, meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an of mind “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about tourism how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the elaboration, result you’re going for!
20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on tourism your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the likelihood, job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in tourism applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and ferdinand ww1 spit out the most used keywords.
What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Pakistan Tourism? We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the likelihood, job than where you went to tourism, college.
25. Retainer? Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by tourism, listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to dry british humor, grab the reviewer’s attention. Tourism? Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about franz whether or not you have the pakistan, degree than when you earned it. Piece Of Mind Meaning? If you graduated from pakistan tourism college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to piece of mind, list your GPA, don’t be afraid to pakistan, showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at lipton your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education.
Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and pakistan your participation in dry british humor them can actually show your determination and motivation to pakistan tourism, get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Change In Retained? Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Tourism? If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out retainer for overbite, one of those sections and listing it on pakistan its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Dry British? Again—we’re going for pakistan, skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on dry british your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company?
Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns.
Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by tourism, someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the retainer, decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and pakistan tourism accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the uk, company’s top sales record four quarters in tourism a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the humor, proper ways to pakistan, include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to franz ferdinand, The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of pakistan, a few months in your work history, don’t list the retainer for overbite, usual start and tourism end dates for franz, each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the pakistan, number of piece meaning, years or months you worked at your earlier positions. Pakistan Tourism? If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the tea bags uk, gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue.
Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at pakistan tourism the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on ferdinand ww1 your resume. Pakistan Tourism? For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on change in retained your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to pakistan tourism, take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to retainer, address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). Pakistan? It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is elaboration free and clear of typos.
And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on pakistan tourism how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of retainer, HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in tourism both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and elaboration open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to tourism, take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates.
Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape.
Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is change in retained earnings a freelance writer, editor, and pakistan content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on franz ww1 the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to pakistan tourism, tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out dry british humor, all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Essay on the Early Warning Scoring System (EWS) The Early Warning Scoring System (EWS) was developed by pakistan tourism Morgan et al in 1997 with the aim of ferdinand, providing a simple scoring system which could be readily applied by pakistan tourism nurses and doctors to help identify patients developing critical illness.’Early warning scores have been developed to uk, facilitate early detection of deterioration by categorising the pakistan tourism patient’s severity of illness and prompting nursing staff to in retained, request a medical review at specific trigger points utilising structured communication tools whilst following a definitive escalation plan’.(Mitchell IA, McKay H, Van Leuvan C, et al. 2010). The observations in this scoring system should include six simple physiological factors; heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, systolic blood pressure, oxygen saturations, level of consciousness. The use of early warning tools has been recommended by pakistan the Critical Care Outreach report published in 2003 and later advocated in the National Institute in Clinical Excellence (NICE)Clinical guidance 50 ‘Acutely ill hospital patient’ suggesting these tools enhance equity in care by ensuring timely recognition of all patients with potential or established critical illness and their treatment by individuals with appropriate skills, knowledge and experience to treat the patient effectively. The purposes of the EWS are to ensure to assess the patients accurately with the clinical parameters which should be followed by retainer calculating accurately and documenting the changes of EWS on the observation chart. Accurate communication is necessary to escalate the patient deterioration.
Timely and appropriate intervention should be carried out following protocol will minimise the risk, improve patient safety and experience, it also important to record the response to the changes of EWS in patient documents. Aim and Importance of monitoring Early Warning Score. ‘The Department of pakistan, Health (DH) has recommended the use of early warning systems as best practice for clinical observations since the publication of Comprehensive Critical Care'(DH 2000). National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD 2005) further approved this recommendation to emphasise that every inpatient should have an early warning score recorded. NICE (2007) stated: ‘Staff caring for patients in acute hospital settings should have competencies in monitoring, measurement, interpretation and prompt response to the acutely ill patient and they should be assessed to ensure that they can demonstrate them.’ The EWS should be calculated as part of franz ferdinand ww1, initial and ongoing vital signs assessment and to tourism, be connected with appropriate communication between medical, nursing and other health professional staff. The main aim of EWS is to achieve appropriate and adequate medical review. For Overbite? ‘A consensus on acceptable physiological parameters for an individual patient and provide a monitoring plan that will prompt medical review where required’ (NICE 2007).’ Early Warning Scores are the signal for acute deterioration in clinical condition'(Gao 2007). The policy and guidelines are modified to create a standardized approach to pakistan tourism, the assessment and change earnings recording of pakistan, vital signs to assure timely and prompt intervention when patients require medical intervention. Early recognition of critically ill patients can improve patient safety and may even lower hospital mortality (Godhill 1999). In order to identify the critically ill, many scoring systems have been developed (Gao 2007). Elaboration Likelihood? These scores use periodic observation of pakistan tourism, physical signs, including vital signs, carried out by nursing staff. Earnings? These parameters are used to calculate score, and a response is required if the predefined threshold is pakistan, exceeded.
Catastrophic deterioration of patients is frequently preceded by of mind meaning documented deterioration of physiological parameters (Sax 1987]. Failure of clinical staff to respond to deterioration of pakistan tourism, physiological function and to uk, increase levels of medical intervention will put patients at risk of cardio-respiratory arrest. The physiological variables which can be assisted clinically remain the pakistan tourism fast and the simplest way for patient evaluation. ‘The modified early warning Score (MEWS) is a physiological scoring system that can be used as a useful screening tool to predict the ferdinand high risk patients who have high probability to develop cardio respiratory arrest among the critically ill patients”.(Carberry 2002). ‘The National early warning score (NEWS) provides the basis for a unified and systematic approach to first assessment of acutely ill patients and a simple track and trigger system for monitoring clinical progress for all patients in hospitals’ (RCP 2012). Improving patient safety has been in focus in the recent decades, a goal that can only be accomplished through systematic change. One organized approach is the Rapid Response System (RRS), an effort to pakistan tourism, bring intensive care knowledge outside the walls of the unit. In Retained Earnings? It bridges across specialties and pakistan hierarchies and aims to centre care on the deteriorating patient before irreversible harm occurs. The implementation of an change, RRS is an tourism, evolution that reinforces the importance of paying attention to basic vital signs, a system that empowers the franz ferdinand staff with direct access to critical care expertise and reduces the cardiac arrest and hospital mortality. Severe sepsis was the pakistan condition more identified by this system It may sound simple but is in fact a complex intervention, acting on many levels in the hospital structure. Normal vital signs change with age, sex, weight, exercise tolerance, and overall health.
Hospital structures need to be developed to provide systematic approaches to find and treat deteriorating ward patients before their condition becomes irreversible. ‘A standardised early warning scoring system(SEWS)improved the documentation of change earnings, a range of physiological parameters'(RCP 2012). Failure to rescue. ‘Failure to rescue’ is the inadequate or delayed response to pakistan tourism, clinical deterioration in hospitalized patients. Rapid response systems are a set of hospital-wide interventions that attempt to reduce failure to rescue by improving patient monitoring on general wards and change earnings the reliability of the pakistan response to deterioration by a dedicated Critical Care Outreach Team, Rapid Response Team or Medical Emergency Team. The reliability of such systems depends on the faultless functioning of a ‘chain of survival'(Smith 2010) consisting of high-quality recording of vital signs, the franz ww1 education and mind-set of staff at tourism the bedside to recognize pathological patterns, the reporting of abnormality to the efferent team, a timely and appropriate response by elaboration the latter.
Repeated feedback loops are crucial for an effective functioning of the chain (Subbe and Welch 2013).Repeating effective feedback loops can avoid ‘Failure to rescue”. Standardisation is the friend of patient safety. National Early Warning Score does not indicate many of the underlying system failures. It is clearly documented that the inaccurate assignation of individual vital sign parameters to the correct EWS weighing group and the calculation of the total EWS is prone to significant error. Some of the pakistan tourism Class room studies showed that EWS models based on of mind meaning five physiological parameters, around 40% of tourism, scores were inaccurately calculated which was most commonly underestimating the patient’s risk level. The proposed NEWS scoring system, using all seven parameters, it is likely to be even more calculation errors will happen if it is done manually. Accidents and errors happen in all areas of life. Ann McGinley states that introducing a NEWS system will lead to change, an increased workload on critical care outreach teams as they one of the chain of survivors.
However, using effective early warning systems will help to avoid ‘failure to rescue’ scenarios and also reduce the need for escalation of care into critical care areas. These early interventions have the capability to reduce hospital stay of the patient, reduce morbidity, increase patient survival. The NEWS is based on the VitalPAC Early Warning Score (ViEWS), which is pakistan, already started using in the UK. The RCP Working Group did not consider the handheld devices such as iPad touches, which may improve the management of this vulnerable group of patients. These devices can schedule, capture, alert and franz ferdinand ww1 accurately calculate Early Warning Scores. They can convey the tourism automated messages to senior colleagues and retainer allow to follow the hospital protocols to the needs of individual patients and specialties. They will also improve productivity of pakistan tourism, all clinicians and provide fully auditable saved data. These are the factors where the paper-based systems fail. The RCP is promoting an dry british, approach in pakistan, which patients will continue to suffer the harm which are avoidable. There are some recommendations to adopt a redesigned paper observation chart which represents a missed opportunity to promote a truly innovative and standardised approach to provide high quality care. Lipton Tea Bags? Technological development progresses, we have sophisticated apparatus to use and pakistan diagnostic tools to guide us.
At the same time, something is lost on in retained earnings the way as principles of measuring and even more importantly, understanding basic vital signs are neglected. Complex patients in pakistan tourism, general wards stand at risk of in retained, unrecognized deterioration which can lead to fatal consequences, something that holds little acceptance with today’s enlightened patient population. There is plenty of tourism, evidence that serious adverse events occur to hospital patients and that the majority may be preventable. There are variety of tools have been created and dry british humor implemented in the UK in response to national recommendations in urge of using early warning score systems(NICE 2007) .There are no evidences to support the use of any of these tools (Subbe et al 2007). However, there are many areas experiencing difficulty in using such tools and tourism has reported poor compliance (Oakey and Slade 2006). Problems in using different tools and their reliability and accuracy have also been reported (Subbe et al 2007). There is evidence that acute illness is exacerbated by ‘failure to act’ on recognised changes (Hillman et al, 2001). ‘Analysis of serious patient safety incidents revealed that 11% of ferdinand ww1, deaths were related to pakistan, ‘deterioration not recognised or not acted upon’ (NPSA, 2007). The factors which can fail the process are not monitoring routine observations, not recognising early signs of deterioration, not escalating observations causing concern and not responding to franz ferdinand, concerns appropriately (NPSA, 2007). The monitoring of tourism, urine output is likelihood, very important in many clinical areas. However, urine output is not always estimated or measured accurately at first assessment.
The symptom of pain must be recorded and responded. Pain and its cause usually disturb physiological factors. These disturbances should be triggered in the scoring system. Tourism? Especially post operative patients show symptom of pain and humor they are prone to deteriorate. It may not always generate the physiological disturbances. Tourism? Including measurement of urine output and pain score also will help to recognise patient deterioration. The majority of patients an adverse clinical event is preceded by ferdinand early clinical warning signs. However, these signs are frequently not recognized, misinterpreted or not properly treated. In acute hospital settings all clinical staff should have competencies in monitoring, measurement, interpretation and prompt response to the acutely ill patients.
It should be appropriate to the level of pakistan tourism, care they provide. In house education and change in retained training should be provided to all clinical staff to pakistan tourism, ensure that staff have these competencies. They should be assessed to ensure they can demonstrate them on a yearly basis. Other drawbacks of this system is when there are clear escalation instructions for calling a RRT exist, and the patients meet the criteria, staff do not always make the call. The reasons for failing to follow the protocol are poor communication and piece prioritisation by the medical team involved, and failure to repeat abnormal observations.
Staffing levels and monitoring equipment availability are the other important factors of pakistan tourism, timely monitoring observations ( Shearer et al 2012).Staffing level is the main issue found on most of the clinical settings. Retainer For Overbite? Deteriorating patients need close observation monitoring which gives more pressure to the nursing staff . As EWS is a vast subject with six physiological parameters, I chose just two parameters; monitoring saturation and respiratory rate. Incorporation of oxygen saturation improves the power of early warning scoring systems. Tourism? The NEWS Development and dry british Implementation Group (NEWSDIG) recommend that oxygen saturation should be routinely monitored as part of NEWS as oxygen saturations are powerful tool for pakistan tourism assessing cardiac and pulmonary function. When supplemental oxygen is required to piece meaning, maintain target oxygen saturations defined for each individual inpatient, it should be formally prescribed (British Thoracic society) but during emergency situation this happens rarely. The introduction of pulse oximetry was a major advance in bedside monitoring, it still has a number of practical drawbacks. They are poor understanding of the pakistan purpose and correct use of pulse oximetry among nurses and junior doctors (Attin et al 2002) . Change In Retained? The reasons for inaccuracy of pulse oxymetry are reduced perfusion at the site of measurement, during hypothermia or in shock. ‘Respiratory rate is emphasised and should be recorded graphically unless its position on pakistan the chart might conflict with the recording of another parameter where recording actual numbers might make it clearer (Hogan 2006)’.Many clinicians under estimate the importance of respiratory rate though it is an early indicator of disease. Some hospitals report a poor level of respiratory rate recording. Accurate monitoring of respiratory rate will have an impact on the nature and timeliness response to critically ill patients. Abnormalities of respiratory rate are early markers of disease.
This may have an franz, impact on the future incidence of potentially avoidable unanticipated intensive care unit admission, cardiac arrest, and deaths. Pakistan? A qualitative study of Hogan(2006) found that the for overbite respiratory rate was the tourism one parameter that was recorded less than 50% of the time. The reasons for not recording respiratory rate included workload, skills training, decision making and a greater reliance on medical devices. ‘Goldhill and colleagues reported that 21% of ward patients with a respiratory rate of 25’29 breaths/minute evaluated by change a critical care outreach service died in hospital’. Patients with a higher respiratory rate have an even higher mortality rate. Some recent evidence suggests that an adult patient with a respiratory rate of tourism, beyond 20 breaths/minute is probably unwell. An adult with a respiratory rate of beyond 24 breaths/minute is likely to be critically ill. Earnings? It is very important to note that not all causes of hypoxia and hypercarbia result in an increase in tidal volume and respiratory rate. Opiates which are commonly used in hospitals, can depress the respiratory system and the respiratory system which response to hypoxia and tourism hypercarbia. In all circumstances the likelihood respiratory rate is a useful tool to monitor for tourism an adverse event. There can be alteration in level of dry british, consciousness as the respiratory rate may be lowered.(West 1990).
The Royal College of pakistan, Physicians (RCP) should be complimented for introducing NEWS which helped to draw national attention to that the thousands of avoidable deaths in English hospitals each year due to the failure to dry british, recognise and respond appropriately to signs of deterioration. Some studies say that the current system is unsafe and expensive. So the NEWSDIG decided to work with the Clinical Effectiveness and Evaluation unit at the RCP, which will help to investigate the pakistan options for ongoing monitoring and evaluation of NEWS and a formal assessment of its effectiveness. The implementation of validated scoring systems aimed at the recognition of higher risk patients at point of entry to care may resolve some of the issues raised in the NCEPOD report. At present there is disparity between hospitals(National health service NHS) in the recording and interpretation of basic physiological parameters. Elaboration? The introduction of a standardised NEWS by the RCP will seek to address this. MEWS have been found to be very effective in predicting hospitalisation and in-hospital mortality of medical and surgical patients presenting to pakistan tourism, the emergency department. Ferdinand? Easily recordable physiological abnormalities and mortality are associated, If we allow interventions to take place appropriately can reduce hospital mortality.
Early warning score based on physiological factors are way patient could be identified. Evidence suggests that many patients are in hospital for days before they admit into critical area. NEWS is an opportunity to improve consistent practice in the NHS and it appears similar to ABCDE approach for resuscitation that has been approved by healthcare providers globally. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to tourism, help you.
Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Health work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Health essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay on the Early Warning Scoring System (EWS) . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/health/essay-early-warning-scoring-system-ews/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 11-08-17 - Smoking habits of university students - CARDIOVASCULAR GENE TRANSFER EFFICIENCY 01-08-17 - Effects of stress and elaboration likelihood anxiety-related disorders on the brain - Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) 09-07-17 - Enzyme instructed self-assembly (EISA) 28-05-17 - Glaucoma, Diabetes mellitus and Intra ocular pressure 23-05-17 - Seven functions of self-injury 18-05-17 - Neurodegenerative diseases 14-05-17 - Warafin genotyping in patients 04-05-17 - Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.
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Download a Resume Template That Employers Will Love. Are your Resume and online job search profiles not yielding you the results you need to find gainful employment and finally afford to pay your bills? No doubt about it; it’s tougher to find a job now than it’s been in decades. That doesn’t mean, however, that you can’t give yourself every fighting chance of snagging the next available job. While there is plenty to tourism be said for effective interviewee skills, the piece of mind meaning absolute most important step for getting hired is writing a winning Curriculum Vitae. Without a highly attractive C.V, you’re just one of dozens or more applicants that begin to pakistan blend together after a while. You want your most relevant skills and experience to jump off the page and grab the attention of the person responsible for reviewing the group of CVs in which yours is stacked or filed online.
Direct access to franz resume templates advices. 1. Choose your favorite Curriculum Vitae. 2. Pakistan? Download selected resumes on dry british humor, your desktop. No front page content has been created yet. How To Write a Winning Curriculum Vitae. Understand What Makes a Great Resume. Many job applicants are under a misconception that a great Curriculum Vitae means fluffing up terms, adding lots of jobs and experience, listing as many skills as possible, and engaging in pakistan tourism, other overkill tactics. Excessive and humor irrelevant information only clutters the page and makes it more difficult to find the skills and pakistan tourism information for which your prospective employer is searching.
The best resumes are those that are concise and specific to the job being sought. As such, a separate resume should be used for each job if the required skills, education, and experience are different. At the end of this article, we will review a few time saving tips building each specific Curriculum Vitae. First, though, let’s take a look at how to write a winning CV. Review All Job Description Material and More (If Necessary) While some employers seem to be in the habit of posting as little information as possible, others provide a great deal of valuable information relevant to not only the skills, experience, and elaboration education of a desired employee, but also the description, expectations, and demands of the job itself. Acquire as much information as you can about the position. If the employer provided you with pages and pages of descriptions, read them before building your resume. If the employer posted minimal information about the job, you may find information by reviewing the website or even calling and pakistan tourism asking for of mind details. The more you know about tourism, your prospective employers, the more power you have to show them a picture-perfect employee on paper.
If you read terms you don’t really understand, see requirements for education levels you haven’t reached, or find any other indication that you’re not a good candidate for the job; don’t waste your time applying. Also, understand that it may be very difficult to find a job that matches your education or the bulk of your experience. You may have to ferdinand ww1 begin at an entry level position in a company that seeks supervisory and upper management applicants from within. If this is the pakistan case, be extremely careful about divulging the of mind meaning extent of your education, experience, and salary history as you may be viewed as ‘overqualified’. However insulting or degrading it may feel, the reality is that at some point you just have to accept that options are limited and be willing to ‘dumb it down’ a bit to secure employment. Just think, though: In the next few months after you’re hired, you’ll have a chance to pakistan tourism excel beyond expectation and increase your odds of recognition and promotion. Use Only Relevant Terms, Skills, and Experience. If you feel the need to add more information to your curriculum vitae than what’s absolutely relevant, make sure that the most compelling details are on for overbite, the first page and that it’s not crowded with words. In addition to your contact information, you should have: Relevant skills, relevant experience, and relevant education. If you have multiple jobs dating back for a number of years, try to tourism list only the most relevant jobs within the past 5-7 years on the first page and either make a note that a more extensive job history is available upon request or attach a separate sheet with a complete history in case the reviewer is ferdinand ww1 so inclined to read it. Whatever you do, DO NOT let a full page of outdated and irrelevant details take away from the razzle and dazzle of the first page of your resume.
Remember that your developed skills are more important than your experience. Yes, you need experience to demonstrate the fact that you’ve had time to hone those skills, but employers need to know the pakistan tourism capabilities you have that are relevant to the job for which you’re applying. The Verbiage of Your Curriculum Vitae. You want your C.V to sound professional, but it doesn’t have to sound like it came out of the Oxford Dictionary. Remember, it’s not as though you’re writing a dissertation; you’re listing bits and dry british pieces of tourism concise and relevant information to present a snapshot of what you have to offer. Refer to humor the job description and other material posted by your prospective employers. If they used industry-specific jargon, use the same jargon wherever applicable. Pakistan Tourism? Review their posted list of required skills and job duties and use it as a guide for of mind listing all of your valid and applicable skills and job duties with previous employers. If you have additional skills or job skills than are not posted on the job description by your prospective employer, consider leaving them out.
If you feel you must include them somewhere, follow the same rule as job history: Keep them off the first page. Pakistan? Instead, attach them at the top of the piece of mind page containing your extensive job history. You have 2 primary goals for pakistan tourism your curriculum vitae: Make it easy to humor read and make every word count. Pakistan Tourism? In order to accomplish this, you need to use a font of at least 10-12 and make each section of your document stand out likelihood, from the next by staggering blocks of pakistan tourism information that take up different levels of humor horizontal space. For example, you may place your name, physical address, phone number, and email address at pakistan the top in the center. Change Earnings? For contrast, you would place a sentence outlining your objective; perhaps something like: To obtain consistent and long term employment with a company in which my skills and talents will be utilized and appreciated. Because that sentence will take the entire width of the pakistan page, your next sections should be small and dry british humor centered.
This would be a great place to list your skills. If you place your employment in pakistan tourism, the next section, that would be a great contrast to lipton uk your skills. Make a table with 2 columns and a few rows (just enough for your most relevant jobs). Add your title, previous employers, and their contact information in the left column and pakistan tourism your job duties on the right. Finally, underneath your employment history, enter your education information centered on piece meaning, the page.
Employers may or may not be interested in speaking with your personal references. If there is any reason why your prospective employers shouldn’t speak with your previous supervisors, try to avoid putting their contact information on tourism, your Curriculum Vitae. Otherwise, there should be plenty of professional references in for overbite, your format for them to review. You can post a sentence on tourism, the bottom of of mind meaning your Curriculum Vitae either inviting your potential employer to call contacts from tourism your employment history and/or letting him/her know that you have a list of personal references available if requested. If you have room on the page after leaving plenty of space in between each section, increase the font size of your name. If you have adequate or advanced linguistic skills, consider writing a short cover letter (3-5 small to moderate paragraphs) introducing yourself and elaboration likelihood outlining your skills, dedication, ambition, work ethic, and any other relevant piece of pakistan information that increases your appeal to an employer but may not have a proper place on your Curriculum Vitae. Cover letters are easy to elaboration disregard if an employer isn’t interested, and pakistan they can help to set you aside from other applicants if there is an interest in learning more about you by reading your cover letter. You can either use the outline provided in this article or you can create your own curriculum vitae outline containing your name, contact information, and the basic sections you will need to fill out per application.
Save the outline and consistent information in uk, a master file, and once you’ve finished preparing a Curriculum Vitae for a job, choose ‘Save as’ and create a specific name for it. To find your Curriculum Vitae more quickly and pakistan conveniently, consider using the same name and changing only the last word. For example, you may save your resume as ‘MyResumeCompany.doc’. Franz Ferdinand Ww1? Replace the word ‘Company’ with each different place to which you submit your curriculum. How to Write a Great Cover Letter. Landing a job is undoubtedly difficult in today’s economy. Writing a great cover letter is probably the most important step you can towards landing the tourism job of in retained their dreams. Why is pakistan tourism writing a cover letter so important? It is the first thing a potential employer sees, and it will dictate whether or not the employer even looks at your resume.
Even the lipton tea bags most polished, professional resume doesn’t stand a chance against a poorly written cover letter. How do you write a cover letter that not only a potential employer to pakistan read your resume, but also gets you invited for an interview? Writing a winning cover letter is not difficult if you follow a few simple steps: Just like an employer won’t look at lipton uk a resume that’s attached to a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of text. To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to use plenty of white space.
You should have, at a minimum, one inch margins and double spaces between paragraphs. Follow the guidelines for writing a basic business letter and be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead. Your letterhead should be the same letterhead that appears on your resume. This is your one and only chance to name drop, so take advantage of it. Potential employers want to know how you heard about the position. You should also identify the specific position that you are seeking, and state that you are applying for tourism this position. Yes, it’s obvious, but cover letters follow a long-established pattern, and this isn’t the time to be a rebel. Finally, set the tone for change the rest of the letter, and pakistan briefly state what you will be discussing.. If you have more than a few years of experience in the field to elaboration likelihood which you are applying, your professional experience should be presented before your educational experience. First, write a topic sentence that presents one unified idea. If you’ve held several jobs in this career, find the one aspect that these jobs have in common that will most impress your potential employer.
You also need to link this paragraph to your educational experience. Similar to your employment paragraph, you need to tourism develop one unified idea rather than simply presenting a list of all the schools you’ve attended and in retained earnings courses you’ve taken. Determine which aspect of your education is most important to the position you’re applying for and present it here. A fourth and even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to pakistan tourism present additional relevant information. Just remember to develop one idea per earnings, paragraph, and to keep the entire letter under one page.
This is your opportunity to tie everything together, leading the pakistan reader to franz ferdinand invite you to an interview. You need to reference your resume and any other included attachments. In addition, you need to tourism politely, yet confidently state that you wish to be invited to an interview. Finally, state the easiest way for the employer to reach you, referring to the phone number and elaboration likelihood e-mail address in your letterhead. For important documents like cover letters, you need to tourism go beyond your computer’s spell check and grammar check. Place the cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and humor look at it with fresh eyes. You might find errors that you didn’t see previously. As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to proofread your cover letter.
Now, you have a well-written cover letter that will hopefully lead a potential employer to read your resume and tourism ultimately invite you to an interview. The rest is up to ww1 you! How to prepare for tourism a winning job interview. In a competitive market for available jobs, potential candidates should put in franz ferdinand, the necessary time and effort to make a solid impact. You must simply accept that it’s a buyer’s market, the buyer, in this case is the pakistan tourism organization. Your first job as the seller is to sell yourself. Ferdinand Ww1? You need to stand out from the pakistan other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in humor, a cookie-cutter neighborhood.
Assume your resume and cover letter is in a pile on a desk with plenty of pakistan tourism others, therefore you must find a way to rise to the top. You need to put yourself in a stronger position, instead of you trying to chasing the job, make them convince you to take it. Your mindset dictates the demeanor you portray. If you seem too desperate, you don’t make it to the next step, however, too arrogant and doors will close. You have to put yourself in likelihood, the shoes of the tourism interviewer and determine your moves every step of the way.
Spend about five hours preparing for each hour of change in retained interview, you want to investigate how you can deliver value to pakistan the organization. Franz Ww1? By researching and probing how you can make an impact in the position, you are going beyond the canned responses of most candidates. Your resume should announce that you are qualified for the position. After the interview, you want to leave the impression that you can start the job tomorrow. You want to contact somebody who does the pakistan tourism same job at the organization or similar enterprise and piece meaning ask several questions.
It’s a must that you discover the current challenges for the position within the organization and the industry as a whole. The next step is succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to show initiative by suggesting ideas for the position. Hiring managers have so many job functions to perform, by proving that you not only did research concerning the position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential. Tourism? You would be surprised how those that have been performing the job for years have not expressed such aptitude. Be prepared to go beyond lip service, you want to demonstrate the homework you have done. Reaching out to piece of mind a current employee performing the same job function puts you over the top. Don’t be shy or feel like you are intruding. Many employees have innovative ideas about how to perform their jobs better, tap into that information for free and then add your own spin. Use the power of imagination to tourism stand out from the crowd, everybody else is going to be following the same job interview tips that get recycled over humor the web. Pakistan? If you want to make a lasting impression, you must put in the sweat and effort.
Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out retainer, natural. Tourism? Landing an offer in a tough economy requires considerable effort. If you can demonstrate you can make an impact in your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in. All the Curriculum Vitae templates are at your disposal without any guaranty.
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